Sample records for disproportionately affect women

  1. Married Black Men’s Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Tera R.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Sheats, Kameron J.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  2. Did Budget Cuts in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment Affect Hospital Quality of Care?

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.; Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Stratton, Leslie S.; Clement, Dolores G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments are one of the major sources of financial support for hospitals providing care to low-income patients. However, Medicaid DSH payments will be redirected from hospitals to subsidize individual health insurance purchase through US national health reform. Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the association between Medicaid DSH payment reductions and nursing-sensitive and birth-related quality of care among Medicaid/uninsured and privately insured patients. Research Design and Method Economic theory of hospital behavior was used as a conceptual framework, and longitudinal data for California hospitals for 1996–2003 were examined. Hospital fixed effects regression models were estimated. The unit of analysis is at the hospital-level, examining two aggregated measures based on the payer category of discharged patients (i.e., Medicaid/uninsured and privately insured). Principal Findings The overall study findings provide at best weak evidence of an association between net Medicaid DSH payments and hospital quality of care for either Medicaid/uninsured or the privately insured patients. The magnitudes of the effects are small and only a few have significant DSH effects. Conclusions Although this study does not find evidence suggesting that reducing Medicaid DSH payments had a strong negative impact on hospital quality of care for Medicaid/uninsured or privately insured patients, the results are not necessarily predictive of the impact national health care reform will have. Research is necessary to monitor hospital quality of care as this reform is implemented. PMID:24714580

  3. Factors Affecting Hispanic Women's Participation in Screening for Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moore de Peralta, Arelis; Holaday, Bonnie; McDonell, James R

    2015-06-01

    Hispanic women's cervical cancer rates are disproportionately high. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as a theoretical framework to explore beliefs, attitudes, socio-economic, and cultural factors influencing Hispanic women's decisions about cervical cancer screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Hispanic women 18-65 years old (n = 205) in the Upstate of South Carolina. Generalized Linear Modeling was used. Across all models, perceived threats (susceptibility and severity), self-efficacy, and the interaction of benefits and barriers were significant predictors. Significant covariates included age, marital status, income, regular medical care, and familism. A modified HBM was a useful model for examining cervical cancer screening in this sample of Hispanic women. The inclusion of external, or social factors increased the strength of the HBM as an explanatory model. The HBM can be used as a framework to design culturally appropriate cervical cancer screening interventions. PMID:24578156

  4. Sex affects health: women are different I. Body composition & metabolism

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Sex affects health Overview: n Males & females have different patterns of illness & health q Longevity Gap: 5.1 years (2007); highly dependent upon income: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/16/business/income-gap-meet-the-longevity serotonin q Smoking has a more negative effect on cardiovascular health in women than men. q Women are 2x

  5. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  6. Microvascular angina: angina that predominantly affects women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Joo; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In women receiving evaluation for suspected ischemic symptoms, a "normal" diagnosis is five times more common than it is in men. These women are often labeled as having cardiac syndrome X, also known as microvascular angina (MVA). MVA is defined as angina pectoris caused by abnormalities of the small coronary arteries, and is characterized by effort chest pain and evidence of myocardial ischemia with a non-invasive stress test, although the coronary arteries can appear normal or near normal by angiography. MVA patients are often neglected due to the assumption of a good prognosis. However, MVA has important prognostic implications and a proper diagnosis is necessary in order to relieve the patients' symptoms and improve clinical outcomes. The coronary microvasculature cannot be directly imaged using coronary angiography, due to the small diameter of the vessels; therefore, the coronary microvascular must be assessed functionally. Treatment of MVA initially includes standard anti-ischemic drugs (?-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates), although control of symptoms is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MVA. PMID:25750553

  7. Factors that affect acceptance of HIV microbicides among women.

    PubMed

    Domanska, Catherine A; Teitelman, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Globally, women make up more than half of those infected with HIV. For women in nearly every region around the world, the primary mode of HIV transmission is through heterosexual sex. However, over thirty years into the HIV/AIDS epidemic women still lack sufficient means of protecting themselves against HIV. Vaginal HIV microbicides (VHMs) are a promising new method to prevent HIV infection. VHMs are chemical substances that can destroy HIV, block its entry into or fusion with the target cell or inhibit HIV replication once the virus has entered a target cell. They can be applied through various delivery methods intravaginally. VHMs are designed to be used by women and to that end it is crucial to understand women's preferences for formulation, use and other characteristics in order to determine how to increase adherence and acceptability. Of particular consideration is how relationship dynamics will affect microbicide usage. The purpose of this review is to examine the most recent body of literature regarding male and female perceptions of VHMs to prevent male to female transmission of HIV in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that affect adherence and acceptability of VHM usage among women. A greater understanding of the factors that affect adherence and acceptance of VHMs will have an impact on the uptake of VHMs, allow nurses and other health care providers to counsel clients more effectively about their use and point to new directions needed on the research and development of future microbicides. PMID:22482279

  8. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stress According to a recent survey by the American Psychological Association, stress is on the rise for women. Women ... STDs-Women-042011.pdf (PDF - 222 KB) [top] American Psychological Association. (n.d.) Gender and stress . Retrieved August 6, ...

  9. Labor Laws Affecting Women--Ohio; A Capsule Summary (as of May 1, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet summarizes the labor laws affecting women working in Ohio. Descriptions of the various state laws and a listing of the relevant Federal laws are included. These laws cover wages, hours, and working conditions for women. (BH)

  10. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status. PMID:24841741

  11. The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have…

  12. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  13. Factors affecting women's response choices to dating and social situations.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Viken, Richard J

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170 undergraduate women chose one of six responses to each situation that varied in their degree of response refusal. Averaged across the situations, more severely victimized women and women reporting higher disinhibition chose responses lower in refusal than nonvictimized women and women reporting lower disinhibition. Past victimization, disinhibition, and number of sexual partners also moderated the influence of the situations' contextual features on women's response refusal. Specifically, as the presence of sexual activity increased in the situations, the response refusal of more severely victimized women increased less than nonvictimized women. In addition, as the presence of alcohol increased in the situations, the response refusal of women reporting higher disinhibition and a greater number of sexual partners decreased more than women reporting lower disinhibition and a fewer number of sexual partners. PMID:20056818

  14. Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

  15. Associations between affect, context, and sexual desire in depressed young women.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Clare M; Walls, Courtney; Blood, Emily A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of sexual desire with time of day, physical and social context, and positive and negative affect using momentary sampling in 44 depressed young women (mean age = 18). Analyses revealed that depressed young women experienced sexual desire when with their boyfriends and later in the evening. Sexual desire was also positively associated with positive affect. Sexual desire was not associated with negative affect or physical context. This research suggests that sexual desire is experienced by depressed young women in normative developmental social contexts. Our findings may help clinicians and sexual health educators in correcting the myth that depressed women do not have sexual desire. PMID:23631748

  16. Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

    1997-01-01

    This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

  17. A Recent Mississippi Court Decision Affects Education and Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Richard T., III

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the case of Andrews vs Drew, Mississippi School District et al. is discussed in terms of the decision that women may be employed as school teachers in spite of the fact that they are unwed mothers. Implications for women's rights in general are examined. (WI)

  18. Factors Affecting Women's Perceptions of Folate-Containing Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Russell; S. P. Parker; G. E. Gates

    1999-01-01

    Many women of childbearing age are not consuming the recommended intake of folate to prevent neural tube defects. To promote healthy dietary change, it is important to understand factors that influence food choices Seven focus group discussions were conducted with 57 women of childbearing age to determine their attitudes about foods containing folate and their perceptions of influences on their

  19. Programmatic Efforts Affect Retention of Women in Science and Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Russel S.; Sharp, Sally; Davis, Cinda-Sue

    2001-01-01

    Presents findings from a study that investigated the impact of a Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program (WISE-RP) on the retention of women in science and engineering disciplines. Reports that WISE-RP is more effective in retaining white and asian students than underrepresented students of color. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

  1. Women Scientists in Academia: Geographically Constrained to Big Cities, College Clusters, or the Coasts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Sicotte, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Examined the extent to which jobs of women academic scientists are disproportionately concentrated in large cities, areas with many colleges, and doctoral production centers. Also investigated if employment variables are affected. Found that, irrespective of family status, women faculty are more likely to reside in these areas, and that geographic…

  2. Enhancing Recruitment and Retention of Minority Young Women in Community-Based Clinical Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance M. Wiemann; Mariam R. Chacko; Jacinda C. Tucker; Mary M. Velasquez; Peggy B. Smith; Ralph J. DiClemente; Kirk von Sternberg

    2005-01-01

    Women are disproportionately affected by the sexually transmitted infections (STI) epidemic, with African-Americans and Latinos at significantly higher risk for STIs than Caucasians. Successful recruitment and retention strategies used with young minority women in community-based STI prevention or intervention research have not been previously reported. This communication presents eight key strategies learned in the recruitment and retention of 16- to

  3. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  4. Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

  5. Meth, Coke Addiction May Affect Brains of Women More Than Men

    MedlinePLUS

    Meth, Coke Addiction May Affect Brains of Women More Than Men It's not clear why past drug dependence is linked to less gray matter in female brains, researchers say To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Women's Greater Ability to Perceive Happy Facial Emotion Automatically: Gender Differences in Affective Priming

    PubMed Central

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states. PMID:22844519

  7. Low Socioeconomic Status Negatively Affects Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (? = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (?= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761

  8. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  9. Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Experimentally Adopted Schemas on Sexual Arousal and Affect in Sexually Healthy Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie W. Kuffel; Julia R. Heiman

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n?=?28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than

  10. Biological and Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with STDs\\/HIV in Women: Implications for Behavioral Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Hubbard McCree; Anne M. Rompalo

    Women are disproportionately affected by the burden and consequences of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).\\u000a Of the estimated 19 million cases of STDs that occur annually in the United States (1), about two-thirds are in women (2).\\u000a Further, both bacterial and viral STDs are associated with negative sequelae in women. Untreated gonococcal and chlamydial\\u000a infections can produce significant and

  11. The Social Legacy of AIDS: Fertility Aspirations Among HIV-Affected Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mutumba, Massy; Resnicow, Kenneth; Mugyenyi, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of HIV status on fertility desires in Uganda. Methods. We surveyed 1594 women aged 18 to 49 years visiting outpatient services at Mbarara Regional Hospital, from May through August 2010. Of these, 59.7% were HIV-positive; 96.4% of HIV-positive women were using antiretroviral therapy (ART). We used logistic regression models to examine relationships between HIV status and fertility desires, marital status, household structure, educational attainment, and household income. Results. Among married women, HIV-positive status was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of desiring more children (27.7% vs 56.4% of HIV-negative women; ?2?=?39.97; P?women were more likely to be poor, unmarried, single heads of household, in second marriages (if married), living with an HIV-positive spouse, and supporting foster children. Conclusions. We found a strong association between positive HIV status and lower fertility aspirations among married women in Uganda, irrespective of ART status. Although the increasing availability of ART is a tremendous public health achievement, women affected by HIV have numerous continuing social needs. PMID:23237166

  12. An Overview of Federal Court Decisions Affecting Equal Rights for Women in Education. Report No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William

    This publication is a study of federal court decisions as they affect the equal rights of women in education. Because the majority of such cases have involved employment, the main focus of the study is on that area. Primary objective of the study is to derive from relevant federal cases the basic judicial principles applicable to the concept of…

  13. HIV\\/AIDS Stigma and Religiosity Among African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Muturi; Soontae An

    2010-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV\\/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what

  14. Plastic disproportionate collapse at lost corner columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin GURLEY

    2009-01-01

    This paper deploys an existing method for the simple rigid-plastic hand calculation of slab yield- line mechanisms to address the wider problem of disproportionate collapse at lost columns in multi- storey buildings. Floor systems will be treated as grillages combining torsion-free (Hillerborg) slabs and torsion-free beams. The aim is to achieve an understanding that transcends reliance on non-linear finite element

  15. Basal and postprandial gut peptides affecting food intake in lean and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sodowski, K; Zwirska-Korczala, K; Kuka, D; Kukla, M; Budziszewska, P; Czuba, B; W?och, A; Cnota, W; Biela?ski, W; Brzozowski, T; Rehfeld, J F; Zdun, R; Konturek, P C

    2007-03-01

    Maternal obesity has been reported as a risk factor for various maternal and fetal complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of certain gut hormones affecting food intake such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), cholecystokinin (CCK), insulin and glucose in pregnant women with varying body mass gain during physiological pregnancy. The study included 34 women with singleton pregnancies in the 2(nd) trimester of gestation. The examined pregnant women were divided into 4 groups; I. control pregnancy (CP) with weight gain below 0.5 kg/week; II. overweight low weight gain <1 kg/week (OLWG), III. overweight high weight gain >1 kg/week (OHWG); morbidly obese pregnant with weight gain >1.5 kg/week (MOP). The basal acylated-ghrelin levels in MOP subjects were significantly higher than those in CP and no usual suppression of acylated ghrelin after the meal observed in CP as well as in OLWG and OHWG was found in MOP women. Basal PYY(3-36) plasma levels were similar in CP, OLWG and OHWG but in MOP was significantly reduced and no significant increase in hormone level, typically observed in CP, was detected after a meal in overweight or obese women studied. The fasting CCK and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in MOP subjects were significantly higher than those in CP and other overweight women. In conclusion, we found that pregnant women with overweight and obesity exhibit significant changes in fasting and postprandial gut hormones affecting food intake such as acylated ghrelin, PYY(3-36) and CCK as well as in CRP and these changes might contribute, at least in part, the development of obesity in pregnancy. PMID:17443026

  16. Disproportionate Representation in Special Education: A Synthesis and Recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha J. Coutinho; Donald P. Oswald

    2000-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of minority students in special education remains a very controversial, unresolved issue. This synthesis summarizes historical perspectives and current knowledge about disproportionate representation with respect to: (a) definitions of disproportionate representation and related issues of interpretation; (b) national and state-level estimates of disproportionality for four ethnic groups; (c) legal, policy, research and teacher education responses to disproportionality; and

  17. Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  18. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  19. Plantar pressure patterns in women affected by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome while standing and walking.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Celletti, Claudia; Morico, Gianfranco; Leban, Bruno; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize plantar pressure distribution in women affected by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome of the hypermobile type (EDS-HT) to verify the existence of peculiar patterns possibly related to postural anomalies or physical and functional lower limb impairments typical of this disease. A sample of 26 women affected by EDS-HT (mean age 36.8, SD 12.0) was tested using a pressure platform in two conditions, namely static standing and walking. Raw data were processed to assess contact area and mean and peak pressure distribution in rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot. Collected data were then compared with those obtained from an equally numbered control group of unaffected women matched for age and anthropometric features. The results show that, in both tested conditions, women with EDS-HT exhibited significantly smaller forefoot contact areas and higher peak and mean pressure than the control group. No differences in the analyzed parameters were found between right and left limb. The findings of the present study suggest that individuals with EDS-HT are characterized by specific plantar pressure patterns that are likely to be caused by the morphologic and functional foot modification associated with the syndrome. The use of electronic pedobarography may provide physicians and rehabilitation therapists with information useful in monitoring the disease's progression and the effectiveness of orthotic treatments. PMID:24021390

  20. Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorhagen, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

  1. Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: Are Youth Disproportionately Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Hemenway, David

    2001-01-01

    The effect of firearm availability on suicide may differ among age groups. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and household firearm ownership for four age groups in the nine census regions from 1979 to 1994, adjusting for regional divorce rates, education, unemployment, and urbanity. (BF)

  2. How does marriage protect women with histories of affective disorder from post-partum relapse?

    PubMed

    Marks, M; Wieck, A; Checkley, S; Kumar, C

    1996-12-01

    Interviews were carried out at 36 weeks antenatal with 63 married couples, in 36 of which the woman had a history of affective disorder and in 27 the woman had no previous psychiatric history. The men's attitudes to their wives were assessed using expressed emotion methodology. Also assessed were psychiatric history, neuroticism, satisfaction with the marital relationship and attitudes to sex, pregnancy and parenthood in both the woman and her partner. Women with psychiatric histories who did not relapse in the six months following delivery had partners who were more positive about them than partners of high-risk women who remained well and control women. This effect is explored further by examining which characteristics of the man and which of the woman contributed to his critical and positive comment score. Criticism of his wife was associated with each partner reporting less marital satisfaction and also with the man's psychiatric history. No characteristic of the woman contributed to her partner's criticism. In contrast, the men's positive comments about their wives were associated with the woman's satisfaction with key aspects of her femaleness. Positive husbands had wives were pleased to be pregnant, happy with their pregnant bodies and enjoying the sexual aspect of the marital relationship. In women with psychiatric histories the time which had elapsed since her last psychiatric admission also influenced his positive comments. PMID:8989981

  3. Factors affecting satisfaction with treatment in European women with chronic constipation: An internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Eamonn MM; Simrén, Magnus; Feng, Yue; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Urbain, Daniel; Tack, Jan; Bredenoord, Albert J; Sabaté, Jean-Marc; Yiannakou, Yan; Andresen, Viola; Cuomo, Rosario; Rey, Enrique; Gryp, Renate Specht; Vandeplassche, Lieve; Solomon, Dory

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on factors affecting treatment satisfaction in European women with chronic constipation are limited. Objective To assess factors associated with treatment satisfaction among European women with chronic constipation. Methods A 2011–2012 internet survey was conducted in men and women from 12 European countries. Respondents analysed were female with self-reported chronic constipation (?1 symptoms for ?6 months of lumpy/hard stools, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and pain during defecation, as well as <3 bowel movements/week). For laxative users, satisfaction with treatment, factors affecting satisfaction, and interactions with healthcare professionals were collected. Results and conclusions In total, 4805/50,319 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria (female with chronic constipation). Of the laxative users (1575/4805), 57% (n?=?896) were satisfied with their treatment, while 26% were neutral, and 17% dissatisfied. Dissatisfied respondents visited their GP less frequently in the past 12 months, were more likely to obtain over-the-counter laxatives, and took a dose higher than recommended more frequently than those satisfied. Respondents were most satisfied with ease of use of treatment and least satisfied with relief from bloating. Newer treatments aimed at alleviating symptoms, particularly bloating, are required for respondents neutral or dissatisfied with their current treatment. PMID:24917986

  4. Does Schooling Affect Women's Desired Fertility? Evidence From Malawi, Uganda, and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Julia Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Demographic scholarship suggests that schooling plays an important role in transforming fertility preferences in the early stages of fertility decline. However, there is limited evidence on the relationship between schooling and fertility preferences that addresses the endogeneity of schooling. I use the implementation of Universal Primary Education (UPE) policies in Malawi, Uganda, and Ethiopia in the mid-1990s to conduct a fuzzy regression discontinuity analysis of the effect of schooling on women's desired fertility. Findings indicate that increased schooling reduced women's ideal family size and very high desired fertility across all three countries. Additional analyses of potential pathways through which schooling could have affected desired fertility suggest some pathways-such as increasing partner's education-were common across contexts, whereas other pathways were country-specific. This analysis contributes to demographic understandings of the factors influencing individual-level fertility behaviors and thus aggregate-level fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25951799

  5. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  6. Normalizing policies of inaction--the case of health care in Australia for women affected by domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Tower, Marion; Rowe, Jennifer; Wallis, Marianne

    2011-09-01

    Domestic violence impacts on all aspects of affected women's lives and results in poor general, reproductive, and psychological health (World Health Organisation, 2010). Despite mounting evidence that current health care responses to women affected by domestic violence are problematic, policies have nevertheless been rolled out without addressing issues identified. Funding cuts, fragmentation of services, and failure to establish good practice has resulted in a discourse where women's needs are pushed to the outside and they are marginalized, lost in the language and discourse of policy, normalizing a discourse of incompletion at policy and bureaucracy levels. PMID:21834722

  7. Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

    2013-12-01

    Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

  8. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. PMID:11562159

  9. “The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics: Results from the Global Survey of Physicists

    E-print Network

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with 15000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful ...

  10. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  11. Selective CB2 up-regulation in women affected by endometrial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; De Filippis, Daniele; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; D'Amico, Alessandra; Simonetti, Sara; Sparice, Stefania; Esposito, Giuseppe; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Insabato, Luigi; Nappi, Carmine; Guida, Maurizio

    2008-04-01

    Endometritis is defined as an inflammation of the endometrial mucosa of the uterus. In endometritis large amounts of toxic mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) are released by inflammatory cells. As a consequence of nitric oxide-dependent injury, the cells respond by triggering protective mechanisms, by changing the endocannabinoid system (ECS) which comprises both CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands. The aim of our study was to seek out evidence for the presence of cannabinoid receptors in inflammatory endometrial tissue as well as for their potential role in endometrial inflammation. Our results showed a selective up-regulation of both transcription and expression of CB(2) receptors in biopsies from women affected by endometrial inflammation compared to healthy women. The experiments with the nitric oxide-donor S-Nitroso-L-Glutathione (GSNO) suggest that such a selective up-regulation may be related to the nitric oxide release occurring during endometrial inflammation. In addition, we demonstrated an increase in chymase expression, a marker of mast cells, in biopsies of women affected by endometritis. Therefore our results support the hypothesis that the up-regulation of CB(2) occurs mainly on mast cells and that it might tend to sensitize these cells to the anti-inflammatory effect exerted by endogenous cannabinoids by binding their receptor and thus preventing the mast cell degranulation and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, we believe that the selective CB(2) up-regulation might play a role as a novel prognostic factor in endometrial inflammation. PMID:18419603

  12. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  13. She Left, He Left: How Employment and Satisfaction Affect Men’s and Women’s Decisions to Leave Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Liana C.; England, Paula; Allison, Paul; Kangas, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Most past studies examining determinants of divorce have ignored differences between the factors that elevate wives’ and husbands’ initiation of divorce. We use three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. We assess who left using each ex-spouse’s answer to a question that asked who had wanted the breakup more. We find that when men are not employed, either husbands or wives are more likely to leave. When wives report better than average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither their nor their husbands’ exits. However, when wives report below average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely that they will leave. We compare findings to predictions from two theories: an institutional perspective that sees divorce to result from a violation of gender-specific norms, and exchange/bargaining theory, which posits that resources allow a spouse to leave if exchange and bargaining fail to provide a satisfactory marriage. To amend the theories to better fit the data, we foreground the asymmetric nature of gender change in recent decades, with women changing more than men. PMID:21932472

  14. Jordanian and Palestinian Immigrant Women's Knowledge, Affect, Cultural Attitudes, Health Habits, and Participation in Breast Cancer Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Najib Kawar

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to describe relationships among knowledge, affect, attitudes, including cultural beliefs, about breast cancer screening (BCS), and health habits to BCS participation in a convenience sample of 130 immigrant women with Jordanian or Palestinian background living in the Washington DC area. Using our analysis of questionnaires we show correlations among knowledge, affect, utility, general health

  15. Women’s Sexual Responses to Heterosexual and Lesbian Erotica: The Role of Stimulus Intensity, Affective Reaction, and Sexual History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoë D. Peterson; Erick Janssen; Ellen Laan

    2010-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a “category-specific” genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on\\u000a average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual\\u000a versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for

  16. Helping Women into Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

  17. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. Methodology A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. Principal Findings The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (–0.012, 95%CI: –.038?0.006, p?=?0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022?0.044, p<0.001) and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005?0.023, p<0.01), respectively. Conclusions Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population. PMID:23071655

  18. Disproportionation of photoexcited C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.C.; Hwang, K.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)] [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-05-15

    Irradiation of C{sub 60}-toluene solution at room temperature affords two ESR bands with g and {Delta}H{sub pp} values of (2.0013, 0.5 G) and (2.0024, 0.75 G), respectively. In the presence of 6% methanol or 12% benzonitrile, the latter band disappears completely. Below 200 K, only the former bank was observed. They were assigned to be {sup 3}C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}{sup .+}, respectively. In the presence of tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate, the g value of the C{sub 60}{sup .+} cation radical shifts to 2.0006, and an additional broad band of g = 1.9992 and {Delta}H{sub pp}=30 G was observed. Upon cooling, the line width of this new band drops from 30 G at 300 K to 4 G at 77 K. This new band was assigned to be the C{sub 60}{sup .-} anion radical according to its characteristic behavior. At room temperature, photolysis causes the C{sub 60}-toluene solution`s color to turn from purple to brown, and then brown precipitates formed. Desorption chemical ionization (DCI) mass analysis of the brown precipitates indicates the formation of C{sub 60}.H{sub n}(tolyl){sub n} (n = 1-4) adducts. The formation of C{sub 60}{sup .+} and C{sub 60}{sup .-} was rationalized in terms of disproportionation of two {sup 3}C{sub 60}. The brown precipitates were due to the chemical reaction between the C{sub 60}{sup .+} cation radical and the solvent molecules, which rationalizes the `photodegradation` of fullerene as reported in literature. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Women are more strongly affected by dizziness in static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2014-10-01

    Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7?T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields. PMID:25089803

  20. African American women’s perspectives on “Down Low/DL” men: Implications for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

    2012-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) contribute to women’s HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as “Down Low” or “DL”. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D.C. to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours regarding “Down Low/DL” men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV positive women and three groups were composed of HIV negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women’s perspectives on the “DL”: awareness; suspicion; coping with partner infidelity: male vs. female; sexual health communication; empathy; and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV positive and HIV negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women’s perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women’s exposure to HIV risk. PMID:22804686

  1. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization. PMID:23537172

  2. Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

  3. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. PMID:22560372

  4. How Do Alcohol and Relationship Type Affect Women’s Risk Judgment of Partners with Differing Risk Histories?

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Zawacki, Tina; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how women judge male partners’ sexual risk is important to developing risk reduction programs. Applying a cognitive mediation model of sexual decision making, our study investigated effects of alcohol consumption (control, low dose, high dose) and relationship type (disrupted vs. new) on women’s risk judgments of a male sexual partner in three sexual risk conditions (low, unknown, high). After random assignment to an experimental condition, 328 participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual interaction. The story was paused to assess primary appraisals of sexual and relationship potential and secondary appraisals of pleasure, health, and relationship concerns, followed by sexual risk judgments. In all risk conditions, alcohol and disrupted relationship increased sexual potential whereas disrupted relationship increased relationship potential in the low- and high-risk conditions. In the unknown-risk condition, women in the no-alcohol, new relationship condition had the lowest primary sexual appraisals. In all conditions, sexual appraisals predicted all secondary appraisals, but primary relationship appraisals predicted only secondary relationship appraisals. Secondary health appraisals led to increased risk judgments whereas relationship appraisals predicted lower risk judgments. Possible intervention points include helping women to re-evaluate their safety beliefs about past partners, as well as to develop behavioral strategies for decreasing hazardous drinking. PMID:24003264

  5. A pilot study of hormone modulation as a new treatment for mania in women with bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Garland, Kathryn A; Scaffidi, Antonietta; Headey, Barbara; Anderson, Robyn; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul; Davis, Susan R

    2006-05-01

    We tested and compared the use of two adjunctive hormonal agents, tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), for the treatment of acute mania or hypomania. A total of 13 women with acute Bipolar Affective Disorder in the manic or hypomanic phase were recruited from a clinical population to participate in this 28-day, three-arm, double blind, placebo-controlled study. The women who received tamoxifen exhibited significant improvement in symptoms of mania from baseline to final assessment compared with the placebo group. The MPA group improved more than the placebo group. Further exploration of tamoxifen as a useful adjunct in the treatment of acute manic symptoms in women with Bipolar Affective Disorder is warranted. PMID:16356651

  6. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inje Kim; Hyun Ah Kim; Young-Il Seo; Yeong Wook Song; David J Hunter; Jin Young Jeong; Dong Hyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis(OA) in East Asia is as common for men and even higher for women than that reported in the Caucasian population. Since both population aging and economic growth have taken place at a much faster pace in Asian countries, such as South Korea, one would expect knee OA to become a major public health problem.

  7. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  8. Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate. PMID:18089279

  9. Glucocorticoid Excess Affects Cortical Bone Geometry in Premenopausal, but not Postmenopausal, Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kaji; Mika Yamauchi; Kazuo Chihara; Toshitsugu Sugimoto

    2008-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess causes a great increase in fracture risk, but the effects of GC excess on cortical bone geometry\\u000a are unknown. The present study was performed to examine the effects of GC excess on cortical bone geometry in both premenopausal\\u000a and postmenopausal women. Ninety-six women receiving oral GC treatments and 10 women with Cushing syndrome (CS) were each\\u000a compared

  10. Redox Disproportionation of Glucose as a Major Biosynthetic Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that very little if any energy is required for the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids from glucose -- processes that yield almost as much ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as they consume. However, these studies did not establish the strength nor the nature of the energy source driving these biological transformations. To identify and estimate the strength of the energy source behind these processes, we calculated the free energy change due to the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon of (a) 26 redox-balanced fermentation reactions, and (b) the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides of E. coli from glucose. A plot of the negative free energy of these reactions per mmole of carbon as a function of the number of disproportionative electron transfers per mmol of carbon showed that the energy yields of these fermentations and biosyntheses were directly proportional to the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon. Since this linear relationship showed that redox disproportionation was the dominant energy source of these reactions, we were able to establish that amino acid and lipid biosynthesis obtained most of their energy from redox disproportionation (greater than 94%). In contrast nucleotide biosynthesis was not driven by redox disproportionation of carbon, and consequently depended completely on ATP for energy. This crucial and previously unrecognized role of sugars as an energy source of biosynthesis suggests that sugars were involved at the earliest stage in the origin of anabolic metabolism.

  11. Women Law Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossum, Donna

    1980-01-01

    Women have made considerable progress toward becoming part of tenure-track legal faculties, but women law professors continue to be academically disproportionately inbred and overrepresented in some areas, such as family law and legal research and writing. (Journal availability: American Bar Foundation, 1155 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637.) (MSE)

  12. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

  13. Mating context and menstrual phase affect women's preferences for male voice pitch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Andrew Puts

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental frequency (F0) is the vocal acoustic parameter closest to what we perceive as pitch. Men speak at a lower F0 than do women, even controlling for body size. Although the developmental and anatomical reasons for this sex difference are known, the evolutionary reasons are not. By examining fertility-related variation in women's preferences for men's voices, the present study tests

  14. The Impact of Uterine Leiomyomas: A National Survey of Affected Women

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Bijan J.; Nicholson, Wanda K.; Bradley, Linda; Stewart, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the impact of uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) in a racially diverse sample of women in the United States. Study Design A total of 968 women (573 White, 268 African-American, 127 other races) aged 29–59 with self-reported symptomatic uterine leiomyomas participated in a national survey. We assessed diagnosis, information seeking, attitudes about fertility, impact on work, and treatment preferences. Frequencies and percentages were summarized. Chi-square test was used to compare age groups. Results Women waited an average of 3.6 years before seeking treatment for leiomyomas, and 41% saw two or more healthcare providers for diagnosis. Almost a third of employed respondents (28%) reported missing work due to leiomyoma symptoms, and 24% felt that their symptoms prevented them from reaching their career potential. Women expressed desire for treatments that do not involve invasive surgery (79%), preserve the uterus (51%), and preserve fertility (43% of women under 40). Conclusions Uterine leiomyomas cause significant morbidity. When considering treatment, women are most concerned about surgical options, especially women under 40 who want to preserve fertility. PMID:23891629

  15. Women's reactions to dominant and Agreeable men: how are initial judgements of attraction affected by peer discussion 

    E-print Network

    Dean, Cynthia Maria

    2013-02-22

    WOMEN'S REACTIONS TO DOMINANT AND AGREEABLE MEN: HOW ARE INITIAL JUDGMENTS OF ATTRACTION AFFECTED BY PEER DISCUSSION A Senior Honors Thesis By CYNTHIA MARIA DEAN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 4 Academic Scholarships Texas A 8c M... A Senior Honors Thesis By CYNTHIA MARIA DEAN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 8r, Academic Scholarships Texas A k M University In partial fulfiHment for the designation of UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW Approved...

  16. Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Lloyd; Denise S Taylor; Hung Mo Lin; Amy E Matthews; Douglas F Eggli; Richard S Legro

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use during adolescence on peak bone mass.Design: Longitudinal observational study.Setting: Academic clinical research center.Patient(s): Sixty-two non-Hispanic, white females in The Penn State Young Women’s Health Study, who were studied for 8 years during ages 12–20.Intervention(s): There were 28 OCP users, who used OCPs for a minimum of 6 months and

  17. Disproportionation of dimethylalane on aluminum surfaces. Part I. Experimental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Willis; Klavs F. Jensen

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study of the growth chemistry of dimethylaluminum hydride (DMAH) has been performed to elucidate the reaction pathways underlying the growth of aluminum by chemical vapor deposition. Results find that DMAH grows clean aluminum films through a surface disproportionation mechanism, which produces trimethylaluminum (TMA) and hydrogen as byproducts. Effusive beam scattering and temperature programmed desorption experiments provide evidence that

  18. Disproportionate Impact? School Discipline in a Neo-Liberal State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Cho

    2005-01-01

    Recent reviews of the Safe Schools Act, Ontario's school disciplinary policy have raised concerns regarding the disproportionate impact on racialized students and students with disabilities. Critics claim that zero tolerance and the simultaneous provision of mitigating factors leaving room for the abuse of discretionary authority, calls into question the role of discipline in the education system. Reactions to the reports

  19. Triple-negative breast cancer in African-American women: disparities versus biology.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Eric C; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo; O'Regan, Ruth; Seewaldt, Victoria L

    2015-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that disproportionately affects BRCA1 mutation carriers and young women of African origin. There is evidence that African-American women with TNBC have worse clinical outcomes than women of European descent. However, it is unclear whether survival differences persist after adjusting for disparities in access to health-care treatment, co-morbid disease and income. It remains controversial whether TNBC in African-American women is a molecularly distinct disease or whether African-American women have a higher incidence of aggressive biology driven by disparities: there is evidence in support of both. Understanding the relative contributions of biology and disparities is essential for improving the poor survival rate of African-American women with TNBC. PMID:25673085

  20. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  1. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  2. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  3. Genetic and Environmental Factors Affect Bone Density Variances of Families of Men and Women with Osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. BAUDOIN; M. E. COHEN-SOLAL; J. BEAUDREUIL; M. C. DE VERNEJOUL

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the relative impacts of genetics and environment in the families of osteoporotic patients and iden- tify the best subgroup of patients to investigate the genes associated with osteoporosis. We recruited 36 men and 47 women with osteoporosis (probands), median age of 52 and 68 yr, and all their siblings (90) and offspring (83). The families

  4. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  5. The Role of Absorption in Women's Sexual Response to Erotica: A Cognitive-Affective Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade Sheen; Eric Koukounas

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of absorption on women's emotional and cognitive processing of erotic film. Absorption was experimentally manipulated using 2 different sets of test session instructions. The first, participant-oriented, instruction set directed participants to absorb themselves in the erotic film presentation, imagining that they were active participants in the sexual activities depicted. The second, spectator-oriented, instruction set directed

  6. Soy Protein Favorably Affects LDL Size Independently of Isoflavones in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Desroches; Jean-Francois Mauger; Lynne M. Ausman; Alice H. Lichtenstein

    We assessed the independent effect of soy protein relative to animal protein and of isoflavones on various electrophoretic characteristics of LDL particles. LDL particles were characterized by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis in 36 moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women (LDL cholesterol 3.36 mmol\\/L). All subjects consumed in random order each of the four diets (soy protein depleted of isoflavones, soy protein

  7. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  8. Disproportionation and transalkylation of alkylbenzenes over zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tseng-Chang Tsai; Shang-Bin Liu; Ikai Wang

    1999-01-01

    Disproportionation and transalkylation are important processes for the interconversion of mono-, di-, and tri-alkylbenzenes. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in process technology with special focus on improvements of para-isomer selectivity and catalyst stability. Extensive patent search and discussion on technology development are presented. The key criteria for process development are identified. The working principles of para-isomer selectivity

  9. Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2014-01-01

    Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185?cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

  10. The liposuction-induced effects on adiponectin and selected cytokines are not affected by exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fábio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF- ? , IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training. PMID:24527033

  11. Contribution of psychological and social factors to psychotic and non-psychotic relapse after childbirth in women with previous histories of affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Marks, M N; Wieck, A; Checkley, S A; Kumar, R

    1992-04-01

    Twenty-six women with a history of bipolar or schizoaffective disorder, 17 women with histories of major depressive disorder and 45 control women without any previous psychiatric history were assessed in the 9th month of pregnancy on selected psychosocial measures. No subject was a 'case' as defined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) from this time until the delivery. Within 6 months postpartum, 22 (51%) of the women with histories of mental illness were categorised as having relapsed (RDC case). Twelve women developed a psychosis (mania, hypomania or schizomania) and these illnesses occurred only in women with histories of affective or schizoaffective psychosis whereas 10 other women who became depressed after delivery came equally from the women with histories of psychosis (N = 5) as from those with histories of major depression (N = 5). Three (7%) control women also developed postpartum non-psychotic depressive disorders. Multivariate analyses suggest that different psychosocial factors contribute to the recurrence of affective and schizoaffective psychosis after delivery as opposed to non-psychotic postpartum affective disorders. A non-psychotic illness was predicted by antenatal neuroticism and a severe life event before illness onset. A recurrence of psychosis postpartum was predicted by a history of mania, hypomania or schizomania, a more recent psychiatric admission and reported marital difficulties. In this sample of women, life stress led to postpartum depression irrespective of the subject's past history and the high rates of recurrence of affective or schizoaffective psychosis (47%) probably mainly reflected a pre-existing physiological or psychological vulnerability which may have been exacerbated by, or contributed to, marital difficulties. PMID:1578081

  12. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

  13. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8?±?4.7?years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  14. Dietary Intake of Selected Nutrients Affects Bacterial Vaginosis in Women123

    PubMed Central

    Neggers, Yasmin H.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Andrews, William W.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Yu, Kai-fun; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition of altered vaginal flora, is associated with various adverse reproductive health outcomes. We evaluated the association between diet and the presence of BV in a subset of 1521 women (86% African-American) from a larger study of vaginal flora. Participants completed the Block Food Questionnaire and clinical assessments and self-report measures of sexual and hygiene behavior. A total of 42% of the women were classified as having BV (Nugent score ?7). Severe BV (Nugent score ?9 and vaginal pH ?5) was present in 14.9% of the women. BV was associated [adjusted OR (AOR)] with increased dietary fat (1.5, 1.1–2.4) after adjusting for other energy nutrients and behavioral and demographic covariates. Severe BV was associated with total fat (2.3, 1.3–4.3), saturated fat (2.1, 1.2–3.9), and monounsaturated fat (2.2, 1.2–4.1). Energy intake was only marginally associated (P = 0.05) with BV (1.4, 1.0–1.8). There were significant inverse associations between severe BV and intakes of folate (0.4, 0.2–0.8), vitamin E (0.4, 0.2–0.8), and calcium (0.4, 0.3–0.7). We conclude that increased dietary fat intake is associated with increased risk of BV and severe BV, whereas increased intake of folate, vitamin A, and calcium may decrease the risk of severe BV. PMID:17709453

  15. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...disproportionate share hospital allotments. Prior...estimated State expenditure information as reported to CMS...disproportionate share hospitals expenditure target...disproportionate share hospitals allotments. ...estimated expenditure information reported to CMS...

  16. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...disproportionate share hospital allotments. Prior...estimated State expenditure information as reported to CMS...disproportionate share hospitals expenditure target...disproportionate share hospitals allotments. ...estimated expenditure information reported to CMS...

  17. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...disproportionate share hospital allotments. Prior...estimated State expenditure information as reported to CMS...disproportionate share hospitals expenditure target...disproportionate share hospitals allotments. ...estimated expenditure information reported to CMS...

  18. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...disproportionate share hospital allotments. Prior...estimated State expenditure information as reported to CMS...disproportionate share hospitals expenditure target...disproportionate share hospitals allotments. ...estimated expenditure information reported to CMS...

  19. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...disproportionate share hospital allotments. Prior...estimated State expenditure information as reported to CMS...disproportionate share hospitals expenditure target...disproportionate share hospitals allotments. ...estimated expenditure information reported to CMS...

  20. The laws that affect abortion in the United States and their impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Naylor, K L

    1991-12-01

    Abortion has been a hotly contested political issue since the mid 1960s, when states began liberalizing their abortion laws. Recent Supreme Court rulings, such as Rust vs. Sullivan, the retirement of two liberal Supreme Court justices and the battle over Louisiana's abortion legislation have created new fervor on both fronts of the battle. All health care providers who care for women need to be cognizant of the current abortion laws and the factors that influence the abortion decision. These factors include the different levels of health risk and financial implications posed by continued pregnancy or abortion. Historically, numerous court cases have influenced women's health care, and reviews of several significant cases are provided. The Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services decision was the first case that directly challenged the Roe vs. Wade decision. The Webster decision enables states to have greater authority in writing their own abortion laws. Individual state laws can vary greatly, so it is vitally important for providers to know and understand the laws of their state. PMID:1798604

  1. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa Along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Nathan Marti, C.; Fischer, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, a more protracted clinical course, and a worse treatment response. This report describes two prospective studies which found that young women with threshold (n = 48) and subthreshold (n = 83) bulimic pathology can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes, that two subtyping approaches produced similar results (M ? = .94), that the subtyping distinction showed 4-week test-retest reliability (? = .61), and that the dietary-negative affect subtype showed greater eating pathology, emotional distress, functional impairment, treatment seeking, and lower likelihood of recovery over 6-month and 3-year follow-ups than the dietary subtype. The dieting-negative affect subtyping distinction evidenced greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity than did the purging-nonpurging subtyping distinction. The additional evidence for the reliability and validity of this subytping scheme, particularly the prognostic utility, suggests it is worth additional inquiry. PMID:19045970

  2. Individual interviews with African-American women regarding condom use: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Teressa Sanders

    2010-07-01

    African-American women between 25 and 34 years of age are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Current prevention techniques, including education, have not had a significant influence on decreasing the rates of HIV and increasing safer sexual practices among some African-American women. This pilot study is one step towards increasing the understanding of this serious problem and developing effective interventions to stem the tide of HIV infection in African-American women. A grounded theory approach was used to address the process that unmarried, heterosexual, African-American women used to negotiate condom use with their sexual partner. Major concepts, connections between the categories, and theoretical codes are identified in this study and can be used to predict, speculate, explain, and understand the reported behavior of African-American women in negotiating condom use with their sexual partner. PMID:20857774

  3. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. PMID:25474605

  4. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  5. Hybridization effects and bond disproportionation in the bismuth perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Khazraie, Arash; Elfimov, Ilya; Sawatzky, George A.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a microscopic description of the bond-disproportionated insulating state in the bismuth perovskites X BiO3 (X =Ba,Sr ) that recognizes the bismuth-oxygen hybridization as a dominant energy scale. It is demonstrated by using electronic structure methods that the breathing distortion is accompanied by spatial condensation of hole pairs into local, molecularlike orbitals of the A1 g symmetry composed of O-2 p? and Bi-6 s atomic orbitals of collapsed BiO6 octahedra. The primary importance of oxygen p states is thus revealed, in contrast to a popular picture of a purely ionic Bi3 +/Bi5 + charge disproportionation. Octahedra tilting is shown to enhance the breathing instability by means of a nonuniform band narrowing. We argue that the formation of localized states upon breathing distortion is, to a large extent, a property of the oxygen sublattice, and we expect similar hybridization effects in other perovskites involving formally high oxidation state cations.

  6. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  7. Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-10-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

  8. Control of micellization induced by disproportionation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl supported on side chains of a block copolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eri Yoshida

    2009-01-01

    The block copolymer micellization induced by the disproportionation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was performed\\u000a using acids with different acid strengths. A poly(4-vinylbenzyloxy-TEMPO)-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PVTEMPO-b-PSt) produced micelles in 1,4-dioxane by the disproportionation of the TEMPO by HNO3, HCl, HClO4, and HSbF6. The acid strength affected the efficiency of the micellization. The acid\\/VTEMPO molar ratio required for the micellization\\u000a decreased with an

  9. Wiser Women: Fostering Undergraduate Success in Science and Engineering with a Residential Academic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Caitilyn

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the successful outcomes of the Women in Science and Engineering Residential Program which aims to reduce the disproportionate loss of women from science and engineering majors at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/WRM)

  10. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

  11. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categories such as physical, chemical, biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic. In many circumstances, multiple environmental factors may contribute to adversely modify human health. It has been suspected and in some cases demonstrated that stress can adversely affect reproductive function. Both animal and human data support this contention; however, the human data are clear in extreme situations (e.g., inmates of concentration camps) but less so under less drastic conditions. In recent years many advances have been made concerning the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the effects of stress on reproductive functions and on the identification of "stress hormones" that may not only be involved in the stress response but also serve as biochemical markers to identify and correlate stress with different fertility parameters. Nutrition also plays an important role in infertility, and undernutrition or nutrition disorders are associated with stress in infertility. Environmental factors are often invoked as contributing to many cases of unexplained infertility. However, the direct causal relationship between those factors and the ensuing infertility of the couple are seldom well established and remain largely anecdotal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243408

  12. Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

  13. Large Sulfur Isotope Fractionation Does Not Require Disproportionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Min Sub; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

    2011-07-01

    The composition of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary sulfides and sulfates traces the sulfur cycle throughout Earth’s history. In particular, depletions of sulfur-34 (34S) in sulfide relative to sulfate exceeding 47 per mil (‰) often serve as a proxy for the disproportionation of intermediate sulfur species in addition to sulfate reduction. Here, we demonstrate that a pure, actively growing culture of a marine sulfate-reducing bacterium can deplete 34S by up to 66‰ during sulfate reduction alone and in the absence of an extracellular oxidative sulfur cycle. Therefore, similar magnitudes of sulfur isotope fractionation in sedimentary rocks do not unambiguously record the presence of other sulfur-based metabolisms or the stepwise oxygenation of Earth’s surface environment during the Proterozoic.

  14. Disproportionation reactions catalyzed by Leuconostoc and Streptococcus glucansucrases.

    PubMed

    Binder, T P; Côté, G L; Robyt, J F

    1983-12-23

    Glucansucrases from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F and Streptococcus mutans 6715 were found to utilize a number of D-gluco-oligosaccharides as D-glucosyl donors and as acceptors. These donors included isomaltotriose and its homologs, panose, maltotriose, and dextran. In each case, D-glucosyl groups were transferred from the donor to an acceptor sugar. When the donor sugar also acted as an acceptor, disproportionation reactions occurred. Isomaltotriose, for example, gave rise to isomaltose and isomaltotetraose initially, and to a series of isomalto-oligosaccharides eventually. In addition to forming alpha-D-(1----6) linkages in the reactions, dextransucrase from S. mutans 6715 was capable of forming alpha-D-(1----3)-linked products. PMID:6671200

  15. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be administered as a dietary supplement in breast cancer primary prevention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN74096908. PMID:23981814

  16. Desired mental health resources for urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women struggling with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education. PMID:23166153

  17. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  18. The politics of invisibility: homophobia and low-income HIV-positive women who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Arend, Elizabeth D

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' percepHIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' percepHIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' perceptions of available support networks and patterns of disclosure in order to raise awareness of their struggle against HIV and homophobia and to assist in empowering the low-income HIV-positive WSW community. PMID:16048887

  19. Achieving equity in Medicare disproportionate share payments to rural hospitals: an assessment of the financial impact of recent and proposed changes to the disproportionate share hospital payment formula.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Lan; Cheng, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payment program has been less favorable to rural hospitals: eligibility thresholds were higher and the payment adjustment was smaller for rural than for urban hospitals. Although the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefit Improvement and Protection Act (BIPA) of 2000 established a uniform low-income threshold and increased the magnitude of the adjustment for certain small and rural hospitals as a means to promote payment equity, the DSH distribution formula continues to vary by location. This study examines how the DSH revisions mandated under BIPA are likely to affect rural hospitals' financial performance and simulates the financial impact of implementing a uniform DSH payment adjustment. Using data from the 1998 Medicare cost report and impact files, this study found that two-thirds of both rural and urban hospitals would have qualified for DSH payments following BIPA compared with only one-fifth of rural hospitals and one-half of urban hospitals prior to BIPA. Although the impact of BIPA revisions on rural hospitals' total margins were found to be modest, the financial impact of a uniform payment adjustment would be somewhat greater: rural hospitals' average total margins would have increased by 1.6 percentage points. Importantly, 20% of rural hospitals with negative total margins would have been "in the black" if rural and urban hospitals were reimbursed using the same DSH formula. These findings suggest that elimination of rural and urban disparities in DSH payment could strengthen the rural health care safety net. PMID:12380892

  20. Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640

  1. Factors affecting the decision to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy among women with BRCA gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwon; Kang, Eunyoung; Hwang, Euijun; Sun, Young; Hwang, Yoonsun; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Kidong; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that affect the decision to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations carriers in South Korea. The medical records of 124 women who had been found to have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation at our institution between May 2003 and December 2011 were reviewed. The carriers were divided into RRSO and non-RRSO groups for comparison of their clinicopathologic, socio-economic, and psychosocial factors. Of the 71 carriers eligible for RRSO, 21 had undergone RRSO. In univariate analysis, classification of carriers into 3 groups by decade of life (4th, 5th, or 6th and later decade) and subsequent analysis revealed that 52.6% of carriers in the 5th decade had undergone RRSO, a rate significantly higher than that of the other age groups (p = 0.007). The RRSO rate was higher in carriers with a personal history of breast cancer than in those without (39.2% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.004), in carriers with a family history of breast cancer than in those without (35.5% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.065), and in carriers with a family history of ovarian cancer than in those carriers without a family history (66.7% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis identified age and personal history of breast cancer as independent factors affecting the decision to undergo RRSO. Age and personal history of breast cancer are important factors in the decision to undergo, and should thus be considered when counseling BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:23504064

  2. Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

  3. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  4. Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1997-01-01

    To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1%) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucleotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

  5. Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1997-01-01

    To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1 %) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucteotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

  6. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  7. Does the US Navy attract young women who smoke?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Weaver; S. I. Woodruff; T. L. Conway; C. C. Edwards; S. H. Zhu; J. P. Elder

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the United States Navy is disproportionately attracting and recruiting female smokers from the civilian sector. METHODS: Standardised comparisons of cigarette use among Navy women recruits and civilian women were conducted with data from a 1996-97 Department of Defense study and the 1994 National Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: Young Navy women recruits (18-22 years) had significantly higher

  8. The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  9. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...disproportionate share of low-income patients. 412...412.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...disproportionate share of low-income patients. (a...hospital providing acute care services...

  10. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...disproportionate share of low-income patients. 412...412.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...disproportionate share of low-income patients. (a...hospital providing acute care services...

  11. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...disproportionate share of low-income patients. 412...412.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...disproportionate share of low-income patients. (a...hospital providing acute care services...

  12. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...disproportionate share of low-income patients. 412...412.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...disproportionate share of low-income patients. (a...hospital providing acute care services...

  13. Immediate reconstruction with implants in women with invasive breast cancer does not affect oncological safety in a matched cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Eriksen; J. Frisell; M. Wickman; E. Lidbrink; K. Krawiec; K. Sandelin

    2011-01-01

    Physicians are still concerned about the oncological safety regarding immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) in breast cancer\\u000a patients. This study aimed to evaluate possible differences between local, regional, and distant recurrences between women\\u000a having implant-based reconstruction versus women operated with mastectomy alone. Secondary aims were to evaluate time to oncological\\u000a treatment as well as disease-free and breast-cancer-specific survival. In a retrospective

  14. Diabetes-Related Lower-Extremity Amputations Disproportionately Affect Blacks and Mexican Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAWRENCE A. LAVERY; WILLIAM H. VAN HOUTUM; HISHAM R. ASHRY; DAVID G. ARMSTRONG; JACQUELINE A. PUGH; San Antonio

    Background. We sought to identify the age-adjusted incidence of lower-extremity amputation (LEA) in Mexican Americans, blacks, and non-Hispanic whites with diabetes in south Texas. Methods. We summarized medical records for hospitalizations for LEAs for 1993 in six metropolitan statistical areas in south Texas. Results. Age-adjusted incidence per 10,000 patients with diabetes was 146.59 in blacks, 60.68 in non-Hispanic whites, and

  15. Community-dwelling people with chronic stroke need disproportionate attention while walking and negotiating obstacles.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Katrijn; van Swigchem, Roos; de Swart, Bert J M; Geurts, Alexander C H; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the attentional demands of gait adaptations required to walk over irregular terrain in community-dwelling people with chronic stroke. Eight community ambulators (>6 months post-stroke, aged 57 ± 15 years) and eight age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. As the primary motor task, participants walked on a treadmill while they quickly reacted to a sudden obstacle in front of the affected (in the stroke group) or left (in healthy controls) leg. The secondary, cognitive task was an auditory Stroop task. Outcomes were avoidance success rate and muscle reaction times of the biceps and rectus femoris (motor task), and a composite score of accuracy and verbal reaction time (cognitive task). Success rates did not differ between single- and dual-task conditions in either group, while muscle reaction times deteriorated equally during the dual task in both groups. However, compared with the Stroop scores just before and after obstacle crossing, the scores while crossing the obstacle deteriorated more in the stroke group than in the controls (p=0.012). The higher dual-task costs on the Stroop task reflect greater attentional demands during walking and crossing obstacles. The absence of dual-task effects on obstacle avoidance performance suggests that the people with stroke used a "posture-first strategy". The results imply that common daily life tasks such as obstacle crossing while walking require disproportionate attention even in well-recovered people with stroke. PMID:22418584

  16. The Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and Laser Assisted Hatching in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Are Affected by The Cause of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin-Fen; Peng, Fu-Shiang; Chen, Shee-Uan; Chiu, Bao-Chu; Yeh, Szu-Hsing; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the association between factors that affected clini- cal pregnancy and live birth rates in patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and received intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and/or laser assisted hatching (LAH), or neither. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, the records of women who underwent IVF with or without ICSI and/or LAH at the Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between January 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed. We divided patients into four groups: 1. those that did not receive ICSI or LAH, 2. those that received ICSI only, 3. those that received LAH only and 4. those that received both ICSI and LAH. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in each group. Results A total of 375 women were included in the analysis. Oocyte number (OR=1.07) affected the live birth rate in patients that did not receive either ICSI or LAH. Mater- nal age (OR=0.89) and embryo transfer (ET) number (OR=1.59) affected the rate in those that received ICSI only. Female infertility factors other than tubal affected the rate (OR=5.92) in patients that received both ICSI and LAH. No factors were found to affect the live birth rate in patients that received LAH only. Conclusion Oocyte number, maternal age and ET number and female infertility fac- tors other than tubal affected the live birth rate in patients that did not receive ICSI or LAH, those that received ICSI only, and those that received both ICSI and LAH, respectively. No factors affected the live birth rate in patients that received LAH only. These data might assist in advising patients on the appropriateness of ICSI and LAH after failed IVF. PMID:25918590

  17. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: Disproportionate prevalence of women among Kevorkian's patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis M. Solomon; Rebekka C. Noll

    2008-01-01

    End-of-life decisions are among the most difficult to make or study. When we examined these decisions made under the auspices and protection of stringent state laws, we found no gender bias among patients who chose to end their lives in the face of documented debilitating and terminal diseases. However, in the case of euthanasia as practiced by Jack Kevorkian, we

  18. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n?=?1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n?=?77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n?=?184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2) ?=?12.93 p?=?0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor-Leste, impacting on their health, child-rearing and ability to participate fully in socio-economic development. PMID:23950885

  19. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women’s HIV risks in addition to conventional HIV risk- taking behaviors are urgently needed. PMID:22697147

  20. Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Women’s Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women’s health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women’s groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women’s and children’s health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory women’s groups focused on women’s and children’s health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

  1. Windfall vs. Earned Money in the Laboratory: Do They Affect the Behavior of Men and Women Differently?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Carlsson; Haoran He; Peter Martinsson

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate, using a dictator game, if the effects of windfall and earned endowments on behavior differ between men and women genders. In line with previous studies, we find that windfall endowments significantly increase the amount donated. The impact of moving from earned to windfall endowment on behavior is larger for females, yet the gender difference is statistically insignificant.

  2. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne C Giles; Gary FV Glonek; Vivienne M Moore; Michael J Davies; Mary A Luszcz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of

  3. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  4. Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women123

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Ines M; Ahouandjinou, Ella; Dossa, Romain; Zeder, Christophe; Salami, Lamidhi; Tjalsma, Harold; Wiegerinck, Erwin; Tanno, Toshihiko; Hurrell, Richard F; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Beninese women would impair absorption of dietary iron or utilization of circulating iron. Design: Iron absorption and utilization from an iron-fortified sorghum-based meal were estimated by using oral and intravenous isotope labels in 23 afebrile women with a positive malaria smear (asexual P. falciparum parasitemia; >500 parasites/?L blood). The women were studied while infected, treated, and then restudied 10 d after treatment. Iron status, hepcidin, and inflammation indexes were measured before and after treatment. Results: Treatment reduced low-grade inflammation, as reflected by decreases in serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 (P < 0.05); this was accompanied by a reduction in median serum hepcidin of ?50%, from 2.7 to 1.4 nmol/L (P < 0.005). Treatment decreased serum erythropoietin and growth differentiation factor 15 (P < 0.05). Clearance of parasitemia increased geometric mean dietary iron absorption (from 10.2% to 17.6%; P = 0.008) but did not affect systemic iron utilization (85.0% compared with 83.1%; NS). Conclusions: Dietary iron absorption is reduced by ?40% in asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia, likely because of low-grade inflammation and its modulation of circulating hepcidin. Because asymptomatic parasitemia has a protracted course and is very common in malarial areas, this effect may contribute to IDA and blunt the efficacy of iron supplementation and fortification programs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01108939. PMID:20926522

  5. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS–Cognitive and Affective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Wharton, Whitney; Manson, JoAnn E.; Miller, Virginia M.; Atwood, Craig S.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, Nanette F.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Black, Dennis M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Naftolin, Frederick; Harman, S. Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reportedly increases the risk of cognitive decline in women over age 65 y. It is unknown whether similar risks exist for recently postmenopausal women, and whether MHT affects mood in younger women. The ancillary Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) examined the effects of up to 4 y of MHT on cognition and mood in recently postmenopausal women. Methods and Findings KEEPS, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted at nine US academic centers. Of the 727 women enrolled in KEEPS, 693 (95.3%) participated in the ancillary KEEPS-Cog, with 220 women randomized to receive 4 y of 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE) plus 200 mg/d micronized progesterone (m-P) for the first 12 d of each month, 211 women randomized to receive 50 ?g/d transdermal estradiol (t-E2) plus 200 mg/d m-P for the first 12 d of each month, and 262 women randomized to receive placebo pills and patches. Primary outcomes included the Modified Mini-Mental State examination; four cognitive factors: verbal learning/memory, auditory attention/working memory, visual attention/executive function, and speeded language/mental flexibility; and a mood measure, the Profile of Mood States (POMS). MHT effects were analyzed using linear mixed-effects (LME) models, which make full use of all available data from each participant, including those with missing data. Data from those with and without full data were compared to assess for potential biases resulting from missing observations. For statistically significant results, we calculated effect sizes (ESs) to evaluate the magnitude of changes. On average, participants were 52.6 y old, and 1.4 y past their last menstrual period. By month 48, 169 (24.4%) and 158 (22.8%) of the 693 women who consented for ancillary KEEPS-Cog were lost to follow-up for cognitive assessment (3MS and cognitive factors) and mood evaluations (POMS), respectively. However, because LME models make full use all available data, including data from women with missing data, 95.5% of participants were included in the final analysis (n = 662 in cognitive analyses, and n = 661 in mood analyses). To be included in analyses, women must have provided baseline data, and data from at least one post-baseline visit. The mean length of follow-up was 2.85 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.49) for cognitive outcomes and 2.76 (SD = 0.57) for mood outcomes. No treatment-related benefits were found on cognitive outcomes. For mood, model estimates indicated that women treated with o-CEE showed improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms over the 48 mo of treatment, compared to women on placebo. The model estimate for the depression subscale was ?5.36 × 10?2 (95% CI, ?8.27 × 10?2 to ?2.44 × 10?2; ES = 0.49, p < 0.001) and for the anxiety subscale was ?3.01 × 10?2 (95% CI, ?5.09 × 10?2 to ?9.34 × 10?3; ES = 0.26, p < 0.001). Mood outcomes for women randomized to t-E2 were similar to those for women on placebo. Importantly, the KEEPS-Cog results cannot be extrapolated to treatment longer than 4 y. Conclusions The KEEPS-Cog findings suggest that for recently postmenopausal women, MHT did not alter cognition as hypothesized. However, beneficial mood effects with small to medium ESs were noted with 4 y of o-CEE, but not with 4 y of t-E2. The generalizability of these findings is limited to recently postmenopausal women with low cardiovascular risk profiles. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154180 and NCT00623311 PMID:26035291

  6. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for attrition was interest in another (non-STEM) field. Participants placed little importance on other reasons for leaving STEM that were identified in previous research, such as competition, social isolation, or financial considerations.

  7. Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators' roles: a concurrent mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Njie-Carr, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence among women with HIV; (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators' roles in contributing to violence; and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent Mixed Method study design was used, including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi's technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/intimate partner violence prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500

  8. Fertility sparing surgery in young women affected by endometrial stromal sarcoma: an oncologic dilemma or a reliable option? review of literature starting from a peculiar case

    PubMed Central

    Noventa, Marco; Gizzo, Salvatore; Conte, Lorena; Dalla Toffola, Angela; Litta, Pietro; Saccardi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a term used to define a rare neoplasm that accounts for approximately 0.2%–1% of all uterine malignancies; it is, however, implicated in an estimated 10%–15% of those malignancies with a mesenchymal component. Recent evidence suggests that while the preservation of the ovaries may be considered appropriate in premenopausal women, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the recommended treatment in postmenopausal women. Currently, only a few case series reporting the treatment of ESS in young women with a desire to preserve fertility and thus subjected to a fertility-sparing surgery are available in the literature. Case presentation We report a peculiar case of early stage ESS treated by laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery and a strict follow-up program (every 3 months) of imaging and clinical evaluation. The patient remained disease free 1 year after primary treatment. Three months after completing oncological follow-up, the patient conceived spontaneously and is, to date, pregnant at 11 weeks of gestation without evidence of recurrent disease or obstetric complications. Conclusion Based on our case report and in accordance with the data available, we suggest that in young patients affected by early stage ESS who wish to preserve reproductive function, fertility-sparing surgery could represent a valid option, though strict oncological follow-up remains mandatory. PMID:25565863

  9. Common Clinical Conditions – Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BAXI, Sanjiv M.; GREENBLATT, Ruth M.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SCHERZER, Rebecca; MINKOFF, Howard; HUANG, Yong; ANASTOS, Kathryn; COHEN, Mardge; GANGE, Stephen J.; YOUNG, Mary; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; GANDHI, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tenofovir is used commonly in HIV treatment and prevention settings, but factors that correlate with tenofovir exposure in real-world setting are unknown. Design Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of tenofovir in a large, diverse cohort of HIV-infected women over 24-hours at steady-state were performed and factors that influenced exposure (assessed by areas-under-the-time-concentration curves, AUCs) identified Methods HIV-infected women (n=101) on tenofovir-based therapy underwent intensive 24-hour PK sampling. Data on race/ethnicity, age, exogenous steroid use, menstrual cycle phase, concomitant medications, recreational drugs and/or tobacco, hepatic and renal function, weight and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Multivariable models using forward stepwise selection identified factors associated with effects on AUC. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) prior to starting tenofovir were estimated by the CKD-EPI equation using both creatinine and cystatin-C measures Results The median (range) of tenofovir AUCs was 3350 (1031–13,911) ng x h/mL. Higher AUCs were associated with concomitant ritonavir use (1.33-fold increase, p 0.002), increasing age (1.21-fold increase per decade, p=0.0007) and decreasing BMI (1.04-fold increase per 10% decrease in BMI). When GFR was calculated using cystatin-C measures, mild renal insufficiency prior to tenofovir initiation was associated with higher subsequent exposure (1.35-fold increase when pre-tenofovir GFR <70mL/min, p=0.0075). Conclusions Concomitant ritonavir use, increasing age, decreasing BMI and lower GFR prior to tenofovir initiation as estimated by cystatin C were all associated with elevated tenofovir exposure in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinicians treating HIV-infected women should be aware of common clinical conditions that affect tenofovir exposure when prescribing this medication. PMID:24275255

  10. Estradiol Modulates Anhedonia and Behavioral Despair in Rats and Negative Affect in a Subgroup of Women at High Risk for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; O’Hara, Michael W.; Rubinow, David R.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address inconsistencies in the literature, we tested a cross-species estrogen withdrawal model of postpartum depression (PPD) with a series of rodent experiments and a prospective, naturalistic human study. All rats were ovariectomized prior to experimentation. The first rat experiment examined the effects of low- and high-dose estradiol administration and withdrawal on lateral-hypothalamic self-stimulation, a behavioral index of anhedonia, in experimental (n=7) and vehicle-only control animals (n=7). The second rat experiment examined the effects of high-dose estradiol withdrawal on activity and immobility during the forced swim test, an index of behavioral despair, in a separate group of experimental (n=8) and vehicle-only control animals (n=8). In the human study, women with (n=8) and without (n=12) a history of PPD completed mood ratings and collected saliva samples (to assess estradiol levels) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy through 10 days postpartum. The presence of PPD was assessed at one month postpartum. In the animal studies, rats in the estradiol withdrawal group demonstrated significantly greater immobility and less swimming than controls. Estradiol withdrawal resulted in reduced responding for electrical stimulation (multiple intensities) relative to estradiol administration. In the human study, there was no significant association between estradiol and negative affect among women with or without a history of PPD. However, there was a correlation between daily estradiol levels and negative affect in the women with incident PPD at one month postpartum. Despite important cross-species differences, both the rat and human studies provided evidence of the effects of estradiol on perinatal depressive symptoms. PMID:23770328

  11. Does women's education affect breast cancer risk and survival? Evidence from a population based social experiment in education.

    PubMed

    Palme, Mårten; Simeonova, Emilia

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is a notable exception to the well documented positive education gradient in health. A number of studies have found that highly educated women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. Breast cancer is therefore often labeled as a "welfare disease". However, it has not been established whether the strong positive correlation holds up when education is exogenously determined. We estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer by exploiting an education reform that extended compulsory schooling and was implemented as a social experiment. We find that the incidence of breast cancer increased for those exposed to the reform. PMID:25912223

  12. “Nobody Told Me Nothin”: Communication About Menstruation Among Low-Income African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spring Chenoa Cooper; Patricia Barthalow Koch

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore communication about menstruation among low-income African American women and the impact of this communication on their understanding of and attitudes toward the menstrual events that will occur throughout their lives. This is of particular importance since minority women disproportionately face greater menstrual problems than those experienced by majority women in the United

  13. The Role of Students in the Experience of Women Faculty on the Tenure Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bridget Turner; Fetridge, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Women faculty disproportionately leave academia by their second or third semester and experience slow rates of tenure and promotion. What then, may cause women faculty, both White and of color, to leave early or conversely, to stay through tenure? With a critical feminist framework, this article presents qualitative research into women's…

  14. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (?60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P?

  15. Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease that affects 1 in 1,000 people, often young women (BOX 1).

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease that affects 1 in 1,000 people, often young-remitting phase2 . This shortcoming reflects the complexity of multiple sclerosis. A more comprehensive understanding of the aetiology of multiple sclerosis and the pathways leading to disease should provide rational

  16. Women's Marijuana Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Chacín

    1996-01-01

    Individual, cultural, professional, and gender-related factors converge to increase the denial of women's marijuana problems. Recent epidemiological information on marijuana use shows that marijuana is a significant problem for women of various ethnic groups, pregnant women, young adults and workers. Women's marijuana-related problems affect their health, safety, domestic relations, motherhood, and work. Outdated addiction theories, diagnostic tools, and insufficient research

  17. Women's and Gender Studies

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Women's and Gender Studies #12;Women's and Gender Studies at Carleton University provides you and the world around us. The Pauline Jewett Institute of Women's and Gender Studies offers a stimulating affects our local, national and global environment. Women's and Gender Studies not only opens new

  18. Psychological needs and the prediction of exercise?related cognitions and affect among an ethnically diverse cohort of adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jemm A Edmunds; Joan L. Duda; Nikos Ntoumanis

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the utility of Self?Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985) and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (ODT; Brewer, 1991, 1993) in predicting motivational, cognitive, and affective responses to group?based exercise. Female exercise class participants (N = 260) of White (W; 38%), Asian\\/Asian British (A\\/AB; 33%), and Black\\/Black British (B\\/BB; 29%) ethnic origin completed measures of group exercise?specific psychological

  19. Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate

  20. Disproportionate Suspension of African American Students in Public Schools: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Nikia M.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study was the disproportionate number of African American students who are suspended or expelled at a higher rate than their white counterparts in Michigan public schools. This research was framed with critical race theory and cultural ecology theory of African American students suspended. This study applied a Delphi…

  1. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in their own context that are described in this review. Further research on this population, including those who drop out of or never access health services, is needed to inform effective implementation. PMID:25372479

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in the mevalonate pathway affect the therapeutic response to alendronate treatment in postmenopausal Chinese women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Zheng, H; He, J-W; Zhang, H; Yue, H; Hu, W-W; Gu, J-M; Shao, C; Fu, W-Z; Hu, Y-Q; Li, M; Liu, Y-J; Zhang, Z-L

    2015-04-01

    Alendronate is an antiosteoporotic drug that targets the mevalonate pathway. To investigate whether the genetic variations in this pathway affect the clinical efficacy of alendronate in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis, 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes were genotyped in 500 patients treated with alendronate for 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and after 12 months. The rs10161126 SNP in the 3' flanking region of MVK and the GTCCA haplotype in FDFT1 were significantly associated with therapeutic response. A 6.6% increase in BMD in the lumbar spine was observed in the GG homozygotes of rs10161126; AG heterozygotes and AA homozygotes experienced a 4.4 and 4.5% increase, respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of G allele carriers to be responders in lumbar spine BMD was 2.06 (1.08-6.41). GTCCA haplotype in FDFT1 was more frequently detected in the group of responders than in the group of non-responders at the total hip (2.6 vs 0.5%, P=0.009). Therefore, MVK and FDFT1 polymorphisms are genetic determinants for BMD response to alendronate therapy in postmenopausal Chinese women. PMID:25223561

  3. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  4. Designing an Intervention for Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus from Medically Underserved Areas to Improve Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Candace H; Bermas, Bonnie L; Zibit, Melanie; Fraser, Patricia; Todd, Derrick J; Fortin, Paul R; Massarotti, Elena; Costenbader, Karen H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) disproportionately affects women, racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. We held focus groups for women from medically underserved communities to discuss interventions to improve care. Methods From our Lupus Registry, we invited 282 women, > 18 years, residing in urban, medically underserved areas. Hospital-based clinics and support groups also recruited participants. Women were randomly assigned to 3 focus groups. 75-minute sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded thematically using interpretative phenomenologic analysis and single counting methods. We categorized interventions by benefits, limitations, target populations and implementation questions. Results 29 women with lupus participated in 3 focus groups, (n=9, 9, 11). 80% were African American and 83% were from medically underserved zip codes. Themes included the desire for lupus education, isolation at the time of diagnosis, emotional and physical barriers to care, and the need for assistance navigating the healthcare system. 20 of 29 participants (69%) favored a peer support intervention; 17 (59%) also supported a lupus health passport. Newly diagnosed women were optimal intervention targets. Improvements in quality of life and mental health were proposed outcome measures. Conclusion Women with lupus from medically underserved areas have unique needs best addressed with an intervention designed through collaboration between community members and researchers. PMID:23087258

  5. Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums

    PubMed Central

    Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life. PMID:25317001

  6. Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth; Harry, Beth; Zion, Shelley; Tate, William; Duran, Grace Zamora; Riley, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist…

  7. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

  8. The production of 34S-depleted sulfide during bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; Thamdrup, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur fractionate sulfur isotopes such that sulfate is enriched in sulfur-34 by 12.6 to 15.3 per mil and sulfide is depleted in sulfur-34 by 7.3 to 8.6 per mil. Through a repeated cycle of sulfide oxidation to S0 and subsequent disproportionation, these bacteria can deplete sedimentary sulfides in sulfur-34. A prediction, borne out by observation, is that more extensive sulfide oxidation will lead to sulfides that are more depleted in sulfur-34. Thus, the oxidative part of the sulfur cycle creates circumstances by which sulfides become more depleted in sulfur-34 than would be possible with sulfate-reducing bacteria alone.

  9. The Role of Spirituality in Sustaining the Psychological Well-Being of HIV-Positive Black Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikia D. Braxton; Delia L. Lang; Jessica M. Sales; Gina M. Wingood; Ralph J. DiClemente

    2007-01-01

    Historically, spirituality has been an instrumental component to the survival of Black women. In an era when the HIV epidemic disproportionately compromises their health, it is imperative to explore spirituality's role in sustaining the psychological health of Black women living with HIV. This study examined the relationship between spirituality and self-reported depression among Black women living with HIV. A sample

  10. Hispanic/Latina Women and AIDS: A Critical Perspective. JSRI Working Paper No. 36. JSRI Research & Publications Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasini-Caceres, Lydia; Cook, Amy Beth

    Women are a rapidly growing group of people with AIDS in the United States, and Hispanic/Latina and African American women are disproportionately represented. This paper reviews the literature on the epidemiology of AIDS/HIV infection among Latina women, children, and adolescents and discusses the needs of Latinas regarding AIDS prevention…

  11. Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Coupled to Chemical Reduction of Iron or Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Thamdrup, Bo; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Jens Würgler; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (S0) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide and pyrite was observed. The transformations were accompanied by growth of slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. The quantification of the products revealed that S0 was microbially disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O ? SO42- + 3H2S + 2H+. Subsequent chemical reactions between the formed sulfide and the added FeOOH led to the observed precipitation of iron sulfides. Sulfate and iron sulfides were also produced when FeOOH was replaced by FeCO3. Further enrichment with manganese oxide, MnO2, instead of FeOOH yielded stable cultures which formed sulfate during concomitant reduction of MnO2 to Mn2+. Growth of small rod-shaped bacteria was observed. When incubated without MnO2, the culture did not grow but produced small amounts of SO42- and H2S at a ratio of 1:3, indicating again a disproportionation of S0. The observed microbial disproportionation of S0 only proceeds significantly in the presence of sulfide-scavenging agents such as iron and manganese compounds. The population density of bacteria capable of S0 disproportionation in the presence of FeOOH or MnO2 was high, > 104 cm-3 in coastal sediments. The metabolism offers an explanation for recent observations of anaerobic sulfide oxidation to sulfate in anoxic sediments. PMID:16348835

  12. Substance Use and Partner Violence among Urban Women Seeking Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bi-directional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low income, urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for socio-demographics and potentially confounding multi-level risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior six months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as non-heroin using women to indicate any physical, injurious or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low income, urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

  13. Efficient Identification of Low-Income Asian American Women at High Risk for Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Galen; Nguyen, Kim; Nguyen, Tung; Stewart, Susan; Davis, Sharon; Kevany, Sebastian; Marquez, Titas; Pasick, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B disproportionately affects Asian Americans. Because outreach to promote testing and vaccination can be intensive and costly, we assessed the feasibility of an efficient strategy to identify Asian Americans at risk. Prior research with California’s statewide toll-free phone service where low-income women call for free cancer screening found 50% of English- and Spanish-speaking callers were willing to participate in a study on health topics other than cancer screening. The current study ascertained whether Asian Americans could be recruited. Among 200 eligible callers, 50% agreed to take part (95% confidence interval 43%–57%), a rate comparable to our previous study. Subsequent qualitative interviews revealed that receptivity to recruitment was due to trust in the phone service and women’s need for health services and information. This was a relatively low-intensity intervention in that, on average, only five minutes additional call time was required to identify women at risk and provide a brief educational message. Underserved women from diverse backgrounds may be reached in large numbers through existing communication channels. PMID:24185165

  14. Balancing safety and autonomy: structural and social barriers affecting the exercise participation of women with disabilities in community recreation and fitness facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Rolfe; K. Yoshida; R. Renwick; C. Bailey

    2012-01-01

    Women with disabilities consider exercise an important health promotion activity. A lack of accessible facilities within the community has been identified as a major limiting factor to exercise participation among women with disabilities. To increase exercise participation among women with disabilities, we need to understand the structural and social barriers that they face within community recreation and fitness facilities. Interviews

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Prospective, Controlled Study in 254 Affected Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD S. LEGRO; ALLEN R. KUNSELMAN; WILLIAM C. DODSON; ANDREA DUNAIF

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resis- tant, have insulin secretory defects, and are at high risk for glucose intolerance. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of glucose intolerance and parameters associated with risk for this in PCOS women. Two-hundred and fifty-four PCOS women, aged 14 - 44 yr, were prospectively evaluated at 2 centers, 1

  16. Exploring the Experiences of African American Women in an Undergraduate Summer Research Program Designed to Address the Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ericka L.

    2010-01-01

    African American women compose a critical proportion of the potential science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce of the future, yet are disproportionately represented and largely underutilized. While various programs and initiatives have been designed and implemented to target women and underrepresented minorities, the…

  17. Jobs: women's double burden.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition. PMID:12157784

  18. 42 CFR 447.294 - Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotment reductions for Federal fiscal year 2014...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...447.294 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...Disproportionate Number of Low-Income Patients § 447...sets forth the DSH health reform methodology...of uncompensated care factor...

  19. 42 CFR 447.294 - Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotment reductions for Federal fiscal year 2014...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...447.294 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...Disproportionate Number of Low-Income Patients § 447...sets forth the DSH health reform methodology...of uncompensated care factor...

  20. 42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES...296 Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate...whose entire Medicaid program is operated under a waiver...FFP is available for aggregate payments to...

  1. THE MEANING OF HEALTH IN MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Russell; Rivienne Shedd-Steele

    2003-01-01

    Inadequate use of mammography screening for early detection of breast cancer is an important factor associated with the disproportionate breast cancer death rates in African American women. To improve understanding of the mammography screening experience and health for African Americans, focus groups were held with 30~African American women. Seven categories emerged: (a) the mind, body, and spirit connection; (b) living

  2. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  3. Locus of Control and HIV Risk Among a Sample of Mexican and Puerto Rican Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sana Loue; Marlene Cooper; Fatoumata Traore; Jay Fiedler

    2004-01-01

    The disproportionate impact of HIV\\/AIDS on Hispanic women in the United States has been variously attributed to a failure to utilize protective measures due to low levels of HIV knowledge, a denial or minimization of risk, and conflicts with cultural norms. It has been hypothesized that women's relative lack of power in relationships may be associated with higher risk sexual

  4. Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

  5. Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Key Populations Affected by HIV in Asia: An Unfinished Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Petruney, Tricia; Minichiello, Shanthi Noriega; McDowell, Misti; Wilcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Like all women, women living with and at risk of acquiring HIV have the right to determine the number and timing of their pregnancies and to safely achieve their reproductive intentions. Yet, many women in Asia affected by HIV lack access to family planning services and experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Programs that have succeeded in promoting condom use and providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this region have largely missed the opportunity to address the contraceptive needs of the key populations they serve. The importance of better linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs is now widely recognized by global health policymakers and donors. However, to date, most of the efforts to improve these linkages have been conducted in Africa. Greater attention is needed to the developing, implementing, and evaluating of integrated family planning/HIV approaches that are tailored to the political, cultural, and public health context in Asia. In this paper, we describe the use of and need for family planning among key populations affected by HIV in Asia, discuss the challenges to effectively addressing of these needs, and offer recommendations for strengthening the linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs in the region. PMID:22991656

  6. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Sara L.; Geller, Pamela A.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2015-01-01

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women’s health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:25729776

  7. HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

    Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

  8. The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

    2011-01-01

    The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

  9. A slightly suppressive dose of L-thyroxine does not affect bone turnover and bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women with nontoxic goitre.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, G; Testa, A; Maussier, M L; Callà, C; Astazi, P; Albanese, C

    1995-11-01

    There are controversial reports on the potential role of L-thyroxine administration as a risk factor for osteoporosis. We studied bone mass and metabolism in a homogeneous series of 50 Caucasian women, 25 premenopausal and 25 postmenopausal, having nontoxic goitre treated with slightly suppressive L-thyroxine doses (50-200 micrograms/day) with subnormal serum TSH and normal thyroid hormone levels. These patients were matched with 50 controls for age, sex, body mass index, menopausal and thyroid disease. Patients and controls were also investigated for minor determinants of bone loss, such as hereditary and life-style factors. Patients and controls filled in a questionnaire and underwent physical examination, routine laboratory tests and calciotropic and thyroid hormone assay. Bone mineral turnover was evaluated by determining serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphate, urine hydroxyproline/creatinine and calcium/ creatinine ratio. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and Ward's triangle. No difference in bone mineral density or biochemical markers was found between patients and controls; bone density and turnover were significantly affected by menopausal status. No relationship between bone density or turnover values and L-thyroxine administration was found. A significant positive correlation was found between osteocalcin and the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients, but not in controls. Our study suggests that slightly suppressive L-thyroxine administration in nontoxic goitre can activate bone turnover but constitutes neither an actual risk factor for bone loss nor, consequently, for osteoporotic fractures. PMID:8770627

  10. Sundials in the shade: A study of women's persistence in the first year of a computer science program in a selective university

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Manco Powell

    2005-01-01

    Currently women are underrepresented in departments of computer science, making up approximately 18% of the undergraduate enrollment in selective universities. Most attrition in computer science occurs early in this major, in the freshman and sophomore years, and women drop out in disproportionately greater numbers than their male counterparts. Taking an ethnographic approach to investigating women's experiences and progress in the

  11. Disproportionation and electronic phase separation in parent manganite LaMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, A. S.

    2009-03-01

    Nominally pure undoped parent manganite LaMnO3 exhibits a puzzling behavior inconsistent with a simple picture of an A -type antiferromagnetic insulator (A-AFI) with a cooperative Jahn-Teller ordering. We do assign its anomalous properties to charge transfer (CT) instabilities and competition between insulating A-AFI phase and metalliclike dynamically disproportionated phase formally separated by a first-order phase transition at Tdisp=TJT?750K . The unconventional high-temperature phase is addressed to be a specific electron-hole (EH) Bose liquid (EHBL) rather than a simple “chemically” disproportionated La(Mn2+Mn4+)O3 phase. The phase does nucleate as a result of the CT instability and evolves from the self-trapped CT excitons or specific EH dimers, which seem to be a precursor of both insulating and metalliclike ferromagnetic phases observed in manganites. We arrive at highly frustrated system of triplet (eg2)A32g bosons moving in a lattice formed by hole Mn4+ centers. Starting with different experimental data we have reproduced a typical temperature dependence of the volume fraction of high-temperature mixed-valence EHBL phase. We argue that a slight nonisovalent substitution, photoirradiation, external pressure, or magnetic field gives rise to an electronic phase separation with a nucleation or an overgrowth of EH droplets. Such a scenario provides a comprehensive explanation of numerous puzzling properties observed in parent and nonisovalently doped manganite LaMnO3 including an intriguing manifestation of superconducting fluctuations.

  12. Anaerobic Chemolithotrophic Growth of the Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Strain MLMS-1 by Disproportionation of Monothioarsenate.

    PubMed

    Planer-Friedrich, B; Härtig, C; Lohmayer, R; Suess, E; McCann, S H; Oremland, R

    2015-06-01

    A novel chemolithotrophic metabolism based on a mixed arsenic-sulfur species has been discovered for the anaerobic deltaproteobacterium, strain MLMS-1, a haloalkaliphile isolated from Mono Lake, California, U.S. Strain MLMS-1 is the first reported obligate arsenate-respiring chemoautotroph which grows by coupling arsenate reduction to arsenite with the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. In that pathway the formation of a mixed arsenic-sulfur species was reported. That species was assumed to be monothioarsenite ([H2As(III)S(-II)O2](-)), formed as an intermediate by abiotic reaction of arsenite with sulfide. We now report that this species is monothioarsenate ([HAs(V)S(-II)O3](2-)) as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Monothioarsenate forms by abiotic reaction of arsenite with zerovalent sulfur. Monothioarsenate is kinetically stable under a wide range of pH and redox conditions. However, it was metabolized rapidly by strain MLMS-1 when incubated with arsenate. Incubations using monothioarsenate confirmed that strain MLMS-1 was able to grow (? = 0.017 h(-1)) on this substrate via a disproportionation reaction by oxidizing the thio-group-sulfur (S(-II)) to zerovalent sulfur or sulfate while concurrently reducing the central arsenic atom (As(V)) to arsenite. Monothioarsenate disproportionation could be widespread in nature beyond the already studied arsenic and sulfide rich hot springs and soda lakes where it was discovered. PMID:25941832

  13. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  14. Secondary Effects of Antipsychotics: Women at Greater Risk Than Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary V. Seeman; M. Parelman; B. Stoecker; A. Baker; D. Medeiros; D. Gaddy; D. S. Perrien; N. S. Akel; E. E. Dupont-Versteegden; R. A. Skinner; E. R. Siegel; A. Alberich-Bayarri; L. Marti-Bonmati; R. Sanz-Requena; E. Belloch; T MRI; Schizophr Bull

    2008-01-01

    Context: The health burden of antipsychotic medication is well known, but the disproportionate effect on women as compared with men is underappreciated. Objective: The goal of this article is preventive—to better inform clinicians so that the risks to women and to their offspring can be di- minished.Method:All PubMed sources in which the search term gender (or sex) was linked to

  15. Intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviors among Iranian women with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Rimaz, Shahnaz; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Back, Sudie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Abad, Masoumeh; Shamsalizadeh, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behaviors are serious and overlapping public health problems that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. Despite the fact that drug-using women experience extensive IPV, to date, no studies have investigated the association of IPV and risky sexual behaviors among drug-using women in Iran. Methods: Drug-using women (N =120) were recruited from a rehabilitation center in Tehran from March to October, 2009. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), a standardized questionnaire, was used to collect data regarding violence. We used t-test and logistic regression models to explore the relationship between IPV domains and specific sexual risk behavior outcomes using SPSS 21. Results: The means (sd) for CTS2 domains were as follows: negotiation 4.29 (1.55), psychological violence 2.55 (1.51), sexual violence 0.37 (1.00), physical abuse 1.17 (1.49), injury 2.18 (1.97), and the mean total score was 1.69 (0.96). We found significantly higher injury scores, but lower sexual abuse scores among women with sexually-transmitted infection (STI) compared to women without STI (p-values 0.030 and <0.0001, respectively). In addition, we found that psychological abuse was positively associated with STI (p-value 0.03) and increased condom use (p = 0.010), possibly mediated through an increased likelihood of having multiple partners. Conclusion: The findings revealed that in Iran drug-involved women experience high rates of IPV and that IPV is associated with increased risky sexual behavior. Implication: Preventive interventions for violence that are integrated within drug treatment programs, as well as harm reduction programs are highly recommended.

  16. Cation Ordering in Fe-bearing Silicate Perovskite (Bridgmanite) and its Role in Disproportionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A. S.; Caracas, R.; Asimow, P. D.; Harvey, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Previous theoretical studies have investigated the composition-dependence of the spin transition in Fe-bearing MgSiO3 perovskite, finding that the transition pressure is extremely sensitive to atomic configuration. Computational constraints limited these studies to supercell structures containing only one to a few iron atoms in a handful of configurations. Bengston (2008) handled this issue using special quasirandom structures, which approximate a randomized macroscopic sample. Umemoto (2008) considered a set of configurations in large supercells, finding that iron in perovskite prefers to cluster. Although these studies showed that the energetic differences between configurations can be as large as ~10 mHa (3000K thermal energy equivalent), none have yet attempted to fold the configuration-dependence into a thermodynamic ordering model. In this presentation, we report an adaptation of the cluster-site-approximation (Oates, 1999) that enables efficient calculation of order-dependent phase diagrams for perovskite, given a reasonable set of density functional theory calculations of modest supercell sizes. Recently, Zhang (2014) reported the occurrence of perovskite disproportionation in high P-T diamond anvil cell experiments. The studies discussed above found that intermediate iron compositions were unstable relative to endmembers, implying potential exsolution, but no experimental evidence for it existed at the time. Zhang (2014) showed that all Fe-bearing perovskite samples with 10% to 40% Fe/[Fe+Mg] underwent exsolution of a hexagonal iron-rich phase when the sample was compressed to 100 GPa prior to heating. This poses a significant apparent contradiction: most studies have found using progressive annealing that iron-bearing perovskite is stable up to the post-perovskite transition (e.g. Dorfman 2013), whereas Zhang (2014) showed that the wait-and-heat method consistently induces disproportionation. We discuss how this is a likely outcome of the ordering tendencies of perovskite and show how the development of iron-rich clusters tends to stabilize perovskite against disproportionation. Finally, we compare the different roles ordering might play under experimental conditions and deep within the Earth.

  17. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

  18. A critical test of the assumption that men prefer conformist women and women prefer nonconformist men.

    PubMed

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Wellauer, Richard; McIntyre, Jason C; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-06-01

    Five studies tested the common assumption that women prefer nonconformist men as romantic partners, whereas men prefer conformist women. Studies 1 and 2 showed that both men and women preferred nonconformist romantic partners, but women overestimated the extent to which men prefer conformist partners. In Study 3, participants ostensibly in a small-group interaction showed preferences for nonconformist opposite-sex targets, a pattern that was particularly evident when men evaluated women. Dating success was greater the more nonconformist the sample was (Study 4), and perceptions of nonconformity in an ex-partner were associated with greater love and attraction toward that partner (Study 5). On the minority of occasions in which effects were moderated by gender, it was in the reverse direction to the traditional wisdom: Conformity was more associated with dating success among men. The studies contradict the notion that men disproportionately prefer conformist women. PMID:25805768

  19. An untold story in labor health: Korean women workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Hyun-joo

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about labor health among Korean women workers, who have been left behind by the occupational safety and health institutions. In this article, we examine, from a gender perspective, the occupational safety and health (OSH) statistics, institutions, and the struggles of women workers, and discuss how to make a society where women workers become and stay healthy. The problems Korean women workers face have both universal and unique aspects. On the one hand, they tend to be exposed to "invisible hazards" and to disproportionately suffer from neo-liberal policies, as do women workers in other countries. On the other hand, Korean women workers are still positioned under the strong patriarchy found in pre-modern societies. The examples of struggle presented here come out of this condition; those struggles by women workers and support from concerned specialists have played an important role in overcoming patriarchy and protecting health rights for women workers. PMID:18184625

  20. Bismuth disproportionation in BaBiO3 studied by infrared and visible reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Ricardo P. S. M.; Gervais, François

    1995-11-01

    BaBiO3, the end member of the system (Ba,K)(Pb,Bi)O3, raises a number of problems that are interesting to study as a step towards the understanding of superconductivity in certain compounds of the series. Using infrared and visible reflectivity spectroscopy, the thermal evolution of the reflectance of a BaBiO3 single crystal is reported, analyzed, and compared to an oxygen-deficient sample. Oxygen effective charges are also evaluated. The results are discussed within the framework of possible bismuth disproportionation and its consequences in terms of bismuth-oxygen distances, crystal symmetry, oxygen breathing mode, charge density wave, opening of a gap at the Fermi energy, or polaron formation.

  1. Maltooligosaccharide disproportionation reaction: an intrinsic property of amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea.

    PubMed

    Albenne, Cécile; Skov, Lars K; Mirza, Osman; Gajhede, Michael; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali

    2002-09-11

    Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea (AS) is a remarkable transglycosidase of family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases that catalyses the synthesis of an amylose-like polymer from sucrose and is always described as a sucrose-specific enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the ability of pure AS to catalyse the disproportionation of maltooligosaccharides by cleaving the alpha-1,4 linkage at the non-reducing end of a maltooligosaccharide donor and transferring the glucosyl unit to the non-reducing end of another maltooligosaccharide acceptor. Surprisingly, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetraose are very poor glucosyl donors whereas longer maltooligosaccharides are even more efficient glucosyl donors than sucrose. At least five glucose units are required for efficient transglucosylation, suggesting the existence of strong binding subsites, far from the sucrose binding site, at position +4 and above. PMID:12220635

  2. Disproportionate Exposures in Environmental Justice and Other Populations: The Importance of Outliers

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We examined traditional environmental justice populations and other groups whose exposure to contaminants is often disproportionately high. Risk assessment methods may not identify these populations, particularly if they are spatially dispersed. We suggest using a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey approach to oversample minority communities and develop methods for assessing exposure at different distances from pollution sources; publishing arithmetic and geometric means and full distributions for minority populations; and paying particular attention to high-end exposures. Means may sufficiently characterize populations as a whole but are inadequate in identifying vulnerable groups and subgroups. The number of individuals above the 95th percentile of any distribution may be small and unrepresentative, but these outliers are the ones who need to be protected. PMID:21551384

  3. Medicaid program; disproportionate share hospital payments--uninsured definition. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This final rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social Security Act (the Act). Under this limitation, DSH payments to a hospital cannot exceed the uncompensated costs of furnishing hospital services by the hospital to individuals who are Medicaid-eligible or "have no health insurance (or other source of third party coverage) for the services furnished during the year.'' This rule provides that, in auditing DSH payments, the quoted test will be applied on a service-specific basis; so that the calculation of uncompensated care for purposes of the hospital-specific DSH limit will include the cost of each service furnished to an individual by that hospital for which the individual had no health insurance or other source of third party coverage. PMID:25470829

  4. Medicaid program; disproportionate share hospital payments--uninsured definition. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This final rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social Security Act (the Act). Under this limitation, DSH payments to a hospital cannot exceed the uncompensated costs of furnishing hospital services by the hospital to individuals who are Medicaid-eligible or "have no health insurance (or other source of third party coverage) for the services furnished during the year.'' This rule provides that, in auditing DSH payments, the quoted test will be applied on a service-specific basis; so that the calculation of uncompensated care for purposes of the hospital-specific DSH limit will include the cost of each service furnished to an individual by that hospital for which the individual had no health insurance or other source of third party coverage. PMID:25508456

  5. The disproportionate impact of environmental health threats on children of color

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, L. [Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Children receive greater exposures to environmental pollutants present in air, food, and water because they inhale or ingest more air, food, or water on a body-weight basis than adults do. Communities of color are disproportionately exposed in hazardous wastes, dioxin, and air pollution. Existing data demonstrate that children of color are the subgroup of the population most exposed to certain pollutants, including lead, air pollution, and pesticides. Government standards do not take into account children`s differential exposures or the cumulative nature of these exposures. Federal regulations fail to protect the most highly exposed and most sensitive subgroups of the population. More often than not this group is children of color. 13 refs.

  6. NO Disproportionation at a Mononuclear Site-Isolated Fe(2+) Center in Fe(2+)-MOF-5.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Carl K; Miller, Jeffrey T; Stoian, Sebastian A; Dinc?, Mircea

    2015-06-17

    The weak-field ligand environments at the metal nodes of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) mimic the electronic environment of metalloenzyme active sites, but little is known about the reactivity of MOF nodes toward small molecules of biological relevance. Here, we report that the ferrous ions in Fe(2+)-exchanged MOF-5 disproportionate nitric oxide to produce nitrous oxide and a ferric nitrito complex. Although mechanistic studies of N-N bond forming transformations often invoke a hyponitrite species, as in nitric oxide reductase and NOx reduction catalysis, little is known about this intermediate in its monoanionic state. Together with the first report of N-N coupling between NO molecules in a MOF, we present evidence for a species that is consistent with a ferric hyponitrite radical, whose isolation is enabled by the spatial constraints of the MOF matrix. PMID:25988850

  7. Noble-gas-induced disproportionation reactions: facile superoxo-to-peroxo conversion on chromium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanying; Su, Jing; Gong, Yu; Li, Jun; Zhou, Mingfei

    2008-09-18

    Laser-evaporated chromium atoms are shown to insert into dioxygen to form CrO 2 in solid argon. Annealing allows diffusion and reactions to form (eta (2)-O 2) 2CrO 2, which is characterized as [(O 2 (-)) 2(CrO 2) (2+)], a side-on bonded disuperoxo-chromium dioxide complex. The (eta (2)-O 2) 2CrO 2 complex further reacts with xenon atom doped in solid argon to give (eta (1)-OO)(eta (2)-O 2)CrO 2(Xe), which can be regarded as an O 2 molecule weakly interacting with [(O 2) (2-)(CrO 2) (2+)Xe], a side-on bonded peroxo-chromium dioxide-xenon complex. The results indicate surprisingly that xenon atom induces a disproportionation reaction from superoxo to peroxo and dioxygen complex. PMID:18729425

  8. Organic reactions catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide: Dehydration, amination, and disproportionation of alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zuolin; Espenson, J.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-01-12

    Methylrhenium trioxide (MTO) is the first transition metal complex in trace quantity to catalyze the direct formation of ethers from alcohols. The reactions are independent of the solvents used: benzene, toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, acetone, and in the alcohols themselves. Aromatic alcohols gave better yields than aliphatic. Reactions between two different alcohols could also be used to prepare unsymmetric ethers, the best yields being obtained when one of the alcohols is aromatic alcohols proceeding in better yield. When primary (secondary) amines were used as the limiting reagent, direct amination of alcohols catalyzed by MTO gave good yields of the expected secondary (tertiary) amines at room temperature. Disproportionation of alcohols to alkanes and carbonyl compounds was also observed for aromatic alcohols in the presence of MTO. On the basis of the results of this investigation and a comparison with the interaction between MTO and water, a concerted process and a mechanism involving carbocation intermediates have been suggested. 5 tabs.

  9. Negotiating motherhood and work: a typology of role identity associations among low-income, urban women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolin Hagelskamp; Diane Hughes; Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Ajay Chaudry

    2011-01-01

    Increasing international migration and an expanding low-wage economy call for continuous research into the work–family experiences of low-income and ethnic minority women. Most research highlights that these women are disproportionately exposed to challenging employment conditions while lacking the supports working and middle-class women rely on. To better capture variation in work–family decisions and well-being under significant structural and social constraints,

  10. Women's Center Women's Center

    E-print Network

    Malls, Oct. 20-24, 8:00am-5:00pm Body Positive James River Room, Webb Center, 12:30pm-1:30 pm Love Your Activists James River Room, Webb Center, 12:30pm-1:30pm December Women's Climb Night - Winter HolidayWomen's Center Fall 2014 Women's Center Fall 2014 August Women's Equality Day Front Lobby, Webb

  11. Exploring the social and interpersonal experiences of South Asian women with a diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rutter, S J; Kiemle, G

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) negatively impacts life quality, disproportionately affecting women and UK ethnic minorities. The study aimed to explore how UK South Asian women with SLE make sense of their social and interpersonal experiences, within the context of their ethnicity and perceived cultural influences. A qualitative design was employed to collect data from a homogenous sample of six South Asian women with SLE. Semi-structured interviews elicited participants' experiences of living with SLE and data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Master themes were (1) 'SLE: Complexities and Ironies', (2) 'The Power of SLE', (3) 'A Sense of Personal Responsibility and Accountability', (4) 'Essential Relationships: Qualities and Consequences' and (5) 'Struggling in Public View'. Findings revealed that illness, function and emotion were experienced as interrelated, and psychosocial issues were a powerful feature in SLE illness processes. Body image concerns, difficulties maintaining roles and the perceived views of others, triggered embarrassment and withdrawal, negatively influencing social function and relationships. Interestingly, explicit references to ethnicity and culture were minimal, suggesting that for these women, the key features of experience tended to reflect those of other SLE groups. These findings call for an integrated, biopsychosocial and multidisciplinary approach to health care provision in this area. PMID:25307703

  12. Perspectives on Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes After Gestational Diabetes: A Qualitative Study of Hispanic, African-American and White Women.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joyce W; Foster, Krys E; Pumarino, Javiera; Ackermann, Ronald T; Peaceman, Alan M; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2015-07-01

    Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) have a fivefold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Furthermore, Hispanic and African-American women are disproportionately affected by GDM, but their views on prevention of T2DM after gestational diabetes are largely unknown. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 women (8 Hispanic, 8 African-American, 7 non-Hispanic White) from two academic clinics in Chicago, IL. Interview questions elicited perspectives on prevention of T2DM; the interview protocol was developed based on the Health Belief Model. Two investigators applied template analysis to identify emergent themes. Women conceptualized risk for T2DM based on family history, health behaviors, and personal history of GDM. A subgroup of women expressed uncertainty about how GDM influences risk for T2DM. Women who described a strong link between GDM and T2DM often viewed the diagnosis as a cue to action for behavior change. T2DM was widely viewed as a severe condition, and desire to avoid T2DM was an important motivator for behavior change. Children represented both a key motivator and critical barrier to behavior change. Women viewed preventive care as important to alert them to potential health concerns. Identified themes were congruent across racial/ethnic groups. Diagnosis with GDM presents a potent opportunity for engaging women in behavior change. To fully harness the potential influence of this diagnosis, healthcare providers should more clearly link the diagnosis of GDM with risk for future T2DM, leverage women's focus on their children to motivate behavior change, and provide support with behavior change during healthcare visits in the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:25421329

  13. Trade Liberalisation and Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

  14. Soy Protein Intake by Perimenopausal Women Does Not Affect Circulating Lipids and Lipoproteins or Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Factors1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah B. Dent; Charles T. Peterson; Larry D. Brace; James H. Swain; Manju B. Reddy; Kathy B. Hanson; Jennifer G. Robinson; D. Lee Alekel

    Soy protein favorably alters serum lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic individuals, thereby reducing cardiovascular disease risk. The primary purpose was to determine the effect of soy protein (40 g\\/d) on circulating lipids and lipoproteins or coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic perimenopausal women. We also determined the contribution of coagulation and fibrinolytic and other factors (e.g., body

  15. Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Lutz

    Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

  16. Interaction between muscle temperature and contraction velocity affects mechanical efficiency during moderate-intensity cycling exercise in young and older women.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martin P; Ferguson, Richard A

    2009-09-01

    The effect of elevated muscle temperature on mechanical efficiency was investigated during exercise at different pedal frequencies in young and older women. Eight young (24 +/- 3 yr) and eight older (70 +/- 4 yr) women performed 6-min periods of cycling at 75% ventilatory threshold at pedal frequencies of 45, 60, 75, and 90 rpm under control and passively elevated local muscle temperature conditions. Mechanical efficiency was calculated from the ratio of energy turnover (pulmonary O(2) uptake) and mechanical power output. Overall, elevating muscle temperature increased (P < 0.05) mechanical efficiency in young (32.0 +/- 3.1 to 34.0 +/- 5.5%) and decreased (P < 0.05) efficiency in older women (30.2 +/- 5.6 to 27.9 +/- 4.1%). The different effect of elevated muscle temperature in young and older women reflects a shift in the efficiency-velocity relationship of skeletal muscle. These effects may be due to differences in recruitment patterns, as well as sarcopenic and fiber-type changes with age. PMID:19589952

  17. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism. PMID:25794197

  18. Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies Among African American Women Attending an Urban STI Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Heidi E; McCaul, Mary E; Norris, Jeanette; Valliant, Julia D; Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Chander, Geetanjali

    2015-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for HIV/STI acquisition. Sex-related alcohol expectancies (SRAEs) may partially account for alcohol-related risky sexual behaviors. Using qualitative interviews we explored the link between alcohol use and risky sex among 20 African American women attending an STI clinic who had consumed four or more alcoholic drinks per drinking day (binge drinking) and/or reported vaginal or anal sex while under the influence of alcohol. Four SRAEs emerged, which we named drink for sexual desire, drink for sexual power, drink for sexual excuse, and drink for anal sex. While the desire SRAE has been documented, this study identified three additional SRAEs not currently assessed by expectancy questionnaires. These SRAEs may contribute to high-risk sex when under the influence of alcohol and suggests the importance of developing integrated alcohol-sexual risk reduction interventions for high-risk women. PMID:25110958

  19. Concerns about the Disproportionate Use of Economic Research in the FCC'S Media Ownership Studies from 2002–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Layne Blevins; Duncan H. Brown

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the studies used by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in its media ownership proceedings from 2002–2007 found a disproportionate use of economic research to support the agency's rule changes. The use of this research in policymaking is important because the FCC's reliance on economic literature may have helped justify a “procedural” definition of what constitutes the

  20. Disproportionate Minority Representation in Suspension and Expulsion in Minnesota Public Schools: A Report from the Minnesota Department of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anfinson, Allison; Autumn, Stephanie; Lehr, Cammy; Riestenberg, Nancy; Scullin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The suspension of any student is problematic for students from all groups. Suspension and expulsion as interventions are inadequate to change behavior unless they are paired with teaching replacement behaviors. However, African American/Black, American Indian and Hispanic students are suspended and expelled at rates that are disproportionate to…

  1. Two-Dimensional Charge Disproportionation of the Unusual High Valence State Fe(4+) in a Layered Double Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Yoshiteru; Ichikawa, Noriya; Saito, Takashi; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Attfield, J Paul; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-17

    The crystal and magnetic structures of charge-disproportionated Ca2FeMnO6 were analyzed by neutron powder diffraction. Ca2FeMnO6 is a layered double perovskite oxide with a two-dimensional arrangement of Mn(4+) and unusual high valence Fe(4+) at room temperature. When cooled, the compound shows charge disproportionation followed by magnetic transition. Around 200 K, the Fe(4+) shows the charge disproportionation to Fe(3+) and Fe(5+), which are ordered in a checkerboard pattern in the two-dimensional FeO6 octahedral layers. The magnetic transition occurs at 95 K, which is much lower than the charge disproportionation temperature. The magnetic structure is commensurate but noncollinear, and the antiferromagnetic coupling of Fe(3+) and Fe(5+) spins in the FeO6 octahedral layers gives the ferrimagnetic moments. The unique magnetic structure is described as a result of two-dimensional localization of the ligand holes with effective spins. PMID:26018730

  2. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy relationships. PMID:25226418

  3. Sexual Health (Women)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormonal changes affect blood glucose may vary depending on the individual. Many women, however, notice that their blood ... of osteoporosis and vaginitis and alleviate hot flashes. On the other hand, it can increase the risk of ...

  4. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Español In the United States, ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...

  5. Women in Islam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-07-02

    Students explore basic beliefs and practices of Islam and examine the different views of women's roles in Islam and modern American society in this lesson. They look closely at two issues that affect American Muslims: hijab and prayer.

  6. Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Miccheli, Alfredo; Praticò, Giulia; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Capursi, Teresa; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation to a mother during the perinatal period can have a positive impact on the breast milk composition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, during late pregnancy and lactation, on breast milk levels of beneficial bacteria and some functional components (oligosaccharides and lactoferrin) potentially able to have a positive influence on the microbiota. Breast milk microbiota was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took daily either the probiotic (n=33) or a placebo (n=33). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that the amounts of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the colostrum and mature milk of the mothers taking VSL#3 in comparison to those taking placebo. The analysis of bacterial strains and species present in breast milk of VSL#3 supplemented mothers indicated that the administered probiotic microorganisms did not pass from maternal gut to mammary gland. In women with vaginal delivery, significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were detected in colostrum and mature milk of probiotic treated group in comparison to placebo group, whereas no significant difference was observed between groups in women who had caesarean section, neither in colostrum nor in mature milk. Milk levels of oligosaccharides and lactoferrin were similar in placebo and probiotic supplemented groups at all timepoints and regardless of the mode of delivery. Our results indicate a probiotic-dependent modulation of breast milk microbiota in vaginally delivering women, possibly exerted through a systemic effect. PMID:25836922

  7. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Balin, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet; Kobat, M. Ali; Baydas, Adil

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1) and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2) were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52 ± 0.18?ng/mL and 0.78 ± 0.13, resp., P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (r = ?0.645, P < 0.001). The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (r = ?0.683, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age. PMID:22619487

  8. Disproportionation in Li-O{sub 2} Batteries Based on a Large Surface Area Carbon Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, D.; Wang, H.-H.; Yang, J.; Lau, K. C.; Li, K.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division) [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2013-10-16

    In this paper we report on a kinetics study of the discharge process and its relationship to the charge overpotential in a Li-O{sub 2} cell for large surface area cathode material. The kinetics study reveals evidence for a first-order disproportionation reaction during discharge from an oxygen-rich Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component with superoxide-like character to a Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component. The oxygen-rich superoxide-like component has a much smaller potential during charge (3.2-3.5 V) than the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component (similar to 4.2 V). The formation of the superoxide-like component is likely due to the porosity of the activated carbon used in the Li-O{sub 2} cell cathode that provides a good environment for growth during discharge. The discharge product containing these two components is characterized by toroids, which are assemblies of nanoparticles. The morphologic growth and decomposition process of the toroids during the reversible discharge/charge process was observed by scanning electron microscopy and is consistent with the presence of the two components in the discharge product. The results of this study provide new insight into how growth conditions control the nature of discharge product, which can be used to achieve improved performance in Li-O{sub 2} cell.

  9. Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment Reductions May Threaten Financial Stability of Safety-Net Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Neuhausen, Katherine; Davis, Anna C.; Needleman, Jack; Brook, Robert H.; Zingmond, David; Roby, Dylan H.

    2014-01-01

    Safety-net hospitals rely on Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to help cover uncompensated care costs and underpayments by Medicaid (known as Medicaid shortfalls). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) anticipates that insurance expansions will increase safety-net hospitals’ revenues, and reduces DSH payments accordingly. We examined the impact of the ACA’s Medicaid DSH reductions on California public hospitals’ financial stability by estimating how total DSH costs (uncompensated care costs and Medicaid shortfalls) will change as a result of insurance expansions and the offsetting DSH reductions. Decreases in uncompensated care costs due to the ACA insurance expansion may not match the ACA’s DSH reductions because of the high number of residually uninsured patients, low Medicaid reimbursement, and medical cost inflation. Taking these three factors into account, we estimate that California public hospitals’ total DSH costs will increase from $2.044 billion in 2010 to $2.363 billion in 2019, with unmet DSH costs of $1.381 billion to $1.537 billion. PMID:24889948

  10. Laser-induced charge-disproportionated metallic state in LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Karolak, M.; Trabant, C.; Holldack, K.; Föhlisch, A.; Kummer, K.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Spiwek, M.; Belozerov, A.; Poteryaev, A.; Lichtenstein, A.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the origin of the spin transition in LaCoO3 is one of the long-standing aims in condensed matter physics. Aside from its fundamental interest, a detailed description of this crossover will have a direct impact on the interpretation of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) and the properties of the high-temperature metallic phase in this compound, which has shown to have important applications in environmentally friendly energy production. To date, the spin transition has been investigated mainly as a function of temperature in thermal equilibrium. These results have hinted at dynamical effects. In this paper, we have investigated the SMT by means of pump-probe soft x-ray reflectivity experiments at the O K , Co L , and La M edges and theoretical calculations within a DFT++ formalism. The results point towards a laser-induced metallization in which the optical transitions stabilize a metallic state with high-spin configuration and increased charge disproportionation.

  11. Electron-doped organics: Charge-disproportionate insulators and Hubbard-Fröhlich metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghavi, S. Shahab; Fabrizio, Michele; Qin, Tao; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-09-01

    Several examples of metallic electron-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecular crystals have recently been experimentally proposed. Some of them have superconducting components, but most other details are still unknown beginning with structure and the nature of metallicity. We carried out ab initio density functional calculations for La-Phenanthrene (La-PA), here meant to represent a generic case of three-electron doping, to investigate structure and properties of a conceptually simple case. To our surprise we found first of all that the lowest energy state is not metallic but band insulating, with a disproportionation of two inequivalent PA molecular ions and a low P1 symmetry, questioning the common assumption that three electrons will automatically metallize a PAH crystal. Our best metallic structure is metastable and slightly higher in energy, and retains equivalent PA ions and a higher P21 symmetry—the same generally claimed for metallic PAHs. We show that a “dimerizing” periodic distortion opens very effectively a gap in place of a symmetry related degeneracy of all P21 structures near the Fermi level, foreshadowing a possible role of that special intermolecular phonon in superconductivity of metallic PAHs. A Hubbard-Fröhlich model describing that situation is formulated for future studies.

  12. Disproportionation of thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires as a result of the annealing process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmin; Berger, Andreas; Cagnon, Laurent; Gösele, Ulrich; Nielsch, Kornelius; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2010-12-14

    P-type thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires were fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. Subsequently, the nanowires were annealed at 423, 523 and 673 K in an inert atmosphere for 4 h. With increasing temperature, it was observed that the Te compound incongruently sublimates due to its high vapor pressure, leading to disproportionation (from Bi(2)Te(3) to Bi(4)Te(3)via Bi(4)Te(5)). The crystalline structure of the nanowires was then investigated using XRD and SAED, with nanowire compositions investigated using an EDX attached to a TEM. The crystallinity of the nanowires was found to be enhanced with increased annealing temperature, and nanowires annealed at 673 K were stably maintained in the Bi(4)Te(3) phase. Additionally, the Seebeck coefficient was determined and the thermopower of nanowires annealed at a temperature of 423 K was shown to be slightly enhanced. Significantly suppressed Seebeck values for annealing temperatures of 523 K and 673 K were also observed. PMID:21046022

  13. Disproportionation, dopant incorporation, and defect clustering in Perovskite-structured NdCoO3.

    PubMed

    Tealdi, Cristina; Malavasi, Lorenzo; Fisher, Craig A J; Islam, M Saiful

    2006-03-23

    Atomistic simulation techniques are used to examine the defect chemistry of perovskite-structured NdCoO(3), a material whose electrochemical properties make it attractive for use in heterogeneous oxidation catalysis, as well as in gas sensors and mixed ionic/electronic conductors. In practice, dopants are added to NdCoO(3) to obtain the desired properties, such as high electrical conductivity and rapid gas adsorption/desorption; thus, a wide range of dopants substituted on both Nd and Co sites are examined. Charge compensation for aliovalent dopants is predicted to occur via formation of oxide ion vacancies; these are understood to be key sites with respect to catalytic and sensor activity. Low activation energies calculated for oxide ion migration are consistent with high oxygen mobilities measured experimentally. Sr and Ca, which occupy Nd sites in the lattice, are found to be the most soluble of the alkaline earth metals, in agreement with experiment. These two dopant ions also have the weakest binding energies for dopant-vacancy cluster formation. Mechanisms of electronic defect formation, critical to the overall transport properties of the material, are also considered. The results suggest that disproportionation of the Co ion to form small polaron species is the most favorable intrinsic defect process. In doped compounds, formation of electronic holes via uptake of oxygen at vacant sites is found to be a low energy process. PMID:16539474

  14. A Theoretical Study of the Qualitative Reaction Mechanism for the Homogeneous Disproportionation of Pentavalent Uranyl Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wander, Matthew C.; Shuford, Kevin L.

    2012-02-12

    There is significant interest in understanding the oxidation and reduction of aqueous uranium ions. In the literature, there is considerable variation in the results of attempts to reduce uranium depending on very small differences in reducing species, pH, spectator ions, mineral substrates, and other factors. Of particular curiosity is the fact that U(V) can be stabilized in the lab but is almost never found in the environment. In order to better understand these two phenomena, a direct computational study of homogenous, aqueous U(V) disproportionation was undertaken. Using a combination of Marcus Theory with Hartree– Fock and MP2 calculations, the rate constant of the electron-transfer reaction was calculated. Under the conditions studied, the electron-transfer reaction is slow (k observed ~10 -1 M-1 s-1). This reduced rate is a result of a variety of factors: the +1 charge of the reactants, the large encounter complex distance, and the electronic reorganization energies associated with the proton transfers. Excluding the energy from the coupled proton transfers, all of the remaining factors could be eliminated by small alterations of the uranium’s environment.

  15. Women in hospital medicine in the United Kingdom: glass ceiling, preference, prejudice or cohort effect?

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I; Sproston, K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess from official statistics whether there is evidence that the careers of women doctors in hospitals do not progress in the same way as those of men.?DESIGN—The proportions of female hospital doctors overall (1963-96), and in the specialties of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, pathology, radiology/radiotherapy, anaesthetics and psychiatry (1974-1996) were examined. Additionally data were examined on career preferences and intentions from pre-registration house officers, final year medical students, and medical school applicants (1966-1991).?ANALYSIS—Data were analysed according to cohort of entry to medical school to assess the extent of disproportionate promotion.?RESULTS—The proportion of women in hospital career posts was largely explained by the rapidly increasing proportion of women entering medical school during the past three decades. In general there was little evidence for disproportionate promotion of women in hospital careers, although in surgery, hospital medicine and obstetrics and gynaecology, fewer women seemed to progress beyond the SHO grade, and in anaesthetics there were deficits of women at each career stage. Analyses of career preferences and intentions suggest that disproportionate promotion cannot readily be explained as differential choice by women.?CONCLUSIONS—Although there is no evidence as such of a "glass ceiling" for women doctors in hospital careers, and the current paucity of women consultants primarily reflects historical trends in the numbers of women entering medical school, there is evidence in some cases of disproportionate promotion that is best interpreted as direct or indirect discrimination.?? PMID:10692956

  16. Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO{sub 2}/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shengkai [Micorowave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Liu Honggang [Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-08-06

    GeO disproportionation into GeO{sub 2} and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO {yields} GeO{sub 2} + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 {+-} 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO{sub 2}/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO{sub 2} is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

  17. Immunogenicity and Safety of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in HIV-1–Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Kang, Minhee; Cespedes, Michelle S.; Umbleja, Triin; Godfrey, Catherine; Allen, Reena T.; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Palefsky, Joel M.; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer Y.; Saah, Alfred; Aberg, Judith A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are disproportionately affected by human papillomavirus (HPV)–related anogenital disease, particularly with increased immunosuppression. AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5240 was a trial of 319 HIV-infected women in the United States, Brazil, and South Africa to determine immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in 3 strata based on screening CD4 count: >350 (stratum A), 201–350 (stratum B), and ?200 cells/µL (stratum C). Methods.?Safety and serostatus of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were examined. HPV serological testing was performed using competitive Luminex immunoassay (HPV-4 cLIA). HPV type-specific seroconversion analysis was done for participants who were seronegative for the given type at baseline. Results.?Median age of patients was 36 years; 11% were white, 56% black, and 31% Hispanic. Median CD4 count was 310 cells/µL, and 40% had undetectable HIV-1 load. No safety issues were identified. Seroconversion proportions among women at week 28 for HPV types 6, 11,16, and 18 were 96%, 98%, 99%, and 91%, respectively, for stratum A; 100%, 98%, 98%, and 85%, respectively, for stratum B, and 84%, 92%, 93%, and 75%, respectively, for stratum C. Conclusions.?The quadrivalent HPV vaccine targeted at types 6, 11, 16, and 18 was safe and immunogenic in HIV-infected women aged 13–45 years. Women with HIV RNA load >10 000 copies/mL and/or CD4 count <200 cells/µL had lower rates of seroconversion rates. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00604175. PMID:24723284

  18. Coordinated public health initiatives to address violence against women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Mary Ann; James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health care settings and partner with domestic violence programs, effects of early IPV intervention, and models for taking interventions to scale. PMID:25549182

  19. The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor…

  20. Flibanserin, a drug intended for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women, affects spontaneous motor activity and brain neurochemistry in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Ferger; Makoto Shimasaki; Angelo Ceci; Carina Ittrich; Kelly A. Allers; Bernd Sommer

    2010-01-01

    Flibanserin, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, is being developed for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in pre-menopausal women.\\u000a Here, we investigated the effects of acute administration of flibanserin (15 and 45 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (1 mg\\/kg, i.p.) on neurotransmitter levels in brain areas of female rats. Specifically, levels\\u000a of dopamine

  1. SDSU General Catalog 2010-2011 455 Women's Studies

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    SDSU General Catalog 2010-2011 455 WMNST Women's Studies In the College of Arts and Letters OFFICE in women's studies. Major in women's studies. Minor in women's studies. The Major Women's studies explores are affected by society's values, traditions, and institutions. SDSU has offered courses in women's studies

  2. 1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies

  3. Endometrial Polyps in Women Affected by Levothyroxine-Treated Hypothyroidism—Histological Features, Immunohistochemical Findings, and Possible Explanation of Etiopathogenic Mechanism: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Saccardi, Carlo; Gizzo, Salvatore; Ludwig, Kathrin; Guido, Maria; Scarton, Mara; Gangemi, Michele; Tinelli, Raffaele; Litta, Pietro Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible overexpression of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone (PRs) receptors both in EPs glandular and stromal cells in postmenopausal women with levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism in comparison to EPs detected in women with physiological thyroid hormone levels. During the study period (January-February 2013) 22 patients were eligible (12 treated, 10 controls). The two groups were homogenous for general, EPs sonographic and hysteroscopic features. None of the cases of atypia was found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the two groups were similar for ERs and PRs intensity rates in EPs glandular cells despite a trend of ERs percentage expression more than 60% in 2/3 of treated patients versus 1/3 of controls. In stromal EPs components, ERs intensity was high positive in 10 (83,3%) treated cases while it was high positive in 1 control (10%). Percentage of ERs stromal expression showed a different trend between the two groups despite a borderline statistical significance. Our hypothesis is based on a possible double action of hypothyroidism and thyroxine intake: the subclinical TSH increased levels and its possible circadian oscillation could stimulate the endometrial TSHRs (increasing type 2 DIO activity); the circulating levels of exogenous thyroxine could be locally metabolized in active form by type 2 DIO stimulating ERs. PMID:24058909

  4. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-03-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  5. Diabetes in Canadian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Catherine; Booth, Gillian L

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health condition affecting 4.8% of Canadian adults ? 20 years of age. The prevalence increases with age. According to the National Diabetes Surveillance System (NDSS) (1998–1999), approximately 12% of Canadians aged 60–74 years are affected. One-third of cases may remain undiagnosed. The projected increase in DM prevalence largely results from rising rates of obesity and inactivity. Key Findings DM in Canada appears to be more common among men than women. However, among Aboriginal Canadians, two-thirds of affected individuals are women. Although obesity is more prevalent among men than women (35% vs. 27%), the DM risk associated with obesity is greater for women. Socio-economic status is inversely related to DM prevalence but the income-related disparities are greater among women. Polycystic ovarian syndrome affects 5–7% of reproductive-aged women and doubles their risk for DM. Women with gestational diabetes frequently develop DM over the next 10 years. Data Gaps and Recommendations Studies of at risk ethnic/racial groups and women with gestational diabetes are needed. Age and culturally sensitive programs need to be developed and evaluated. Studies of low-income diabetic women are required before determining potential interventions. Lifestyle programs in schools and workplaces are needed to promote well-being and combat obesity/inactivity, together with lobbying of the food industry for needed changes. High depression rates among diabetic women influence self-care ability and health care expenditures. Health professionals need further training in the use of effective counseling skills that will assist people with DM to make and maintain difficult behavioural changes. PMID:15345079

  6. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  7. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zheng, Doug; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1,more »0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  8. Alcohol Abuse, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women in Moshi Urban District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779

  9. Magnetic and spin effects in recombination and disproportionation of radicals generated under photolysis of deoxybenzoins in micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, V. F.; Shkrob, I. A.; Step, E. N.; Buchachenko, A. L.

    1989-08-01

    The photolysis of optically active ketone PhCOCH (CH 3)Ph is accompanied by racemization with the loss of optical activity being magnetically sensitive. The probabilities of radical pair recombination and disproportionation as function of external magneticfield and hyperfine interaction have been found. The theoretical treatment within the frame of the Liouville equation for restricted diffusion has been developed. Numerical calculations show that the relaxation contribution to intersystem crossing is rather essential.

  10. Ni–Pt\\/H–Y Zeolite Catalysts for Disproportionation of Toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Geetha Bhavani; D. Karthekayen; A. Sreenivasa Rao; N. Lingappan

    2005-01-01

    Ni–Pt\\/H–Y zeolite catalysts with different Ni contents were prepared and applied to the disproportionation of toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene in the temperature range 250–400 °C. The line broadening XRD analysis indicates that the increasing Ni addition decreases the crystallinity of zeolites. ESCA studies show the complete reduction of Ni species up to 0.3 wt.% Ni addition over 0.1 wt.% Pt\\/H-Y and further

  11. Elemental Sulfur and Thiosulfate Disproportionation by Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov., a New Anaerobic Bacterium Isolated from Marine Surface Sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAI FINSTER; WERNER LIESACK; BO THAMDRUP

    A mesophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium, strain SB164P1, was enriched and isolated from oxidized marine surface sediment with elemental sulfur as the sole energy substrate in the presence of ferrihydrite. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Growth was observed exclusively in the presence of a hydrogen sulfide scavenger, e.g., ferrihydrite. In the absence of a scavenger, sulfide and

  12. Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Use in Urban Women From a Title X–Supported Boston Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Ricciotti, Hope A.; Dodge, Laura E.; Ramirez, Christina I.; Barnes, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended and adolescent pregnancy disproportionately affects minority populations, but the effect of age, race and ethnicity on the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has not been well studied. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to examine LARC use over a 5-year period among women receiving care at a Boston community health center. Methods Retrospective cohort study of LARC method use among black, Hispanic, and white women receiving care at the Dimock Center from 2006 to 2010. Results This study included 276 women (60.1% black, 18.5% Hispanic, and 9.1% white). LARC was not used as a first-line method in the majority (96.0%), regardless of age, race, and ethnicity; yet nearly half identified a long-acting contraceptive as their method of choice. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study reveal opportunities to reduce unintended pregnancy through increased LARC use, which may be accomplished by provider and patient education. PMID:25301380

  13. The Political Economy of Violence against Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqui True

    Violence against women is a major problem in all countries, affecting women in every socio-economic group and at every life stage. Nowhere in the world do women share equal social and economic rights with men or the same access as men to productive resources. Economic globalization and development are creating new challenges for women's rights as well as some new

  14. The Disproportionate and Potentially Negative Influence of Research Universities on the Quality of Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is a large and growing body of research indicating that post-secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is failing to prepare citizens for the 21st century economy. Introductory STEM courses are vital for preparing science majors for their fields of study and are the only exposure to science many college students will receive, but the quality of teaching in these courses is often not informed by research on teaching and learning. Research universities play an especially prominent role in the design of introductory courses. While research and doctoral universities account for only about 6% of all higher education institutions, they confer 32 per cent of the baccalaureate degrees, and 56 per cent of the baccalaureates earned by recent recipients of science and engineering doctorates. By assuming that larger introductory classes occur at research institutions one can estimate that a dominant number of students receiving introductory instruction in the geosciences are probably occurring at research institutions. Moreover, research universities produce the majority of tenure-track faculty who will later teach at four-year colleges, so the role of research institutions in the influence of introductory course design is expected to be disproportionately large. While introductory courses at research universities play a influential role in how such courses are designed, the teaching of introductory courses is too often viewed as an undesirable assignment for instructors at those institutions. The effort seems unrewarding with incentives for improving teaching at research institutions perceived as modest at best, if not negative. It is commonly perceived that teaching introductory courses will decrease opportunities for teaching higher-level courses to graduate students and/or to conduct research. Furthermore, even for those interested in improving their pedagogical methods, current approaches to professional development are generally difficult to scale and/or costly to institutions and outside instructors' normal workflow. This presentation reports on the results of surveys of research university instructors in an attempt to quantify the state of the introductory course. The surveys attempt to identify common barriers to improvement. Based on these surveys strategies for how to best implement systemic change in introductory courses at research universities are presented in the hope of stimulating discussion and a call to action.

  15. Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare taxa in time series from a wide variety of ecosystems and discovered that not only were conditionally rare taxa present in all of the examples, but they also contributed disproportionately to temporal changes in diversity when they were most abundant. This result indicates an important and general role for rare microbial taxa within their communities. PMID:25028427

  16. Isotopic disproportionation during hydrogen isotopic analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nair, Sreejesh; Geilmann, Heike; Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Gehre, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Brand, Willi A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale High-precision hydrogen isotope ratio analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic materials using high-temperature conversion (HTC) techniques has proven troublesome in the past. Formation of reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) has been suspected as a possible cause of incomplete H2 yield and hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Methods The classical HTC reactor setup and a modified version including elemental chromium, both operated at temperatures in excess of 1400 °C, have been compared using a selection of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds, including caffeine. A focus of the experiments was to avoid or suppress hydrogen cyanide (HCN) formation and to reach quantitative H2 yields. The technique also was optimized to provide acceptable sample throughput. Results The classical HTC reaction of a number of selected compounds exhibited H2 yields from 60 to 90 %. Yields close to 100 % were measured for the experiments with the chromium-enhanced reactor. The ?2H values also were substantially different between the two types of experiments. For the majority of the compounds studied, a highly significant relationship was observed between the amount of missing H2and the number of nitrogen atoms in the molecules, suggesting the pyrolytic formation of HCN as a byproduct. A similar linear relationship was found between the amount of missing H2 and the observed hydrogen isotopic result, reflecting isotopic fractionation. Conclusions The classical HTC technique to produce H2 from organic materials using high temperatures in the presence of glassy carbon is not suitable for nitrogen-bearing compounds. Adding chromium to the reaction zone improves the yield to 100 % in most cases. The initial formation of HCN is accompanied by a strong hydrogen isotope effect, with the observed hydrogen isotope results on H2 being substantially shifted to more negative ?2H values. The reaction can be understood as an initial disproportionation leading to H2 and HCN with the HCN-hydrogen systematically enriched in 2H by more than 50 ‰. In the reaction of HCN with chromium, H2 and chromium-containing solid residues are formed quantitatively.

  17. Self-harm history predicts resistance to inpatient treatment of body shape aversion in women with eating disorders: The role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David

    2015-06-01

    Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n = 2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n = 845), bulimia nervosa (n = 565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n = 651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:25868550

  18. Aspirin-induced increase in intestinal paracellular permeability does not affect the levels of LPS in venous blood of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2015-07-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, also referred to as endotoxin, in the circulation may induce a pro-inflammatory immune response that leads to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent data indicate that high-fat meals may elevate circulating levels of LPS. However, it is currently unclear how the LPS transits from the gut lumen to the general circulation. We determined whether aspirin-induced damage of the small intestinal mucosa, evidenced by an increase in the paracellular permeability, allows greater transit of LPS into the systemic circulation. The 3-h cumulative excretion of lactulose was significantly increased after the consumption of aspirin solution relative to that after the consumption of an equal volume of water in 15 healthy women (median after aspirin 0.09% of dose vs. median after water 0.03% of dose; P?=?0.004). Dosage with aspirin also significantly increased the lactulose : mannitol ratio (median after aspirin 0.014 vs. median after water 0.005; P?=?0.017). However, serum LPS levels after the consumption of the aspirin solution were not significantly different from those after consumption of the control (plain water). Further, there was no correlation between body fat content and circulating levels of LPS. PMID:25398227

  19. Contribution of three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy for women affected by bulky stage II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the outcome and dose distribution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by helical tomotherapy in women treated for large supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin’s disease. Material and methods A total of 13 patients received adjuvant radiation at a dose of 30 Gy to the initially involved sites with a boost of 6 Gy to those areas suspected of harboring residual disease on the simulation CT scan. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months, the two-year progression-free survival was 91.6%, and the 2- and 3-year overall survivals were 100%. We did not report any heart or lung acute side effects. The conformity index of PTV (Planning Target Volume) was better for IMRT than for 3D-CRT (p=0.001). For the breasts, lungs, heart, thyroid and esophagus, the volume distributions favored the IMRT plans. For the breasts, the V20Gy, V25Gy and V30Gy were 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the lung tissues, the V20Gy and V30Gy were 2 times and 4.5 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the heart, the V20Gy and V30Gy were 1.4 and 2 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the esophagus, the V35Gy was 1.7 lower for IMRT than for 3D-CRT, and for the thyroid, the V30Gy was 1.2 times lower for IMRT. Conclusion IMRT by helical tomotherapy improved the PTV coverage and dramatically decreased the dose in organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, but a longer follow-up is necessary to prove a translation of these dosimetric improvements in the outcome of the patients. PMID:23638873

  20. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14?g protein, 85?g carbohydrate and 50?g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3?mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2?h) for C-peptide in nmol.120?min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2?h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  1. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  2. What’s So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women’s Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM. PMID:25554713

  3. Women Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick

    Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…

  4. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  5. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized quickly as individuals. It also may be partially attributed to the relative youth of the women involved. They are too young to have encountered the severe discrimination others experienced in the past, and too young to have reached the barriers that have traditionally prevented women from advancing to higher positions. No figures are available that would allow comparison between salaries of male and female holders of bachelor's and master's degrees.

  6. Digital Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital Women strives to be a full-service portal for working women in all varieties of business. The site offers a huge collection of resources, including informative articles, manuals, free software, Web tools, and advice, as well as ten free newsletters and mailing lists. Digital Women also provides a place for business women to network, including information about the Digital Women 2000 Annual International Net-Together, which will take place on Vancouver Island September 29-October 1, 2000.

  7. Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

  8. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  9. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  10. Sleep and Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Sara; Meers, Jessica; Heimbach, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints) often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the woman’s lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed. PMID:25688329

  11. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albelda, Randy; Tilly, Chris

    This book, through a review of the status of working women on bottom and on the top, refutes a set of myths about women, work, and poverty that have shaped welfare reform. Chapter 1 highlights the big changes affecting women in the U.S. economy. Chapter 2 describes who is poor in the United States and examines how poverty has come to be defined.…

  12. Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

  13. Aqueous copper-mediated living polymerization: exploiting rapid disproportionation of CuBr with Me6TREN.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wilson, Paul; Li, Zaidong; McHale, Ronan; Godfrey, Jamie; Anastasaki, Athina; Waldron, Christopher; Haddleton, David M

    2013-05-15

    A new approach to perform single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) in water is described. The key step in this process is to allow full disproportionation of CuBr/Me6TREN (TREN = tris(dimethylamino)ethyl amine to Cu(0) powder and CuBr2 in water prior to addition of both monomer and initiator. This provides an extremely powerful tool for the synthesis of functional water-soluble polymers with controlled chain length and narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index approximately 1.10), including poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), N,N-dimethylacrylamide, poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), and an acrylamido glyco monomer. The polymerizations are performed at or below ambient temperature with quantitative conversions attained in minutes. Polymers have high chain end fidelity capable of undergoing chain extensions to full conversion or multiblock copolymerization via iterative monomer addition after full conversion. Activator generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water was also conducted as a comparison with the SET-LRP system. This shows that the addition sequence of l-ascorbic acid is crucial in determining the onset of disproportionation, or otherwise. Finally, this robust technique was applied to polymerizations under biologically relevant conditions (PBS buffer) and a complex ethanol/water mixture (tequila). PMID:23597244

  14. Evaluating drug delivery with salt formation: Drug disproportionation studied in situ by ATR-FTIR imaging and Raman mapping.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-07-10

    Two different vibrational spectroscopic approaches, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging and Raman mapping, were used to investigate the components within a tablet containing an ionised drug during dissolution experiments. Delivering certain drugs in their salt form is a method that can be used to improve the bioavailability and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble materials. However, these ionised species have a propensity to covert back to their thermodynamically favourable free acid or base forms. Dissolution experiments of the ionised drug in different aqueous media resulted in conversion to the more poorly soluble free acid form, which is detrimental for controlled drug release. This study investigates the chemical changes occurring to formulations containing a development ionised drug (37% by weight), in different aqueous pH environments. Firstly, dissolution in a neutral medium was studied, showing that there was clear release of ionised monosodium form of the drug from the tablet as it swelled in the aqueous medium. There was no presence of any drug in the monohydrate free acid form detected in these experiments. Dissolution in an acidic (0.1M HCl) solution showed disproportionation forming the free acid form. Disproportionation occurred rapidly upon contact with the acidic solution, initially resulting in a shell of the monohydrate free acid form around the tablet edges. This slowed ingress of the solution into the tablet before full conversion of the ionised form to the free acid form was characterised in the spectroscopic data. PMID:25910459

  15. Living with sugar: Socioeconomic status and cultural beliefs about type 2 diabetes among Afro-Caribbean women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chrystal A. S Smith

    2009-01-01

    In the U.S., individuals of Afro-Caribbean and Latino descent are two to three times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Caribbean and Latin America migrants, particularly minority women bear a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate if Afro-Caribbean women share a cultural belief model

  16. Married Women

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2008-03-26

    Broadcast Transcript: There's marital duplicity going on here in South Korea. Namely, secret bank accounts. Put together by women. Unbeknownst to their husbands. Apparently, more than 65% of married Korean women are salting away money that they save...

  17. Women's health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women's health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections ( ...

  18. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

  19. Properties of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination NdFeB powders prepared from recycled sintered magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Périgo, E. A.; da Silva, S. C.; Martin, R. V.; Takiishi, H.; Landgraf, F. J. G.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) processing conditions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB powders prepared from recycling sintered N42 grade magnets were evaluated. Temperatures below 840 oC and above 900 oC are deleterious to HDDR powders' properties. The hydrogen pressure, ranging from 60 to 135 kPa, has a major influence on the remanence compared to that on the intrinsic coercivity. The best magnetic properties (Jr = 0.58 T and ?0Hc = 1.15 T) were obtained with Trecomb = 860 °C, PH2 = 135 kPa, and trecomb = 330 s. Such coercivity value corresponds to 93% of the starting material, not achieved yet by optimizing the HDDR process and without using Dy.

  20. Women in Family Businesses: Challenges and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matilde Salganicoff

    1990-01-01

    Women have particular qualities that can be vital to the survival and success of a family business. Those who work in and for family businesses need to be aware, however, of the dilemmas and conflicts that affect women. The author advocates the opening of more opportunities for women in family business for the benefit of both the woman and the

  1. Risk factors among handgun retailers for frequent and disproportionate sales of guns used in violent and firearm related crimes

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, G; Cook, P; Wright, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the retailer and community level factors associated with frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes (VFC handguns). Design: Cross sectional. The authors used California records to identify all handguns sold by study subjects during 1996–2000 and federal gun tracing records to determine which of these guns had been recovered by a police agency in the US or elsewhere and traced by 30 September 2003. Subjects and setting: The 421 licensed gun retailers in California selling at least 100 handguns annually during 1996–2000. Main outcome measure: The number of VFC handguns per 1000 gun years of exposure. Differences are expressed as incidence rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Subjects accounted for 11.7% of California retailers with handgun sales, 81.5% of handgun sales, and 85.5% of VFC handguns. Among subjects, the 3426 VFC handguns accounted for 48.0% of all traced handguns and 65.0% of those linked to a specified crime. The median VFC handgun trace rate was 0.5/1000 gun years (range 0–8.8). In multivariate analysis, this rate increased substantially for each single-point increase in the percentage of proposed sales that were denied because the purchasers were prohibited from owning guns (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.56), and was increased for pawnbrokers (RR 1.26; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.55). Community level crime rates and sociodemographics had little predictive value. Conclusions: Risk factors, largely determined at the retailer level, exist for frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes. Screening to identify high risk retailers could be undertaken with data that are already available. PMID:16326771

  2. DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl

    Cancer.gov

    Tobacco control policies, such as increases in cigarette excise taxes, worksite smoking bans, and youth-focused media campaigns show promise in reducing smoking at the population level. However, few studies have examined the effects of policies in reducing smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among disadvantaged women and girls. Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher-than-average rates of tobacco use and suffer disproportionately from the health consequences of tobacco.

  3. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes’ Hearing Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Braga, J.; Loubes, J-M.; Descouens, D.; Dumoncel, J.; Thackeray, J. F.; Kahn, J-L.; de Beer, F.; Riberon, A.; Hoffman, K.; Balaresque, P.; Gilissen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species’ sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the “hypertrophied” cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. PMID:25841599

  5. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

  6. Resolving the Democracy Paradox: Democratization and Women’s Legislative Representation in Developing Nations, 1975 to 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Fallon; Liam Swiss; Jocelyn Viterna

    2012-01-01

    Increasing levels of democratic freedoms should, in theory, improve women’s access to political positions. Yet studies demonstrate that democracy does little to improve women’s legislative representation. To resolve this paradox, we investigate how variations in the democratization process—including pre-transition legacies, historical experiences with elections, the global context of transition, and post-transition democratic freedoms and quotas—affect women’s representation in developing nations.

  7. Women Veterans Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Care » Women Veterans Health Care Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... more » MyHealtheVet LGBT Awareness Role Models Women Veterans Health Care Did you know that women are the fastest ...

  8. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  9. Women with Disabilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site from the National Women's Health Information Center offers a plethora of resources of interest to women with disabilities and those who work and live with them. Divided into topical areas such as abuse, parenting, and sexuality, the site has a range of information about different types of disabilities and how they may particularly affect women. Also provided is information on federal laws and regulations that protect those with disabilities as well as extensive lists of services and support resources. A section on statistics may prove especially useful to researchers and educators. This site has literally hundreds of helpful links and publications and will be useful to both the general public and professionals.

  10. Stellar Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1900s, researchers at the Harvard College Observatory conducted an astonishing amount of astronomical research. A handful of women were integral to this research. Describes the professional lives and scientific findings of five of these women scientists at Harvard to inspire students. Classroom activities are included. (PVD)

  11. AMERICAN WOMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

  12. Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

  13. 75 FR 27819 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...JUSTICE [OMB Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...

  14. 75 FR 42129 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...JUSTICE [OMB Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...

  15. 75 FR 27820 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...JUSTICE [OMB Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...

  16. 75 FR 28818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...OMB Number 1122-0017] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...

  17. 75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...OMB Number 1122-0017] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...

  18. [Women, population and the environment].

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    Women still treated as 2nd class citizens in many developing countries despite international initiatives such as the UN convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women that was ratified by 105 countries. The disadvantages that confront women have social repercussions because women play a central role in the development process, especially in deciding the size of their families, and also in administering environmental resources. Efforts of women to improve their families' conditions involve then in management of such natural resources as soil, forests, and water, and also involve then in management of the household potable water supply and waste disposal. In some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, up to 70% of food production, processing, and marketing is in the hands of women. Women in many countries have the task of gathering firewood, which can require 5-10 hours of work several times a week in areas where firewood has become scarce. At the same time, women are often denied the opportunity of contributing to the economic support of their household because of their childcare responsibilities. A woman's prestige in some cultures is defined by her capacity to have many children. Lack of education and employment often prompt women to marry young and have many children, especially in countries where children contribute to family income. Local administration of natural resources improves when women become part of the development process. It is urgent that women's status be improved through social and political changes enabling them to make decisions affecting their own lives, such as postponing marriage and having the number of children they want. Family planning services should be available, and motivation for smaller families should be reinforced through better health care and educational and employment opportunities for women. PMID:12284752

  19. Taking Women Professionals Out of the OfficeThe Case of Women in Sales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie A. Morgan; Karin A. Martin

    2006-01-01

    Many women professionals traverse settings beyond the office in their work, but research on women professionals rarely follows them out of the office. Using a large, archived data set of focus groups with sales professionals, the authors ask how work in out-of-the-office settings affects women’s careers. The authors distinguish between two types of settings. In “heterosocial” settings, interaction rules are

  20. How men can excel as mentors of women.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Janet

    2014-08-01

    Most male professionals have more experience mentoring men than they do mentoring women, and their male mentees progress further than their female mentees. Yet, in academic medicine, men have few forums in which to discuss the gender-related issues that they encounter. To address the gender-related questions that commonly arise, the author of this commentary offers perspectives and recommendations, consolidated from over 25 years of experience leading career and talent development programs, to assist men in successfully mentoring women. Her recommendations are organized around three questions: (1) How do women's and men's experiences in mentoring relationships tend to differ? (2) What interferes with the accurate evaluation of women's skills? and (3) Is the current generation of female trainees still at a gender-related disadvantage? She argues that men's ability to effectively mentor women depends to a great extent on their understanding of the challenges that women disproportionately face in developing their careers. Mentors who are skilled in adapting to the gender-related needs of mentees will contribute to women's retention and development in academic medicine, enhance the leadership capacity of their organizations and the profession, and extend their own legacies. PMID:24853197

  1. Disproportionate Minority Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to…

  2. Creative productivity in women analysts.

    PubMed

    Schuker, E

    1985-01-01

    A pilot study of female analyst creative productivity finds that women authors are well represented in numbers in two leading analytic journals, The Journal of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, for 1980-81. However, women analyst members of the journals' parent organizations are very poorly represented compared with male analyst members. This has led to an exploration of factors affecting female analyst productivity, encompassing a broad sweep from the sociological to the personal, dynamic level. Differential opportunities for women analysts may be inherent in the educational processes. There is evidence for an "accumulation of disadvantage" for women in the field of psychiatry, as well as the impression of gender bias and feelings of stigmatization in psychoanalysis. The question of whether academic research career paths for women are adequately encouraged is raised. Mentorship patterns are also discussed. Whether gender bias affects journal publications and the nature of psychoanalytic thinking is questioned. Women's lessened productivity is sometimes ascribed to practical aspects of feminine role. This myth is debunked for women in science, where married women with children are equally productive. The author suggests that women analysts, however, may be a select group and may be more subject to role conformity pressures. Feminine role conflicts and their effects are discussed. Dynamic issues related to creative productivity are explored in two major areas. The author suggests that female preoedipal object relations may play a part in females devaluing of their own creative efforts in a competitive arena. The oedipal situation is also discussed, especially with regard to very high-achieving women. It is suggested that though competition with the maternal-nurturant rival may be worked through, often there is incomplete resolution of the surpassing and separation from the protective, loving, but dominant oedipal father, thus limiting true professional autonomy. PMID:3988573

  3. Distinct developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral and caudal isocortex in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    In adulthood, the isocortex of several species is characterized by a gradient in neurons per unit of cortical surface area with fewer neurons per unit of cortical surface area in the rostral pole relative to the caudal pole. A gradient in neurogenesis timing predicts differences in neurons across the isocortex: neurons per unit of cortical surface area are fewer rostrally, where neurogenesis duration is short, and higher caudally where neurogenesis duration is longer. How species differences in neurogenesis duration impact cortical progenitor cells across its axis is not known. I estimated progenitor cells per unit of ventricular area across the rostro-caudal axis of the isocortex in cats (Felis catus) and in dogs (Canis familiaris) mostly before layers VI-II neurons are generated. I also estimated the ventricular length across the rostro-caudal axis at various stages of development in both species. These two species were chosen because neurogenesis duration in dogs is extended compared with cats. Caudally, cortical progenitors expand more tangentially and in numbers in dogs compared with cats. Rostrally, the cortical proliferative zone expands more tangentially in dogs compared with cats. However, the tangential expansion in the rostral cortical proliferative zone occurs without a concomitant increase in progenitor cell numbers. The tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in the rostral cortex is mediated by a reduction in cell density. These different developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral (i.e., frontal cortex) and caudal cortex (e.g., primary visual cortex) when neurogenesis duration lengthens in evolution. PMID:24782736

  4. H2O2 Detection at Carbon Nanotubes and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes: Oxidation, Reduction, or Disproportionation?

    PubMed

    Goran, Jacob M; Phan, Ethan N H; Favela, Carlos A; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-06-16

    The electrochemical behavior of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) was investigated over a wide potential window. At CNTs, H2O2 will be oxidized or reduced at large overpotentials, with a large potential region between these two processes where electrochemical activity is negligible. At N-CNTs, the overpotential for both H2O2 oxidation and reduction is significantly reduced; however, the reduction current from H2O2, especially at low overpotentials, is attributed to increased oxygen reduction rather than the direct reduction of H2O2, due to a fast chemical disproportionation of H2O2 at the N-CNT surface. Additionally, N-CNTs do not display separation between observable oxidation and reduction currents from H2O2. Overall, the analytical sensitivity of N-CNTs to H2O2, either by oxidation or reduction, is considerably higher than CNTs, and obtained at significantly lower overpotentials. N-CNTs display an anodic sensitivity and limit of detection of 830 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 0.5 ?M at 0.05 V, and a cathodic sensitivity and limit of detection of 270 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 10 ?M at -0.25 V (V vs Hg/Hg2SO4). N-CNTs are also a superior platform for the creation of bioelectrodes from the spontaneous adsorption of enzyme, compared to CNTs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was allowed to adsorb onto N-CNTs, producing a bioelectrode with a sensitivity and limit of detection to glucose of 80 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 7 ?M after only 30 s of adsorption time from a 81.3 ?M GOx solution. PMID:26009497

  5. Endogenous distal airway progenitor cells, lung mechanics, and disproportionate lobar growth following long-term postpneumonectomy in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Philip; Earle, Benjamin; Loi, Roberto; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Goodwin, Meagan; Allen, Gilman B; Lundblad, Lennart; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M; Weiss, Daniel J

    2013-07-01

    Using a model of postpneumonectomy (PNY) compensatory lung growth in mice, we previously observed an increase in numbers of a putative endogenous distal airway progenitor cell population (CCSP(pos) /pro-SPC(pos) cells located at bronchoalveolar duct junctions [BADJs]), at 3, 7, and 14 days after pneumonectomy, returning to baseline at 28 days post-PNY. As the origin of these cells is poorly understood, we evaluated whether bone marrow cells contributed to the pool of these or other cells during prolonged post-PNY lung regrowth. Naïve and sex-mismatched chimeric mice underwent left PNY and were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 months for numbers of BADJ CCSP(pos) /pro-SPC(pos) cells and presence of donor-derived marrow cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelium. Nonchimeric mice were also examined at 12 months after PNY for numbers of BADJ CCSP(pos) /pro-SPC(pos) cells. Notably, the right accessory lobe (RAL) continued to grow disproportionately over 12 months, a novel finding not previously described. Assessment of lung mechanics demonstrated an increase in lung stiffness following PNY, which significantly diminished over 1 year, but remained elevated relative to 1-year-old naïve controls. However, the number of CCSP(pos) /pro-SPC(pos) BADJ cells ?1-month following PNY was equivalent to that found in naïve controls even after 12 months of continued RAL growth. Notably, no donor bone marrow-derived cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelial cells, including those at the BADJ, up to 3 months after PNY. These studies suggest that lung epithelial cells, including CCSP(pos) /pro-SPC(pos) cells, are not replenished from marrow-derived cells during post-PNY lung growth in mice. PMID:23533195

  6. Exercise has a Disproportionate Role in the Pathogenesis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy in Patients Without Desmosomal Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Abhishek C.; Bhonsale, Aditya; te Riele, Anneline S. J. M.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Russell, Stuart D.; Tandri, Harikrishna; Tedford, Ryan J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is associated with age?related penetrance and arrhythmic risk in carriers of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C)?associated desmosomal mutations; however, its role in patients without desmosomal mutations (gene?elusive) is uncertain. This study investigates whether exercise is (1) associated with onset of gene?elusive ARVD/C and (2) has a differential impact in desmosomal and gene?elusive patients. Methods and Results Eighty?two ARVD/C patients (39 desmosomal, all probands) were interviewed about regular physical activity from age 10. Participation in endurance athletics, duration (hours/year), and intensity (MET?Hours/year) of exercise prior to clinical presentation were compared between patients with desmosomal and gene?elusive ARVD/C. All gene?elusive patients were endurance athletes. Gene?elusive patients were more likely to be endurance athletes (P<0.001) and had done significantly more intense (MET?Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation (P<0.001), particularly among cases presenting < age 25 (P=0.027). Family history was less prevalent among gene?elusive patients (9% versus 40% desmosomal, P<0.001), suggesting a greater environmental influence. Gene?elusive patients without family history did considerably more intense exercise than other ARVD/C patients (P=0.004). Gene?elusive patients who had done the most intense (top quartile MET?Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation had a younger age of presentation (P=0.025), greater likelihood of meeting ARVD/C structural Task Force Criteria (100% versus 43%, P=0.02), and shorter survival free from a ventricular arrhythmia in follow?up (P=0.002). Conclusions Gene?elusive, non?familial ARVD/C is associated with very high intensity exercise suggesting exercise has a disproportionate role in the pathogenesis of these cases. As exercise negatively modifies cardiac structure and promotes arrhythmias, exercise restriction is warranted. PMID:25516436

  7. A community approach to addressing excess breast and cervical cancer mortality among women of African descent in Boston.

    PubMed Central

    Bigby, JudyAnn; Ko, Linda K.; Johnson, Natacha; David, Michele M. A.; Ferrer, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the REACH Boston 2010 Breast and Cervical Cancer Coalition conducted a community needs assessment and found several factors that may have contributed to disproportionately high breast and cervical cancer mortality among black women: (a) Focus group participants reported that many women in their communities had limited awareness about risk factors for cancer as well as about screening. (b) Black women experienced barriers to care related to the cultural competence of providers and of institutions. (c) Black women were not receiving adequate follow-up for abnormal mammograms and Pap smears. The Coalition's Community Action Plan to address disparities includes a model primary care service for black women; scholarships to increase the number of black mammogram technologists; primary care provider and radiology technologist training about disparities and cultural competence; and education to increase awareness among black women and to increase leadership and advocacy skills. PMID:12815081

  8. New aspects of Nd{endash}Fe{endash}B-based hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination powders and anisotropic bonded magnets made from them: Microstructure and magnetic properties (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirosawa, S.; Uehara, M.; Mino, S.; Ishigaki, N. [Research and Development Division, Sumitomo Special Metals Company, Limited, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Osaka 618 (Japan)] [Research and Development Division, Sumitomo Special Metals Company, Limited, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Osaka 618 (Japan); Tomida, T. [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki 660 (Japan)] [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki 660 (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the texture formation mechanism in the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process, improvements of stability with regard to thermal and structural losses, and the state-of-the-art performance of both compression and injection molded magnets made from the newly developed anisotropic HDDR powders are reported. Transmission electron microscopy observations of disproportionated Nd{endash}Fe{endash}Co{endash}Ga{endash}Zr{endash}B alloys have revealed the existence of finely dispersed crystallites of Nd{sub 2}(Fe,Co,Ga){sub 14}B which have a common crystallographic orientation. It is proposed that, upon removal of hydrogen, the hydrogen-disproportionated structure recombines from these crystallites to form textured submicron crystallites of the 2:14:1 phase. Using highly anisotropic HDDR powders, energy products (BH){sub max} exceeding 170 kJ/m{sup 3} (21 MGOe) have been obtained on compression-molded resin-bonded magnets and 130 kJ/m{sup 3} (16 MGOe) on injection-molded ones. High coercivity HDDR powders with an intrinsic coercivity (H{sub cJ}) exceeding 1.27 MA/m (16 kOe) have also been obtained by replacing part of Nd with Dy, which enabled improvement of thermal stability. It is shown that the degradation of magnetic performance of resin-bonded HDDR magnets is prevented by eliminating pore formation during the molding process. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  10. Smoke exposure among women in Haiti: The case for improved stoves

    PubMed Central

    Hubbell, Alexander M.; Jareczek, Francis J.; Vonnahme, Laura; Hockenberry, Jason M.; Buresh, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoke exposure is responsible for two million deaths per year and has been studied globally, but the impacts of exposure have not yet been evaluated in Haiti, the Western hemisphere’s poorest nation. This study measures the disproportionate impact of indoor smoke exposure on the women and children of Haiti. We studied 2296 clinic patients in four Haitian villages to determine the extent of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, using carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood as a proxy for overall smoke exposure. We predicted CO levels to be higher in women, who traditionally perform the majority of cooking duties, and in children who accompany their mothers. CO levels averaged 4.9% in women and 3.4% in men. Women of child-bearing age carried a minimum relative risk (RR) for CO exposure of 1.22, relative to all males and younger females. Older females carried no significant difference in risk. Children averaged the lowest CO exposure among all cohorts. These findings demonstrate the burden of indoor smoke exposure that falls disproportionately on women in these regions of Haiti. Global efforts to mitigate indoor exposure have demonstrated the health, economic, environmental and social improvements that are possible by tackling this problem. PMID:23906187

  11. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  12. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied. Methods We recruited women based on HIV status through a Toronto community health centre. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea molecular testing and vaginal secretions for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Differences in prevalence were assessed for statistical significance using chi-square. Results We recruited 126 HIV-positive and 291 HIV-negative women, with a median age of 40 and 31 years, respectively (p?women (4.8% vs. 0.34%, p?=?0.004; and 47.6% vs. 21.2%, p?women (p?women (50.8% vs. 22.6%, p?women in Toronto. However, HSV-2 prevalence was higher than that reported in previous studies in the general Canadian population and was strongly associated with HIV infection, as was infection with hepatitis B and HPV. PMID:24238493

  13. Women Who Have Sex with Other Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Joan Shotsky

    1996-01-01

    This report provides HIV seroprevalence data for women who are sexually active with women (WSW) choosing to access services in four of New York State's counseling and testing programs from January 1993 to June 1994. During that period, these programs tested 27,370 women. When questioned about sexual activity since 1978, 3.7% of these women reported sexual activity exclusivelv with women.

  14. Association of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase with disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a treatable cause of dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence in elderly patients with ventriculomegaly. Its unique morphological feature, called disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus (DESH), may also be a diagnostic feature. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a major cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein produced by arachnoid cells, and its concentration in the CSF is reportedly decreased in iNPH. L-PGDS acts as a prostaglandin D2-producing enzyme and behaves as a chaperone to prevent the neurotoxic aggregation of amyloid beta (A?) implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, a major comorbidity of iNPH. The aim of this study was to confirm the L-PGDS decrease in DESH-type iNPH and to clarify its relationship with clinico-radiological features or other CSF biomarkers. Methods We evaluated 22 patients (age: 76.4?±?4.4 y; males: 10, females: 12) referred for ventriculomegaly without CSF pathway obstruction, and conducted a CSF tap test to determine the surgical indication. CSF concentrations of L-PGDS, A?42, A?40, and total tau (t-tau) protein were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by the iNPH grading scale, mini-mental state examination, frontal assessment battery (FAB), and timed up and go test. The extent of DESH was approximated by the callosal angle, and the severity of parenchymal damage was evaluated by the age-related white matter change (ARWMC) score. Results L-PGDS and t-tau levels in CSF were significantly decreased in DESH patients compared to non-DESH patients (p?=?0.013 and p?=?0.003, respectively). L-PGDS and t-tau showed a significant positive correlation (Spearman r?=?0.753, p?

  15. Fourth World Conference on Women. Seeking action for equality, development, peace.

    PubMed

    Seufert-barr, N

    1995-06-01

    There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing. PMID:12289951

  16. Workplace/Women's Place: An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Dana

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Paula England); "Introduction to the Study of Women and Work" (Dana Dunn); "Gender Culture and Socialization" (Rita Mae Kelly); "Parental Influence and Women's Careers" (Sue Joan Mendelson Freeman); "Shortchanging Girls: Gender Socialization in Schools" (Peggy Orenstein); "Factors Affecting Female…

  17. Androgen Deficiency in Women with Hypopituitarism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAREN K. MILLER; GEMMA SESMILO; AILEEN SCHILLER; DAVID SCHOENFELD; SENTA BURTON; ANNE KLIBANSKI

    2010-01-01

    Androgen deficiency in men is associated with severe osteopenia, alterations in body composition including an increase in fat mass, and decreased libido. Little is known about the pathophysiology, meta- bolic consequences, or gender-specific effects of androgen deficiency in women. Acquired hypopituitarism in women is characterized by cen- tral hypogonadism and\\/or hypoadrenalism and therefore may affect critical sources of androgen production

  18. Vocational Training for Women Refugees in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eve

    1990-01-01

    Refugee assistance programs are typically designed for men, who are greatly outnumbered by refugee women. A critique of training and job development opportunities shows that women are trained to produce items of little demand, those with children have difficulty attending training, and they are reluctant to engage in paid work if it affects their…

  19. [Women in the Labor Market. Remarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Collis N.

    From its position in the Office of the Secretary of Labor, the Women's Bureau participates in departmental policy making and program planning and serves as a coordinating body in the Department of Labor for programs affecting women. Among its activities are the following: initiating and supporting research in economic, social, and legislative…

  20. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Pereira; E. Volchan; L. Oliveira; W. Machado-Pinheiro; J. A. Rodrigues; F. V. P. Nepomuceno; L. Pessoa

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally ex- pressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation

  1. Dimensions of Women's Health across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; Vamos, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This teaching strategy provides students with an opportunity to promote women's health literacy via construction of a creative health information booklet. Students will be able to: (1) Identify health issues that affect women during one particular lifespan stage; (2) Categorize issues according to the seven dimensions of health; (3)…

  2. Advancing the Careers of Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to assess whether differences exist in the barriers reported by, and in the person- and situation-centred factors related to the managerial advancement of, women with and without children. The study also seeks to examine whether having children influences womens advancement, by affecting person-situation factors such as…

  3. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  4. Acne in women.

    PubMed

    Ramos-E-Silva, M; Ramos-E-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. PMID:25597414

  5. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  6. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-09-01

    Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080

  7. Social change and women's health.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Peggy; Worts, Diana; McMunn, Anne; Sacker, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five decades, the organization of women's lives has changed dramatically. Throughout the industrialized world, paid work and family biographies have been altered as the once-dominant role of homemaker has given way to the role of secondary, dual, or even primary wage-earner. The attendant changes represent a mix of gains and losses for women, in which not all women have benefited (or suffered) equally. But little is known about the health consequences. This article addresses that gap. It develops a "situated biographies" model to conceptualize how life course change may influence women's health. The model stresses the role of time, both as individual aging and as the anchoring of lives in particular historical periods. "Situating" biographies in this way highlights two key features of social change in women's lives: the ambiguous implications for the health of women as a group, and the probable connections to growing social and economic disparities in health among them. This approach lays the groundwork for more integrated and productive population-based research about how historical transformations may affect women's health. PMID:24066418

  8. Women's Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Swasthya Abhiyan

    2007-01-01

    The double burden carried by women explains their chronic state of malnutrition, overwork and fatigue. Added to these are the stresses and strains of modern life, environmental degradation and increasing insecurity and violence. Here are examined the limitations of the health system and the consequent demands to recognize women’s right to health and healthcare as a fundamental right,and the state

  9. Minority Women's Health: Latinas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Latinas Minority Women's Health Latinas Health conditions common in Latinas Latinos are ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...

  10. Women's Health USA 2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Services Utilization HRSA Programs Related to Women's Health Women's Health USA 2013 Home This Web site has been ... women, their families, and their communities. Data in Women's Health USA: Reflects the everchanging, increasingly diverse population and ...

  11. Epidemiology of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stuart Reynolds; Roger R. Dmochowski; David F. Penson

    Stress urinary incontinence is common and affects many women globally. About 50% of women with urinary incontinence report\\u000a symptoms of stress incontinence, but estimates of the prevalence and incidence are limited by inconsistent methods of measurement\\u000a between epidemiologic studies in different populations. Estimates also are affected by underlying differences in the age and\\u000a ethnicity of study populations. Longitudinal studies assessing

  12. Women's worth.

    PubMed

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men. PMID:12317441

  13. Weight-related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Social Networks of Obese, Young Adult African- American Women: Implications for Healthy Weight Interventions 

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Brandy 1982-

    2012-12-10

    Obesity is a public health concern that affects over 30% of Americans. Approximately 78% of African-American women are overweight/obese, as compared to 46% of Caucasian women. Obese African-American women are at higher ...

  14. Women's Health Among the Chumash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Adams Jr; Cecilia Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Plants were, and still are, widely used for a number of conditions affecting women in California. This article discusses traditional remedies of the Chumash for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, feminine hygiene, heavy menstruation, urinary tract infections, parturition, lactation, infant care, meno- pause, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, contraception and abortions. Many plants are presented including Artemisia douglasiana, Paeonia californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia

  15. Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

    This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

  16. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches. PMID:25855338

  17. Effect of women science career role models on early adolescents' attitudes toward scientists and women in science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter S. Smith; Thomas Owen Erb

    1986-01-01

    In order to change the attitude of early adolescent female and male students toward scientists and women in science, students in the middle school\\/junior high grades were exposed over a two months' period to women science career role models as part of their science instruction. This treatment positively affected the students' attitude toward scientists and toward women in science. It

  18. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  19. A Pilot Project to Identify Sex Role Factors Affecting the Employment of Vocational Students in Selected Occupational Areas. Final Report, February 1, 1980-June 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester P.; DuMond, Doreen C.

    A pilot study was conducted to identify sex role factors which could affect the search for employment and the adjustment to employment for vocational graduates in selected occupational areas. Target employment areas were identified through a review of occupations with a disproportionate composition by one sex or the other. These included…

  20. PASSHE Women's Consortium Undergraduate Women's Leadership Institute

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    PASSHE Women's Consortium 24th Annual Undergraduate Women's Leadership Institute "Fostering the Leadership of Women" Sunday, June 24, through Friday, June 29, 2012 McKeever Environmental Learning Center Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania #12;ABOUT THE INSTITUTE The Leadership Institute for Undergraduate Women

  1. Annual Women's Health Forum Global Women's Health

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    5th Annual Women's Health Forum Global Women's Health Hosted by The Stanford WSDM* Center May 21;3 Welcome to the 5th Annual Women's Health Forum - hosted by the Stanford WSDM Center, also known acknowledges the wisdom of conducting research and expanding knowledge about women's health and sex differences

  2. WOMEN-S HEALTH USA 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women's Health USA 2002, the first annual report on the health status of America's women is presented by the HRSA's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and the Office of Women's Health. This first edition of the Women's Health USA data book brings together key facts and figur...

  3. How women experience menopause: the importance of social context.

    PubMed

    Winterich, J A; Umberson, D

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes personal accounts of women's menopausal experiences to understand why most women view menopause as an insignificant event, despite negative cultural and medical constructions of menopause as a time of "loss." We analyze 16 in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of women to examine how social contexts affect women's experiences with menopause and the meaning of those experiences. We find that most women view menopause as inconsequential because other events of midlife are more important or stressful to them. However, when cultural and medical contexts are examined, we find that some women do not avoid others' negative constructions of menopause as a time of "loss." PMID:10721689

  4. Contraception and sexual health in obese women.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Katharine B; Edelman, Alison B

    2015-05-01

    As the proportion of women with obesity increases worldwide, understanding the influence of body weight on sexual behavior, fertility, and contraceptive effectiveness is critical for health-care professionals and patients. Although many have theorized that obese women are different from normal-weight women regarding sexual health and behavior, current evidence for the most part disproves this. The exception is in adolescents where body image may play a role in riskier behavior, placing them at a greater risk of an unintended pregnancy. Given that most modern contraceptives were not originally evaluated in obese women, understanding how weight affects contraceptive pharmacokinetics and efficacy should be a focus of ongoing research. Evidence is reassuring that most modern contraceptive methods are safe and effective in obese women. This paper reviews what is known about sexual and contraceptive behavior, as well as the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of modern contraceptives, for overweight and obese women. PMID:25498914

  5. International Human Rights Treaty to Change Social Patterns – The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seo-Young Cho

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically whether the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), advocating the multiple dimensions of women’s rights, affects the level of women’s rights in a country. Measuring commitments to the CEDAW based on reservations by member states, I test whether the Convention enhances women’s rights; in particular, (i) whether

  6. Women drivers’ behaviour, socio-demographic characteristics and accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Dobson; Wendy Brown; Jean Ball; Jennifer Powers; Michael McFadden

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors which affect driving behaviour and accident rates in women in Australia. Two groups of women (aged 18–23 and 45–50 years) participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health, completed a mailed questionnaire on driver behaviour and road accidents. Self reported accident rates in the last 3 years were 1.87 per

  7. Accumulated Financial Strain and Women’s Health Over Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this research examines how accumulated financial strain affects women’s self-rated health in middle and later life. Method. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967–2003), we employ random-coefficient growth curve models to examine whether recurring financial strain influences women’s health, above and beyond several measures of objective social status. Predicted probabilities of poor health were estimated by the frequency of financial strain. Results. Financial strain is associated with rapid declines in women’s health during middle and later life, especially for those women who reported recurrent strain. Changes in household income and household wealth were also associated with women’s health but did not eliminate the effects due to accumulated financial strain. Discussion. Accumulated financial strain has long-term effects on women’s health during middle and later life. The findings demonstrate the importance of measuring life course exposure to stressors in studies of health trajectories. PMID:22929397

  8. Women’s well-being and reproductive health in Indian mining community: need for empowerment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women’s reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women’s well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community. PMID:23602071

  9. Contemplating abortion: HIV-positive women’s decision to terminate pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.; Crawford-Roberts, Ann; Dourado, Ines; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Research on pregnancy termination (PT) largely assumes HIV status is the only reason why HIV-positive women contemplate abortion. As antiretroviral treatment (ART) becomes increasingly available and women are living longer, healthier lives, the time has come to consider the influence of other factors on HIV-positive women’s reproductive decision-making. Because ART has been free and universally available to Brazilians for more than two decades, Brazil provides a unique context in which to explore these issues. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews exploring women’s PT decision-making were conducted with women receiving care at the Reference Centre for HIV/AIDS in Salvador, Brazil. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and coded for analysis. HIV played different roles in women’s decision-making. 13 HIV-positive women did not consider PT. Influential factors described by those who did consider PT included fear of HIV transmission, fear of HIV-related stigma, family size, economic constraints, partner and provider influence, as well as lack of access to such services as PT and abortifacients. For some HIV-positive women in Brazil, HIV can be the only reason to consider PT, but other factors are significant. A thorough understanding of all variables affecting reproductive decision-making is necessary for enhancing services and policies and better meeting the needs and rights of HIV-positive women. PMID:24387297

  10. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

  11. Do persistently fast-growing juveniles contribute disproportionately to population growth? A new analysis tool for matrix models and its application to rainforest trees.

    PubMed

    Zuidema, Pieter A; Brienen, Roel J W; During, Heinjo J; Güneralp, Burak

    2009-11-01

    Plants and animals often exhibit strong and persistent growth variation among individuals within a species. Persistently fast-growing individuals have a higher chance of reaching reproductive size, do so at a younger age, and therefore contribute disproportionately to population growth (lambda). Here we introduce a new approach to quantify this "fast-growth effect." We propose using age-size-structured matrix models in which persistently fast and slow growers are distinguished as they occur in relatively young and old age classes for a given size category. Life-cycle pathways involving fast growth can then be identified, and their contribution to lambda is quantified through loop analysis. We applied this approach to an example species, the tropical rainforest tree Cedrela odorata, that shows persistent growth variation among individuals. Loop analysis showed that juvenile trees reaching the 10-cm diameter class at below-median age contributed twice as much to lambda as slow juvenile growers. Fast growth to larger-diameter categories also contributed disproportionately to lambda. The results were robust to changes in parameter values and life-history trade-offs. These results show that the fast-growth effect can be strong in long-lived species. Persistent growth differences among individuals should therefore be accommodated for in demographic models and life-history studies. PMID:19778168

  12. The facile synthesis of Cu@SiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles via a disproportionation reaction of silica-encapsulated Cu2O nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jianwei; Kim, Sang-Ho; Piao, Longhai

    2015-04-01

    Encapsulation of a nanoparticle (NP) followed by tailoring of the core materials is an effective strategy for constructing hollow and yolk-shell NPs. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of Cu@SiO2 yolk-shell NPs by converting the silica-encapsulated Cu2O nanoparticle aggregates (NPAs) via a disproportionation reaction. This method is extremely simple and scalable. In addition, all reactions were conducted in air and water solutions that are easily scalable to a mass production scale.Encapsulation of a nanoparticle (NP) followed by tailoring of the core materials is an effective strategy for constructing hollow and yolk-shell NPs. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of Cu@SiO2 yolk-shell NPs by converting the silica-encapsulated Cu2O nanoparticle aggregates (NPAs) via a disproportionation reaction. This method is extremely simple and scalable. In addition, all reactions were conducted in air and water solutions that are easily scalable to a mass production scale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01484k

  13. Women's History Celebration 2014

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    ", the Chicago-based women's health collective that performed nearly 12,000 safe illegal abortions between 1969Women's History Celebration 2014 Action & Activism Tuesday, March 18 "A History of Women's Activism and Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. Throughout the 1940s to the 1980s, women at the University

  14. Women and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... studies that track women with HIV who take HIV medicines during pregnancy. To Learn More AIDS.gov National Library of ... Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You ...

  15. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    MedlinePLUS

    Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Dec 10, 2014 Health insurance coverage is a critical factor in making health care affordable and ... on women’s coverage in future years. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance Approximately 55 million women ...

  16. Women, science, and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila M. Pfafflin

    1984-01-01

    Addresses 3 topics concerning women, science, and technology: the participation of women in science and technology; implications of research in the biological, behavioral, and social sciences for women; and the impact of technological change on women. It is argued that the lower participation rate of women in science and technology raises concerns regarding equity, effective human resource utilization, and decision

  17. Women's Studies (undergraduate)

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program courses in women's studies. Each semester the Women's Studies Department publishes a list of courses

  18. Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Women are paid significantly less than men are in nearly every occupation. Because pay equity affects women and their families in all walks of life, it is not surprising that many women consider the issue important. For more than 130 years, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has advocated for gender equity in education and the…

  19. A Potpourri of Issues Relevant to Rural and Minority Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Focusing on issues and concerns pertaining to teaching and counseling rural women and minority women living in rural environments, the four papers aim to promote a better understanding and more realistic picture of conditions affecting rural/minority women. "Factors Influencing Educational and Occupational Choices of Rural/Minority Women" briefly…

  20. Invisible Barriers: The Career Progress of Women Secondary School Principals in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaparou, Maria; Bush, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the career progress of female principals in Greek secondary schools and the under-representation of women in management positions. Drawing on in-depth interviews with six women principals in Athens, the paper considers the factors affecting women's participation in school management. The findings demonstrate that women are…

  1. Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a neglected area of U.S. history: the impact of World War II on the role and status of women. Shows how women's work in the home and in the community assisted the national defense effort, and examined the way that changes in employment opportunities affected traditional ideas about women's roles and fostered the modern women's movement.…

  2. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  3. AIDS and Women--Changing Epidemic: Staying on Top as a Health Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    There are too few HIV/AIDS research, prevention, and treatment efforts for women, though 13 percent of U.S. AIDS cases involve women. There is also a paucity of knowledge about how AIDS affects women uniquely. HIV infection is currently moving to younger cohorts and from men to women. The four known transmission routes are blood products,…

  4. Production, Reproduction, and Education: Women, Children, and Work in a British Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Joshi

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews findings of studies by the author and colleagues on relationships between women's work and the reproduction of the British population based on data for female birth cohorts 1922-70. The studies address three questions: (1) How do children affect women's paid work and lifetime earnings? (2) How does women's employment affect the quantity of children born? (3) How

  5. Statement of the Thai Grassroots Women's Forum on the occasion of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    In order to insure the participation of Thai women in the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Thai Grassroots Women's Forum was established in 1994. In seeking ways to improve women's status, the Women's Forum holds as its central position the statement that "Women must have the rights and opportunities to participate in all levels of decision-making processes." The policy implications of this statement affect many aspects of women's lives. In terms of health care, women must be given appropriate information about reproductive health, control over their own bodies must be guaranteed, and the Thai government must develop an occupational health service. All violence against women must be eradicated as a human rights violation, and victimized women must receive help and protection. Women laborers must be included in the labor policy-making process, and the Thai government must ratify International Labor Organization Conventions on workers' organizations, night-time work, rights to collective bargaining, and occupational health and safety. Governments should enact measures to protect women labor migrants, including those who work in the sex industry. The Thai government must support women's groups and provide opportunities for women to participate in government committees at every level. The composition of the Tambol (sub-district) Council should be equally divided between men and women. Finally, the Thai government must terminate any development plan which threatens the environment and must give communities the right to manage their natural resources and environment. PMID:12290170

  6. Mechanically activated disproportionation and microstructure nanocrystallization of a Nd14Fe66.9Co11B7Zr0.1Ga1.0 permanent magnetic alloy.

    PubMed

    Lianxi, Hu; Yuping, Li; Yuan, Yuan

    2009-07-01

    In order to obtain nano-structured as-disproportionated microstructure in partially Co-substituted NdFeB-type alloys, the Nd14Fe66.9GCo11B7Zr0.1Ga1.0 alloy was disproportionated by room-temperature reactive ball milling in hydrogen, with the mechanical energy serving as the driving force. The reaction progress during milling was examined by hydrogen absorption measurement, and the corresponding microstructure change was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results show that the Nd2(Fe, Co)14B matrix phase in the alloy can be mechanically disproportionated by a two-stage reaction. Firstly, the Nd2(Fe, Co)14B matrix phase in the alloy is hydrogenated into Nd2(Fe, Co)14BH(x), until the value of x achieves about 2.9 when a full hydrogenation is achieved. After that, the Nd2(Fe, Co)14BH(x) phase is gradually disproportionated into alpha-Fe(Co), NdH2.7, and (Fe, Co)2B phases upon further milling in hydrogen. The as-disproportionated phases NdH2.7, (Fe, Co)2B, and alpha-Fe(Co), are typically nano-structured, with an average grain size of about 10 nm, which lays the basis for synthesizing nanocrystalline Nd2(Fe, Co)14B grains via a subsequent desorption-recombination treatment. PMID:19916465

  7. Women and health technologies 

    E-print Network

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn

    As women approach midlife they become potential candidates for a range of health technologies. The study examined areas such as women's own assessments of the risks and benefits involved; the medical and informal knowledge women draw upon; and how...

  8. Competition between Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  9. Bringing Women into Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birke, Lynda; Dunlop, Carol

    1993-01-01

    A nonvocational course to introduce science to women demonstrated (1) the value of women-only learning to alleviate fears and anxiety and (2) the necessity of focusing courses on issues relevant to women rather than on vocational outcomes. (SK)

  10. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Publication available in: PDF (153 ... Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American ...

  11. Shanghai Women's Health Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Shanghai Women's Health Study, a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 women, which aims to evaluate the causes of cancer among Chinese women.

  12. Globalization, poverty and women's health: mapping the connections.

    PubMed

    Sicchia, Suzanne R; Maclean, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Poverty and other forms of inequity undermine individual and population health and retard development. Although absolute poverty has reportedly declined in recent years, research suggests that relative poverty or the gap between the rich and poor within and between countries has been exacerbated over this same period. There is growing concern about the feminization of poverty, and the impact globalization is having on this important social problem. Gender inequality persists in all regions, and women and girls continue to be over-represented among the world's poor. This suggests that women are not consistently benefitting from the economic, political and social gains globalization can offer. Instead, it appears that poor women and girls, particularly those living in developing countries, are disproportionately burdened by the costs of these swift changes to the detriment of their personal health and well-being. Immediate action is needed to correct these disparities and ensure that globalization supports both national and international commitments to poverty reduction, and the, promotion of women's health and human rights. PMID:16512333

  13. Charge disproportionation associated with spin ordering in delafossite CuFeO2 as seen via resonant x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, N.; Nakajima, T.; Mitsuda, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Mamiya, H.; Kitazawa, H.

    2010-02-01

    We have performed the resonant x-ray diffraction measurements on the triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2 near the FeK absorption edge. The resonant enhancement of the space-group-forbidden superlattice 010 reflection was observed below the second Néel temperature TN2=11K at which the four-sublattice ground state is stabilized. The significant azimuthal angle dependence of the superlattice reflection was not observed. On the other hand, the energy spectrum can be explained by the charge disproportionation (CD) model, 2Fe3+?Fe(3+?)++Fe(3-?)+ . We discuss the relationship between the unconventional collinear four-sublattice ground state and the CD state in CuFeO2 .

  14. Medicare program; FY 2014 inpatient prospective payment systems: changes to certain cost reporting procedures related to disproportionate share hospital uncompensated care payments. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    : In the fiscal year (FY) 2014 inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS)/long-term care hospital (LTCH) PPS final rule, we established the methodology for determining the amount of uncompensated care payments made to hospitals eligible for the disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payment adjustment in FY 2014 and a process for making interim and final payments. This interim final rule with comment period revises certain operational considerations for hospitals with Medicare cost reporting periods that span more than one Federal fiscal year and also makes changes to the data that will be used in the uncompensated care payment calculation in order to ensure that data from Indian Health Service (IHS) hospitals are included in Factor 1 and Factor 3 of that calculation. PMID:24133692

  15. The effect of spiltover hydrogen on the stabilization of catalytic activities of Y-type zeolite and pillared monmorillonite for the disproportionation of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Takeshi; Seki, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Eiichi [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    Disproportionation of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene was carried out at 200{degrees}C to investigate the effect of hydrogen spillover on the stabilization of the catalytic activities of ultrastable Y (USY) zeolite and pillared montmorillonite. The catalytic activity of pillared monmorillonite, the acidity of which is mainly due to Lewis acid sites, became stable against deactivation in the presence of spiltover hydrogen. There was a less pronounced effect of spiltover hydrogen on the deactivation of USY catalyst treated at 400{degrees}C. When the surface acidity of USY was converted from Broensted to Lewis acidity by treatment of temperatures as high as 750{degrees}C, however, the deactivation was effectively suppressed by spiltover hydrogen. The authors concluded from these results that the stabilization of activity by spiltover hydrogen is linked to Lewis acidity, irrespective of the type of catalyst. 23 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Women Reaching Women. Volunteer Coordinator's Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pola, Yvonne; Ihlenfeld, Gayle

    Based on the experiences of the Women Reaching Women chapters in Wisconsin, this manual provides information on beginning and implementing a volunteer program to train women to help female drug and alcohol abusers. The materials are designed for volunteer coordinators who may be paid or unpaid persons. The manual, containing four sections, is…

  17. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women. PMID:25695010

  18. Women's Health and Mortality Chartbook

    MedlinePLUS

    The 2014 edition of the Women’s Health and Mortality Chartbook is a statistical resource on women’s health ... Profile Search State State The Women's Health and Mortality Chartbook is available in PDF fomat, showing complete ...

  19. Women Who Use or Inject Drugs: An Action Agenda for Women-Specific, Multilevel, and Combination HIV Prevention and Research.

    PubMed

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-06-01

    Women account for more than half of all individuals living with HIV globally. Despite increasing drug and HIV epidemics among women, women who use drugs are rarely found in research, harm reduction programs, or drug and HIV treatment and care. Women who use drugs continue to face challenges that increase their vulnerability to HIV and other comorbidities because of high rates of gender-based violence, human rights violations, incarceration, and institutional and societal stigmatization. This special issue emphasizes how the burdens of HIV, drug use, and their co-occurring epidemics affect women in a global context. Articles included focus on the epidemiologies of HIV and hepatitis C virus and other comorbidities; HIV treatment, prevention, and care; and policies affecting the lives of women who use drugs. This issue also highlights the state of the science of biomedical and behavioral research related to women who use drugs. The final article highlights the major findings of articles covered and presents a call to action regarding needed research, treatment, and preventive services for women who use drugs. To address these needs, we advocate for women-specific thinking and approaches that consider the social, micro, and macro contexts of women's lives. We present a women-specific risk environment framework that reflects the unique lives and contexts of women who use drugs and provides a call to action for intervention, prevention, and policies. PMID:25978486

  20. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

  1. Elder mistreatment in women.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Terry; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton, Marguarette M

    2004-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is a serious syndrome that affects more than 1.5 million older Americans every year. Actions such as abuse, neglect, exploitation, and abandonment by caregivers, relatives, friends, or acquaintances can have devastating sequelae for the elderly. Such actions may be intentional or unintentional, but the detrimental outcomes for older individuals can destroy the elder's quality of life and health. A lack of empirical research addresses gender differences in elder mistreatment. There is also confusion and debate over what constitutes elder mistreatment in older women versus what is domestic violence that has continued into later life. Professional nurses need to include both types of screening for their older female patients in order to address both types of family violence. PMID:15495712

  2. Disruption of the imprinted Grb10 gene leads to disproportionate overgrowth by an Igf2-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Marika; Smith, Florentia M.; Bennett, William R.; Crew, Tracey E.; Mackenzie, Francesca; Ward, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the function of the Grb10 adapter protein, we have generated mice in which the Grb10 gene was disrupted by a gene-trap insertion. Our experiments confirm that Grb10 is subject to genomic imprinting with the majority of Grb10 expression arising from the maternally inherited allele. Consistent with this, disruption of the maternal allele results in overgrowth of both the embryo and placenta such that mutant mice are at birth ?30% larger than normal. This observation establishes that Grb10 is a potent growth inhibitor. In humans, GRB10 is located at chromosome 7p11.2–p12 and has been associated with Silver–Russell syndrome, in which ?10% of those affected inherit both copies of chromosome 7 from their mother. Our results indicate that changes in GRB10 dosage could, in at least some cases, account for the severe growth retardation that is characteristic of Silver–Russell syndrome. Because Grb10 is a signaling protein capable of interacting with tyrosine kinase receptors, we tested genetically whether Grb10 might act downstream of insulin-like growth factor 2, a paternally expressed growth-promoting gene. The result indicates that Grb10 action is essentially independent of insulin-like growth factor 2, providing evidence that imprinting acts on at least two major fetal growth axes in a manner consistent with parent–offspring conflict theory. PMID:12829789

  3. Women's magazines and smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Amos

    1984-01-01

    WOMEN'S magazines are read by over half the women in Britain. Although potentially these magazines represent a major source of health education and information for women, relatively little attention has been paid to assess ing this role. This study focuses on the coverage given by five of the most popular women's magazines to a major cause of mortality and morbidity

  4. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of cardiovascular disease . FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ101 WOMEN’S HEALTH The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f ... sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The information does not dictate an exclusive course ...

  5. Black Women and Feminism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clyde Wilcox

    1990-01-01

    Little research to date has examined the attitudes of black women toward feminism, primarily because few national surveys contain sufficient numbers of black women to take meaningful generalizations. Using data from a national survey of blacks in 1980, this study explores the levels and determinants of feminism among black women. The results show strong support for feminism among black women,

  6. Latvian Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karule, Erna

    2009-04-01

    Latvian women physicists participated in the Baltic State Network for Women in Science and High Technology (BASNET) in 2006 and 2007. We investigated the status of women scientists and created a common strategy to improve the situation of women scientists in all three Baltic countries.

  7. Women's Studies Scholarships

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Women's Studies Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Name Contact Phone Number Contact E-mail Address Arney Robinson Childs Memorial Award in Women's Studies Women's Studies faculty nominate students with a record of extraordinary achievement and contributions to Women

  8. Women's Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women’s Mental Health What it means to you. About this booklet “Women’s mental health is critical to their overall health and to ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Good mental health is important to everyone. And because it is ...

  9. Typical Sleep Positions in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Warland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Maternal supine posture in late pregnancy and labor is known to compromise maternal hemodynamics and subsequently affect the fetus. Recently, maternal supine sleep position during late pregnancy has been postulated to play a role in stillbirth. However, no objective data exist regarding how often pregnant women sleep supine. This study was therefore conducted to determine the proportion of pregnant women who spend time asleep in the supine position. Methods A secondary analysis of data from pregnant women who underwent home sleep studies. Results Of 51 pregnant women, mean gestational age 28.3±6.9 weeks, the vast majority of women (82.4%) spent some time sleeping in the supine position. The median proportion of overall time spent in the supine sleep position was 26.5% (90%CI 0.0–82.9%). Conclusion Our data suggest that if supine position plays a role in stillbirth, most women may benefit from education regarding sleep position. Practice Implications Most pregnant women spend time asleep on their back. Given the known data on supine posture and maternal cardiovascular compromise together with emerging data on supine sleep position and stillbirth, it may be pertinent for healthcare providers to provide pregnant women with information about sleep position particularly during late pregnancy. PMID:24661447

  10. Epidemiology of HIV infection in women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M

    1992-03-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa the highest rates of HIV infection are among sexually active young women ( 35 years old). In fact, 15-24 year old women in Africa are more likely to be HIV-infected than 15-24 year old men, indicating that women may have their first intercourse earlier and have older sexual partners than men. HIV risk factors in africa are number of partners, contact with prostitutes, being a prostitute, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The ratio of HIV-infected males is essentially the same as HIV-infected females in Africa. In Thailand and India, prostitutes have some of the highest rates of HIV infection. In the US, the mid-Atlantic, southeastern states and Puerto Rico have the highest rates among parturient women. HIV prevalence is higher among black and Hispanic women than white women and higher among urban women than rural women. 51% of HIV-infected women in the US acquired HIV via IV drug use and 33% via heterosexual intercourse. On the other hand, 55% of HIV-infected women in the UK and in Europe acquired HIV via heterosexual intercourse, while 23% in the UK and few in Europe acquired it via IV drug use. HIV infection among female prostitutes in the US and UK has largely occurred from IV drug use. Transmission of HIV from male to female is more efficient than it is from female to male. Cofactors for heterosexual transmission are vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, presence of AIDS symptomatic disease, STDs (especially genital ulcers),and an uncircumcised penis. Mass education campaigns and counseling have increased people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS in developed and developing countries, but they do not always result in behavioral change. WHO believes that 3 million more women and children will die from AIDS during the 1990s. AIDS mortality will likely affect population growth in Africa and boost adult and infant mortality everywhere. PMID:1378779

  11. Sex differences in the neural correlates of affective experience

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    People believe that women are more emotionally intense than men, but the scientific evidence is equivocal. In this study, we tested the novel hypothesis that men and women differ in the neural correlates of affective experience, rather than in the intensity of neural activity, with women being more internally (interoceptively) focused and men being more externally (visually) focused. Adult men (n = 17) and women (n = 17) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study while viewing affectively potent images and rating their moment-to-moment feelings of subjective arousal. We found that men and women do not differ overall in their intensity of moment-to-moment affective experiences when viewing evocative images, but instead, as predicted, women showed a greater association between the momentary arousal ratings and neural responses in the anterior insula cortex, which represents bodily sensations, whereas men showed stronger correlations between their momentary arousal ratings and neural responses in the visual cortex. Men also showed enhanced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior insula cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which constitutes the circuitry involved with regulating shifts of attention to the world. These results demonstrate that the same affective experience is realized differently in different people, such that women’s feelings are relatively more self-focused, whereas men’s feelings are relatively more world-focused. PMID:23596188

  12. An evaluation of affect and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Deaver, Cristine M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua; Meidinger, Amy; Crosby, Ross

    2003-09-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating suggests that binge eating occurs because it provides momentary relief from negative affect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in affect during binge eating to evaluate the merits of this model. Participants were young adult women from a midwestern university. Binge eaters recorded their level of pleasantness using the affect grid at 2-minute intervals before, during, and after binge eating episodes and regular meals. Controls recorded in a similar manner during meals. The results showed a different pattern of affect for binge eaters during binge eating episodes and normal meals and for binge eaters and controls at normal meals. The results support the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating is negatively reinforced because it produces momentary relief from negative affect. PMID:12971129

  13. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Roden; T.-C. Wu

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with 'high risk' genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer

  14. Working women and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Kopenhager, T; Guidozzi, F

    2015-06-01

    Women are living longer, working more and retiring later. About 45% of the over 50-year-old workforce in virtually all forms of employment are women, all of whom will experience the menopause and its symptoms, which in some women will be mild to moderate, whilst in others they may be severe and debilitating. About half of these women will find it somewhat, or fairly difficult, to cope with their work, about half will not be affected and only about 5% will be severely compromised. Poor concentration, tiredness, poor memory, depression, feeling low, lowered confidence, sleepiness and particularly hot flushes are all cited as contributing factors. As with any longstanding health-related condition, the need for support and understanding from line management is crucial and can make a major difference to how a woman will deal with the adverse impact the menopausal symptoms may have on her productivity, her job satisfaction and her efficiency. A number of plausible strategies have been proposed that can be realistically implemented in the workplace and which could certainly make a significant difference. Careful thought, planning, consideration and effort may be required but, if instituted, they will, in the final analysis, benefit both employer and employee. PMID:25830628

  15. New intrauterine technologies for contraception and treatment in nulliparous/adolescent and parous women

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, D.

    2009-01-01

    The IUD (intra uterine device) is a highly effective method of contraception that is underused. New developments in intrauterine technology, smaller frameless copper and levonorgestrel-releasing devices, could help increase the prevalence of use in adolescents and nulliparous women. Because adolescents and young nulliparous women contribute disproportionately to the epidemic of unintended pregnancies, long-acting methods of contraception, particularly IUDs, should be considered as first-line choices for interval, emergency and immediate post-abortal contraception in this population of women. As the uterine cavity is generally much smaller in this group than in older women, adapted IUDs may be very useful. Compatibility of the IUD with the small uterine cavity leads to high acceptability and continuation of use, a prerequisite to reduce unintended pregnancies. A strategic advantage of IUDs is that, unlike the Pill, they are genuinely ‘fit-and-forget’. In use, they are much more effective than Pills in this age group. However, copper intrauterine devices do not offer protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and, therefore, they are not always the methods of first choice for teenagers and nulliparous women. New evidence, however, from the World Health Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, shows that IUDs can be used and that they are safe for most women, including adolescents. PMID:25489467

  16. African American Women’s Views of Factors Impacting Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Banks, Amelia; Dancy, Barbara L.; Norr, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore pregnant African American women’s views of factors that may impact preterm birth. Study Design and Methods Qualitative descriptive exploratory cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 22 low-risk pregnant African American women participated in focus group interviews. Women were asked questions regarding their belief about why women have preterm birth and factors impacting preterm birth. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Pregnant African American women encounter multiple physical, psychological, and social stressors. The four themes included knowledge of preterm birth, risk factors for preterm birth, protective factors for preterm birth, and preterm birth inevitability. The risk factors for preterm birth were health-related conditions, stressors, and unhealthy behaviors. Stressors included lack of social and financial support, interpersonal conflicts, judging, dangerous neighborhoods, racism, and pregnancy and mothering related worries. Protective factors for preterm birth included social support and positive coping/self-care. Clinical Implications Clinicians may use the results of this study to better understand women’s perceptions of factors that affect preterm birth, to educate women about risk factors for preterm birth, and to develop programs and advocate for policies that have the potential to decrease health disparities in preterm birth. PMID:23812061

  17. Suicidal women and their relationships with husbands, boyfriends, and lovers.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B J

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the specific conflicts which suicidal women experience in their intimate relationships with men. Fifty women who had made suicide attempts were studied with a focus on the contributing role of their relationships with men to the genesis of the suicidal acts. Four major themes were found in the relationships: "smothering love", infidelity, battering, and denial of affection. The women experienced these conflicts as major precipitants in their suicidal behaviors. Examples of the four themes are described and analyzed. PMID:4002278

  18. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  19. Factors Influencing Persistence/Achievement in the Sciences and Health Professions by Black High School and College Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.; And Others

    This paper reports on a study which investigated socioeconomic, academic, and psychosocial factors that might affect enrollment and persistence rates of black women in science and health careers. An overview is presented of women in science, black women's status in science, role models and support groups, other factors affecting persistence, and…

  20. Cervical cancer screening among vulnerable women

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmeyer, Mei-ling; Lofters, Aisha; Rashid, Meb

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To see if refugee women at a community health centre (CHC) in Toronto, Ont, are appropriately screened for cervical cancer and if there are any demographic characteristics that affect whether they are screened. Design Chart review. Setting A CHC in downtown Toronto. Participants A total of 357 eligible refugee women attending the CHC. Main outcome measures Papanicolaou test received or documented reason for no Pap test. Results Ninety-two percent of women in the study sample were either appropriately screened for cervical cancer or had been approached for screening. Eighty percent of women were appropriately screened. Demographic variables including pregnancy, being uninsured, not speaking English, recent migration to Canada, and being a visible minority did not affect receipt of a Pap test after migration in multivariate analyses. Not speaking English was associated with a delay to receiving a first Pap test after migration. Conclusion The clients at our centre are demographically similar to women who are typically overlooked for Pap tests in the greater Toronto area. Despite belonging to a high-risk population, refugee women in this multidisciplinary CHC were screened for cervical cancer at a higher rate than the local population. PMID:22972744

  1. Women in the Legal Profession: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossum, Donna

    1981-01-01

    The modern women's movement and the exigencies of the Vietnam War combined to produce a dramatic change in the composition of law school student bodies in only a few years. The speed with which women continue to be incorporated into the legal profession will be affected by many factors. (MLW)

  2. WOMEN WORKERS IN THE MONDRAGON SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL COOPERATIVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALLY L. HACKER; CLARA ELCOROBAIRUTIA

    1987-01-01

    A feminist analysis of the Basque Mondragon system of industrial cooperatives suggests that women fare somewhat better in cooperatives than in private firms in employment, earnings, and job security. Market phenomena and the family as basic economic unit affect women workers negatively, as does increasing professionalism in the technical core of the system. Similarities in gender stratification and segregation in

  3. Determinants of Leisure Time Physical Activity Participation Among Latina Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya A. Skowron; Monika Stodolska; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among Latina women and to determine factors influencing their LTPA participation. The ecological model was employed as a theoretical framework in order to examine attitudes, social support, and constraints affecting physical activity. Surveys and in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Results showed that although women's LTPA

  4. Facts and Myths of AIDS and Native American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses risk factors for AIDS among Native women: rates of infected male partners, biological factors affecting vulnerability, other sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, access to health services, relationships with partners, lack of trust in health care providers, and intravenous drug use. Describes the work of the Native American Women's…

  5. Advantage Girls: A Look at Women's Language in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meliza, Evette

    2009-01-01

    While others have focused on gender-based language and the workplace, this research study explores gender-based language, in this case women's language, and the classroom. The study specifically examines examples of women's language and how this language affects student response in the classroom. Five variables have been identified as…

  6. Impairment of bone turnover in elderly women with hip fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Åkesson; Philippe Vergnaud; Evelyne Gineyts; Pierre D. Delmas; Karl J. Obrant

    1993-01-01

    Summary Hip fracture is one of the most severe consequences of osteoporosis affecting aged women. However, abnormalities of bone turnover responsible for bone loss in this condition have not been clearly defined. To further evaluate the bone metabolic status of women sustaining hip fracture, we have prospectively measured serum osteocalcin as a marker of bone formation and urinary excretion of

  7. Women Teachers in Hong Kong: Stories of Changing Gendered Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Yuk Yee Pattie; Brennan, Marie

    2010-01-01

    In a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the "woman primary teacher" is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other (Western) contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings. This…

  8. Women and Office Automation: Issues for the Decade Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    More than 7 million workers in the United States today use computer-based video display terminals to do word and data processing; an overwhelming number of these workers are women. Women make up most of the occupational groups identified as "administrative support," and they are particularly affected by the changes taking place in the workplace.…

  9. Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...

  10. 2011 PROSPECTUS2011 PROSPECTUS WESLEYAN WOMEN'S SOCCERWESLEYAN WOMEN'S SOCCER

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    2011 PROSPECTUS2011 PROSPECTUS WESLEYAN WOMEN'S SOCCERWESLEYAN WOMEN'S SOCCER #12;Director's Lacrosse...............Holly Wheeler Men's Soccer ........................Geoff Wheeler Women's Soccer info. phone...............(860) 685-2887 Women's soccer InformatIon Home field (grass

  11. Promoting Breastfeeding Among Obese Women and Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly K. Trout; Tali Averbuch; Meghan Barowski

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits for women and their babies, but particularly if the woman is obese and\\/or had a pregnancy\\u000a affected with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women who have had GDM are at high risk for developing metabolic syndrome\\u000a or type 2 diabetes, and their offspring are at greater risk for these metabolic disorders both in childhood and later

  12. Women's Health Among the Chumash

    PubMed Central

    Adams, James D.; Garcia, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Plants were, and still are, widely used for a number of conditions affecting women in California. This article discusses traditional remedies of the Chumash for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, feminine hygiene, heavy menstruation, urinary tract infections, parturition, lactation, infant care, menopause, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, contraception and abortions. Many plants are presented including Artemisia douglasiana, Paeonia californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia apiana, Ephedra viridis, Leymus condensatus, Vitis californica, Eschscholzia californica, Rosa californica, Scirpus acutus, Anemopsis californica and Phoradendron macrophyllum. By providing the specific uses of plants for specific diseases and discussing chemistry, efficacy and safety concerns for each plant, we hope that this article gives direction to women seeking to use plants in their health care. PMID:16550233

  13. The unlocked home: new women, new novels, new spaces 

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Erin Elise

    2013-02-22

    The Victorian ideology of separate spheres made an evident separation according to gender. The principle not only affected the interaction between men and women but also the spaces that they occupied. While men had access ...

  14. Nativism and Depression Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrant Women 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, San Juanita Edilia

    2012-10-19

    affected the mental-well being of immigrants. Based on 30 in-depth interviews in Houston this study investigates the degree to which nativism contributes to depression among Mexican-origin immigrant women. The findings reveal that undocumented status...

  15. The Effects of the Women's Movement on Increases in Advanced Degrees for Women: A Case Study of a Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancian, Francesca M.; Gordon, Audri

    The first part of the paper discusses how changes in ideology and power at the local and national level may have contributed to the increase in advanced degrees for women. The remainder of the paper discusses how these ideological and political factors have affected the participation of women at the Westcliffe Business School. Changes at the…

  16. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries are at increased risk for adverse effects of malaria infection (for example, miscarriage, low birth weight). Women ...

  17. Issues Specific to Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PTSD Learn about trauma and PTSD in women. Sexual Assault against Females Defines sexual assault, how often it occurs, and the characteristics of perpetrators. Discusses women's reactions to sexual assault and what to do if you have been ...

  18. Women in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    1975-01-01

    The role and status of women in Africa has changed profoundly since the end of the colonial period. Many differences in women's status and role are based on geography, history, nationality, political and socioeconomic systems, culture, and religion. (JR)

  19. The National Women's Health Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed to provide women with authoritative and timely knowledge of a host of womens health issues, the National Womens Health Information Center site (sponsored by the US Department of Health and Human Services) offers a reliable and thorough overview of hundreds of topics and current news briefs. Health topics on the site (which range from abstinence to yellow fever) are alphabetically listed or can also be located by entering keywords. Visitors to the site can also sign up here to receive weekly health tips via email. Along with featuring information on health topics, other issues affecting women are well-represented here, including domestic violence awareness and body image. Also helpful is the fact that the site is also available in Spanish, which will be useful to Spanish-speaking persons and health professionals working with Spanish speakers.

  20. What women think: cancer causal attributions in a diverse sample of women.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Gyure, Maria E; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M

    2015-01-01

    Women hold diverse beliefs about cancer etiology, potentially affecting their use of cancer preventive behaviors. Research has primarily focused on cancer causal attributions survivors and participants from non-diverse backgrounds hold. Less is known about attributions held by women with and without a family history of cancer from a diverse community sample. Participants reported factors they believed cause cancer. Open-ended responses were coded and relations between the top causal attributions and key factors were explored. Findings suggest certain socio-cultural factors play a role in the causal attributions women make about cancer, which can, in turn, inform cancer awareness and prevention messages. PMID:25398057

  1. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    PubMed

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation. PMID:12321055

  2. Women of Color Health Data Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC), this new data book is intended to help policymakers and women's health advocates understand the health status of women of color and assist them in addressing their needs. The first of the three sections, Factors Affecting the Health of Women of Color, provides an overview of health factors as they relate to ethnic and racial heritage (Native Americans, Hispanics, Black Americans, and Asian Americans), as well as special health issues facing adolescent females and elderly women of color. The second portion of the report, Health Assessment of Women of Color, contains a collection of data on a wide variety of topics illustrated with tables and graphs. These include life expectancy; major causes of death; body weight; tobacco, alcohol, and drug use; preventive health care services; access to health care; morbidity and mortality of various specific diseases; and many others. The final section addresses the issues related to improving the health of women of color, such as research and treatment needs, facilities, and the need for more minority physicians and health care providers.

  3. Ways Women Lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy B. Rosener

    \\u000a While Mary Hartman helped us see the importance of continually rethinking our response to the issues that women face, Judy\\u000a Rosener frames the problems and opportunities that women encounter in organizations in a very specific way. Her response is\\u000a one that emphasizes the unique contributions that women leaders make within organizations. In her now classic article on women\\u000a leaders we

  4. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women ...

  5. UNDERUTILIZATION OF WOMEN WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ABOUT THE STATUS OF WORKING WOMEN AND THEIR UNDERUTILIZATION IN THE NATIONAL WORK FORCE IS PRESENTED IN SUMMARY AND GRAPH FORM. ALTHOUGH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN ASSURING WOMEN EQUALITY OF PAY AND NONDISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT, MUCH NEEDS TO BE DONE TO IMPROVE THE UTILIZATION OF THEIR ABILITIES. MOST WOMEN WORK TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES…

  6. Automation and Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Jean A.

    To determine the repercussions of scientific and technological progress on the employment of women and their conditions of work, the Women's Bureau used available statistical data from 1958-68 to study: (1) Employment and Unemployment, (2) Vocational Guidance and Training, (3) Training and Retraining of Older Women, (4) Remuneration, (5) Hours of…

  7. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  8. Women: The Resource Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Examines the part that women play in protection of biological diversity through their many roles and responsibilities. Gives examples of the actions of women from around the world, and urges that women be recognized when biodiversity protection strategies are developed. (LZ)

  9. Women and Peace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethel Tobach

    2008-01-01

    DEDICATED TO THE GREAT WOMAN PEACE BUILDER: WANGARI MAATHAI, KENYA, NOBEL PEACE PRIZE, 2004Three points are made in this paper: (1) Both peace and war are gendered; (2) The participation of women in building peace and in military processes in society is often evidence of women's commitment to societal peace and justice; and (3) Women's involvement in other societal processes

  10. NATIONAL SURVEY OF WOMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This survey was first conducted in 1983 to document the reproductive behaviors of unmarried women in their twenties. A follow-up survey of the 1983 sample was conducted in 1991 when the women were 28-35 years of age. Also in 1991, a new sample of married and unmarried women age 2...

  11. Advancing women's careers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Burke; Susan Vinnicombe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This collection seeks to examine the various challenges women face in advancing their careers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the mid-1980s, the phrase “glass ceiling” was coined and has since become an established part of our vocabulary. The glass ceiling refers to an invisible but impermeable barrier that limits the career advancement of women. During the last two decades, women

  12. Breakthrough: Women Into Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Rosalind; Wells, Theodora

    The book focuses on the many factors involved in recruiting, employing, training, and advancing more women into higher management positions. It is a timely book as employers are pressured by recent legislation requiring equal treatment of women and men and by timetables to work more women into management. The authors deal with actual and proposed…

  13. Women's Health Informational Handout

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    Women's Health Informational Handout 9-19-13 Next Choice One Dose Request Form Students may now normal. Return to Women's Health for a pregnancy test if you do not get a NORMAL period in 3 weeks transmitted infection testing in Women's Health in 10-14 days Condoms must be used for the rest of the month

  14. Acne in hirsute women

    PubMed Central

    Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mild forms of acne, including: whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. Only 3 women had moderate to severe acne, including nodules. In a group of women with hirsutism and acne, 6 (9.5%) were obese. In our study we found a high prevalence of androgen excess among hirsute women with acne: total testosterone was increased in 79%, free testosterone in 20.6%, androstenedione in 69.8%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in 30.1%, 17-OH-progesterone 68.2% and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in 33.3% of women. Women with hirsutism and acne have received oral contraceptives for a year, without or in a combination with other medication. Thirty-four (53.9%) women have shown improvement in hirsutism and acne. Conclusions In this study we found a high prevalence of acne in hirsute women. The prevalence of acne was higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Since these women have associated endocrine changes it is important to correct them with hormonal therapy. PMID:25610349

  15. Women in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…

  16. Women of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  17. WOMEN'S STUDIES CENTER APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    WOMEN'S STUDIES CENTER APPLICATION M. A. DEGREE All applicants need to apply to FAU Graduate Studies and to the Women's Studies Center. You may access the FAU general graduate application at http://graduate.fau.edu/GradApp/. Once you have submitted that application, you should complete the Women's Studies application. Thank

  18. Women's Studies Intellectually stimulating,

    E-print Network

    Women's Studies Intellectually stimulating, personally fulfilling, and more practical than you might think. The breadth and depth of Women's Studies will amaze you. Our goal is to help you "find your choose Women's Studies on its own or in conjunction with another program, the skills and knowledge you

  19. The Impact of Having a Baby on the Level and Content of Women’s Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to more fully understand the impact of having a baby on women’s well-being by attending to both the level and the content of well-being. To cover the judgemental and affective aspects of well-being we included global measures of life satisfaction and well-being and affective experience measures derived from the day reconstruction method. In a sample of 19 first-time mothers no differences between pre and postnatal reports of general life satisfaction, depression, anxiety, and experienced positive and negative affect were found, suggesting that the arrival of the newborn baby does not universally impact on women’s level of well-being. Changes in the content of well-being were studied by examining changes in the way women experience specific activities and interactions with various social partners. There appeared to be an upward shift in experienced positive affect during active leisure and a slight decrease in negative affect during time spent with relatives. The results are discussed in light of previously documented changes across the transition to motherhood in negative mood states, time use, women’s evaluation of various aspects of daily life, and relational satisfaction. PMID:20461122

  20. Governing Women's Capabilities in China's Urban Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Sargeson

    2007-01-01

    By the middle of the twenty-first century, China's urban population is likely to have grown by about 500 million, to more than 1.1 billion people. This article applies Amartya Sen's concept of capabilities to explore how the government of urban expansion is affecting the generation of rural women whose villages currently are being enclosed by cities and towns. Drawing on

  1. Management Factors of Women in Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanics, Elizabeth T.

    A study investigated past socialization processes that affected particular women's career choices and career mobility in the leisure services field. The study's purposes were: (1) to ascertain the presence of management-related success socialization factors in current female professionals and female students in the leisure services field within…

  2. On Campus with Women, Number 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    On Campus with Women, 1981

    1981-01-01

    News concerning developments affecting women at colleges and universities is presented. Among the issues are the following: a court case involving West Texas State University and six female students in which it was held that athletics was not covered by Title IX because it does not receive federal funding; a court case involving Temple University…

  3. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  4. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  5. Food consumption as affect modulation in borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Morey, Leslie C

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined relationships among negative affect, borderline personality features, and eating behavior through the experimental manipulation of mood. Undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation, then completed a second mood assessment and questionnaires assessing personality and eating attitudes/behaviors. Women reporting more borderline personality features exhibited greater negative affect across time and were more reactive to the sad film. Food presentation appeared to have a small ameliorative effect on sadness and general negative affect. However, quantity of food consumption was associated with improvements in mood only for women reporting higher levels of borderline personality features. These data suggest that women with borderline personality characteristics may be at elevated risk for developing problems with binge eating, because consuming larger quantities of food appeared to have a tempering effect on their negative mood and feelings of sadness. PMID:23445477

  6. Women and Girls Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Women and Girls Prepared by: Daphne Kenyon, Ph.D, D.A. Kenyon and Associates Jennifer Frizzell, New.wfnh.org #12;Page B | The Women's Fund of New Hampshire | Women and Girls in NH 2011 Women and Girls in New women and girls today. We know that when women and girls prosper, entire communities succeed. Our

  7. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  8. Exploring Efficacy in Negotiating Support: Women Re-Entry Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipponi-Berardinelli, Josephine Oriana

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature on women re-entry students reveals that women students concurrently struggle with family, work, and sometimes health issues. Women students often do not receive adequate support from their partners or from other sources in helping manage the multiple roles that compete for their time, and often face constraints that affect

  9. The Participation of Women Faculty in Chinese Universities: Paradoxes of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane; Eichler, Margrit; Pan, Julia; Xu, Jieying; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    This paper contributes to a discussion of how globalization is affecting women faculty in different countries around the world. It reports on a collaborative, international research project designed to understand the participation of women faculty members in Chinese universities, sketching the historical context necessary for understanding women's…

  10. Exploring Gender Roles' Effects of Turkish Women Teachers on Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Mediha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how gender roles of women teachers affect their practices in the classrooms. Participants in the study were 75 female teachers working in elementary schools in Adana, Turkey. Findings indicated that gender roles of women teachers have important effects on their educational practices. Women teachers…

  11. The Unfinished Revolution: Changing Legal Status of U.S. Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff-Wilson, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Historical trends of Constitutional inequality are presented in the context of women's movements. The status of women and the struggle for equal rights are negatively affected by conservatism in the executive and judicial branches of government. Recent court decisions have left much room for interpretation with respect to women's rights. (VM)

  12. Women's status and fertility transition in China in the 1980's: integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Peihang

    1996-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how women's status, and change in status, affect fertility in the 1980s across the provinces of China. Women's status in this study refers to female autonomy. The four aspects of female autonomy are examined by measuring women...

  13. What Black Women Should Know about Lupus: Ideas for Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Lupus is a serious health problem that mainly affects young women between the ages of 15 and 44. Although people of all races may get lupus, black women have three times higher rates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality than white women. With early detection and proper treatment, most people with lupus can lead a normal life. This kit is…

  14. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan-Ping Lin; Pei-Ying Lin; Shang-Wei Hsu; Ching-Hui Loh; Jin-Ding Lin; Chia-Im Lai; Wu-Chien Chien; Fu-Gong Lin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in

  15. Sexist ideology and the evaluation criteria used to assess women's integration into the army

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juanita M. Firestone

    1984-01-01

    This article is a reaction to the 1978 Evaluation of Women in the Army report issued by the U.S. Army. It looks at the criteria used in women's evaluation in terms of the sexist ideology prevalent in the military system. Those issues which are identified by the Army as problematic and which affect policies regarding women's full integration into the

  16. American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues Which Relate to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicine, Beatrice

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the sparse literature concerning the mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native women. Suggests research into various sources of stress experienced by Native women and related to drug and alcohol abuse. Discusses coping mechanisms and the particular stress factors affecting professional Native women. (SV)

  17. Postnatal quality of life in women after normal vaginal delivery and caesarean section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behnaz Torkan; Sousan Parsay; Minoor Lamyian; Anoshirvan Kazemnejad; Ali Montazeri

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section might increase the incidence of surgical interventions and problems resulting from hospitalization and thus affecting quality of life in women after delivery. This study aimed to compare quality of life in women after normal delivery and caesarean section. METHODS: This was a prospective study. A sample of women with normal delivery and caesarean section from 5 health

  18. Cogs in the wheel? Women in the liberation tigers of Tamil Eelam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda Alison

    2003-01-01

    This article examines women's involvement as combatants in the Sri Lankan Tamil guerrilla organisation the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). It addresses women's motivations for choosing to join the organisation, then examines the debate over the LTTE's brand of nationalist feminism before looking at how women's experiences in the movement have affected their views on gender in society. The

  19. Cogs in the Wheel? Women in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda Alison

    2003-01-01

    This article examines women's involvement as combatants in the Sri Lankan Tamil guerrilla organisation the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). It addresses women's motivations for choosing to join the organisation, then examines the debate over the LTTE's brand of nationalist feminism before looking at how women's experiences in the movement have affected their views on gender in society. The

  20. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  1. Indigenous Women Facing Educational Disadvantages: The Case of the Ainu in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…

  2. Women's Satisfaction with Their Breast Prosthesis: What Determines a Quality Prosthesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Patricia M.; White, Victoria M.; Roberts, Susan B.; Pritchard, Emma; Hayman, Jane; Gibbs, Anne; Hill, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what factors constitute a quality prosthesis and ascertain which factors affect prosthesis satisfaction. Sixty-four women who received full funding for their prosthesis and 38 women who received their hospital's usual funding were recruited. Women rated the information provided about breast prostheses very…

  3. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice. PMID:20390655

  4. N^2 WomenN^2 WomenN^2 WomenN^2 Women Lunch and Panel Career challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    N^2 WomenN^2 WomenN^2 WomenN^2 Women Lunch and Panel Career challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges for women in computerCareer challenges

  5. Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M K; Mills, L S; Ortega, Y; Ruggiero, L F; Allendorf, F W

    2003-07-01

    The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have less genetic variation than core populations at nine microsatellite loci. We show that peripheral populations of lynx have fewer mean numbers of alleles per population and lower expected heterozygosity. This is surprising, given the lynx's capacity to move long distances, but can be explained by the fact that peripheral populations often have smaller population sizes, limited opportunities for genetic exchange and may be disproportionately affected by ebbs and flows of species' geographical range. PMID:12803633

  6. Women in Astronomy Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, Meg

    2000-04-01

    For more than a century women have played a key role in astronomy, making major discoveries that advanced the field. Today there are many examples of women astronomers leading new fields and making fundamental contributions to understanding the Universe. Yet women remain a small fraction of practicing (academic) astronomers. Only 5% of the full professors in astronomy are women, even though at least 10% of astronomy Ph.D.s have gone to women over the last 100 years (and the fraction is now approaching 25%). These and other statistics for women in astronomy, including those from the recent survey by the American Astronomical Society, suggest mechanisms are in place to help men advance beyond their representation in the talent pool. To ensure equity of opportunity and to strengthen science by drawing on the largest possible talent base, similar mechanisms might allow talented women astronomers to meet with comparable success.

  7. The disproportionation reaction phase transition, mechanical, and lattice dynamical properties of the lanthanum dihydrides under high pressure: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wen; Gao, Tao; Gong, Yan-Rong

    2014-06-01

    The pressure-induced disproportionation reaction phase transition, mechanical, and dynamical properties of LaH2 with fluorite structure under high pressure are investigated by performing first-principles calculations using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method. The phase transition of 2LaH2 ? LaH + LaH3 obtained from the usual condition of equal enthalpies occurs at the pressure of 10.38 GPa for Perdew-Wang (PW91) functional and 6.05 GPa for Ceperly-Adler (CA) functional, respectively. The result shows that the PW91 functional calculations agree excellently with the experimental finding of 11 GPa of synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray diffraction (XRD) of Machida et al. and 10 GPa of their PBE functional theoretical result. Three independent single-crystal elastic constants, polycrystalline bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, elastic anisotropy, Poisson's ratio, the brittle/ductile characteristics and elastic wave velocities over different directions dependences on pressure are also successfully obtained. Especially, the phonon dispersion curves and corresponding phonon density of states of LaH2 under high pressure are determined systematically using a linear-response approach to density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Our results demonstrate that LaH2 in fluorite phase can be stable energetically up to 10.38 GPa, stabilized mechanically up to 17.98 GPa, and stabilized dynamically up to 29 GPa, so it may remain a metastable phase above 10.38 GPa up to 29 GPa, these calculated results accord with the recent X-Ray diffraction experimental finding and theoretical predictions of Machida et al.

  8. Reactions of superoxo and oxo metal complexes with aldehydes. Radical-specific pathways for cross-disproportionation of superoxometal ions and acylperoxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Bakac, Andreja

    2002-08-01

    The aquachromyl(IV) ion, Cr(aq)O(2+), reacts with acetaldehyde and pivaldehyde by hydrogen atom abstraction and, in the presence of O(2), produces acylperoxyl radicals, RC(O)OO(*). In the next step, the radicals react with Cr(aq)OO(2+), a species accompanying Cr(aq)O(2+) in our preparations. The rate constant for the Cr(aq)OO(2+)/CH(3)C(O)OO(*) cross reaction, k(Cr) = 1.5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), was determined by laser flash photolysis. The evidence points to radical coupling at the remote oxygen of Cr(aq)OO(2+), followed by elimination of O(2) and formation of CH(3)COOH and Cr(V)(aq)O(3+). The latter disproportionates and ultimately yields Cr(aq)(3+) and HCrO(4)(-). No CO(2) was detected. The Cr(aq)OO(2+)/C(CH(3))(3)C(O)OO(*) reaction yielded isobutene, CO(2), and Cr(aq)(3+), in addition to chromate. In the suggested mechanism, the transient Cr(aq)OOOO(O)CC(CH(3))(3)(2+) branches into two sets of products. The path leading to chromate resembles the CH(3)C(O)OO(*) reaction. The other products arise from an unprecedented intramolecular hydrogen transfer from the tert-butyl group to the CrO entity and elimination of CO(2) and O(2). A portion of C(CH(3))(3)C(O)OO(*) was captured by (CH(3))(3)COO(*), which was in turn generated by decarbonylation of acyl radicals and oxygenation of tert-butyl radicals so formed. PMID:12149018

  9. The self-disproportionation of the enantiomers (SDE) of methyl n-pentyl sulfoxide via achiral, gravity-driven column chromatography: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wzorek, Alicja; Klika, Karel D; Drabowicz, Józef; Sato, Azusa; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2014-07-14

    This work explores the self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) of chiral sulfoxides via achiral, gravity-driven column chromatography using methyl n-pentyl sulfoxide as a case study. A major finding of this work is the remarkable persistence and high magnitude of the SDE for the analyte. Thus, it is the first case where SDE is observed even in the presence of MeOH in the mobile phase. The study demonstrated the practical preparation, in line with theory, of enantiomerically pure (>99.9% ee) samples of methyl n-pentyl sulfoxide starting from a sample of only modest ee (<35%). Remarkably, it was found that the order of elution was inverted, i.e. enantiomerically depleted fractions preceded later eluting enantiomerically enriched ones, when the stationary phase was changed from silica gel to aluminum oxide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first occurrence of inverted SDE behavior due solely to a change in the stationary phase. Aberrant SDE behavior was observed in that the ee did not always fall continuously during the progression of the chromatography, and this was attributed to the complexity of the system at hand which cannot be described in simple terms such as the formation only of homo- and heterochiral dimers based on a single interaction. The results nevertheless suggest that all compounds with a chiral sulfoxide moiety in their structure are likely to exhibit the SDE phenomenon and thus this work constitutes the first example of SDE predictability. Moreover, it could well be that optical purification based on the SDE phenomenon is a simple, convenient, and inexpensive method for the optical purification of this class of compounds with a high degree of proficiency. PMID:24873904

  10. Health Risk Factors and Mental Health Among US Women with and without Chronic Physical Disabilities by Whether Women are Currently Pregnant.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ? 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:25421328

  11. Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute ...

  12. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  13. Dyspareunia in women.

    PubMed

    Seehusen, Dean A; Baird, Drew C; Bode, David V

    2014-10-01

    Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal conflict. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia can have a significant impact on a woman's mental and physical health, body image, relationships with partners, and efforts to conceive. The patient history should be taken in a nonjudgmental way and progress from a general medical history to a focused sexual history. An educational pelvic examination allows the patient to participate by holding a mirror while the physician explains normal and abnormal findings. This examination can increase the patient's perception of control, improve self-image, and clarify findings and how they relate to discomfort. The history and physical examination are usually sufficient to make a specific diagnosis. Common diagnoses include provoked vulvodynia, inadequate lubrication, postpartum dyspareunia, and vaginal atrophy. Vaginismus may be identified as a contributing factor. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause of dyspareunia. Depending on the diagnosis, pelvic floor physical therapy, lubricants, or surgical intervention may be included in the treatment plan. PMID:25369624

  14. Vitamin C status in elderly women: a comparison between women living in a nursing home and women living independently.

    PubMed

    Löwik, M R; Hulshof, K F; Schneijder, P; Schrijver, J; Colen, A A; van Houten, P

    1993-02-01

    The vitamin C status in blood fractions in 135 elderly women aged 65 years and older was studied within the framework of the Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System. Mean (+/- standard deviation) vitamin C intake (mg/day) was lower among women living in a nursing home (54 +/- 27 mg/day) than among women living in service flats (97 +/- 55 mg/day) and women living independently (132 +/- 44 mg/day). (Service flats are apartments in which the rent includes housekeeping and, when ordered, meal service.) Marginal vitamin C values (< 23 mumol/L) in blood fractions and even levels as low as those found in clinical scurvy (< 11 mumol/L) were frequently observed. In the nursing home, 35% of the women had plasma vitamin C values below 11 mumol/L, and 23% had values between 11 and 23 mumol/L. Blood levels were not significantly affected by age, smoking status, or use of particular drugs but were strongly (r = .47 or, after logarithmic transformation, r = .64) associated with daily intake of vitamin C. Low intake of vitamin C resulted from an overall low food consumption and selective restriction of food products rich in vitamin C. Vitamin C losses caused by food preparation practices and distribution in the nursing home's catering system reduced actual vitamin C intake levels but these losses were not substantially greater than those that are assumed to occur as a result of preparation practices by women living independently. PMID:8423281

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplPment au no 3, Tome 40, mars 1979, page C2-313 CHARGE DISPROPORTIONATION IN F ~ ~ + -O X I D E SWITH PEROVSKITE-TYPE STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DISPROPORTIONATION IN F ~ ~ + - O X I D E SWITH PEROVSKITE-TYPE STRUCTURES M. Takano, N. Nakanishi, Y. ~akeda*and S series de solutions solides de structure perovskite Cal-xSrxFeOa et Srl- LaxFe03 pour tester notre modele-xLaxFe03 with the perovskite structure have been studied. The Msssbauer spectrum of Sro.sLao.sFeO3 at 4 K

  16. Women’s hearts need special treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunilla Burell; Brittmarie Granlund

    2002-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the Western world. Some studies show\\u000a that the observed decline in cardiovascular mortality is not as pronounced among women as among men. There is a growing awareness\\u000a that most earlier studies both on primary and secondary risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation have focused

  17. Women and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thirty years since the discovery of HIV, the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa accounts for more than two thirds of the world’s HIV infections. Southern Africa remains the region most severely affected by the epidemic. Women continue to bear the brunt of the epidemic with young women infected almost ten years earlier compared to their male counterparts. Epidemiological evidence suggests unacceptably high HIV prevalence and incidence rates among women. A multitude of factors increase women’s vulnerability to HIV acquisition, including, biological, behavioral, socioeconomic, cultural and structural risks. There is no magic bullet and behavior alone is unlikely to change the course of the epidemic. Considerable progress has been made in biomedical, behavioral and structural strategies for HIV prevention with attendant challenges of developing appropriate HIV prevention packages which take into consideration the socioeconomic and cultural context of women in society at large. PMID:24330537

  18. Why women don’t report sexual harassment: A case study of an elite military institution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana L. Pershing

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment affects the lives of women in a variety of organizational settings, and the United States military has been\\u000a no exception. While several studies have documented the prevalence of women’s experiences with harassment among both the enlisted\\u000a and officer ranks, little is known about women who are being trained to serve as future officers while attending the U.S.\\u000a Department

  19. Oral contraceptives alter sleep and raise body temperature in young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona C. Baker; Duncan Mitchell; Helen S. Driver

    2001-01-01

    Female reproductive steroids, oestrogen and progesterone, not only affect reproductive function, but also thermoregulation and sleep. Chronic administration of synthetic steroids, as occurs in women taking oral contraceptives, may affect these regulatory systems differently from endogenous oestrogen and progesterone. We therefore investigated body temperature and sleep in ten young women taking oral contraceptives, in the active and placebo phases of

  20. THE NEEDS AND CHALLENGES OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR THE RURAL NIGERIAN WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. ODU

    Traditionally, the Nigerian Societies have defined different economic and social roles of women. The socially defined roles and duties of a women as a daughter, a wife and a mother affect her opportunities for education and that in turn affects her economic standing. Lack of education means ignorance and lack of competence in solving social problems relating to poverty and

  1. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311

  2. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  3. Health screening - women - ages 18 - 39

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 - 39; Women's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care - women - ages 18 - ...

  4. Enhanced Emotional Empathy after Mineralocorticoid Receptor Stimulation in Women with Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Janke, Katrin; Hinkelmann, Kim; Dziobek, Isabel; Fleischer, Juliane; Otte, Christian; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is highly expressed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. MR have an important role in appraisal processes and in modulating stress-associated emotional reactions but it is not known whether the MR affects empathy. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disturbed emotion regulation and alterations in empathy. In the current study, we examined whether stimulation of the MR enhances empathy in patients with BPD and healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled study, we randomized 38 women with BPD and without psychotropic medication, and 35 healthy women to either placebo or 0.4?mg fludrocortisone, an MR agonist. Subsequently, all participants underwent two tests of social cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC), measuring cognitive and emotional facets of empathy. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy women received placebo, whereas 20 BPD patients and 17 healthy women received fludrocortisone. In the MET, fludrocortisone enhanced emotional empathy across groups, whereas cognitive empathy was not affected. In the MASC, no effect of fludrocortisone could be revealed. In both tests, BPD patients and healthy women did not differ significantly in cognitive and emotional empathy and in their response to fludrocortisone. Stimulation of MR enhanced emotional empathy in healthy women and in BPD patients. Whether fludrocortisone might have a therapeutic role in psychotherapeutic processes, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24535100

  5. Enhanced emotional empathy after mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation in women with borderline personality disorder and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Janke, Katrin; Hinkelmann, Kim; Dziobek, Isabel; Fleischer, Juliane; Otte, Christian; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is highly expressed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. MR have an important role in appraisal processes and in modulating stress-associated emotional reactions but it is not known whether the MR affects empathy. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disturbed emotion regulation and alterations in empathy. In the current study, we examined whether stimulation of the MR enhances empathy in patients with BPD and healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled study, we randomized 38 women with BPD and without psychotropic medication, and 35 healthy women to either placebo or 0.4?mg fludrocortisone, an MR agonist. Subsequently, all participants underwent two tests of social cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC), measuring cognitive and emotional facets of empathy. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy women received placebo, whereas 20 BPD patients and 17 healthy women received fludrocortisone. In the MET, fludrocortisone enhanced emotional empathy across groups, whereas cognitive empathy was not affected. In the MASC, no effect of fludrocortisone could be revealed. In both tests, BPD patients and healthy women did not differ significantly in cognitive and emotional empathy and in their response to fludrocortisone. Stimulation of MR enhanced emotional empathy in healthy women and in BPD patients. Whether fludrocortisone might have a therapeutic role in psychotherapeutic processes, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24535100

  6. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  7. Gender, Palestinian Women, and Terrorism: Women's Liberation or Oppression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Berko; Edna Erez

    2007-01-01

    Prior literature on women's participation in terrorism has paradoxically interpreted this involvement as a sign of women's newfound empowerment, and as an indication of ongoing gender oppression. The study examines the hypothesis that Palestinian women's involvement in terrorism indicates women's liberation. The data are derived from in-depth interviews with fourteen women who were detained or incarcerated in Israeli prisons for

  8. Tensions Between Black Women and White Women: A Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letha A. Lee See

    1989-01-01

    Despite the gains that women have made because of the women's liberation movement, black women have not embraced the move ment. This article reports on a pilot study of 94 black women and white women that examined the tensions between these two groups and their failure to unite to combat the oppressive patriarchal system. The variables that were studied included

  9. Deciphering the epidemic synergy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) epidemic. The objective of our study was to identify the risk factors of HSV-2 and HIV-1 infections and to examine the association between the two infections. Methods The study participants were recruited through a community based cross-sectional study that was conducted from November 2002 to March 2003 in the Moshi urban district of Northern Tanzania. A two-stage sampling design was used in recruiting the study participants. Information on socio-demographics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs symptoms were obtained. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Results The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among all study participants was 43%. The prevalence rate of HSV-2 among the HIV-negative and HIV-positive women was 40% and 65%, respectively. We found 2.72 times odds of having HIV-1 in an HSV-2 positive woman than in an HSV-2 negative woman. Furthermore, HIV-1 and HSV-2 shared common high-risk sexual behavior factors such as early onset of sexual debut, and testing positive for other STIs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HSV-2 may be both a biological and risk-associated cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition. In resource-limited countries, where both infections are prevalent efforts at symptomatic and diagnostic screening and treatment of HSV-2 should be part of HIV-1 prevention programs. PMID:22909236

  10. Women and War

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Maureen; Bradley, Arlene; Mather, Susan H; Klein, Robert E; Turner, Carole L; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's 1.7 million women veterans obtain all or most of their medical care outside the VA health care system, where their veteran status is rarely recognized or acknowledged. Several aspects of women's military service have been associated with adverse psychologic and physical outcomes, and failure to assess women's veteran status, their deployment status, and military trauma history could delay identifying or treating such conditions. Yet few clinicians know of women's military history—or of military service's impact on women's subsequent health and well being. Because an individual's military service may be best understood within the historical context in which it occurred, we provide a focused historical overview of women's military contributions and their steady integration into the Armed Forces since the War for Independence. We then describe some of the medical and psychiatric conditions associated with military service. PMID:16637946

  11. Women Tech World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    Women Tech World is "the online home" for the Women's Technician Club, which connects women technicians with each other. In the section featuring Role Models, the organization posts biographies, stories and photos of "wonderful women who have succeeded in occupations ranging from auto technician to computer network engineer to detective and more." Women are invited to add their biographies to this list of role models from across the US, representing all ages and races. The website and projects are run by the Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science (IWITTS), a nonprofit organization based in Alameda, Calif. The Community section of the website provides information on how to join its electronic mailing lists, message boards, or e-mentoring groups. The Career Center provides an overview of careers for technicians, such as engineering, telecommunications, or installation maintenance and repair.

  12. Women's History Month * Freeandopentothepublic

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    Musickwebsite:www.publickmusick.org ¡SoyUnica!¡SoyLatina!Rallywebsite:www.latinasunidas.org/index.html March 7 4:30­5:30 p.m. Class of '62,contactGraceFuller:grace_fuller@urmc.rochester.edu. 7 p.m. Hoyt Auditorium, River Campus Women's History Month Film Series: WomenArtRevolution Sponsors:SusanB.AnthonyInstituteforGenderandWomen'sStudies,LittleTheatre,and MultimediaCenter * March 8 9 a.m.­5

  13. Limb Salvage in Women

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tam T.T.; Choi, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD) in women and men is equal. Studies to date present conflicting data of gender effects on the risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes. Clinical trials have often failed to analyze results by gender or to recruit sufficient women to enable such an analysis. This review summarizes the management and outcome of limb salvage therapy with a particular focus in women. PMID:23805340

  14. Men’s Migration and Women’s Fertility in Rural Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Cau, Boaventura

    2012-01-01

    Labor migration profoundly affects households throughout rural Africa. This study looks at how men’s labor migration influences marital fertility in a context where such migration has been massive while its economic returns are increasingly uncertain. Using data from a survey of married women in southern Mozambique, we start with an event-history analysis of birth rates among women married to migrants and those married to nonmigrants. The model detects a lower birth rate among migrants’ wives, which tends to be partially compensated for by an increased birth rate upon cessation of migration. An analysis of women’s lifetime fertility shows that it decreases as the time spent in migration by their husbands accrues. When we compare reproductive intentions stated by respondents with migrant and nonmigrant husbands, we find that migrants’ wives are more likely to want another child regardless of the number of living children, but the difference is significant only for women who see migration as economically benefiting their households. Yet, such women are also significantly more likely to use modern contraception than other women. We interpret these results in light of the debate on enhancing versus disrupting effects of labor migration on families and households in contemporary developing settings. PMID:21691931

  15. Partner Status Influences Women’s Interest in the Opposite Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather; Librach, Giliah R.; Feipel, Nick C.; Ketterson, Ellen D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that hormones, relationship goals, and social context influence interest in the opposite sex. It has not been previously reported, however, whether having a current sexual partner also influences interest in members of the opposite sex. To test this, we obtained explicit and implicit measures of interest by measuring men’s and women’s subjective ratings and response times while they evaluated photos of opposite-sex faces. Fifty-nine men and 56 women rated 510 photos of opposite-sex faces for realism, masculinity, attractiveness, or affect. We found that these subjective ratings were not influenced by partner status in either men or women. However, women who did not report having a current sexual partner spent more time evaluating the photos than women who did have partners, demonstrating greater interest in the photos. Sexual partner status did not predict men’s response times. These findings may reveal that relationship commitment in women suppresses interest in alternative partners. PMID:20161078

  16. Hypertension in women.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, U; Kochar, M S

    2000-06-01

    More women than men eventually develop hypertension in the United States due to their higher numbers and longer longevity. The white coat hypertension is also more common in women. Alcohol, obesity and oral contraceptives are important causes of rise in blood pressure among women. On the other hand, hormone replacement therapy may decrease cardiovascular mortality in the postmenopausal woman. Women with left ventricular hypertrophy are at a greater risk of death than men. Fibromuscular hyperplasia and primary aldosteronism are more common as causes of secondary hypertension in women. Nonpharmacologic therapy, such as weight reduction, exercise, salt and alcohol reduction, should always be tried prior to medical treatment of hypertension and are very useful adjunctive measures in controlling hypertension. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are contraindicated in pregnancy and should be avoided in women with childbearing potential. Hypertension remains a major public health problem among black women. Although the antihypertensive drug therapy seems to benefit white women the least, proportionately more of them comply with their antihypertensive therapy. Hypertension is the most common chronic medical condition requiring visits to the physicians, as well as prescription medications, in the United States. The epidemiology, clinical course, response to treatment and ultimate outcome of essential hypertension may vary with gender. More women than men eventually develop hypertension in the US due to their higher numbers and longer longevity. PMID:10927986

  17. International Women's Day Celebrated

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With historical origins dating back to the early 20th century, International Women's Day has been officially celebrated since 1977, when the United Nations made a special declaration setting the date in early March every year. This year saw a flurry of important events around the world that coincided with March 8th, including ceremonies designed to honor women of national and international importance in many countries and a number of valuable statements made on behalf regarding the cause of gender equality. A number of prominent women also gave speeches this Monday, including Nobel Peace Prize laureate Shirin Ebadi, who noted that "The rights of women and democracy are one and the same." A study released this past Monday by the Inter-Parliamentary Union noted that women make up a record-breaking 15.3 percent of the world's lawmakers. The country with the greatest percentage of female lawmakers is Rwanda (49 percent), followed closely by Sweden, with 45 percent. While there was much to celebrate, there were also some ominous trends noted by lawmakers and officials, including the rapid and disturbing increase of young women with HIV around the world in the past few years, a fact noted by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan during his remarks to a special UN session.The first site will take visitors to a news piece from the Baltimore Sun that contains Shirin Ebadi's remarks made on International Women's Day. The second link leads to a news piece from Al-Jazeera that discusses the rapid increase of HIV among young women, a public health issue that is becoming endemic in certain parts of the developing world. The third link leads to an article from the Cornell (University) Daily Sun that offers details on a celebration honoring women on their campus who had worked to improve the situation of women locally, nationally, and internationally. The fourth link will take visitors to the rather comprehensive website for International Women's Day 2004 created by the United Nations. The site contains information on the events sponsored by the UN and its Women Watch website, which serves as a clearinghouse for resources on gender equality and empowerment of women. The fifth link will take users to a good history of International Women's Day, created by Joyce Stevens for the Australian Women's Intra Network. The final link leads to a well-honed site developed by the World Health Organization to highlight its own work on women's health (including special sections on work in Southeast Asia) and to bring together a number of useful fact sheets and related web-based resources.

  18. [Women's participation in science].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men. PMID:19256415

  19. Charge disproportionation in tetragonal La2MoO5, a small band gap semiconductor influenced by direct Mo-Mo bonding.

    PubMed

    Colabello, Diane M; Camino, Fernando E; Huq, Ashfia; Hybertsen, Mark; Khalifah, Peter G

    2015-01-28

    The structure of the novel compound La2MoO5 has been solved from powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data and belongs to the tetragonal space group P4/m (no. 83) with a = 12.6847(3) Å and c = 6.0568(2) Å and with Z = 8. It consists of equal proportions of bioctahedral (Mo2O10) and square prismatic (Mo2O8) dimers, both of which contain direct Mo-Mo bonds and are arranged in 1D chains. The Mo-Mo bond length in the Mo2O10 dimers is 2.684(8) Å, while there are two types of Mo2O8 dimers with Mo-Mo bonds lengths of 2.22(2) and 2.28(2) Å. Although the average Mo oxidation state in La2MoO5 is 4+, the very different Mo-Mo distances reflect the fact that the Mo2O10 dimers contain only Mo(5+) (d(1)), while the prismatic Mo2O8 dimers only contain Mo(3+) (d(3)), a result directly confirmed by density function theory calculations. This is due to the complete disproportionation of Mo(4+), a phenomenon which has not previously been observed in solid-state compounds. La2MoO5 is diamagnetic, behavior which is not expected for a nonmetallic transition-metal oxide whose cation sites have an odd number of d-electrons. The resistivity displays the Arrhenius-type activated behavior expected for a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.5 eV, exhibiting an unusually small transport gap relative to other diamagnetic oxides. Diffuse reflectance studies indicate that La2MoO5 is a rare example of a stable oxide semiconductor with strong infrared absorbance. It is shown that the d-orbital splitting associated with the Mo2O8 and Mo2O10 dimeric units can be rationalized using simple molecular orbital bonding concepts. PMID:25551640

  20. Abuse, Mastery, and Health Among Lesbian, Bisexual, and Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or “two-spirit” appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women. PMID:19594256