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Sample records for disproportionately affect women

  1. 75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... Announcement CDC-RFA-PS10-10138, ``Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately... (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations'' to make awards to state and county...

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patientprovider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  3. Coming unmoored: Disproportionate increases in obesity prevalence among young, disadvantaged White women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane; Lee, Hedwig; Johnson/Lawrence, Vicki; Seamans, Marissa J.; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since the 1980s, older low-educated White women experienced an unprecedented decrease in life expectancy. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was evident among younger women for obesity. Design and Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated age-adjusted changes in prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference>88 cm) between 1988-1994 and 2003-2010 among non-Hispanic White women aged 25-44 years, stratified by educational attainment (women's changes in obesity prevalence to changes among similarly educated Black women. Results Relative increases in overall obesity were disproportionately larger for low- educated (women: 12.3 (95% CI: 3.1, 21.5) percentage points (ppts). For overall and abdominal obesity, general trends indicated dissimilar racial differences by educational attainment. For instance, overall obesity increased more in Blacks than Whites among college-educated (9.9 ppts) but not low- educated (−2.5 ppts) women. Conclusions Contemporary young, low-educated White women showed indications of disproportionate worsening of overall obesity prevalence compared to more educated White and similarly educated Black women. Low education levels are more powerful indicators of obesity risk among contemporary White women than 30 years ago. PMID:25294582

  4. Fetal programming of overweight through the microbiome: boys are disproportionately affected.

    PubMed

    Kozyrskyj, A L; Kalu, R; Koleva, P T; Bridgman, S L

    2016-02-01

    Maternal and childhood obesity in pregnancy are worrisome public health issues facing our world today. New gene sequencing methods have advanced our knowledge of the disruptive effect of birth interventions and postnatal exposures on the maturation of gut microbiota and immunity during infancy. Yet, little is known about the impact of maternal pregnancy overweight on gut microbes and related processes, and how this may affect overweight risk in offspring. To address this gap in knowledge, we surveyed human studies for evidence in children, infants and pregnant women to piece together the limited literature and generate hypotheses for future investigation. From this literature, we learned that higher Lactobacillus yet lower Bacteroides spp. colonization of gut microbiota within 3 months of birth predicted risk for infant and child overweight. The abundance of bifidobacteria and staphylococci also appeared to play a role in the association with overweight, as did infant fecal immunoglobulin A levels, glycoproteins of the gut immune system that are acquired from breast milk and produced by the infant. We proposed that pregnancy overweight influences the compositional structure of gut microbiota in infants through vertical transfer of microbiota and/or their metabolites during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. Finally, we brought forward emerging evidence on sex dimorphism, as well as ethnic and geographic variation, in reported associations between maternal overweight-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and overweight risk. PMID:26118444

  5. Married Black Men’s Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Tera R.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Sheats, Kameron J.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26082674

  6. The food, fuel, and financial crises affect the urban and rural poor disproportionately: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Marie T; Garrett, James L; Hawkes, Corinna; Cohen, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with the rural poor to these types of shocks. It reviews some of the unique characteristics of urban life that could make the urban poor particularly susceptible to price and financial shocks and summarizes the evidence regarding the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban poor. The focus is on impacts on poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition. The review shows that although the urban poor are clearly one of the population groups most affected by the current (and previous) crises, the rural poor, landless, and net buyers are in no better position to confront the crisis without significant suffering. The poorest of the poor are the ones who will be most affected, irrespective of the continent, country, or urban or rural area where they live. The magnitude and severity of their suffering depends on their ability to adapt and on the specific nature, extent, and duration of the coping strategies they adopt. A better understanding of how these coping strategies are used and staggered is critical to help design triggers for action that can prevent households from moving to more desperate measures. Using these early coping strategies as early warning indicators could help prevent dramatic losses in welfare. PMID:19939990

  7. Did Budget Cuts in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment Affect Hospital Quality of Care?

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.; Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Stratton, Leslie S.; Clement, Dolores G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments are one of the major sources of financial support for hospitals providing care to low-income patients. However, Medicaid DSH payments will be redirected from hospitals to subsidize individual health insurance purchase through US national health reform. Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the association between Medicaid DSH payment reductions and nursing-sensitive and birth-related quality of care among Medicaid/uninsured and privately insured patients. Research Design and Method Economic theory of hospital behavior was used as a conceptual framework, and longitudinal data for California hospitals for 1996–2003 were examined. Hospital fixed effects regression models were estimated. The unit of analysis is at the hospital-level, examining two aggregated measures based on the payer category of discharged patients (i.e., Medicaid/uninsured and privately insured). Principal Findings The overall study findings provide at best weak evidence of an association between net Medicaid DSH payments and hospital quality of care for either Medicaid/uninsured or the privately insured patients. The magnitudes of the effects are small and only a few have significant DSH effects. Conclusions Although this study does not find evidence suggesting that reducing Medicaid DSH payments had a strong negative impact on hospital quality of care for Medicaid/uninsured or privately insured patients, the results are not necessarily predictive of the impact national health care reform will have. Research is necessary to monitor hospital quality of care as this reform is implemented. PMID:24714580

  8. The Effects of Gender Disproportionate Representation on Women's Persistence in Undergraduate Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Stacy Jo

    A study was conducted to examine the factors influencing undergraduate women's likelihood of persistence in their majors, based on Kanter's theory that members of the numerical minority in any group experience role entrapment and performance pressure as a result of their underrepresentation. Interview data were obtained from a stratified, random

  9. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: disproportionate prevalence of women among Kevorkian's patients.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Louis M; Noll, Rebekka C

    2008-06-01

    End-of-life decisions are among the most difficult to make or study. When we examined these decisions made under the auspices and protection of stringent state laws, we found no gender bias among patients who chose to end their lives in the face of documented debilitating and terminal diseases. However, in the case of euthanasia as practiced by Jack Kevorkian, we found significant statistical bias against women. Moreover, other data have questioned whether all of Kevorkian's patients did, in fact, have debilitating and terminal illnesses. In this article, we explore why a gender disparity exists in end-of-life decision making. We conclude that if physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia are to be integrated into any end-of-life medical care policy, stringent legal and medical safeguards will be required. Institution of these safeguards should prevent selection bias in a vulnerable population hastening death for reasons other than medically justifiable conditions or issues of individual autonomy, and should ensure that end-of-life decisions are truly reflective of competent personal choice, free from economic considerations or societal pressure. PMID:18573478

  10. Rural women: factors affecting fertility.

    PubMed

    Youssef, N H

    1980-10-01

    Explanations of the factors affecting women's conscious decisions regarding childbearing generally concentrate on 3 aspects of the status of women: education; employment; and the husband-wife relationship. Although these assumptions are probably valid at the broad theoretical level, at the practical level these assumptions hold little predictive value for policymakers working to influence population growth rates through programs to improve the status of women. The analysis of women's status and its impact on fertility requires the benefit of a unifying theory. A unifying theory would work to explain the variances observed at the field level while simultaneously making allowances for the impact of the broad changes in social and economic structures occurring in all societies undergoing economic modernization. The unit of analysis should be the woman rather than the household, since men and women may have different motivations with respect to childbearing and childrearing. The concept of a sex-based division of labor is a possible focus for such a unified theory. Increased women's employment in agriculture and in work at or near the home frequently has a neutral, and at times a positive, effect on fertility. Certain patterns of female labor, usually those associated with subsistence farming and household-based enterprises, are frequently associated with a high preference for children. When more of the work assigned to women is performed outside the household, as in the case of most wage labor, a somewhat different situation results. Different patterns in the sexual division of labor also affect women's status relative to men both within the household and within the community. PMID:12310008

  11. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  12. Women and HIV/AIDS in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... particularly Black women, are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for the majority of new HIV infections, women ... estimated new HIV infections among women, while only accounting for 13% of the female population; white women ...

  13. Steeplechase Barriers Affect Women Less than Men

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Iain; Bushnell, Tyler D.

    2006-01-01

    Women began contesting the 3000 m steeplechase during the 1990s using barriers of different dimensions than men. Whenever a new event is introduced for women, consideration should be taken as to whether different technique or training methods should be utilized. This study investigated three aspects of hurdling technique: 1) Differences in the ratio of the landing step to the penultimate step between men and women around each non-water jump steeplechase barrier, 2) differences in step lengths between the four non-water jump barriers, and 3) changes in the step lengths around the barrier throughout the race. The step lengths around the 28 non-water jump barriers of the top seven men and women at the 2003 USA Track and Field Championships were measured using a two-dimensional analysis. A t-test determined any differences between men and women for the ratio of the landing to penultimate steps. A 2x4 repeated measures ANOVA tested for differences between the four non-water jump barriers. Linear regression tested for changes in step lengths throughout the race. Men exhibited a smaller ratio between the lengths of the landing to penultimate steps than women (0.73 0.09 and 0.77 0.10 for men and women respectively, p = 0.002). No step length differences were observed between the four barriers in the step lengths around each barrier (p = 0.192 and p = 0.105 for men and women respectively). Athletes gradually increased the total length of all steps around the barriers throughout the race (R2 = 0.021, p = 0.048 and R2 = 0.137, p < 0.001 for men and women respectively). The smaller ratio between landing to penultimate steps shows that the barriers affect women less than men. There may be a need to train men and women differently for the non-water jump barriers in the steeplechase or slightly alter racing strategy. Key Points Non-water jump barriers disrupt the stride of men more than women. There is no difference between any of the four non-water jump barriers in the step lengths used around each barrier. Stride length gradually increases throughout a 3000m steeplechase race even if race pace is maintain. PMID:24260005

  14. Steeplechase barriers affect women less than men.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Iain; Bushnell, Tyler D

    2006-01-01

    Women began contesting the 3000 m steeplechase during the 1990's using barriers of different dimensions than men. Whenever a new event is introduced for women, consideration should be taken as to whether different technique or training methods should be utilized. This study investigated three aspects of hurdling technique: 1) Differences in the ratio of the landing step to the penultimate step between men and women around each non-water jump steeplechase barrier, 2) differences in step lengths between the four non-water jump barriers, and 3) changes in the step lengths around the barrier throughout the race. The step lengths around the 28 non-water jump barriers of the top seven men and women at the 2003 USA Track and Field Championships were measured using a two-dimensional analysis. A t-test determined any differences between men and women for the ratio of the landing to penultimate steps. A 2x4 repeated measures ANOVA tested for differences between the four non-water jump barriers. Linear regression tested for changes in step lengths throughout the race. Men exhibited a smaller ratio between the lengths of the landing to penultimate steps than women (0.73 0.09 and 0.77 0.10 for men and women respectively, p = 0.002). No step length differences were observed between the four barriers in the step lengths around each barrier (p = 0.192 and p = 0.105 for men and women respectively). Athletes gradually increased the total length of all steps around the barriers throughout the race (R(2) = 0.021, p = 0.048 and R(2) = 0.137, p < 0.001 for men and women respectively). The smaller ratio between landing to penultimate steps shows that the barriers affect women less than men. There may be a need to train men and women differently for the non-water jump barriers in the steeplechase or slightly alter racing strategy. Key PointsNon-water jump barriers disrupt the stride of men more than women.There is no difference between any of the four non-water jump barriers in the step lengths used around each barrier.Stride length gradually increases throughout a 3000m steeplechase race even if race pace is maintain. PMID:24260005

  15. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  16. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  17. Charge disproportionation, everywhere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Hiraki, K.; Moroto, S.; Tajima, N.; Takano, Y.; Kubo, Y.; Satsukawa, H.; Chiba, R.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Kato, R.; Naito, T.

    2005-12-01

    Charge disproportionation (CD) recently observed in many organic conductors is reviewed. CD is closely related to the charge ordering (CO) but is observed even when no long range CO is established. In a ? -phase BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF){2}RbZn(SCN){4}, an extremely slow dynamics of CD has been observed above T_MI. A similar phenomenon is also observed in the Cs-analog, (BEDT-TTF){2}CsZn(SCN){4}. However, a spin-singlet ground state without CD is suggested in this salt at low temperatures. It is shown that ? -(BETS){2}I{3} exhibits CD at low temperatures, as in ? -(BET-TTF){2}I{3}. Recently, an abnormal line broadening has been observed in 13C-NMR of (TMTSF){2}FSO{3} under pressure as well as in 77Se-NMR of ?-(BETS){2}FeCl{4} in a high field. We expect that both are very likely caused by a large CD among the organic molecular sites. The current investigation is a part of a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas of Molecular Conductors (No. 15073221) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and the Japan-Korea Joint Research Project from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (03-01-8) and Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (F01-2003-000-20023-0).

  18. Smaller lungs in women affect exercise hyperpnea.

    PubMed

    McClaran, S R; Harms, C A; Pegelow, D F; Dempsey, J A

    1998-06-01

    We subjected 29 healthy young women (age: 27 +/- 1 yr) with a wide range of fitness levels [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max): 57 +/- 6 ml . kg-1 . min-1; 35-70 ml . kg-1 . min-1] to a progressive treadmill running test. Our subjects had significantly smaller lung volumes and lower maximal expiratory flow rates, irrespective of fitness level, compared with predicted values for age- and height-matched men. The higher maximal workload in highly fit (VO2 max > 57 ml . kg-1 . min-1, n = 14) vs. less-fit (VO2 max < 56 ml . kg-1 . min-1, n = 15) women caused a higher maximal ventilation (VE) with increased tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) at comparable maximal VT/vital capacity (VC). More expiratory flow limitation (EFL; 22 +/- 4% of VT) was also observed during heavy exercise in highly fit vs. less-fit women, causing higher end-expiratory and end-inspiratory lung volumes and greater usage of their maximum available ventilatory reserves. HeO2 (79% He-21% O2) vs. room air exercise trials were compared (with screens added to equalize external apparatus resistance). HeO2 increased maximal expiratory flow rates (20-38%) throughout the range of VC, which significantly reduced EFL during heavy exercise. When EFL was reduced with HeO2, VT, fb, and VE (+16 +/- 2 l/min) were significantly increased during maximal exercise. However, in the absence of EFL (during room air exercise), HeO2 had no effect on VE. We conclude that smaller lung volumes and maximal flow rates for women in general, and especially highly fit women, caused increased prevalence of EFL during heavy exercise, a relative hyperinflation, an increased reliance on fb, and a greater encroachment on the ventilatory "reserve." Consequently, VT and VE are mechanically constrained during maximal exercise in many fit women because the demand for high expiratory flow rates encroaches on the airways' maximum flow-volume envelope. PMID:9609779

  19. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In

  20. Microvascular angina: angina that predominantly affects women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Joo; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In women receiving evaluation for suspected ischemic symptoms, a "normal" diagnosis is five times more common than it is in men. These women are often labeled as having cardiac syndrome X, also known as microvascular angina (MVA). MVA is defined as angina pectoris caused by abnormalities of the small coronary arteries, and is characterized by effort chest pain and evidence of myocardial ischemia with a non-invasive stress test, although the coronary arteries can appear normal or near normal by angiography. MVA patients are often neglected due to the assumption of a good prognosis. However, MVA has important prognostic implications and a proper diagnosis is necessary in order to relieve the patients' symptoms and improve clinical outcomes. The coronary microvasculature cannot be directly imaged using coronary angiography, due to the small diameter of the vessels; therefore, the coronary microvascular must be assessed functionally. Treatment of MVA initially includes standard anti-ischemic drugs (?-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates), although control of symptoms is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MVA. PMID:25750553

  1. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  2. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37%). Speaking was equally prevalent among the 3 groups (12%-19%). Behaviors were associated with nightmares, dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, and altered hormone levels. Citation: Nielsen T; Paquette T. Dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum women. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1162-1169. PMID:17910388

  3. Affective decision making in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    LeGris, Jeannette; Toplak, Maggie; Links, Paul S

    2014-10-01

    The affective decision making of 41 recently treated outpatient women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared to 41 healthy controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Non-affective executive functions (EF) of working memory, interference control, and motor inhibition were also compared. Associations among affective and non-affective EF were examined. Despite normal range intelligence, Stroop interference, motor inhibition, and working memory, women with BPD made significantly more disadvantageous IGT decisions than controls (Cohen's d = .72) that were unrelated to substance abuse history, education, psychotropic use, or attentional deficits. Correlates of EF and IGT performance varied by group. Intellect, BPD, and intact behavioral control explained 35% of the adjusted variance in net IGT performance. Disadvantageous IGT decision making was the only EF to predict BPD. IGT deficits in BPD may be separable from IQ and other EF as supported by the somatic marker hypothesis and suggest a stable, trait-like vulnerability favoring immediate reward over long-term gain in women with the disorder. PMID:24845226

  4. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  5. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;

  6. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... alcohol than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows ... to alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an increased risk for breast cancer, heart ...

  7. Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

  8. Asian Women in Transitions: How Modernization Affects Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain

  9. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  10. Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

  11. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

  12. The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have…

  13. The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have

  14. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of womens advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  15. Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170

  16. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered

  17. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  18. How women's adopted low-fat diets affect their husbands.

    PubMed Central

    Shattuck, A L; White, E; Kristal, A R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. One way of promoting a reduction in dietary fat intake is by changing the diet of family members. This study investigated the long-term effects of a low-fat dietary intervention on husbands of women who participated in the Women's Health Trial (WHT). METHODS. An average of 12 months after the end of the WHT, a randomly selected sample of participants' husbands was sent dietary and health questionnaires as part of a follow-up study of the maintenance of the low-fat diet among WHT participants. RESULTS. We found an absolute difference in fat intake between groups of 4 percentage points (32.9% energy from fat among intervention husbands [n = 188] vs 36.9% among control husbands [n = 180]). The wife's attitude and fat intake were among the most important predictors of her husband's fat intake, indicating that the effect of the WHT intervention on the husbands of participants was more likely due to their acceptance of lower-fat foods being served at home than to overt actions by the men. CONCLUSIONS. Our results suggest that a dietary intervention aimed at women can have an effect on their husbands and may be a cost-effective approach to healthy dietary change for both women and men. PMID:1503166

  19. Disproportionate Poverty, Conservatism, and the Disproportionate Identification of Minority Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Andrew L.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Kauffman, James M.; Bogan, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations of disproportionate representation of students from certain ethnic groups in special education have suggested that disproportionality is the result of bias against the members of overrepresented groups or, conversely, the result of disproportionate exposure to poverty for these students. Strong evidence in favor of either

  20. Welfare reforms in Australia: how will they affect women's health?

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Manderson, Lenore; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2002-01-01

    Like most Western countries, Australia is in the process of introducing welfare reforms to curb costs. Australian reforms follow and are informed by similar reforms in the United States and United Kingdom and will be incrementally implemented until 2003. Australian reforms emphasize mutual obligation, preventing people from "taking advantage" of the welfare system, and avoiding long-term reliance on welfare. In contrast to the United States, where the mothers of young children have specifically been targeted, reforms in Australia do not privilege women's roles as workers over their roles as caregivers. Work obligations will be introduced only for mothers whose youngest child is older than 16 years. In fact, financial incentives for providing care for young children and people with disabilities have actually increased. Existing health research suggests that the impact of welfare reform on both health and society will depend on how the balance between women's roles as caregivers and workers is struck. PMID:11905493

  1. Active microbial sulfur disproportionation in the Mesoproterozoic.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David T; Wing, Boswell A; Farquhar, James; Kaufman, Alan J; Strauss, Harald; Lyons, Timothy W; Kah, Linda C; Canfield, Donald E

    2005-12-01

    The environmental expression of sulfur compound disproportionation has been placed between 640 and 1050 million years ago (Ma) and linked to increases in atmospheric oxygen. These arguments have their basis in temporal changes in the magnitude of 34S/32S fractionations between sulfate and sulfide. Here, we present a Proterozoic seawater sulfate isotope record that includes the less abundant sulfur isotope 33S. These measurements imply that sulfur compound disproportionation was an active part of the sulfur cycle by 1300 Ma and that progressive Earth surface oxygenation may have characterized the Mesoproterozoic. PMID:16322453

  2. Low Socioeconomic Status Negatively Affects Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (? = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (?= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761

  3. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states. PMID:22844519

  4. Minorities Are Disproportionately Underrepresented in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Mattison, Richard; Maczuga, Steve; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether minority children attending U.S. elementary and middle schools are disproportionately represented in special education. We did so using hazard modeling of multiyear longitudinal data and extensive covariate adjustment for potential child-, family-, and state-level confounds. Minority children were consistently less likely

  5. Linking Medicaid Expansion and Cuts to Disproportionate-Share Hospitals: Will Safety Nets Survive?

    PubMed

    Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D; Bittle, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    The predominant mechanism by which the health care reforms of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 are to be financed is through the government's simultaneous defunding of major portions of Medicare and Medicaid, including the reduction of up to 75% of federal payments to disproportionate-share hospitals. The justification for curtailment of other public programs is that after Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, the decrease in the proportion of uninsured among the U.S. population will render disproportionate-share hospital payments extraneous and unnecessary. Such justification was reiterated in the recent American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion No. 627, entitled Health Care for Unauthorized Immigrants. Herein, the soundness of the Committee Opinion's proposed policy is evaluated by reviewing available literature on the potential effect of Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital cuts with and without concomitant Medicaid expansion. Limitations of Medicaid expansion efforts before and under the Affordable Care Act, the disproportionate-share hospital payment program, and other legislation providing safety net hospitals with (some) relief of financial burdens related to uncompensated care are explicated. Findings raise concern that acceptance of cuts of up to 75% of federal disproportionate-share hospital funds on the premise that nationwide state expansion of Medicaid will offset the difference may be overly optimistic. Indeed, foregoing disproportionate-share hospital payments undercuts the otherwise laudable intent of Committee Opinion No. 627, namely to advocate for universal health care for all women, including undocumented immigrants. PMID:26241436

  6. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases

  7. Preliminary evidence that acute and chronic daily psychological stress affect sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Vigeveno, Daan; Laan, Ellen

    2007-09-01

    It is assumed that psychological stress may inhibit sexual arousal in women. Research on the effect of (acute and chronic) psychological stressors on genital and subjective sexual arousal, however, is scarce. To investigate whether psychological stressors indeed inhibit sexual responding, sexually functional women were randomly assigned to an experimental condition (n=30) in which acute psychological stress was induced by a frustrating computer task or a control condition (n=29). After the acute psychological stress or control induction women were exposed to an erotic stimulus. Genital sexual arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-report ratings of subjective sexual arousal were collected after the erotic stimulus. Furthermore, women were post hoc divided into a 'low' and a 'high' chronic stress group, based on their pre-assessment scores on a chronic daily stress questionnaire. As predicted, it was found that women in the acute stress condition responded with lower levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal to an erotic stimulus than women in the control condition. In addition, women with high levels of chronic stress responded with lower levels of genital sexual arousal to an erotic stimulus than women with low levels of chronic stress. Chronic stress did not affect the level of subjective sexual arousal. PMID:17481578

  8. The Social Legacy of AIDS: Fertility Aspirations Among HIV-Affected Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mutumba, Massy; Resnicow, Kenneth; Mugyenyi, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of HIV status on fertility desires in Uganda. Methods. We surveyed 1594 women aged 18 to 49 years visiting outpatient services at Mbarara Regional Hospital, from May through August 2010. Of these, 59.7% were HIV-positive; 96.4% of HIV-positive women were using antiretroviral therapy (ART). We used logistic regression models to examine relationships between HIV status and fertility desires, marital status, household structure, educational attainment, and household income. Results. Among married women, HIV-positive status was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of desiring more children (27.7% vs 56.4% of HIV-negative women; χ2 = 39.97; P < .001). The difference remained highly significant net of age, parity, son parity, foster children, education, or household income. HIV-positive women were more likely to be poor, unmarried, single heads of household, in second marriages (if married), living with an HIV-positive spouse, and supporting foster children. Conclusions. We found a strong association between positive HIV status and lower fertility aspirations among married women in Uganda, irrespective of ART status. Although the increasing availability of ART is a tremendous public health achievement, women affected by HIV have numerous continuing social needs. PMID:23237166

  9. Factors affecting perinatal mortality (PNM) in women attending Bab El-Shaaria University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Azab, M A

    1995-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and to assess the important factors affecting perinatal mortality (PNM) in Cairo. 200 women were selected randomly from the gynecology and obstetric department of Bab El-Shaaria University Hospital. 100 women were the case group of perinatal deaths, while the other 100 women formed the control group. Both groups had similar life styles. The attendance rate for prenatal care was more frequent among the control group. High parity, short birth intervals, twins, preterm births, a birth order of 4 or higher, anemia, diabetes mellitus, and maternal age of 30 years and older were more prevalent among the case group and considered risk factors for perinatal mortality. Adequate health care and family planning services must be available to all women of reproductive age. Good prenatal care is needed for the prevention and control of coexisting diseases, and good obstetric care is needed to prevent the premature rupture of membranes. PMID:12295112

  10. A Handbook of State Laws and Policies Affecting Equal Rights for Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jessica

    This booklet is a state-by-state compilation of information on state laws, executive orders, regulations, guidelines, administrative structures, and procedures affecting equal rights for women in education. Within the section devoted to each state, separate short passages discuss state labor laws, fair employment practices legislation, state

  11. General acid catalysis of monochloramine disproportionation

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, R.L.; Jafvert, C.T.

    1988-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of chloramine chemistry is important in the control of water and waste water disinfection, biofouling in power plants, and in assessing the fate of chlorinated effluents discharged into the environment. This paper presents experimental results showing that monochloramine disproportionation, which results in the formation of dichloramine, involves a general acid catalyzed reaction pathway. Rate constants characterizing the effect of hydrogen ion, phosphate, and sulfate were determined by measuring the rate of monochloramine disappearance under pH conditions, which simplified interpretation of results. These rates constants were used to develop a linear free energy relationship that was used to predict the effect of carbonate and silicate. Predictions indicate that carbonate, and possibly silicate, may significantly increase the rate of acid-catalyzed disproportionation at concentrations and pH values typical of many drinking waters. Since this reaction may govern the overall rate of oxidant loss, appropriate consideration must be given to the presence of potential proton donors when predictions relating to chloramine speciation and fate are made on the basis of reaction models or when the results of studies with chloramine solutions are evaluated.

  12. Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorhagen, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student

  13. Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: Are Youth Disproportionately Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Hemenway, David

    2001-01-01

    The effect of firearm availability on suicide may differ among age groups. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and household firearm ownership for four age groups in the nine census regions from 1979 to 1994, adjusting for regional divorce rates, education, unemployment, and urbanity. (BF)

  14. Negative affect and somatically focused anxiety in young women reporting pain with intercourse.

    PubMed

    Meana, Marta; Lykins, Amy

    2009-01-01

    After a long history of privileging psychosexual etiological factors over pain and physiological processes, dyspareunia has enjoyed 1 decade of pointed research focused on the presenting problem of pain. Although it is generally acknowledged that certain affective and cognitive styles may play a role in an individual's experience of pain in general, investigations into these questions specifically as they pertain to pain that occurs during sex are relatively scarce. To add to this growing body of knowledge, 759 women aged 18 to 29 completed questionnaires about current sexual functioning, gynecologic history, expectations about intercourse, and various personality and health-related anxiety measures. One-hundred-one women (14% of the sample) reported pain during intercourse on at least 50% of attempts. This group of women significantly differed from 536 women reporting pain on less than 10% of intercourse attempts on personality constructs related to emotional and relational well-being (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness), as well as anxiety sensitivity, anxiety related to physical health concerns, and the amplification of somatosensory experiences. This affective and cognitive profile is consistent with previous studies that have found an attentional hypervigilance to health and pain-related information in women with dyspareunia, all of which could prove germane to cognitive-behavioral treatments targeting this disorder. PMID:19085604

  15. The Experience of Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder. It has significant and diverse clinical consequences including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological morbidities as well as predisposition to malignancies. It is unclear how women with PCOS experience symptoms of this syndrome. Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the dimensions and components of quality of life in iranian women with PCOS. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative study to explore and document perceptions of women with PCOS about their disorder and quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with open ended questions were conducted with 23 women with PCOS. The interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The study was conducted in the Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results: The study revealed that the most important factors affecting quality of life in women with PCOS were the role functioning items as well as physical, mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions. Conclusions: Comprehensive cares concerning various mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions of quality of life should be planned for women with PCOS. PMID:24829583

  16. Risk of breast cancer in families of multiple affected women and men.

    PubMed

    Bevier, Melanie; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-04-01

    Family history of first and second-degree relatives is known to increase the risk for breast cancer. Less data are available on the risks between defined multiple affected close and distant relatives for which the reliability of data may be an issue. Data on affected males are sparse. These questions and the probable genetic models were addressed in this study by means of a nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database. We estimated the effect of family history of breast cancer by Poisson regression for women of at least 30 years of age after adjusting for age, period, region, socioeconomic status, number of children, and age at first birth. The results of the study showed that relative risk (RR) for breast cancer was associated with a first degree as well as second-degree family history. Having at least two female affected first-degree relatives increased the RR at least to 2.8, favoring an additive interaction. The risk was increased around ten times in women with both parents affected. When either a father or a mother was affected, the RRs were nearly identical (RR = 1.73 and 1.74, respectively). The RR for a woman increased more when a brother was affected (RR = 2.48) compared to when a sister was affected (RR = 1.87). Having an affected grandmother showed lower familial excess risks than having an affected half sister (RR = 1.27, and 1.26; and RR = 1.39, and 1.50; respectively, for maternal and paternal relatives). We concluded that when both parents were diagnosed with breast cancer, the risk for the daughter was increased tenfold. Having an affected brother showed a somewhat higher risk than having an affected sister. The data suggest that male breast cancer has a higher genetic basis than female breast cancer, which invites further search of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22179927

  17. Implications for Policy to Support Healthy Weight for Women.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Sue

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, obesity rates have more than doubled during the past three decades. Women experience twice the obesity prevalence as men, and women of color, with less education, and in lower income levels disproportionately affected. Obesity and its comorbidities result in considerable economic burdens for the individual and society. Given the widespread prevalence of obesity, the potential effect on individual and population health, and associated costs, policy solutions targeting obesity prevention and interventions must be explored. PMID:26402435

  18. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required. PMID:26696713

  19. Impulsive aggressiveness of pregnant women affects the development of the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Wiebigke, Claudia; Siebel, Walter A; Stepan, Holger

    2009-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that the development of the fetus is heavily influenced by the intra-uterine milieu during pregnancy, and that such influence may have life-long consequences for the individual. The intra-uterine milieu is not only influenced by nutritional factors, but also by maternal endocrine and autonomic activity. Such activity is prone to be affected by an individual's personality, but only little is known about influences of maternal personality on the development of the fetus. We tested pregnant women for their propensity for impulsive, uncontrollable outbursts of temper (referred to here as moderate Intermittent Explosive Disorder, mIED). After the women gave birth, we measured electrocardiograms (ECGs) from their newborn infants to compare ECGs between newborns of women with and without mIED. The data show that infants of women with mIED have larger QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram, and lower heart rate variability, compared to infants of women without mIED. These results reveal effects of maternal mIED on the fetal heart development. These effects may predispose the individual to increased risk for later cardio-vascular disease. The findings open perspectives for better risk prevention models for the unborn child. PMID:19804798

  20. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p < 0.01) and stress (-0.69, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status. PMID:21213188

  1. Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Dawn Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher

  2. Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Zo D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses. PMID:19856092

  3. Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Anne M; Mangano, Kelsey M; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Anamani, Denise E; Kleppinger, Alison; Walsh, Stephen J; Prestwood, Karen M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged >60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets. Results: Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 8090%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00668447. PMID:19474141

  4. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  5. How does marriage protect women with histories of affective disorder from post-partum relapse?

    PubMed

    Marks, M; Wieck, A; Checkley, S; Kumar, C

    1996-12-01

    Interviews were carried out at 36 weeks antenatal with 63 married couples, in 36 of which the woman had a history of affective disorder and in 27 the woman had no previous psychiatric history. The men's attitudes to their wives were assessed using expressed emotion methodology. Also assessed were psychiatric history, neuroticism, satisfaction with the marital relationship and attitudes to sex, pregnancy and parenthood in both the woman and her partner. Women with psychiatric histories who did not relapse in the six months following delivery had partners who were more positive about them than partners of high-risk women who remained well and control women. This effect is explored further by examining which characteristics of the man and which of the woman contributed to his critical and positive comment score. Criticism of his wife was associated with each partner reporting less marital satisfaction and also with the man's psychiatric history. No characteristic of the woman contributed to her partner's criticism. In contrast, the men's positive comments about their wives were associated with the woman's satisfaction with key aspects of her femaleness. Positive husbands had wives were pleased to be pregnant, happy with their pregnant bodies and enjoying the sexual aspect of the marital relationship. In women with psychiatric histories the time which had elapsed since her last psychiatric admission also influenced his positive comments. PMID:8989981

  6. Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  7. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320 Section 412.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Capital-Related Costs 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for...

  8. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320 Section 412.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Capital-Related Costs 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for...

  9. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320 Section 412.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Capital-Related Costs 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for...

  10. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320 Section 412.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Capital-Related Costs 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for...

  11. 26 CFR 1.305-3 - Disproportionate distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 1995. For previously issued stock, see 1.305-3(e) Example (15) (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disproportionate distributions. 1.305-3 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Recipients 1.305-3 Disproportionate distributions. (a)...

  12. 26 CFR 1.305-3 - Disproportionate distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 1995. For previously issued stock, see 1.305-3(e) Example (15) (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disproportionate distributions. 1.305-3 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Recipients 1.305-3 Disproportionate distributions. (a)...

  13. 26 CFR 1.305-3 - Disproportionate distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 1995. For previously issued stock, see 1.305-3(e) Example (15) (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disproportionate distributions. 1.305-3 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Recipients 1.305-3 Disproportionate distributions. (a)...

  14. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  15. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    PubMed Central

    Cambronero-Saiz, Beln

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional malefemale gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns proves that the gender perspective still lacks the promotion of shared responsibilities between men and women. There is a need for institutions that act as policy watchdogs to control the gender biases in mass media and pharmaceutical marketing as well as to ensure the proper implementation and maintenance of Spanish equality laws. PMID:23806207

  16. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric

  17. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  18. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently.

    PubMed

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants' conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  19. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  20. Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

    2013-12-01

    Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

  1. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities. PMID:26103702

  2. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  3. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  4. refinement of an educational toolkit to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening among hispanic immigrant Women in rural Southern Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Johnson, Lisa C.; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Hinojosa, Andrea; Mason, Mondi; Meade, Cathy D.; Luque, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cervical cancer incidence and mortality continue to affect Hispanic women in the U.S. disproportionately. Our project sought to refine a cervical cancer intervention designed for use by community health workers, or promotoras, in rural southern Georgia. We collaborated with Hispanic promotoras to refine a Spanish language educational flipchart featuring cervical cancer topic areas for use in screening promotion. PMID:23698684

  5. Structural Dissection of the Maltodextrin Disproportionation Cycle of the Arabidopsis Plastidial Disproportionating Enzyme 1 (DPE1)*

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Ellis C.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Tantanarat, Krit; Latousakis, Dimitrios; Donaldson, Matthew I.; Rejzek, Martin; Nepogodiev, Sergey A.; Limpaseni, Tipaporn; Field, Robert A.; Lawson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of transitory starch in the chloroplast to provide fuel for the plant during the night requires a suite of enzymes that generate a series of short chain linear glucans. However, glucans of less than four glucose units are no longer substrates for these enzymes, whereas export from the plastid is only possible in the form of either maltose or glucose. In order to make use of maltotriose, which would otherwise accumulate, disproportionating enzyme 1 (DPE1; a 4-α-glucanotransferase) converts two molecules of maltotriose to a molecule of maltopentaose, which can now be acted on by the degradative enzymes, and one molecule of glucose that can be exported. We have determined the structure of the Arabidopsis plastidial DPE1 (AtDPE1), and, through ligand soaking experiments, we have trapped the enzyme in a variety of conformational states. AtDPE1 forms a homodimer with a deep, long, and open-ended active site canyon contained within each subunit. The canyon is divided into donor and acceptor sites with the catalytic residues at their junction; a number of loops around the active site adopt different conformations dependent on the occupancy of these sites. The “gate” is the most dynamic loop and appears to play a role in substrate capture, in particular in the binding of the acceptor molecule. Subtle changes in the configuration of the active site residues may prevent undesirable reactions or abortive hydrolysis of the covalently bound enzyme-substrate intermediate. Together, these observations allow us to delineate the complete AtDPE1 disproportionation cycle in structural terms. PMID:26504082

  6. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting 412.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a... Inpatient Operating Costs 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...

  7. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting 412.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a... Inpatient Operating Costs 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...

  8. 42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... citations affecting 412.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a... Inpatient Operating Costs 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...

  9. Parity as a factor affecting the white-coat effect in pregnant women: the BOSHI study.

    PubMed

    Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Iwama, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Mikiko; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Narikawa, Yoko; Yagihashi, Katsuyo; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Parity has previously been reported to affect the difference in blood pressure (BP) measured in the office and at home, also known as the white-coat effect, during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify possible factors that cause the white-coat effect during pregnancy, focusing on parity. In total, 530 pregnant women (31.34.7 years old) who delivered at a maternal clinic were eligible for the study. The association between parity and the white-coat effect (clinic BP compared with home BP) was investigated for each trimester of pregnancy by multivariate analysis of covariance adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking habits. The magnitudes of the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first, second and third trimesters were 4.19.8, 3.47.1 and 1.86.0?mm?Hg, respectively and those for diastolic BP were 3.87.4, 1.65.8 and 2.44.9?mm?Hg, respectively. Parity was significantly and negatively associated with the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (nulliparous women: 5.070.61?mm?Hg and multiparous women: 2.780.74?mm?Hg, P=0.02) as well as for diastolic BP in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking were not significantly associated with the white-coat effect in any trimester of pregnancy. Parity may have an influence on the white-coat effect in pregnancy; however, the observed effect, on average 1-2?mm?Hg, was small. PMID:26311165

  10. HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

  11. Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, S.; Sydsj, G.; Lampic, C.; kerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflicting results regarding pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a national study of 171 lesbians and 124 heterosexual women undergoing sperm donation both as D-IUI (lesbian n = 438, heterosexual n = 298) and as embryo transfers (ET) after IVF with donated sperm (lesbians n = 225, heterosexuals n = 230) during 20052010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All clinics in Sweden offering sperm donation recruited patients. Differences in patients' medical history, treatment results and number of treatments to live birth were analyzed using independent samples t-test, Pearson's ?2 test or Fisher's exact probability test. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE 71.8% of heterosexuals and 69.0% of lesbians had a child after treatment. The mean number of treatments was 4.2 for heterosexual women and 3.9 for lesbians. The total live birth rate, regardless of treatment type, was 19.7% for heterosexuals and 19.5% for lesbians. For D-IUI, the live birth rate was 12.8% for heterosexuals and 16.0% for lesbians and the live birth rate for all IVF embryo transfers (fresh and thawed cycles) was 28.7% for heterosexuals and 26.2% for lesbians. There were no differences in live birth rate between the groups for each of the different types of insemination stimulations (natural cycle; clomiphene citrate; FSH; clomiphene citrate and FSH combined). Nor was there a difference in live birth rate between the groups for either fresh or thawed embryo transfer. There was no difference between the proportions of women in either group or the number of treatments needed to achieve a live birth. Heterosexuals had a higher prevalence of smokers (9.2%), uterine polyps (7.2%) or previous children (11.3%) than lesbians (smokers 2.8%, P = 0.03; polyps 1.8%, P = 0.03; child 2.5%, P = 0.003). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study is limited to women living in stable relationships undergoing treatment with donated sperm in a clinical setting and may not apply to single women or those undergoing home inseminations. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These results may influence healthcare policy decisions as well as increase the quality of clinical care and medical knowledge of healthcare professionals. The data also have important implications for individuals regarding screening, infertility diagnostic procedures and treatment types offered to heterosexuals and lesbians seeking pregnancy through sperm donation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Funding was granted by the Stiftelsen Familjeplaneringsfonden i Uppsala; the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare; and the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation. The authors report no conflicts of interest. PMID:24435777

  12. Women are more strongly affected by dizziness in static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Grbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2014-10-01

    Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7?T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields. PMID:25089803

  13. HIV Susceptibility Among Hispanic Women in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic women (HW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, however, little is known regarding their perceived susceptibility for acquiring HIV (SAHIV). We studied predictive factors for perceiving SAHIV among HW. Participants (88.5%) reported not feeling SAHIV. Women who felt SAHIV, had a significant probability of reporting a higher chance for acquiring HIV from their partner’s actions (OR 9.75), and a higher probability of not being tested for HIV (OR 2.05). Educational strategies to increase perception of SAHIV and HIV testing knowledge would be beneficial giving emphasis to women who do not perceive to be at risk from their partner’s actions. PMID:21058138

  14. Helping Women into Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests

  15. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western womens use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Womens Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersens healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western womens utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in womens native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization. PMID:23537172

  16. Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

  17. Redox Disproportionation of Glucose as a Major Biosynthetic Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that very little if any energy is required for the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids from glucose -- processes that yield almost as much ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as they consume. However, these studies did not establish the strength nor the nature of the energy source driving these biological transformations. To identify and estimate the strength of the energy source behind these processes, we calculated the free energy change due to the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon of (a) 26 redox-balanced fermentation reactions, and (b) the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides of E. coli from glucose. A plot of the negative free energy of these reactions per mmole of carbon as a function of the number of disproportionative electron transfers per mmol of carbon showed that the energy yields of these fermentations and biosyntheses were directly proportional to the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon. Since this linear relationship showed that redox disproportionation was the dominant energy source of these reactions, we were able to establish that amino acid and lipid biosynthesis obtained most of their energy from redox disproportionation (greater than 94%). In contrast nucleotide biosynthesis was not driven by redox disproportionation of carbon, and consequently depended completely on ATP for energy. This crucial and previously unrecognized role of sugars as an energy source of biosynthesis suggests that sugars were involved at the earliest stage in the origin of anabolic metabolism.

  18. Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

    2013-11-01

    Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation. PMID:24030483

  19. New Clues to How Gene Affects Women's Body Shape, Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Genes and Gene Therapy Women's Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 2 Genes and Gene Therapy Women's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  20. The factors affecting pregnancy outcomes in the second trimester pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Seo Won

    2009-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to fetal and maternal health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting birth weight and gestational age and to provide basic data to promote more favorable pregnancy outcomes. Data were collected from 234 pregnant women at two hospitals in Seoul. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and health related habits were obtained using a questionnaire at the hospital visit during the second trimester. Dietary intakes were estimated by 24 hour recall at the hospital visit during the second trimester. Data on pregnancy outcomes, including birth weights and gestational ages, were obtained from hospital records after delivery. Birth weights were divided into a low birth weight group (birth weight<3.1 kg), a normal birth weight group (3.1-3.6 kg) and a high birth weight group (>3.6 kg). Gestational ages were divided into tertiles according to the gestational age of the subjects: group 1 (<38.53 weeks), group 2 (38.53-40.00 weeks) and group 3 (>40.00 weeks). The number of family members was significantly lower in the low birth weight group than in the normal birth weight group (p<0.05). In the low birth weight group, pregnancy weight was significantly lower than in the high birth weight group (p<0.05). Health related habits were not significantly different among any of the groups. Intakes of fiber, phosphorous, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid were significantly higher in the high birth weight group than the low birth weight group (p<0.05). Gestational age was not significantly affected by nutrient intakes, but birth weight was affected by nutrient intake in the results of this study. Therefore, the adequacy of nutrient intake is important for the improvement of pregnancy outcomes. PMID:20016714

  1. African American womens perspectives on Down Low/DL men: Implications for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

    2012-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) contribute to womens HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as Down Low or DL. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D.C. to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours regarding Down Low/DL men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV positive women and three groups were composed of HIV negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to womens perspectives on the DL: awareness; suspicion; coping with partner infidelity: male vs. female; sexual health communication; empathy; and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV positive and HIV negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American womens perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and womens exposure to HIV risk. PMID:22804686

  2. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair

  3. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  4. Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Taylor, D S; Lin, H M; Matthews, A E; Eggli, D F; Legro, R S

    2000-10-01

    This longitudinal observational study determined the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use during adolescence on peak bone mass (PBM). The sample comprised 62 non-Hispanic, White females in The Penn State Young Women's Health Study, who were studied for 8 years between the ages of 12 and 20. There were 28 OC users who used OCs for a minimum of 6 months and were still using them at age 20, and 34 nonusers who had never used the regimen. Total body bone, dedicated hipbone, and body composition measurements were made by dual-energy roentgenogram absorptiometry. There was no difference between OC users and nonusers in the anthropometric, body composition, or total body bone measurements. By age 20, the average duration of OC use by the user group was 22 months. At this age, the groups remained indistinguishable in anthropometric, body composition, total body, and hipbone measurements, and in age of menarche and sports exercise scores. These findings suggest that OC use by healthy, White, teenage females does not affect acquisition of PBM. PMID:11020515

  5. Rifaximin modulates the vaginal microbiome and metabolome in women affected by bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Luca; Picone, Gianfranco; Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Donders, Gilbert; Capozzi, Francesco; Vitali, Beatrice

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by the decrease of lactobacilli and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and resident anaerobic vaginal bacteria. In the present work, the effects of rifaximin vaginal tablets on vaginal microbiota and metabolome of women affected by BV were investigated by combining quantitative PCR and a metabolomic approach based on (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. To highlight the general trends of the bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in response to the antibiotic/placebo therapy, a multivariate statistical strategy was set up based on the trajectories traced by vaginal samples in a principal component analysis space. Our data demonstrated the efficacy of rifaximin in restoring a health-like condition in terms of both bacterial communities and metabolomic features. In particular, rifaximin treatment was significantly associated with an increase in the lactobacillus/BV-related bacteria ratio, as well as with an increase in lactic acid concentration and a decrease of a pool of metabolites typically produced by BV-related bacteria (acetic acid, succinate, short-chain fatty acids, and biogenic amines). Among the tested dosages of rifaximin (100 and 25 mg for 5 days and 100 mg for 2 days), 25 mg for 5 days was found to be the most effective. PMID:24709255

  6. 42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320 Section 412.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital...

  7. Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide

  8. Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA): Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dwayne E.

    In July 1990, "Standards, Policies and Procedures for the Evaluation of Assessment Instruments Used in the California Community Colleges" was published, requiring colleges to determine whether current testing practices discriminate against members of underrepresented groups. The standard for demonstrating disproportionate impact comes from the

  9. Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2007-12-01

    Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate. PMID:18089279

  10. Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD. Patients and methods 61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery. Results Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD. Interpretation Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women. PMID:22489886

  11. Returning to STEM: Gendered Factors Affecting Employability for Mature Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Clem

    2015-01-01

    This paper adds to current discourses around employability by arguing for an explicit recognition of gender, in particular in relation to women's employment in male-dominated sectors such as science, engineering and technology. This is not limited to young first-time graduates but continues and evolves throughout the life course. Mature women

  12. Factors affecting the compliance of Israeli women with screening for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Abramov, Luda; Dhokarker, Avigail; Israelov, Etery

    2013-04-01

    Violence against women has become a frequent occurrence. In Israel, some 200,000 women are subjected to various types of violence by their intimate partners annually. Routine screening for intimate partner violence is endorsed by the Ministry of Health in Israel; however, screening rates in health-care settings remain problematic. This study aimed to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting women's intention to comply with screening for intimate partner violence. A questionnaire based on the literature review and research model was administered to a convenience sample of 200 married women. Although only 4.5% (n?=?9) of respondents were screened for violence at various health-care institutions over the past year, 75% (n?=?150) of women declared that they intend to cooperate with screening. A positive correlation was found between women's marriage duration, beliefs concerning violence, attitudes towards screening, family member support for compliance with screening-and women's intention to comply with screening. The TRA succeeds in partially predicting women's intention to comply with screening. PMID:23577975

  13. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

  14. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.

  15. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    PubMed

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p < 0.01), comparable improvements in affect emerged after RE. Additionally, the SS condition was associated with the highest ratings of self-efficacy and intention for future RE participation (p < 0.01), but affective responses to acute RE were unrelated to self-efficacy or intention. It is concluded that acute bouts of SS and imposed load RE resulted in comparable improvements in affect; recreationally trained women reported the highest self-efficacy and intention to use the load chosen in SS condition in their own resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training. PMID:26506060

  16. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n = 139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

  17. How does HIV affect the reproductive choices of women of childbearing age?

    PubMed

    Haberl, Annette; Reitter, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The majority of women living with HIV are of childbearing age and many of these women wish to have a family. As a result of advances in the treatment and management of HIV, more reproductive opportunities are now available to this group. However, women living with HIV may still require education and guidance in a range of reproductive situations, including avoiding pregnancy, seeking fertility treatment or having a child. HIV physicians should be aware of recent data and guidance on these situations--including areas where more data are required--and consider them when deciding on appropriate management for their patients. PMID:23784712

  18. Excessive and disproportionate advertising in peer-reviewed journals.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S; Richter, Elihu D

    2006-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has outlined ethical guidelines concerning the advertising practices of peer-reviewed journals that briefly discuss issues of excessive and disproportionate advertising. The authors evaluated these guidelines using quantitative data, assessing the types and frequencies of advertising in 2001 print issues of NEJM and JAMA, two principal members of ICMJE. Advertising ratios (ratio of advertisements to editorial content) were near unity in NEJM and 0.30 in JAMA, compared with reported ratios of 0.15 among low-circulation specialty science journals and 0.80 among high-circulation consumer magazines. In both journals, five corporations placed more than 50% of all display advertisements. The findings suggest a dissonance between the ethical guidelines and the de facto advertising practices of arguably the two most important member journals of the ICMJE. There is a need to define and apply standards for excessive and disproportionate advertising. PMID:16523984

  19. Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2008-11-01

    A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19025250

  20. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  1. An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2013-08-01

    Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns. PMID:23930875

  2. Obesity and Black Women: Special Considerations Related to Genesis and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Priscilla; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    Black women in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity, with almost two-thirds considered obese based on body mass index. Obesity has been directly linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in black women. Therefore, understanding contributors to the genesis of obesity in black women is imperative. While biologic differences likely result in varying obesity prevalence across racial/ethnic groups, behaviors such as post-partum weight retention and limited leisure-time physical activity, may especially contribute to obesity in black women. Black women also appear to be particularly susceptible to cultural, psychosocial, and environmental factors that can promote weight gain. Therapeutic interventions are being tailored to specifically address these social determinants of health and to foster lifestyle modification; however, more work is needed to understand barriers to behavior change for black women. Knowledge gaps also remain in identifying mechanisms by which pharmacologic and surgical treatments for obesity modify cardiovascular risk in black women. PMID:24159367

  3. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  4. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  5. A standardized exercise intervention differentially affects pre- and post-menopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Jan; Babbitt, Dianne M.; Diaz, Keith M.; Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Perkins, Amanda M.; Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Williamson, Sheara T.; Ling, Chenyi; Lee, Hojun; Grimm, Heather; Thakkar, Sunny R.; Crabbe, Deborah L.; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Brown, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective African American women present an understudied population in menopause research, yet face greater post-menopausal challenges associated with mortality than their white peers. We investigated the effect of a mild-intensity aerobic exercise training program on markers of mortality risk in both pre- and post-menopausal African American women. Methods 16 pre- and 19 post-menopausal women underwent 6 months of mild-intensity aerobic exercise training. Measurements included markers of blood lipid and glucose profile, inflammation, kidney function, vascular health and aerobic fitness before and after the exercise intervention. Results Before the exercise intervention the pre- and post-menopausal groups only differed in terms of age, LDL, and total cholesterol levels, with the latter two being higher in the post-menopausal group. Both triglycerides and markers of early stage endothelial dysfunction (CD62E+ endothelial microparticles) improved in both groups with aerobic exercise training. Aerobic fitness, glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, plasma glucose levels, and markers of late stage endothelial dysfunction (CD31+/CD42b? endothelial microparticles) only improved in the pre-menopausal group. Conclusions Mild-intensity aerobic exercise training was successful in improving some markers of cardiovascular disease and mortality in post-menopausal women. Higher levels of exercise intensity or perhaps additional interventions may need to be considered in this population to further decrease mortality risk. PMID:24193297

  6. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private

  7. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective

  8. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at

  9. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  10. Diabetes distress may adversely affect the eating styles of women with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Quinn, Laurie; Hacker, Eileen; Park, Hanjong; Kujath, Amber S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia, and eating styles in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Fifteen women (mean age 3713.5years) with T1DM completed surveys measuring diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia (FOH), and eating style. Height, weight, and A1C were obtained, and open-ended comments regarding hypoglycemic concerns and experiences were recorded. Diabetes distress was positively associated with A1C (r= .655, p=.008). High levels of external (73%), emotional (47%), and restrained (53%) eating styles were reported. Emotional and external eating styles were positively associated with diabetes distress (r=.575 and r=.622; p<.05). Those with poorer glycemic control (A1C>7%; 53 mmol/mol) had higher levels of restrained eating behavior (F=10.69, p=.006) and greater interpersonal distress (F=5.916, p=.03) than those with better glycemic control (A1C<7%; 53 mmol/mol). A nonlinear relationship was identified between interpersonal distress and FOH (behavior subscale, p=.0383) indicating that fewer behavioral approaches were employed to avoid hypoglycemia at higher distress levels. The women in this sample were emotionally burdened by their disease. Distress was associated with eating styles linked with overeating and poor glycemic control. High levels of emotional and external eating styles may have important clinical implications for those with T1DM. PMID:24615054

  11. Does long-term smoking affect aortic stiffness more in women than in men?

    PubMed

    Sonesson, B; Ahlgren, A R; Lazer, L; Lnne, T

    1997-09-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, although understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism is incomplete. The effect of heavy smoking, for more than 20 years and of 20 cigarettes per day, on aortic stiffness was studied in women (n = 23, age range 43-61 years) and men (n = 21, age range 43-61 years) who smoked but were otherwise healthy and compared with a healthy reference population that did not smoke. Aortic stiffness (beta) was calculated from the diameter and the pulsatile diameter change determined non-invasively using an ultrasonic echo-tracking system and blood pressure obtained by the auscultatory method. The results showed that aortic diameter did not differ in smoking males (P = 0.974) or in smoking females (P = 0.361). Aortic stiffness was increased in the female (P = 0.041) but not male smokers (P = 0.222). Systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure in the men and women who smoked did not differ from those in the healthy reference population. In conclusion, this investigation shows increased aortic stiffness in female but not in male smokers. It indicates that the aorta of women might be more vulnerable to smoking with regard to stiffening and degeneration than the aorta of men. PMID:9347193

  12. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, Joo P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrin V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM. PMID:23898989

  13. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8??4.7?years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exners comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passiveaggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessivecompulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach tests results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  14. The liposuction-induced effects on adiponectin and selected cytokines are not affected by exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fbio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF- ? , IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training. PMID:24527033

  15. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  16. A Social Ecological Model of Syndemic Risk affecting Women with and At-Risk for HIV in Impoverished Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, A W; Gonzalez, J S; Palma, A; Schoenbaum, E; Lounsbury, D W

    2015-12-01

    Syndemic risk is an ecological construct, defined by co-occurring interdependent socio-environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants. We posited syndemic risk to be a function of violence, substance use, perceived financial hardship, emotional distress and self-worth among women with and at-risk for HIV in an impoverished urban community. In order to better understand these interrelationships, we developed and validated a system dynamics (SD) model based upon peer-reviewed literature; secondary data analyses of a cohort dataset including women living with and at-risk of HIV in Bronx, NY (N = 620); and input from a Bronx-based community advisory board. Simulated model output revealed divergent levels and patterns of syndemic risk over time across different sample profiles. Outputs generated new insights about how to effectively explore multicomponent multi-level programs in order to strategically develop more effective services for this population. Specifically, the model indicated that effective multi-level interventions might bolster women's resilience by increasing self-worth, which may result in decreased perceived financial hardship and risk of violence. Overall, our stakeholder-informed model depicts how self-worth may be a major driver of vulnerability and a meaningful addition to syndemic theory affecting this population. PMID:26370203

  17. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39?yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  18. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  19. Alcohol Use and HIV Testing in a National Sample of Women.

    PubMed

    Walter, Angela W; Lundgren, Lena; Umez-Eronini, Amarachi; Ritter, Grant A

    2016-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to disproportionately affect racial and ethnic minority groups and women in the United States. Prevention research suggests that reduced alcohol use and increased HIV testing are associated with lower incidence of HIV transmission among high-risk populations. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of the 2009 National Health Interview Survey data were performed for a national sample of 15,470 adult women to examine the relationship between alcohol use and likelihood of HIV testing. There is a significant association between level of alcohol use and HIV testing. Women who identified as heavy drinkers and moderate drinkers were significantly less likely to report ever testing for HIV. Findings add to the limited literature on the association between alcohol use and HIV testing behaviors among women. Given the incidence of HIV among women, this study highlights the importance of HIV testing, especially for alcohol-usingwomen. PMID:26238036

  20. The Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health: Impact of Science on Regulatory Policy: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Merina; Eshera, Noha; Bambata, Nkosazana; Barr, Helen; Lyn-Cook, Beverly; Beitz, Julie; Rios, Maria; Taylor, Deborah R.; Lightfoote, Marilyn; Hanafi, Nada; DeJager, Lowri; Wiesenfeld, Paddy; Scott, Pamela E.; Henderson, Marsha B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health (FDA OWH) has supported women's health research for ∼20 years, funding more than 300 studies on women's health issues, including research on diseases/conditions that disproportionately affect women in addition to the evaluation of sex differences in the performance of and response to medical products. These important women's health issues are studied from a regulatory perspective, with a focus on improving and optimizing medical product development and the evaluation of product safety and efficacy in women. These findings have influenced industry direction, labeling, product discontinuation, safety notices, and clinical practice. In addition, OWH-funded research has addressed gaps in the knowledge about diseases and medical conditions that impact women across the life span such as cardiovascular disease, pregnancy, menopause, osteoporosis, and the safe use of numerous medical products. PMID:26871618

  1. The laws that affect abortion in the United States and their impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Naylor, K L

    1991-12-01

    Abortion has been a hotly contested political issue since the mid 1960s, when states began liberalizing their abortion laws. Recent Supreme Court rulings, such as Rust vs. Sullivan, the retirement of two liberal Supreme Court justices and the battle over Louisiana's abortion legislation have created new fervor on both fronts of the battle. All health care providers who care for women need to be cognizant of the current abortion laws and the factors that influence the abortion decision. These factors include the different levels of health risk and financial implications posed by continued pregnancy or abortion. Historically, numerous court cases have influenced women's health care, and reviews of several significant cases are provided. The Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services decision was the first case that directly challenged the Roe vs. Wade decision. The Webster decision enables states to have greater authority in writing their own abortion laws. Individual state laws can vary greatly, so it is vitally important for providers to know and understand the laws of their state. PMID:1798604

  2. Breast cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Love, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress with declines in mortality in some high income countries has obscured the fact that for the majority of women worldwide who are newly diagnosed, breast cancer is a neglected disease in the context of other numerically more frequent health problems. For this growing majority, it is also an orphan disease, in that detailed knowledge about tumor characteristics and relevant host biology necessary to provide even basic care are absent. With the possible exception of nutritional recommendations, current international cancer policy and planning initiatives are irrelevant to breast cancer. The progress that has occurred in high income countries has come at extraordinary fiscal expense and patient toxicity, which of themselves suggest non-relevance to women and health care practitioners in middle and low income countries. The implications of these circumstances seem clear: if the promise of the now 60 year-old Declaration of Human Rights, that the fruits of medical science accrue to all mankind, is to be realized with respect to breast cancer, a basic and translational global research initiative should be launched. PMID:21410589

  3. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

  4. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 g-800 g of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ?4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

  5. Factors affecting antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women: an adapted systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vitalis, D

    2013-06-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for effective treatment, but can be quite complex. Non-adherence can adversely affect treatment outcomes. Although many studies have been done on adherence in the general population, few have included HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women in resource-constrained settings. This review assessed the evidence on adherence among these groups of women. A systematic search of databases was completed between June and July 2011. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Eighteen studies from a total of 6622 satisfied the inclusion criteria that included inter alia facilitators and barriers to adherence. This review highlighted that there is still no consensus on the definition and measurement of adherence; also multiple factors can affect a woman's ability to adhere to ART. Some of the barriers and facilitators identified were similar in both the type of study (qualitative and quantitative) and among the various countries. Findings indicated that the few studies in this population are conducted primarily in resource-rich settings. Such paucity of information warrants urgent attention; thus targeted research is needed to provide insight on adherence within this population. PMID:23970743

  6. Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex-work Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2015-01-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real world and real time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries like China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms (FC) for HIV/STI prevention among Chinese women in sex-work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the studys intervention implementation and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (20072012) of the sex-work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex-work establishments, womens social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the FC intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

  7. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

    2005-05-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P < .00001), both in men ( r = 0.26, P = .03, n = 79) and women ( r = 0.48, P = .003, n = 43), and with insulin resistance (HOMA index) ( r = -0.30, P < .0001) in both. Free cortisol correlated negatively with adiponectin only in women ( r = -0.32, P = .04), but not in men ( r = 0.01, P = .89). Serum CBG concentration was significantly lower among men in the lowest quartile of adiponectin when compared with the remaining subjects (37.3 +/- 5.7 vs 40.6 +/- 5.1, P = .016), whereas men in the highest quartile of adiponectin showed significantly increased free cortisol index (14.2 +/- 3.3 vs 12.2 +/- 3.1, P = .039). Women in the lowest quartile of adiponectin also displayed significantly lower CBG concentration than that present in the remaining subjects (38.6 +/- 6.9 vs 44.4 +/- 5.5, P = .016), whereas free cortisol index was not significantly different across adiponectin quartiles ( P = .1). In a stepwise regression analysis, body mass index ( P = .0011), CBG ( P = .0047), and sex ( P = .04) contributed to 15%, 8%, and 3%, respectively, of adiponectin variance. Using CBG as dependent variable, both adiponectin ( P = .0002) and fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association. PMID:15877287

  8. Attitudes and stereotypes regarding older women and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Beaulaurier, Richard; Fortuna, Karen; Lind, Danielle; Emlet, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Persons aged 50 years and over will soon disproportionately represent the future of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is estimated that by 2015 older adults will represent 50% of persons living with HIV in the United States. Despite the HIV/AIDS growing population among older adults, attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes toward older adults that exist in general society have affected HIV prevention, education, and care. Specifically, ageist attitudes about the sexuality of older adults in general and older women in particular, low clinical HIV suspicion among healthcare providers, lack of knowledge about risk among older women, and differentials in power related to negotiating sexual practices all lead to heightened concerns for the prevention, identification, and treatment of HIV disease in mature women. This article examines common attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes that exist within general society as well as health and social service providers that place older women at a disadvantage when it comes to HIV prevention, education, and treatment. PMID:25133946

  9. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status. PMID:16614415

  10. Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

  11. Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of HO2 and DO2 disproportionations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kircher, C. C.; Sander, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    A flash photolysis/UV abosrption technique was used to study the HO2 + HO2 and DO2 + DO2 reactions in the gas phase. Rate constants were measured at pressures between 100 and 700 torr of Ar and N2, and at temperatures between 230 and 420 K with up to 10 torr of added water vapor. The overall disproportionation rate constants for the reaction is given as the sum of pressure-independent and pressure-dependent terms. A kinetic analysis shows that both reactions have a zero-pressure bimolecular component and a termolecular component which is linearly dependent on pressure up to 700 torr. A priori estimates of the vibrational frequencies of the product of the HO2 + HO2 reaction suggest binding energies of 12-20 kcal per mol (for the initial association).

  13. Manganese-dependent disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide in bicarbonate buffer.

    PubMed Central

    Stadtman, E R; Berlett, B S; Chock, P B

    1990-01-01

    At physiological concentrations of HCO3- and CO2, Mn(II) catalyzes disproportionation of H2O2. This catalase-like activity is directly proportional to the concentrations of Mn(II) and H2O2, and it increases exponentially with increases in pH. The effect of increasing pH is almost completely attributable to the concomitant increase in HCO3- concentration. The rate is proportional to the third power of the HCO3- concentration, suggesting that 3 equivalents of HCO3- combine with 1 equivalent of Mn(II) to form the catalytic complex. It is presumed that the redox potential of the Mn(II) in equilibrium with Mn(III) couple in such a complex permits H2O2 to carry out facile reactions with Mn(II) comparable to those that occur with Fe(III) and Cu(II) chelate complexes, in which OH. and O2-. are established intermediates. The Mn-catalyzed disproportionation of H2O2 does not occur at physiological pH in the absence of HCO3-. Hepes, inorganic phosphate, and inorganic pyrophosphate inhibit the reaction catalyzed by the Mn/HCO3- system. These results are similar to those of Sychev et al. [Sychev, A.Y., Pfannmeller, U. & Isak, V.G. (1983) Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 57, 1690-1693]. The catalase-like activity of Mn(II)-bicarbonate complexes reported here, together with the superoxide dismutase activity of Mn complexes demonstrated by Archibald and Fridovich [Archibald, F.S. & Fridovich, I. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 214, 452-463], strengthen the proposition that Mn may play an important role in the protection of cells against oxygen radical-mediated damage. PMID:2296593

  14. Physics for Women: The Last Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sheila; Urry, Meg; Venkatesan, Aparna

    2002-01-01

    Presents issues discussed at the International Conference of Women in Physics held at UNESCO in Paris. Points out the disproportionate attrition of females going into graduate studies in physics and differences between developed and developing countries. (Author/YDS)

  15. Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the

  16. Preliminary molecular genetic analysis of the Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140) in women affected by endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Virginia; Ruiz, Roco; Sainz, Jos Antonio; Cruz, Marina; Lpez-Nevot, Miguel Angel; Galn, Jos Jorge; Real, Luis Miguel; de Castro, Francisco; Lpez-Villaverde, Vicente; Ruiz, Agustn

    2005-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a complex disease affecting 1015% of women at reproductive age. Very few genes are known to be altered in this pathology. RIP140 protein is an important cofactor of oestrogen receptor and many other nuclear receptors. Targeting disruption experiments of nrip1 gene in mice have demonstrated that nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 gene (nrip1), the gene encoding for rip140 protein, is essential for female fertility. Specifically, mice null for nrip1 gene are viable, but females are infertile because of complete failure of mature follicles to release oocytes at ovulation stage. The ovarian phenotype observed in mice devoid of rip140 closely resembles the luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome that is observed in a high proportion of women affected of endometriosis or idiopathic infertility. Here we present a preliminary work that analyses the role of NRIP1 gene in humans. Methods We have sequenced the complete coding region of NRIP1 gene in 20 unrelated patients affected by endometriosis. We have performed genetic association studies by using the DNA variants identified during the sequencing process. Results We identified six DNA variants within the coding sequence of NRIP1 gene, and five of them generated amino acid changes in the protein. We observed that three of twenty sequenced patients have specific combinations of amino-acid variants within the RIP140 protein that are poorly represented in the control population (p = 0.006). Moreover, we found that Arg448Gly, a common polymorphism located within NRIP1 gene, is associated with endometriosis in a case-control study (59 cases and 141 controls, pallele positivity test = 0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest that NRIP1 gene variants, separately or in combinations, might act as predisposing factors for human endometriosis. PMID:16131398

  17. Skeletal dysplasia with craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism in hair sheep of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas, F P M; Medeiros, G X; Figueiredo, A P M; Thompson, K; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a newly described form of skeletal dysplasia affecting Brazilian hair sheep of the Cabugi breed. This breed is characterized by having a short head and in some cases the animals are smaller and more compact than sheep of similar breeds. Lambs born with craniofacial abnormalities and dwarfism that die at 2-6 months of age are frequent in this breed. In a flock of 68 ewes and three rams of the Cabugi breed, 134 lambs were born over a 4-year period. Of these, 14 (10.4%) had marked cranial abnormalities and dwarfism and died or were humanely destroyed, 43 (32%) had a normal face and 77 (57.5%) had the short face characteristic of the breed. Dwarf lambs were much smaller than normal, with short legs, a domed head with retruded muzzle and protruded mandible, sternal deformities and exophthalmic eyes situated more laterally in the face than normal. Microscopical examination of long bones of the limbs, bones of the base of the skull and vertebrae showed no lesions. Bones from four affected lambs and one control lamb were macerated for morphometric examination. Although the length of the spinal cord was similar, there was disproportionate shortening of the appendicular bones, particularly the distal segments. Thus the disease was defined as a skeletal dysplasia characterized by craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism. It is suggested that the disease is inherited as an incomplete dominant trait. The shortened face, which is a feature of the Cabugi breed, may represent the heterozygous state and the more severe, often lethal, dwarfism may occur in homozygotes. PMID:24447571

  18. Effect of Nasal Calcitonin on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopause Women Affected With Low Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Bayat, Noushin; Saburi, Amin; Abbasi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and mental health could be affected by osteoporosis and various therapeutic options such as calcitonin may influence Quality Of Life (QOL) of these patients with Low Bone Density (LBD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasal calcitonin on QOL in post menopause women with LBD. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on one hundred and fifteen menopause women with LBD less than 1 SD in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009 - 2010. They were assigned to receive 200 IU calcitonin nasal spray along with calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU) for 6 months. Quality of life was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire (Persian-validated version). Results: The mean age ( SD) of the participants was 58.75 8.15 years. Intranasal spray of calcitonin increased QOL scores significantly (88.05 15.63 vs. 92.15 13.22, P value = 0.000). Bone mineral density of spine was increased from 0.834 0.11 to 0.12 0.852 and this difference in BMD of lumbar spine was statistically significant (P value: 0.003) but not significant in femurs BMD (P value = 0.061). In comparison with BMD indexes, The QOL scores especially Mental Health domain changes had only a significant correlation with the changes of total T score in BMD (P = 0.031, Coefficient Correlation = 0.248). Conclusions: It seems that nasal spray of calcitonin can effectively improve QOL of women with LBD and QOL changes were not influenced by clinical or para-clinical alteration. Mental health domain must be more considered in further studies as a predicting domain for Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) changes. PMID:26421180

  19. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez, Hctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, Mara Cecilia; Grenn, Miram; Abraham, Jos

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  20. Analysis of aluminium content and iron homeostasis in nipple aspirate fluids from healthy women and breast cancer-affected patients.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A; Medda, Virginia; Simone, Patrizia; Darbre, Philippa D

    2011-04-01

    Aluminium is not a physiological component of the breast but has been measured recently in human breast tissues and breast cyst fluids at levels above those found in blood serum or milk. Since the presence of aluminium can lead to iron dyshomeostasis, levels of aluminium and iron-binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin) were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a fluid present in the breast duct tree and mirroring the breast microenvironment. NAFs were collected noninvasively from healthy women (NoCancer; n?=?16) and breast cancer-affected women (Cancer; n?=?19), and compared with levels in serum (n?=?15) and milk (n?=?45) from healthy subjects. The mean level of aluminium, measured by ICP-mass spectrometry, was significantly higher in Cancer NAF (268.4??28.1??g l(-1) ; n?=?19) than in NoCancer NAF (131.3??9.6??g l(-1) ; n?=?16; P?women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. The reasons for the high levels of aluminium in NAF remain unknown but possibilities include either exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts in the adjacent underarm area and/or preferential accumulation of aluminium by breast tissues. PMID:21337589

  1. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  2. The development of microstructure during hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination treatment of sintered neodymium-iron-boron-type magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, R. S.; Harris, I. R.; Walton, A.

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination (HDDR) process on scrap sintered neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) type magnets have been investigated. At each stage of the process, the microstructural changes have been studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points and then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. This process was accelerated at particle surfaces and at free surfaces produced by any cracks in the powder particles. However, the recombination reaction appeared to initiate randomly throughout the particles with no apparent preference for particle surfaces or internal cracks. During the hydrogenation of the grain boundaries and triple junctions, the disproportionation reaction was, however, affected by the much higher oxygen content of the sintered NdFeB compared with that of the as-cast NdFeB alloys. Throughout the entire HDDR reaction the oxidised triple junctions (from the sintered structure) remained unreacted and hence, remained in their original form in the fine recombined microstructure. This resulted in a very significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure and this could lend to improved consolidation in the recycled magnets.

  3. Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-10-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

  4. Uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: evidence for lower uptake in women affected by breast cancer and older women

    PubMed Central

    Sidon, L; Ingham, S; Clancy, T; Clayton, R; Clarke, A; Jones, E A; Lalloo, F; Evans, D G R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (BRRSO) is the only effective way of reducing mortality from ovarian cancer. This study investigates uptake of BRRSO in 700 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers from Greater Manchester. Methods: Dates of last follow-up and BRRSO were obtained, and the following variables were investigated: ovarian cancer risk/gene, age and breast cancer history. The date of the genetic mutation report was the initiation for KaplanMeier analysis. Results: The uptake of BRRSO in BRCA1 mutation carriers was 54.5% (standard error 3.6%) at 5 years post testing compared with 45.5% (standard error 3.2%) in BRCA2 mutation carriers (P=0.045). The 4059 years category showed the greatest uptake for BRRSO and uptake was significantly lower in the over 60?s (P<0.0001). Of the unaffected BRCA1 mutation carriers, 65% (standard error 5.1%) opted for surgery at 5 years post-testing compared with 41.1% (standard error 5.1%) in affected BRCA1 mutation carriers (P=0.045). Conclusion: The uptake of BRRSO is lower in women previously affected by breast cancer and in older women. As there is no efficient method for early detection of ovarian cancer, uptake should ideally be greater. Counselling should be offered to ensure BRCA1/2 mutation carriers make an informed decision about managing their ovarian cancer risk. PMID:22187038

  5. HIV/AIDS in the Southern USA: a disproportionate epidemic.

    PubMed

    Reif, Susan S; Whetten, Kathryn; Wilson, Elena R; McAllaster, Carolyn; Pence, Brian W; Legrand, Sara; Gong, Wenfeng

    2014-01-01

    This research synthesis examined HIV/AIDS surveillance and health care financing data and reviewed relevant research literature to describe HIV epidemiology, outcomes, funding, and contributing factors to the HIV epidemic in the Southern USA with particular focus on a group of Southern states with similar demographic and disease characteristics and comparable HIV epidemics (Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Los Angeles, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas). These states are hereafter referred to as "targeted Southern states." Eight of the 10 states with the highest HIV diagnosis rates in 2011 were in the Southern USA; six were targeted states. Forty-nine percent of HIV diagnoses were in the South in 2011, which contains only 37% of the US population. The targeted states region had the highest HIV diagnosis rate than any other US region in 2011. The South was also found to have the highest HIV-related mortality and morbidity rates in the USA. The high levels of poverty, HIV-related stigma, and STDs found in the South, particularly in the targeted Southern states, likely contribute to greater HIV incidence and mortality. The disproportionate impact of HIV in the South, particularly among targeted states, demonstrates a critical need to improve HIV prevention and care and address factors that contribute to HIV disease in this region. PMID:23944833

  6. [Disproportionately large communicating fourth ventricle--report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Kushida, Y; Shibata, I; Seiki, Y; Terao, H

    1983-11-01

    A term of 'disproportionately large, communicating fourth ventricle' (DLCFV) was first proposed by in Harwood-Nash in 1980. It is somewhat different from the well known clinical entity of 'isolated or trapped fourth ventricle', because of apparent patency of aqueductal canal. Two cases of typical DLCFV encountered in our clinic were described. First patient was a 24 year old man in whom this condition developed following operations for lumber disc and second patient was 22 year old woman in whom the disease developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage. In both cases, main symptoms were attributable to hydrocephalus but three posterior fossa symptoms, nystagmus, Parinaud' sign and truncal ataxia were also characteristic. On the CT scan, the fourth ventricle was extraordinarily enlarged. Patency of the aqueductal canal was demonstrated by air study or Conray and Metrizamide ventriculography. On the other hand, occlusion was demonstrated or highly suspected in or near the foramina Magendie and Luschka. After a routine ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation, the fourth ventricle decreased in size and the symptoms were immediately relieved. Plausible explanation for mechanism involved in occurrence of DLCFV were (1) occlusion process in or near the fourth ventricle outlets seems to be crucial in this pathologic condition. Collision of CSF pulse waves against the obstruction may yield a water hammer effect on the fourth ventricle. (2) abnormal weakness of the brain stem parenchyma around the fourth ventricle to CSF pressure may be another contributory factor. PMID:6607422

  7. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categories such as physical, chemical, biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic. In many circumstances, multiple environmental factors may contribute to adversely modify human health. It has been suspected and in some cases demonstrated that stress can adversely affect reproductive function. Both animal and human data support this contention; however, the human data are clear in extreme situations (e.g., inmates of concentration camps) but less so under less drastic conditions. In recent years many advances have been made concerning the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the effects of stress on reproductive functions and on the identification of "stress hormones" that may not only be involved in the stress response but also serve as biochemical markers to identify and correlate stress with different fertility parameters. Nutrition also plays an important role in infertility, and undernutrition or nutrition disorders are associated with stress in infertility. Environmental factors are often invoked as contributing to many cases of unexplained infertility. However, the direct causal relationship between those factors and the ensuing infertility of the couple are seldom well established and remain largely anecdotal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243408

  8. Differences in the neural correlates of affective responses in depressed and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Jackie K; Buchanan, Angel; Connolly, Megan; Hoxha, Denada; Sankin, Lindsey; Csernansky, John G; Wang, Xue

    2015-12-30

    We aimed to characterize the extent to which there were differences in neural activation between female participants who were diagnosed with or without depression while viewing negative and neutral imagery. The study enrolled 105 medication-free, right-handed female participants between 17 and 63 years who met criteria for current Major Depressive Disorder (n=47) or no prior psychiatric diagnoses (n=58). All participants completed a clinical assessment and underwent a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan while responding to an implicit affect task that required them to identify the location of ideographs embedded in one of four corners of each valenced image. When unpleasant (termed negative) stimuli were presented, depressed relative to healthy participants showed significantly decreased activation of the left amygdala and right Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL). When activation was assessed during the negative versus neutral condition, depressed relative to healthy participants showed significantly increased activation in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and the left IPL. Notably, within-group analyses of healthy participants under the negative condition showed that depressive severity was positively correlated with activation in the left amygdala and left IPL. Our findings suggest that depression influences bottom-up and top-down processing of unpleasant information. PMID:26490568

  9. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. PMID:25474605

  10. Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Inferred from a Field Study of Stable-Isotope Fractionations between Elemental Sulfur and Pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L. M.; Olyphant, G. A.; Bell, J.; Johnson, A.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental sulfur (ES) is a common product of pyrite oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD), but bacterial disproportionation of ES has not previously been inferred in acidic environments. Pore water profiles were collected seasonally within a coal-mine waste deposit, Minnehaha, in Southwest Indiana that has been abandoned for over 30 years. Geochemical characterization and modeling were used to assess how the interactions between the sulfur and iron cycle are affected by seasonally dynamic hydrologic conditions. Pore waters were collected seasonally and concentrations of Fe-species and sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate were determined. Additionally, a sediment core was collected and used for sequential extraction and isotopic characterization of solid-phase sulfur species including elemental sulfur (?34Ses), pyrite (?34Spy), acid-volatile sulfides, water-soluble sulfates, and acid-soluble sulfates. The dominant disulfide phase was found to be pyrite through x-ray diffraction of an additional sediment core. Sulfur isotope fractionations between ?34Spy and ?34Ses (?34Ses-py) of up to -33% are inferred to indicate bacterial disproportionation of ES in the presence of a non-limiting sulfide 'scrub' Fe(III). The initial isotopic composition, following formation from pyrite oxidation, is inferred from ?34Spy, found to be ? 8.75% at the study site. Although ES has previously been found to accumulate in acidic Fe(III)-rich pore waters, ES is typically assumed to account for less than 1% of the oxidized sulfur pool and measurements of the ES isotopic composition are often neglected during field studies of acid AMD. The pore waters at Minnehaha were seasonally suboxic with sharp transitions from Fe(III)- to Fe(II)- dominated conditions near the phreatic surface. It is hypothesized that the sulfide product of ES disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6%, is immediately re-oxidized to ES near the redox gradient via reaction with Fe(III). Sulfide re-oxidation allows for the accumulation of isotopically light ES that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for ES, incorporating seasonally varying rates for pyrite oxidation, ES disproportionation, and ES oxidation, was developed in order to determine the potential and conditions necessary for extensive recycling of ES by disproportionating bacteria to produce ES enriched in 32S compared to the pyrite source. Simulations run for 32 seasonal cycles resulted in a ?34Ses-py of -16.4.% and an ES concentration of 170 ppm, which is consistent with average values obtained from the sediment core. The findings suggest that ES disproportionation is likely an important microbial process in AMD that should be considered at similar mining waste deposits experiencing seasonally varying hydrologic conditions and that ?34Ses-py can be used to estimate multiple cycles of ES disproportionation in oxic settings where the original source of ES is pyrite oxidation.

  11. Reducing Disproportionate Representation of Culturally Diverse Students in Special and Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Zamora-Duran, Grace, Ed.

    This book discusses the disproportionate representation of students from minority backgrounds in special education and gifted classes, and presents strategies that practitioners can use to better address the educational needs of all students. Chapter 1, "Disproportionate Representation: A Contentious and Unresolved Predicament" (Alfredo J. Artiles…

  12. Emotion Dysregulation and Affective Intensity Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors Among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kathryn H; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Dhankikar, Swati; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Kwan, Mun Yee; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm and suicide attempts occur at elevated rates among individuals with bulimia nervosa, particularly among those who have experienced childhood abuse. This study investigated the potential mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and affective intensity in the relationship between these variables in 125 women with bulimia nervosa. Analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between sexual and emotional abuse with both self-harm and suicide attempts. Negative affective intensity mediated the relationship between abuse and suicide attempts. The findings may advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying suicide-related behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa who experienced abuse and suggest potential clinical targets. PMID:26052753

  13. Perceptions of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy in a qualitative study of men and women in affected relationships.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Sarah A; Rosen, Raymond C; Althof, Stanley E; Dunn, Marian; Cameron, Ann; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction negatively affects men and women in relationships; however, the subjective experience of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor therapy remains poorly understood. The authors therefore characterized participants' subjective understanding of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor therapy using individual interviews with affected heterosexual men (n = 58) and women (n = 65). Responses were characterized by 6 psychosocial domains: explanation of the experience, emotional responses, socially expected responses, value of sex, communication with the partner, and treatment expectations. The findings may aid clinicians in relating to men with erectile dysfunction and thus potentially improve effectiveness of therapy. PMID:24274107

  14. Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

  15. Climate Change Disproportionately Increases Herbivore over Plant or Parasitoid Biomass

    PubMed Central

    de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

  16. Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1997-01-01

    To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1 %) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucteotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

  17. Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1997-01-01

    To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1%) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucleotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

  18. Questioning our Questions: Do frequently asked questions adequately cover the aspects of women's lives most affected by abnormal uterine bleeding? Opinions of women with abnormal uterine bleeding participating in focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    Matteson, Kristen A.; Clark, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To explore the effects on women's lives by heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding; (2) To examine whether aspects of women's lives most affected by heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding were adequately addressed by questions that are frequently used in clinical encounters and available questionnaires. Methods: We conducted four focus group sessions with a total of 25 English-speaking women who had reported abnormal uterine bleeding. Discussions included open-ended questions that pertained to bleeding, aspects of life affected by bleeding, and questions frequently used in clinical settings about bleeding and quality of life. Results: We identified five themes that reflected how women's lives were affected by heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding: irritation/inconvenience, bleeding-associated pain, self-consciousness about odor, social embarrassment, and ritual like behavior. Although women responded that the frequently used questions about bleeding and quality of life were important, they felt that the questions failed to go into enough depth to adequately characterize their experiences. Conclusions: Based on the themes identified in our focus group sessions, clinicians and researchers may need to change the questions used to capture patient experience with abnormal uterine bleeding more accurately. PMID:20437305

  19. Is There a "Glass Ceiling" for Women? Upward Mobility in the Administrative Ranks of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Charanne C.

    1988-01-01

    A study of Duke University's administrators examined men's and women's career experiences, behaviors, and attitudes as a means of understanding the disproportionate representation of men and women at different administrative ranks. Some encouraging and some discouraging trends were found. (MSE)

  20. Factors affecting womens intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between womens awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640

  1. Using community-based participatory research to explore social determinants of women's mental health and barriers to help-seeking in three urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; De Maagd-Rodriguez, Megan

    2013-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are significant mental health issues that affect urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women disproportionately. This study sought to identify social determinants of mental health and barriers to help-seeking for this population. Using community based participatory research and focus groups, sixty-one Black, Hispanic, and White women identified economic, family, cultural, and neighborhood issues as perceived determinants of their depression/anxiety. They identified practical, psychosocial, and cultural barriers to their help-seeking behavior. These results can promote women's health by fostering an understanding of social factors as perceived determinants of depression/anxiety and shaping practice and policy initiatives that foster positive aggregate outcomes. PMID:24238007

  2. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  3. Desired mental health resources for urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women struggling with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education. PMID:23166153

  4. Why Did Poverty Feminize When Women Have Always Been Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa D.

    1986-01-01

    Contends that women have always been disproportionately represented among those in poverty and that recent attempts to promote the view of a feminization of poverty masks and promotes sexist and racist public policy agendas. (JDH)

  5. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces hunger and desire to snack but does not affect energy intake in women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett E; Monsivais, Pablo; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-11-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) supplementation in soup or broth on satiety is not well understood. In the present study, the relative effects of four chicken broths with or without added MSG on motivational ratings and energy intakes at the next meal were compared using a double-blinded, within-subject design. A total of thirty-five normal-weight women, aged 20-40 years, took part in four study sessions. The four broths were base chicken broth (63 kJ), broth with added MSG (1.19 g) and nucleotides (0.03 g), broth with added MSG (1.22 g), and broth with added fat (BAF; 681 kJ). The preloads were presented twice at 09.00 and 11.15 hours for a maximum cumulative dose of 2.44 g MSG. Motivational ratings were collected before and at 15 min intervals post-ingestion for a total of 210 min. A test lunch meal was served at 12.00 hours, and plate waste was measured. The addition of MSG to chicken broth did not increase energy intakes at lunch or affect motivational ratings over the entire testing session. Both hunger and desire to snack between the second preload exposure and the test meal were significantly reduced in the MSG condition relative to the base broth condition (both, P = 0.03). However, only the BAF significantly suppressed energy intakes at lunch compared with the base broth control condition. Supplementing chicken broth with MSG can increase subjective ratings for satiety but does not alter energy intake at the next meal relative to an equal energy broth without added MSG. PMID:21736801

  6. A research agenda on issues affecting poor and minority women: a model for understanding their health needs.

    PubMed

    Zambrana, R E

    1987-01-01

    Acquiring data on quality of life indicators such as health, mental health and family roles of poor and minority women remains a low research priority. This paper provides an assessment of current knowledge in this area and an overview of the context in which poor and racial/ethnic women utilize health care services. A model that encompasses the interactive effects of race, gender and class variables is proposed. Such a model is a necessity for understanding the health needs of poor and racial/ethnic women. Suggestions for future research and policy formulation are given. PMID:3329428

  7. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings

    PubMed Central

    Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale “safer conception” programmes. Discussion Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization–convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires. Conclusions Programmes, policies and guidelines that integrate HIV treatment and prevention, sexual and reproductive health and fertility care services in a manner responsive to user values and preferences offer opportunities to maximize demand for and use of these services. For HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, the provision of comprehensive services using available tools – and the development of new tools that are adaptable to many settings and follow consensus recommendations – is a public health imperative. The impetus now is to design and deliver value-driven inclusive programming to achieve the greatest coverage and impact to reduce HIV transmission during pregnancy attempts. PMID:26643454

  8. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 19992008

    PubMed Central

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  9. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  10. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0% of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  11. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  12. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global

  13. Factors affecting the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chisenga, Molly; Kasonka, Lackson; Makasa, Mpundu; Sinkala, Moses; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kaseba, Christine; Kasolo, Francis; Tomkins, Andrew; Murray, Susan; Filteau, Suzanne

    2005-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is optimal for infant health and is associated with decreased risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission compared with mixed feeding of breast milk and other foods. To investigate why many women stop EBF before the recommended 6 months, maternal and infant health and infant-feeding data were collected from 177 HIV-infected and 177-uninfected Zambian women regularly from 34 weeks gestation to 16 weeks postpartum. Despite strong support for good breastfeeding practice, only 37% of women were still EBF at week 16. Factors significantly associated with shorter duration of EBF were primiparity, maternal systemic illness, and infant length at 6 weeks. The results suggest that the association of EBF with lower rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission may not be causal but may be secondary to the reduced duration of EBF associated with poor maternal or infant health. Programs supporting EBF should include support for maternal health. PMID:16113015

  14. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  15. The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  16. African American women's perspectives on 'down low/DL' men: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

    2012-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women contribute to women's HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as 'down low' or 'DL'. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington, DC, to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding DL men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV-positive women and three groups were composed of HIV-negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women's perspectives on the DL: awareness, suspicion, coping with partner infidelity (male versus female), sexual health communication, empathy and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women's perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women's exposure to HIV risk. PMID:22804686

  17. Sexual concurrency among young African American women.

    PubMed

    Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna G; Davis, Teaniese L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Young African-American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sexually transmitted infections (STI), and engage in greater sexual concurrency than other race/ethnicities. It is important to evaluate behaviors and characteristics associated with the risk of sexual concurrency, so that interventions can target factors most likely to affect positive change. An emphasis on correlates of concurrency beyond individual-level factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify individual- and partner-level characteristics associated with sexual concurrency among high-risk, young African-American women. Data were collected from 570 African-American adolescent women (aged 15-21) recruited from a STI clinic, a family planning clinic, and a teen clinic located in Atlanta, GA from March 2002 through August 2004. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2012 to evaluate correlates of sexual concurrency. Results show that almost one-quarter of participants reported sexually concurrent partnerships and 28.4% suspected male partner concurrency. Logistic regression results indicated the number of lifetime sexual partners and relationship factors were the primary contributors to engaging in concurrency in this sample. These findings suggest relationship factors may be important contributors to the prevalence of sexual concurrency among young African-American women. Interventions targeted toward sexual health among young African-American women may need to specifically address partner/relationship factors. Through these findings, we hope to better understand sexual risk taking and develop strategies that would overcome barriers to existing interventions aimed at improving the sexual health outcomes of young African-American women. PMID:23363034

  18. Analytical approaches to investigate salt disproportionation in tablet matrices by Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping.

    PubMed

    Nie, Haichen; Liu, Zhen; Marks, Brian C; Taylor, Lynne S; Byrn, Stephen R; Marsac, Patrick J

    2016-01-25

    It has always been challenging to use spectroscopic methods to analyze salt disproportionation in a multi-component tablet matrix due to the spectral interference generated by the various excipients. Although combining Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics can be a powerful approach to study the extent of salt disproportionation, it was found in the present study that bulk measurements and chemometric modeling have obvious limitations when the targeted component is present at low levels in the tablet. Hence, a two-step Raman mapping approach was developed herein to investigate salt disproportionation in tablets with a low drug loading (5% w/w). The first step is to locate the area of interest where the drug particles reside throughout the tablet surface by using a statistically optimized sampling method termed deliberate sub-sampling. The second step, referred to herein as close-step mapping, utilize a step by step mapping of the targeted area to find more details of salt disproportionation in the tablet regions where the drug is concentrated. By using this two-step Raman mapping approach, we successfully detected the existence of minor species embedded in multi-component low drug loading tablet matrices, where bulk measurements from routine techniques usually lack of sensitivity. This approach will help formulation scientists detect and understand salt disproportionation and in situ drug-excipients compatibility issues in low dose solid dosage formulations. PMID:26590700

  19. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor-Leste, impacting on their health, child-rearing and ability to participate fully in socio-economic development. PMID:23950885

  20. The Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and Laser Assisted Hatching in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Are Affected by The Cause of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin-Fen; Peng, Fu-Shiang; Chen, Shee-Uan; Chiu, Bao-Chu; Yeh, Szu-Hsing; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the association between factors that affected clini- cal pregnancy and live birth rates in patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and received intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and/or laser assisted hatching (LAH), or neither. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, the records of women who underwent IVF with or without ICSI and/or LAH at the Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between January 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed. We divided patients into four groups: 1. those that did not receive ICSI or LAH, 2. those that received ICSI only, 3. those that received LAH only and 4. those that received both ICSI and LAH. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in each group. Results A total of 375 women were included in the analysis. Oocyte number (OR=1.07) affected the live birth rate in patients that did not receive either ICSI or LAH. Mater- nal age (OR=0.89) and embryo transfer (ET) number (OR=1.59) affected the rate in those that received ICSI only. Female infertility factors other than tubal affected the rate (OR=5.92) in patients that received both ICSI and LAH. No factors were found to affect the live birth rate in patients that received LAH only. Conclusion Oocyte number, maternal age and ET number and female infertility fac- tors other than tubal affected the live birth rate in patients that did not receive ICSI or LAH, those that received ICSI only, and those that received both ICSI and LAH, respectively. No factors affected the live birth rate in patients that received LAH only. These data might assist in advising patients on the appropriateness of ICSI and LAH after failed IVF. PMID:25918590

  1. Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    2009-01-01

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

  2. The Reality of Welfare-to-Work: Employment Opportunities for Women Affected by Welfare Time Limits in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Leslie O.; King, Christopher T.

    Researchers assembled a database of current and projected information on the following: welfare recipients; other female participants in the labor market; employment, occupational availability, and job openings; and occupational characteristics. The database was used in a multistep process to project the number of women forced to leave welfare

  3. Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions.

    PubMed

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I

    2012-01-01

    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes. PMID:23042121

  4. Comorbidities and lack of blood transfusion may negatively affect maternal outcomes of women with obstetric hemorrhage treated with NASG.

    PubMed

    El Ayadi, Alison; Raifman, Sarah; Jega, Farouk; Butrick, Elizabeth; Ojo, Yemisi; Geller, Stacie; Miller, Suellen

    2013-01-01

    The Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) is a first-aid device to reduce mortality from severe obstetric hemorrhage, the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. We sought to evaluate patient characteristics associated with mortality among a cohort of women treated with the NASG in Nigeria. Data on 1,149 women were collected from 50 facilities participating in the Pathfinder International Continuum of Care: Addressing Postpartum Hemorrhage project in Nigeria from 2007-2012. Characteristics were compared using the appropriate distributional tests, and we estimated multivariable logistic regression models to control for treatment received. There were 201 deaths (17.5%). Women who died were significantly more likely to have any co-morbidity (AOR 3.63, 95% CI: 2.41-5.48), ruptured uterus (AOR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.48-5.28), macerated stillbirth (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.60-5.48) and to have had 6 or more previous births, (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.12), after adjusting for treatment received. These results suggest certain maternal conditions, particularly the presence of another life-threatening co-morbidity or macerated stillbirth, conferred a higher risk of mortality from PPH. This underscores the need for multi-system assessment and a comprehensive approach to the treatment of women with pregnancy complications. PMID:23950937

  5. Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    2009-01-01

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to

  6. The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

    2008-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482

  7. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for attrition was interest in another (non-STEM) field. Participants placed little importance on other reasons for leaving STEM that were identified in previous research, such as competition, social isolation, or financial considerations.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms that affect selenium status and response to selenium supplementation in United Kingdom pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher WG; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low selenium status in pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse conditions. In nonpregnant populations, the selenium status or response to supplementation has been associated with polymorphisms in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH), selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and the glutathione peroxidases [cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPx4)]. Objective: We hypothesized that, in pregnant women, these candidate polymorphisms would be associated with selenium status in early pregnancy, its longitudinal change, and the interindividual response to selenium supplementation at 60 μg/d. Design: With the use of stored samples and data from the United Kingdom Selenium in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) study in 227 pregnant women, we carried out genetic-association studies, testing for associations between selenium status, its longitudinal change, and response to supplementation and common genetic variation in DMGDH (rs921943), SEPP1 (rs3877899 and rs7579), GPx1 (rs1050450) and GPx4 (rs713041). Selenium status was represented by the concentration of whole-blood selenium at 12 and 35 wk of gestation, the concentration of toenail selenium at 16 wk of gestation, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12 and 35 wk of gestation. Results: Our results showed that DMGDH rs921943 was significantly associated with the whole-blood selenium concentration at 12 wk of gestation (P = 0.032), which explained ≤2.0% of the variance. This association was replicated with the use of toenail selenium (P = 0.043). In unsupplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in whole-blood selenium from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.005), which explained 8% of the variance. In supplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in GPx3 activity from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.01), which explained 5.3% of the variance. Selenium status was not associated with GPx1, GPx4, or SEPP1 rs7579. Conclusions: In agreement with previous studies, we show that the genetic variant rs921943 in DMGDH is significantly associated with selenium status in United Kingdom pregnant women. Notably, our study shows that women who carry the SEPP1 rs3877899 A allele are better able to maintain selenium status during pregnancy, and their GPx3 activity increases more with supplementation, which suggests better protection from low selenium status. The SPRINT study was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN37927591. PMID:26675765

  9. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS–Cognitive and Affective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Wharton, Whitney; Manson, JoAnn E.; Miller, Virginia M.; Atwood, Craig S.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Santoro, Nanette F.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Black, Dennis M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Naftolin, Frederick; Harman, S. Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reportedly increases the risk of cognitive decline in women over age 65 y. It is unknown whether similar risks exist for recently postmenopausal women, and whether MHT affects mood in younger women. The ancillary Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) examined the effects of up to 4 y of MHT on cognition and mood in recently postmenopausal women. Methods and Findings KEEPS, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted at nine US academic centers. Of the 727 women enrolled in KEEPS, 693 (95.3%) participated in the ancillary KEEPS-Cog, with 220 women randomized to receive 4 y of 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE) plus 200 mg/d micronized progesterone (m-P) for the first 12 d of each month, 211 women randomized to receive 50 μg/d transdermal estradiol (t-E2) plus 200 mg/d m-P for the first 12 d of each month, and 262 women randomized to receive placebo pills and patches. Primary outcomes included the Modified Mini-Mental State examination; four cognitive factors: verbal learning/memory, auditory attention/working memory, visual attention/executive function, and speeded language/mental flexibility; and a mood measure, the Profile of Mood States (POMS). MHT effects were analyzed using linear mixed-effects (LME) models, which make full use of all available data from each participant, including those with missing data. Data from those with and without full data were compared to assess for potential biases resulting from missing observations. For statistically significant results, we calculated effect sizes (ESs) to evaluate the magnitude of changes. On average, participants were 52.6 y old, and 1.4 y past their last menstrual period. By month 48, 169 (24.4%) and 158 (22.8%) of the 693 women who consented for ancillary KEEPS-Cog were lost to follow-up for cognitive assessment (3MS and cognitive factors) and mood evaluations (POMS), respectively. However, because LME models make full use all available data, including data from women with missing data, 95.5% of participants were included in the final analysis (n = 662 in cognitive analyses, and n = 661 in mood analyses). To be included in analyses, women must have provided baseline data, and data from at least one post-baseline visit. The mean length of follow-up was 2.85 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.49) for cognitive outcomes and 2.76 (SD = 0.57) for mood outcomes. No treatment-related benefits were found on cognitive outcomes. For mood, model estimates indicated that women treated with o-CEE showed improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms over the 48 mo of treatment, compared to women on placebo. The model estimate for the depression subscale was −5.36 × 10−2 (95% CI, −8.27 × 10−2 to −2.44 × 10−2; ES = 0.49, p < 0.001) and for the anxiety subscale was −3.01 × 10−2 (95% CI, −5.09 × 10−2 to −9.34 × 10−3; ES = 0.26, p < 0.001). Mood outcomes for women randomized to t-E2 were similar to those for women on placebo. Importantly, the KEEPS-Cog results cannot be extrapolated to treatment longer than 4 y. Conclusions The KEEPS-Cog findings suggest that for recently postmenopausal women, MHT did not alter cognition as hypothesized. However, beneficial mood effects with small to medium ESs were noted with 4 y of o-CEE, but not with 4 y of t-E2. The generalizability of these findings is limited to recently postmenopausal women with low cardiovascular risk profiles. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154180 and NCT00623311 PMID:26035291

  10. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  11. Salty Taste Acuity Is Affected by the Joint Action of ?ENaC A663T Gene Polymorphism and Available Zinc Intake in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong

    2013-01-01

    Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the ?-epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The ?ENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p < 0.05). In women, the salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with ?ENaC AA homozygotes (? = ?0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the ?ENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the ?ENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women. PMID:24317554

  12. Attenuation of positive and negative affect in men and women at increased risk for hypertension: a function of endogenous barostimulation?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Daniel Z; France, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that activation of endogenous baroreflexes would be associated with reduced responsivity to affective stimuli and that this effect would be enhanced in individuals at risk for hypertension. Images from the International Affective Picture System were presented during systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. Affective responsivity was measured using electromyographic activity, skin conductance, and ratings of arousal and valence. Compared to offspring of normotensives, individuals with a parental history of hypertension showed reduced responsivity to both positive and negative affective stimuli; however, responsivity did not differ as a function of cardiac cycle phase. Although these findings do not support a barostimulation mechanism of affective dampening, it is premature to discount the baroreflex inhibition hypothesis given the limited affective reactions elicited by visual stimuli presented in the laboratory. PMID:19055505

  13. Does the timing of breast cancer surgery in pre-menopausal women affect clinical outcome? : an update

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Anushka; Puntis, Michael L; Gikas, Panos; Mokbel, Kefah

    2006-01-01

    There is some evidence that breast cancer surgery during the luteal phase in pre-menopausal women is associated with a better clinical outcome, however the evidence for this is still equivocal. In this paper, after summarizing the normal physiology of the menstrual cycle, we examine how such an association may occur and provide a comprehensive review of the literature in the area. PMID:17078874

  14. HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Womens Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Womens Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women. PMID:23861602

  15. DIETARY MANGANESE INTAKE AND TYPE OF LIPID DO NOT AFFECT CLINICAL OR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES IN HEALTHY YOUNG WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because manganese (Mn) is potentially toxic, and because dietary fat type may affect Mn absorption, the objectives of the current study were to determine whether diets containing very low or very high amounts of Mn and enriched in either saturated or unsaturated fats affected measures of neuropsycho...

  16. African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:15719869

  17. Creating a Spiral of Silence through Disproportionate Exemplar Distribution: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen D.

    A study used disproportionate exemplar distributions to create a spiral of silence effect for a morally loaded issue. The effect of perception of public opinion on willingness to express an opinion was also examined. Three video news stories were created that would represent either a supporting, balanced, or opposing stance on the prayer in school…

  18. Disproportionate Suspension of African American Students in Public Schools: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Nikia M.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study was the disproportionate number of African American students who are suspended or expelled at a higher rate than their white counterparts in Michigan public schools. This research was framed with critical race theory and cultural ecology theory of African American students suspended. This study applied a Delphi

  19. Intervention Versus Affirmation: Proposed Solutions to the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Loretta; Forness, Steven R.; Nielsen, M. Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    In examining the continuing problem of the disproportionate number of minority students in special education, this article urges implementation of experimentally validated interventions including: (1) early detection, primary interventions, and prereferral procedures and (2) academic as well as social competence, resiliency, and self-determination

  20. Magnetic monitoring of the disproportionation process in Nd-Fe-B-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuiness, P. J.; Devlin, E. J.; Komelj, M.; Podmiljšak, B.; Niarchos, D.; Kobe, S.

    2004-05-01

    The hydrogen disproportionation reaction was investigated for three Nd-Fe-B-based alloys-Nd14.9Dy1.0Fe76.1B8.0, Nd15.2Dy1.0Fe74.8B8.3Zr0.7 and Nd15.4Dy1.0Fe73.3B8.3Zr2.0-using a modified vibrating-sample magnetometer. The addition of zirconium was found to substantially slow down the rate of the disproportionation reaction. A more surprising result, however, was the presence of a two-stage reaction for the Zr-free material, which prevents us from interpreting the disproportionation reaction in terms of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory of phase transformations. Our isothermal experiments at 650°C resulted in very low values in the range 0.6-0.7 for the Avrami transformation constant. These low values also suggest that the standard JMAK model is inappropriate for describing the process of disproportionation in these alloys, and an extension to the JMAK theory that takes into account a critical radius for stable iron nuclei is required to explain these low values.

  1. Disproportionate Classification of ESL Students in U.S. Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Nicole; Inserra, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the possible causes behind the disproportionate percentages of English language learners (ELLs) classified into U.S. special education. Elementary school classroom teachers were examined, from school districts that exhibited growth in the percentage of English language learners with Individual Education Plans during 2007-2010.

  2. The Song Remains the Same: Transposition and the Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beratan, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has long been recognised as a problem in the United States. It is, however, only with the 2004 authorisation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) that Congress has tried to prescribe a remedy for this. Beginning with a deconstruction of

  3. Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate

  4. Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N = 7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a

  5. English Placement Recommendations at Golden West College: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    In 1992, a study was conducted to determine whether student placement rates into college-level courses varied across subgroups of students at Golden West College (GWC), and, if so, the extent to which this disproportionate impact (DI) occurred. The standard of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) for employee selection holds that DI

  6. 26 CFR 1.141-9 - Unrelated or disproportionate use test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... issue date does not result in unrelated or disproportionate use if the issue meets the conditions of 1... business use that is related use and private business use that is unrelated use does not result in... governmentally owned hospital does not ordinarily result in unrelated use solely because the pharmacy also...

  7. 26 CFR 1.141-9 - Unrelated or disproportionate use test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... issue date does not result in unrelated or disproportionate use if the issue meets the conditions of 1... business use that is related use and private business use that is unrelated use does not result in... governmentally owned hospital does not ordinarily result in unrelated use solely because the pharmacy also...

  8. 26 CFR 1.141-9 - Unrelated or disproportionate use test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... issue date does not result in unrelated or disproportionate use if the issue meets the conditions of 1... business use that is related use and private business use that is unrelated use does not result in... governmentally owned hospital does not ordinarily result in unrelated use solely because the pharmacy also...

  9. 26 CFR 1.141-9 - Unrelated or disproportionate use test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... issue date does not result in unrelated or disproportionate use if the issue meets the conditions of 1... business use that is related use and private business use that is unrelated use does not result in... governmentally owned hospital does not ordinarily result in unrelated use solely because the pharmacy also...

  10. Does women's education affect breast cancer risk and survival? Evidence from a population based social experiment in education.

    PubMed

    Palme, Mrten; Simeonova, Emilia

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is a notable exception to the well documented positive education gradient in health. A number of studies have found that highly educated women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. Breast cancer is therefore often labeled as a "welfare disease". However, it has not been established whether the strong positive correlation holds up when education is exogenously determined. We estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer by exploiting an education reform that extended compulsory schooling and was implemented as a social experiment. We find that the incidence of breast cancer increased for those exposed to the reform. PMID:25912223

  11. Variation in the perilipin gene (PLIN) affects glucose and lipid metabolism in non-Hispanic white women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshihide; Ng, Maggie C Y; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Yoshiuchi, Issei; Tsuchiya, Takafumi; Robertson, Heather; Cox, Nancy J; Polonsky, Kenneth S; Bell, Graeme I; Ehrmann, David A

    2009-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. It is characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, obesity and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since obesity plays an important role in the etiology of PCOS, we sought to determine if variants in the perilipin gene (PLIN), a gene previously implicated in the development of obesity, were also associated with PCOS. We typed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (haplotype tagging and/or previously associated with obesity or related metabolic traits) in PLIN in 305 unrelated non-Hispanic white women (185 with PCOS and 120 without PCOS). None of the variants was associated with PCOS (P<0.05). However, the variant rs1052700*A was associated with increased risk for glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM) in both non-PCOS (OR=1.75 [1.02-3.01], P=0.044) and PCOS subjects (OR=1.67 [1.08-2.59], P=0.022). It was also associated with increased LDL (P=0.007) and total cholesterol levels (P=0.042). These results suggest that genetic variation in PLIN may affect glucose and lipid metabolism in women both with and without PCOS. PMID:19782423

  12. Feasibility and Efficacy of a Physical Activity Intervention Among Pregnant Women: The Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Silveira, Marushka; Marcus, Bess H.; Braun, Barry; Stanek, Edward; Markenson, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the majority of pregnant women are inactive and interventions designed to increase exercise during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an exercise intervention among a diverse sample of pregnant women. Methods The B.A.B.Y. (Behaviors Affecting Baby and You) Study is conducted at a large tertiary care facility in Western Massachusetts. We randomized 110 prenatal care patients (60% Hispanic) to an individually tailored 12-week exercise intervention arm (n = 58) or to a health and wellness control arm (n = 52) at mean = 11.9 weeks gestation. Physical activity was assessed via the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). Results After the 12-week intervention, the exercise arm experienced a smaller decrease (?1.0 MET-hrs/wk) in total activity vs. the control arm (?10.0 MET-hrs/wk; P = .03), and a higher increase in sports/exercise (0.9 MET-hrs/wk) vs. the control arm (?0.01 MET-hrs/wk; P = .02). Intervention participants (95%) reported being satisfied with the amount of information received and 86% reported finding the study materials interesting and useful. Conclusions Findings support the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a tailored exercise intervention in increasing exercise in a diverse sample of pregnant women. PMID:21918237

  13. Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Womens Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory womens health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which womens groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving womens and childrens health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory womens groups focused on womens and childrens health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

  14. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American womens concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American womens sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American womens HIV risks in addition to conventional HIV risk- taking behaviors are urgently needed. PMID:22697147

  15. Positive Smoking Outcome Expectancies Mediate the Association between Negative Affect and Smoking Urge among Women During a Quit Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y.; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among: 1) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at one assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, 2) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participant. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participant effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies. PMID:24796849

  16. Three months aerobic training fails to affect 24-hour energy expenditure in weight-stable, post-obese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1992-10-01

    Sedentary 24 h energy expenditure (EE) in seven reduced-obese pre-menopausal women was measured in a respiration chamber before and after a three month aerobic training period. Six of the seven women showed a higher VO2max after the training period, while resting heart rate and blood pressure decreased significantly. No significant effects of training were seen in daytime, sleeping or total 24 h EE. However, change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24 h respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. A negative correlation was found between the change in VO2max and the change in fasting FFA. Change in postprandial glucose concentration was also negatively correlated to change in VO2max. Satiety measured 135 min after lunch was decreased after the training period. It is concluded that the moderate physical training programme was not sufficient to obtain a substantial elevation of sedentary 24 h EE. PMID:1330960

  17. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF.

  18. Disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic adolescent scoliosis: a new look into the pattern's growth.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; Liu, Z; Yan, P; Qiu, Y; Zhu, F

    2015-12-01

    A self-control ratio, the spine-pelvis index (SPI), was proposed for the assessment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in this study. The aim was to evaluate the disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in these patients using SPI. A total of 64 female patients with thoracic AIS were randomly enrolled between December 2010 and October 2012 (mean age 13 years, standard deviation (sd) 2.17; 9 to 18) and a further 73 healthy female patients with a mean age of 12.4 years (mean age 12.4 years, sd 2.24; 9 to 18), were randomly selected from a normal control database at our centre. The radiographic parameters measured included length of spine (LOS), height of spine (HOS), length of thoracic vertebrae (LOT), height of thoracic vertebrae (HOT), width of pelvis (WOP), height of pelvis (HOP) and width of thorax (WOT). SPI was defined as the ratio LOS/HOP. The SPI and LOT/HOP in patients with AIS showed a significant increase when compared with normal girls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively), implying an abnormal pattern of growth of the spine relative to the pelvis in patients with AIS. No significant difference in SPI was found in different age groups in the control group, making the SPI an age-independent parameter with a mean value of 2.219 (2.164 to 2.239). We also found that the SPI was not related to maturity in the control group. This study, for the first time, used a self-control ratio to confirm the disproportionate patterns of growth of the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic AIS, highlighting that the SPI is not affected by age or maturity. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1668-74. PMID:26637683

  19. "Disproportionately Influential?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,

  20. Dietary Supplementation of Rural Gambian Women during Pregnancy Does Not Affect Body Composition in Offspring at 1117 Years of Age12

    PubMed Central

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Prentice, Andrew M.; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Moore, Sophie E.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal nutrition is thought to be an important determinant of later disease risk, although evidence from randomized-controlled trials in humans is lacking. We followed children born during a protein-energy supplementation trial to investigate to what extent this maternal supplement, which improved birth weight, influenced offspring body composition in adolescence. Subjects were 1270 Gambian children (659 boys, 611 girls) aged 1117 y whose mothers had participated in the original cluster-randomized trial and had received the supplement during pregnancy (intervention) or postpartum (control). Basic anthropometry was measured using standard techniques and fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and population-specific prediction equations. For boys, mean body fat was 12.6% for both intervention and control groups. Mean trunk fat was 11.9% in the intervention group and 12.0% in the control. Intervention girls had a mean body fat of 19.5% and trunk fat of 15.2%; for control girls, it was 19.3 and 14.8%, respectively. BMI, body fat, trunk fat, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index did not differ for either sex when analyzed with generalized estimating equations adjusted for age, maternal height, maternal parity, location, season of birth, and menarche in females. Neither infant-attained size nor the onset of menarche were affected by maternal supplementation. These findings suggest that protein-energy supplements to pregnant women, compared with lactating women, do not affect offspring body composition during adolescence. PMID:19022974

  1. Estradiol Modulates Anhedonia and Behavioral Despair in Rats and Negative Affect in a Subgroup of Women at High Risk for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; O’Hara, Michael W.; Rubinow, David R.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address inconsistencies in the literature, we tested a cross-species estrogen withdrawal model of postpartum depression (PPD) with a series of rodent experiments and a prospective, naturalistic human study. All rats were ovariectomized prior to experimentation. The first rat experiment examined the effects of low- and high-dose estradiol administration and withdrawal on lateral-hypothalamic self-stimulation, a behavioral index of anhedonia, in experimental (n=7) and vehicle-only control animals (n=7). The second rat experiment examined the effects of high-dose estradiol withdrawal on activity and immobility during the forced swim test, an index of behavioral despair, in a separate group of experimental (n=8) and vehicle-only control animals (n=8). In the human study, women with (n=8) and without (n=12) a history of PPD completed mood ratings and collected saliva samples (to assess estradiol levels) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy through 10 days postpartum. The presence of PPD was assessed at one month postpartum. In the animal studies, rats in the estradiol withdrawal group demonstrated significantly greater immobility and less swimming than controls. Estradiol withdrawal resulted in reduced responding for electrical stimulation (multiple intensities) relative to estradiol administration. In the human study, there was no significant association between estradiol and negative affect among women with or without a history of PPD. However, there was a correlation between daily estradiol levels and negative affect in the women with incident PPD at one month postpartum. Despite important cross-species differences, both the rat and human studies provided evidence of the effects of estradiol on perinatal depressive symptoms. PMID:23770328

  2. Gender and pensions: an analysis of factors affecting women's private pension scheme membership in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Foster, Liam; Smetherham, Jon

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the future sustainability of pension provision and, in particular, the precarious position of many female pensioners. The reasons for women's lower participation rates in private pensions than men's require greater investigation. Using the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF) 2008, this article examines the impact of various characteristics on the likelihood of contributing to a private pension, such as educational attainments, income, occupational group, full-time/part-time status, and whether an individual has any dependent children. It shows that these characteristics play an important role in access to private pensions. Finally, it suggests that strategies to alleviate disadvantages must take into account the complex circumstances that individuals experience throughout the life course, which result in gendered pension provision. PMID:23837624

  3. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fbio Luiz Cheche; Gonalves, Cssio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Lus B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (? 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981). PMID:26047957

  4. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447.297 Section 447.297 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Low-Income Patients 447.297 Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share...

  5. 42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on aggregate payments for... Disproportionate Number of Low-Income Patients 447.296 Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate..., 1992 through September 30, 1992, FFP is available for aggregate payments to hospitals that serve...

  6. 42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on aggregate payments for... Disproportionate Number of Low-Income Patients 447.296 Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate..., 1992 through September 30, 1992, FFP is available for aggregate payments to hospitals that serve...

  7. 42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447.297 Section 447.297 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Low-Income Patients 447.297 Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share...

  8. Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the

  9. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

  10. SOME MAGNESIUM STATUS INDICATORS AND OXIDATIVE METABOLISM RESPONSES TO LOW DIETARY MAGNESIUM ARE AFFECTED BY DIETARY COPPER IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In both animals and humans, deficiencies of both magnesium and copper result in undesirable changes in lipid and reactive oxygen metabolism that can adversely affect cardiovascular and bone health. Thus, a study with human volunteers was conducted with the objective of ascertaining whether a low in...

  11. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective

  12. Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators roles: A concurrent mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Njie-Carr, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) among women with HIV, (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators roles in contributing to violence, and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent mixed methods study design was used including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgis technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/IPV prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500

  13. Urinary protease inhibitor Serpin B3 is higher in women and is further increased in female patients affected by aldosterone producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Cecconi, Daniela; Castagna, Annalisa; Chiecchi, Laura; Guarini, Patrizia; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Morandini, Francesca; Brazzarola, Paolo; Zolla, Lello; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Veglio, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Pizzolo, Francesca

    2014-06-01

    A correct diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) requires adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for the classification of subtypes (bilateral hyperplasia, BAH, or adenoma, APA). Since such testing is not easily practicable, appropriate markers for the definition of subtypes are desirable. We hypothesized that an aldosterone excess was associated with abnormalities in urinary proteome, specific for PA subtypes. The project work was divided into 3 phases: (1) screening/identification by proteomic analysis and further characterization by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of the candidate protein; (2) clinical validation by quantitative ELISA assay of 57 (33 M, 24 F) PA patients and 50 normotensive controls (21 M, 29 F); (3) analysis of adrenal tissue of 8 individuals who had undergone adrenalectomy for APA or other adrenal tumors. The proteomic analysis showed a different expression of Serpin B3 Inhibitor-SCCA1 (SB3) in APA and BAH patients. Urine SB3 concentrations in normotensive controls, quantified by ELISA assay and normalized by urinary creatinine, resulted much lower in males (6.72 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 4.43-10.19) than in females (20.56 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 12.43-33.99, p < 0.00001). SB3 concentrations were not significantly different in males affected by different PA subtypes (BAH, n = 19 and APA, n = 14) compared with normotensive subjects (n = 21). In contrast, in PA females, SB3 was significantly higher in APA (n = 13) than in BAH patients (n = 11) or in normotensive controls (n = 29) (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Neither messenger RNA nor SB3 protein were identified in tissue obtained from adrenal tumors and from the surrounding normal gland. In conclusion urine SB3 concentrations are physiologically much lower in males than in females. Hypertensive women, affected by APA, present urinary SB3 concentrations significantly higher than women affected by BAH. PMID:24503858

  14. Kinetic study on disproportionations of C1 aldehydes in supercritical water: methanol from formaldehyde and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Morooka, Saiko; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Nakahara, Masaru

    2007-04-12

    The reaction pathways and kinetics of C1 aldehydes, formaldehyde (HCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH=HOCHO), are studied at 400 degrees C in neat condition and in supercritical water over a wide range of water density, 0.1-0.6 g/cm3. Formaldehyde exhibits four reactions: (i) the self-disproportionation of formaldehyde generating methanol and formic acid, (ii) the cross-disproportionation between formaldehyde and formic acid generating methanol and carbon dioxide, (iii) the water-independent self-disproportionation of formaldehyde generating methanol and carbon monoxide, and (iv) the decarbonylation of formaldehyde generating hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The self- and cross-disproportionations overwhelm the water-independent self-disproportionation and the formaldehyde decarbonylation. The rate constants of the self- and cross-disproportionations are determined in the water density range of 0.1-0.6 g/cm3. The rate constant of the cross-disproportionation is 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the self-disproportionation, which indicates that formic acid is a stronger reductant than formaldehyde. Combining the kinetic results with our former computational study on the equilibrium constants of the self- and cross-disproportionations, the reaction mechanisms of these disproportionations are discussed within the framework of transition-state theory. The reaction path for methanol production can be controlled by tuning the water density and reactant concentrations. The methanol yield of approximately 80% is achieved by mixing formaldehyde with formic acid in the ratio of 1:2 at the water density of 0.4 g/cm3. PMID:17388377

  15. Daytime variation in ambient temperature affects skin temperatures and blood pressure: Ambulatory winter/summer comparison in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Meyer, Martin; Hunkler, Stefan; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Meyer, Andrea H; Schtzau, Andy; Orgl, Selim; Kruchi, Kurt

    2015-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cold exposure increases peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure (BP) and, hence, increases cardiovascular risk primarily in the elderly. However, there is a lack of concomitantly longitudinal recordings at personal level of environmental temperature (PET) and cardiophysiological variables together with skin temperatures (STs, the interface-variable between the body core and ambient temperature). To investigate the intra-individual temporal relationships between PET, STs and BP 60 healthy young women (52 completed the entire study) were prospectively studied in a winter/summer design for 26 h under real life conditions. The main hypothesis was tested whether distal ST (Tdist)mediates the effect of PET-changes on mean arterial BP (MAP). Diurnal profiles of cardiophysiological variables (including BP), STs and PET were ambulatory recorded. Daytime variations between 0930 and 2030 h were analyzed in detail by intra-individual longitudinal path analysis. Additionally, time segments before, during and after outdoor exposure were separately analyzed. In both seasons short-term variations in PET were positively associated with short-term changes in Tdist (not proximal ST, Tprox) and negatively with those in MAP. However, long-term seasonal differences in daytime mean levels were observed in STs but not in BP leading to non-significant inter-individual correlation between STs and BP. Additionally, higher individual body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with lower daytime mean levels of Tprox and higher MAP suggesting Tprox as potential mediator variable for the association of BMI with MAP. In healthy young women the thermoregulatory and BP-regulatory systems are closely linked with respect to short-term, but not long-term changes in PET. One hypothetical explanation could serve recent findings that thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is activated in a cool environment, which could be responsible for the counter-regulation of cold induced increase of BP in winter leading to no seasonal differences in MAP. Our findings suggest that the assessment of diurnal patterns of STs and PET, in addition to the conventional ambulatory BP monitoring, might improve individual cardiovascular risk prediction. PMID:26072176

  16. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Qubec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  17. Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

  18. Charge disproportionation in a semiconducting ?-type salt of BTM-TTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yoshiaki; Misaki, Yohji; Uruichi, Mikio; Yakushi, Kyuya; Yamochi, Hideki

    2010-06-01

    An organic conductor ?-(BTM-TTP)2SbF6, where BTM-TTP denotes 2-[4,5-bis(methylthio)-1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene]-5-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene, is semiconducting and shows Curie-Weiss-like magnetism, whereas the X-ray structure shows that all BTM-TTP molecules are crystallographically equivalent and the tight-binding band calculation affords the closed Fermi surface. We have studied the electrical properties and Raman spectra of ?-(BTM-TTP)2SbF6 in order to clarify the origin of the carrier localization. From the electrical resistivity measurement, the maximum of activation energy appeared at ca. 240 K. Raman spectroscopy reveals the charge disproportionation in ?-(BTM-TTP)2SbF6 from room temperature, and the degree of charge disproportionation is estimated to be +0.030.13:+0.93 at 6 K.

  19. The production of 34S-depleted sulfide during bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; Thamdrup, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur fractionate sulfur isotopes such that sulfate is enriched in sulfur-34 by 12.6 to 15.3 per mil and sulfide is depleted in sulfur-34 by 7.3 to 8.6 per mil. Through a repeated cycle of sulfide oxidation to S0 and subsequent disproportionation, these bacteria can deplete sedimentary sulfides in sulfur-34. A prediction, borne out by observation, is that more extensive sulfide oxidation will lead to sulfides that are more depleted in sulfur-34. Thus, the oxidative part of the sulfur cycle creates circumstances by which sulfides become more depleted in sulfur-34 than would be possible with sulfate-reducing bacteria alone.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of disproportionating enzyme from potato

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Kayo; Matsuura, Takanori; Ye, Zhengmao; Takaha, Takeshi; Fujii, Kazutoshi; Kusunoki, Masami; Nitta, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    Disproportionating enzyme from potato was crystallized and preliminarily analyzed using X-ray diffraction. Disproportionating enzyme (D-enzyme; EC 2.4.1.25) is a 59 kDa protein that belongs to the α-amylase family. D-enzyme catalyses intramolecular and intermolecular transglycosylation reactions of α-1,4 glucan. A crystal of the D-enzyme from potato was obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray data showed that the crystal diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution and belongs to space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.7, b = 120.3, c = 174.2 Å.

  1. Intermediate phases in the hydrogen disproportionated state of NdFeB-type powders

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, G.; Chapman, J. N.; Brown, D. N.; Harris, I. R.

    2001-08-15

    Transmission electron microscopy studies have been carried out on partially disproportionated NdFeB-type alloys. A new intermediate magnetic (NIM) phase has been identified. Moreover, the lamella structure which subsequently develops from the tetragonal NIM phase comprises a tetragonal NdFe-containing (IL) phase and {alpha}-Fe. The experimental data show strong evidence of a well-defined crystallographic relation between both the NIM and lamella phases and between the IL phase and {alpha}-Fe. These observations give insight into how crystallographic texture, and hence anisotropy, can be developed in NdFeB-type powders processed by the hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, and recombination route. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Coupled to Chemical Reduction of Iron or Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Thamdrup, Bo; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Jens Würgler; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (S0) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide and pyrite was observed. The transformations were accompanied by growth of slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. The quantification of the products revealed that S0 was microbially disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O → SO42- + 3H2S + 2H+. Subsequent chemical reactions between the formed sulfide and the added FeOOH led to the observed precipitation of iron sulfides. Sulfate and iron sulfides were also produced when FeOOH was replaced by FeCO3. Further enrichment with manganese oxide, MnO2, instead of FeOOH yielded stable cultures which formed sulfate during concomitant reduction of MnO2 to Mn2+. Growth of small rod-shaped bacteria was observed. When incubated without MnO2, the culture did not grow but produced small amounts of SO42- and H2S at a ratio of 1:3, indicating again a disproportionation of S0. The observed microbial disproportionation of S0 only proceeds significantly in the presence of sulfide-scavenging agents such as iron and manganese compounds. The population density of bacteria capable of S0 disproportionation in the presence of FeOOH or MnO2 was high, > 104 cm-3 in coastal sediments. The metabolism offers an explanation for recent observations of anaerobic sulfide oxidation to sulfate in anoxic sediments. PMID:16348835

  3. Thermochromism of the disproportionation equilibrium of pi-dimer radical anion complexes bridged by scandium ions.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Junpei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2004-03-01

    Semiquinone radical anion (Q(*-)) forms a stable pi-dimer with neutral p-benzoquinone (Q), bridged by two or three scandium ions (Sc(3+)) to afford Q(*-)-nSc(3+)-Q (n= 2,3), which is in disproportionation equilibrium with Q and hydroquinone (QH(2)). The number of binding scandium ions changes depending on temperature, causing a remarkable color change associated with the change in the ESR spectra. PMID:14985800

  4. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women

    PubMed Central

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg−1·day−1 if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis. PMID:21505147

  5. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a womans awareness and control (e.g., commitment to childs health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in their own context that are described in this review. Further research on this population, including those who drop out of or never access health services, is needed to inform effective implementation. PMID:25372479

  6. Gas-phase Boudouard disproportionation reaction between highly vibrationally excited CO molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essenhigh, Katherine A.; Utkin, Yurii G.; Bernard, Chad; Adamovich, Igor V.; William Rich, J.

    2006-11-01

    The gas-phase Boudouard disproportionation reaction between two highly vibrationally excited CO molecules in the ground electronic state has been studied in optically pumped CO. The gas temperature and the CO vibrational level populations in the reaction region, as well as the CO 2 concentration in the reaction products have been measured using FTIR emission and absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that CO 2 formation in the optically pumped reactor is controlled by the high CO vibrational level populations, rather than by CO partial pressure or by flow temperature. The disproportionation reaction rate constant has been determined from the measured CO 2 and CO concentrations using the perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) approximation. The reaction activation energy, 11.6 0.3 eV (close to the CO dissociation energy of 11.09 eV), was evaluated using the statistical transition state theory, by comparing the dependence of the measured CO 2 concentration and of the calculated reaction rate constant on helium partial pressure. The disproportionation reaction rate constant measured at the present conditions is kf = (9 4) 10 -18 cm 3/s. The reaction rate constants obtained from the experimental measurements and from the transition state theory are in good agreement.

  7. Sowing the seeds or failing to blossom? A feasibility study of a simple ecotherapy-based intervention in women affected by breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Ceri; Butler, Carole; Cousins, Alecia; Hughes, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in nature-based activities is recognised as providing the basis for easily accessible, cost-effective interventions which can have other important physical and psychological health outcomes. The aim of the reported feasibility study was to explore the acceptability and potential psychological benefits of a simple ecotherapy-based intervention for individuals affected by cancer. A total of seven women from an existing breast cancer support group agreed to take part in the study by cultivating and customising a garden bowl for three months, maintaining a diary, and participating in a focus group at the end of the project. The analysis of the focus group data revealed four main themes that suggested that the women found engaging with the intervention to be therapeutic on a number of different levels: reflecting their cancer journey, a source of positivity, making meaning through memories, and a sense of control provided by engagement with the intervention. Engagement with the diary-writing element of the intervention, however, was not as widely endorsed by the group, as participants were even reluctant to make use of an online forum to share experiences of engaging with the intervention. Overall, the study suggests that the flexibility of level of engagement with an intervention is an important factor in developing acceptable interventions, and that the value of targeted recruitment to improve engagement with novel interventions is paramount. PMID:26715939

  8. The Role of Students in the Experience of Women Faculty on the Tenure Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bridget Turner; Fetridge, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Women faculty disproportionately leave academia by their second or third semester and experience slow rates of tenure and promotion. What then, may cause women faculty, both White and of color, to leave early or conversely, to stay through tenure? With a critical feminist framework, this article presents qualitative research into women's

  9. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 20092012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

  10. Iron-containing micronutrient supplementation of Chinese women with no or mild anemia during pregnancy improved iron status but did not affect perinatal anemia.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zuguo; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Jian-Meng; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-06-01

    Universal prenatal daily iron-folic acid (IFA) and multiple micronutrient (MM) supplements are recommended to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anemia, and iron deficiency (ID) during pregnancy, but the evidence of their effect on iron status among women with mild or no anemia is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the iron status [serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI)] before and after micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy. We examined 834 pregnant women with hemoglobin > 100 g/L at enrollment before 20 wk of gestation and with iron measurement data from a subset of a randomized, double-blind trial in China. Women were randomly assigned to take daily 400 ?g of folic acid (FA) (control), FA plus 30 mg of iron, or FA, iron, plus 13 additional MMs provided before 20 wk of gestation to delivery. Venous blood was collected in this subset during study enrollment (before 20 wk of gestation) and 28-32 wk of gestation. We found that, at 28-32 wk of gestation, compared with the FA group, both the IFA and MM groups had significantly lower prevalence of ID regardless of which indicator (SF, sTfR, or BI) was used for defining ID. The prevalence of ID at 28-32 wk of gestation for IFA, MM, and FA were 35.3%, 42.7%, and 59.6% by using low SF, 53.6%, 59.9%, and 69.9% by using high sTfR, and 34.5%, 41.2%, and 59.6% by using low BI, respectively. However, there was no difference in anemia prevalence (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) between FA and IFA or MM groups. We concluded that, compared with FA alone, prenatal IFA and MM supplements provided to women with no or mild anemia improved iron status later during pregnancy but did not affect perinatal anemia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137744. PMID:24744317

  11. The Health Disparities of Uterine Fibroids for African American Women: A Public Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    Eltoukhi, Heba M.; Modi, Monica N.; Weston, Meredith; Armstrong, Alicia Y.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign pelvic tumors in women and are the major indication for hysterectomy. Fibroids are more common and more severe among African American women. Although this disease disproportionately affects the African American population, we understand little about what causes this disparity. Fibroids should be considered a public health issue, given the magnitude of the problem and the costs of health care for this disease. In this review, we examine the burden of disease from fibroids in the African American population and review the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine fibroids, with emphasis on how these can differ, depending on race. We also focus on the socioeconomic burden caused by the disease and describe the anticipated influence of new health care reforms and funding mechanisms for fibroid research. PMID:23942040

  12. Women in astronomy: the student phase.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, M. S.; Fleischman, J. R.

    National data on the gender distribution of astronomy students shows large losses of women compared to men at the university levels. Examination of the astronomy department at one institution reflects the national trends. It is apparent that women actually leave doctoral programs in disproportionate numbers compared to men, a fact which can be addressed by individual departments. The authors discuss the major social factors contributing to these phenomena, termed micro-inequities, in both group and interpersonal situations.

  13. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-05-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving. PMID:25915711

  14. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  15. Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: contexts linking these two epidemics--challenges and implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Witte, Susan; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are two serious overlapping public health epidemics that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. This article reviews research that has identified a number of contexts that may explain the links between IPV and HIV transmission risks. These contexts include sexual coercion, fear of violence, negotiation of condom use, extradyadic relationships, disclosure of sexually transmitted infections or HIV seropositivity to intimate partners, drug involvement of women and their male partners, low social status of drug-involved women, relationship dependencies, and sex ratio imbalances. The article focuses on how the bidirectional relationship between IPV and HIV risks may be mediated by a history of childhood sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also addressed are the challenges that substance user treatment programs face in dealing with female clients who experience IPV and the implications for HIV prevention. PMID:21303249

  16. Disproportionate emission of bubble streams with killer whale biphonic calls: perspectives on production and function.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Ann E; Grebner, Dawn M; Musser, Whitney B; Nash, Juliette S; Crance, Jessica L

    2015-02-01

    Stereotyped pulsed calls were attributed to 11 killer whales (Orcinus orca) with and without synchronous bubble streams in three datasets collected from two facilities from 1993 to 2012. Calls with and without synchronous bubble streams and divergent overlapping high frequency components ("biphonic" vs "monophonic") were compared. Subjects produced bubbles significantly more often when calls had divergent high frequency components. However, acoustic features in one biphonic call shared by five subjects provided little evidence for an acoustic effect of synchronous bubble flow. Disproportionate bubbling supported other evidence that biphonic calls form a distinct category, but suggested a function in short-range communication. PMID:25698045

  17. Enantiomer self-disproportionation and chiral stationary phase based selective chiral separation of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Mayani, Vishal J; Abdi, Sayed H R; Mayani, Suranjana V; Kim, Heon-Chang; Park, Seung-Kyu

    2011-04-01

    In modern chromatography, chiral stationary phase (CSP) and enantiomer self-disproportionation (ESD) are new inventions of packing material offer a guarantee for a successful enantiomeric separation. All CSPs were synthesized by chemical bonding of the relevant organic moieties onto a porous parent silica material for the separation of various racemic mixtures whereas achiral silica matrix was used for separation of non-racemic mixtures in ESD. Our present study provides to establish an understanding on the entire enantio-selective profile of amino alcohol based CSP as well as ESD and their precise utilization for high success rates for selective enantiomer separation with its appropriateness. PMID:20928900

  18. Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums

    PubMed Central

    Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life. PMID:25317001

  19. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

  20. Charge disproportionation in a semiconducting ?-type salt of BTM-TTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yoshiaki; Misaki, Yohji; Uruichi, Mikio; Yakushi, Kyuya; Yamochi, Hideki

    An organic conductor ?-(BTM-TTP) 2SbF 6, where BTM-TTP denotes 2-[4,5-bis(methylthio)-1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene]-5-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene, is semiconducting and shows Curie-Weiss-like magnetism, whereas the X-ray structure shows that all BTM-TTP molecules are crystallographically equivalent and the tight-binding band calculation affords the closed Fermi surface. We have studied the electrical properties and Raman spectra of ?-(BTM-TTP) 2SbF 6 in order to clarify the origin of the carrier localization. From the electrical resistivity measurement, the maximum of activation energy appeared at ca. 240 K. Raman spectroscopy reveals the charge disproportionation in ?-(BTM-TTP) 2SbF 6 from room temperature, and the degree of charge disproportionation is estimated to be +0.0 3?0.1 3:+0.9 3 at 6 K.

  1. Anaerobic Chemolithotrophic Growth of the Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Strain MLMS-1 by Disproportionation of Monothioarsenate.

    PubMed

    Planer-Friedrich, B; Härtig, C; Lohmayer, R; Suess, E; McCann, S H; Oremland, R

    2015-06-01

    A novel chemolithotrophic metabolism based on a mixed arsenic-sulfur species has been discovered for the anaerobic deltaproteobacterium, strain MLMS-1, a haloalkaliphile isolated from Mono Lake, California, U.S. Strain MLMS-1 is the first reported obligate arsenate-respiring chemoautotroph which grows by coupling arsenate reduction to arsenite with the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. In that pathway the formation of a mixed arsenic-sulfur species was reported. That species was assumed to be monothioarsenite ([H2As(III)S(-II)O2](-)), formed as an intermediate by abiotic reaction of arsenite with sulfide. We now report that this species is monothioarsenate ([HAs(V)S(-II)O3](2-)) as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Monothioarsenate forms by abiotic reaction of arsenite with zerovalent sulfur. Monothioarsenate is kinetically stable under a wide range of pH and redox conditions. However, it was metabolized rapidly by strain MLMS-1 when incubated with arsenate. Incubations using monothioarsenate confirmed that strain MLMS-1 was able to grow (μ = 0.017 h(-1)) on this substrate via a disproportionation reaction by oxidizing the thio-group-sulfur (S(-II)) to zerovalent sulfur or sulfate while concurrently reducing the central arsenic atom (As(V)) to arsenite. Monothioarsenate disproportionation could be widespread in nature beyond the already studied arsenic and sulfide rich hot springs and soda lakes where it was discovered. PMID:25941832

  2. Interfacial Effects on Lithium Superoxide Disproportionation in Li-O₂ Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Dengyun; Lau, Kah Chun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean; Lu, Jun; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua; Yang, Wenge; Gao, Jing; Indacochea, Ernesto; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2015-02-11

    During the cycling of Li-O₂ batteries the discharge process gives rise to dynamically evolving agglomerates composed of lithium-oxygen nanostructures; however, little is known about their composition. In this paper, we present results for a Li-O₂ battery based on an activated carbon cathode that indicate interfacial effects can suppress disproportionation of a LiO₂ component in the discharge product. High-intensity X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements are first used to show that there is a LiO₂ component along with Li₂O₂ in the discharge product. The stability of the discharge product was then probed by investigating the dependence of the charge potential and Raman intensity of the superoxide peak with time. The results indicate that the LiO₂ component can be stable for possibly up to days when an electrolyte is left on the surface of the discharged cathode. Density functional calculations on amorphous LiO₂ reveal that the disproportionation process will be slower at an electrolyte/LiO₂ interface compared to a vacuum/LiO₂ interface. The combined experimental and theoretical results provide new insight into how interfacial effects can stabilize LiO₂ and suggest that these interfacial effects may play an important role in the charge and discharge chemistries of a Li-O₂ battery.

  3. Anaerobic chemolithotrophic growth of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium strain MLMS‑1 by disproportionation of monothioarsenate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Planer-Friedrich, B.; Hartig, C.; Lohmayer, R.; Suess, E.; McCann, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    A novel chemolithotrophic metabolism based on a mixed arsenic−sulfur species has been discovered for the anaerobic deltaproteobacterium, strain MLMS-1, a haloalkaliphile isolated from Mono Lake, California, U.S. Strain MLMS‑1 is the first reported obligate arsenate-respiring chemoautotroph which grows by coupling arsenate reduction to arsenite with the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. In that pathway the formation of a mixed arsenic−sulfur species was reported. That species was assumed to be monothioarsenite ([H2AsIIIS−IIO2] −), formed as an intermediate by abiotic reaction of arsenite with sulfide. We now report that this species is monothioarsenate ([HAsVS−IIO3] 2−) as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Monothioarsenate forms by abiotic reaction of arsenite with zerovalent sulfur. Monothioarsenate is kinetically stable under a wide range of pH and redox conditions. However, it was metabolized rapidly by strain MLMS-1 when incubated with arsenate. Incubations using monothioarsenate confirmed that strain MLMS-1 was able to grow (μ = 0.017 h−1 ) on this substrate via a disproportionation reaction by oxidizing the thio-group-sulfur (S−II) to zerovalent sulfur or sulfate while concurrently reducing the central arsenic atom (AsV) to arsenite. Monothioarsenate disproportionation could be widespread in nature beyond the already studied arsenic and sulfide rich hot springs and soda lakes where it was discovered.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Desulfocapsa sulfexigens, a marine deltaproteobacterium specialized in disproportionating inorganic sulfur compounds

    PubMed Central

    Finster, Kai Waldemar; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Schreiber, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:23961312

  5. Catabolic thiosulfate disproportionation and carbon dioxide reduction in strain DCB-1, a reductively dechlorinating anaerobe.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W; Tiedje, J M

    1990-01-01

    Strain DCB-1 is a strict anaerobe capable of reductive dehalogenation. We elucidated metabolic processes in DCB-1 which may be related to dehalogenation and which further characterize the organism physiologically. Sulfoxy anions and CO2 were used by DCB-1 as catabolic electron acceptors. With suitable electron donors, sulfate and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate and thiosulfate supported growth with formate or hydrogen as the electron donor and thus are probably respiratory electron acceptors. Other electron donors supporting growth with sulfate were CO, lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and 3-methoxybenzoate. Thiosulfate also supported growth without an additional electron donor, being disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. In the absence of other electron acceptors, CO2 reduction to acetate plus cell material was coupled to pyruvate oxidation to acetate plus CO2. Pyruvate could not be fermented without an electron acceptor. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was found in whole cells, indicating that CO2 reduction probably occurred via the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. Autotrophic growth occurred on H2 plus thiosulfate or sulfate. Diazotrophic growth occurred, and whole cells had nitrogenase activity. On the basis of these physiological characteristics, DCB-1 is a thiosulfate-disproportionating bacterium unlike those previously described. PMID:2108130

  6. Raman Evidence for Late Stage Disproportionation in a Li-O2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dengyun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Lau, Kah Chun; Gao, Jing; Redfern, Paul C; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua; Indacochea, Ernesto; Das, Ujjal; Sun, Ho-Hyun; Sun, Ho-Jin; Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A

    2014-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of toroids formed in an aprotic Li-O2 cell based on an activated carbon cathode. The trends in the Raman data as a function of discharge current density and charging cutoff voltage provide evidence that the toroids are made up of outer LiO2-like and inner Li2O2 regions, consistent with a disproportionation reaction occurring in the solid phase. The LiO2-like component is found to be associated with a new Raman peak identified in the carbon stretching region at ?1505 cm(-1), which appears only when the LiO2 peak at 1123 cm(-1) is present. The new peak is assigned to distortion of the graphitic ring stretching due to coupling with the LiO2-like component based on density functional calculations. These new results on the LiO2-like component from Raman spectroscopy provide evidence that a late stage disproportionation mechanism can occur during discharge and add new understanding to the complexities of possible processes occurring in Li-O2 batteries. PMID:26277967

  7. Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial/ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EC/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N=7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative dataset of children born in the U.S. in 2001. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that boys (OR=1.66), children born at very low birthweight (OR=3.98) or with congenital anomalies (OR=2.17), and children engaging in externalizing problem behaviors (OR=1.10) are more likely to be represented in EI/ECSE. Children from low SES households (OR=.48), those displaying greater numeracy or receptive language knowledge (ORs=.96 and .76, respectively), and children being raised in households where a language other than English is primarily spoken (OR=.39) are less likely to be represented in EI/ECSE. Statistical control for these and an extensive set of additional factors related to cognitive and behavioral functioning indicated that 48-month-old children who are Black (OR=.24) or Asian (OR=.32) are disproportionately under-represented in EI/ECSE in the U.S. PMID:24683265

  8. Vietnamese women in struggle for national independence.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The 30-year struggle for independence in Viet Nam took a huge toll on women, but even in the hardest times, Vietnamese women received support from the world-wide women's movement. As the world prepares to enter the new millennium, it is important to determine what policies can be created to prevent war and guarantee peace. These policies must grow out of international agreement on basic principles such as respect for independence and sovereignty and must not resort to the embargoes and sanctions that have placed a disproportionate burden on women and children. Another challenge of the new millennium is to encourage implementation of national programs, policies, and measures to help women realize their rights while preserving traditional family values. Despite the heightened visibility of the international women's movement, women still suffer from widespread inequalities. In accordance with the goals of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, the 8th Congress of Vietnamese Women in 1997 created a national plan for women that is a blueprint for the women's movement for the years 1997-2000. Among the goals are creating jobs for women, upgrading their standard of living, eliminating hunger, decreasing poverty, and ensuring that women have educational opportunities. Vietnamese women also seek to strengthen their relationship with other women in the international community, and the Vietnamese Women's Union has actively forwarded the objectives of the Federation of International Democratic Women. PMID:12294604

  9. Hispanic/Latina Women and AIDS: A Critical Perspective. JSRI Working Paper No. 36. JSRI Research & Publications Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasini-Caceres, Lydia; Cook, Amy Beth

    Women are a rapidly growing group of people with AIDS in the United States, and Hispanic/Latina and African American women are disproportionately represented. This paper reviews the literature on the epidemiology of AIDS/HIV infection among Latina women, children, and adolescents and discusses the needs of Latinas regarding AIDS prevention

  10. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  11. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-17

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  12. Exploring the Experiences of African American Women in an Undergraduate Summer Research Program Designed to Address the Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ericka L.

    2010-01-01

    African American women compose a critical proportion of the potential science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce of the future, yet are disproportionately represented and largely underutilized. While various programs and initiatives have been designed and implemented to target women and underrepresented minorities, the…

  13. Efficient Identification of Low-Income Asian American Women at High Risk for Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Galen; Nguyen, Kim; Nguyen, Tung; Stewart, Susan; Davis, Sharon; Kevany, Sebastian; Marquez, Titas; Pasick, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B disproportionately affects Asian Americans. Because outreach to promote testing and vaccination can be intensive and costly, we assessed the feasibility of an efficient strategy to identify Asian Americans at risk. Prior research with Californias statewide toll-free phone service where low-income women call for free cancer screening found 50% of English- and Spanish-speaking callers were willing to participate in a study on health topics other than cancer screening. The current study ascertained whether Asian Americans could be recruited. Among 200 eligible callers, 50% agreed to take part (95% confidence interval 43%57%), a rate comparable to our previous study. Subsequent qualitative interviews revealed that receptivity to recruitment was due to trust in the phone service and womens need for health services and information. This was a relatively low-intensity intervention in that, on average, only five minutes additional call time was required to identify women at risk and provide a brief educational message. Underserved women from diverse backgrounds may be reached in large numbers through existing communication channels. PMID:24185165

  14. Substance Use and Partner Violence among Urban Women Seeking Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bi-directional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low income, urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for socio-demographics and potentially confounding multi-level risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior six months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as non-heroin using women to indicate any physical, injurious or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low income, urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

  15. Highly coercive SmCo5 magnets prepared by a modified hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubis, M.; Handstein, A.; Gebel, B.; Gutfleisch, O.; Mller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    1999-04-01

    The hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process was applied to SmCo5 using extreme conditions, namely high hydrogen pressures and reactive milling under hydrogen. Investigations on the hydrogen absorption behavior of SmCo5 by differential scanning calorimetry under hydrogen pressures between 1 and 7 MPa showed absorption events due to an interstitial absorption at about 100 C and a disproportionation reaction at about 600 C. X-ray diffraction showed the disproportionation of SmCo5 into Sm hydride and fcc-Co. A favorable effect of high hydrogen pressures on the disproportionation reaction was observed which can be explained by a decrease of the free enthalpy of the samarium hydride for increasing hydrogen pressures. Reactively milled SmCo5 showed also the products of the disproportionation reaction. The recombination to the original SmCo5 phase on hydrogen desorption in a subsequent heat treatment in vacuum was successful for both methods. However, Sm2O3, Sm2Co17, and Sm2Co7 were detected as minor phases. Maximum coercivities ?0JHC of 2.1 and 4.7 T were achieved for high pressure and reactively milled HDDR powders, respectively. The high coercivities originate from the high anisotropy field of the SmCo5 phase in combination with the grain refinement due to the HDDR treatment.

  16. Trends in Medicare disproportionate share (DSH) distribution in US hospitals: 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Callan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Implemented in 1986, Medicare's disproportionate share (DSH) adjustment is intended to recognize hospitals' additional resource investment in caring for low-income patients. This project analyzed changes in the DSH percentage between 1996 and 2003 and examined the association between selected hospital characteristics and such changes. Results obtained revealed some interesting findings. First, minimal changes in DSH percentage occurred during the period 1996-1999 with a hike in that ratio in 2000-2001. However, even with the absence of any legislative or executive changes to the DSH threshold or formula during 2002 and 2003, significant increases occurred during 2001-2003 (11 percent increase between 2001 and 2003). Such an increase may be caused by the nation's economic situation during that timeframe (i.e., more people depending on public programs for coverage). PMID:19175241

  17. The disproportionate impact of environmental health threats on children of color.

    PubMed Central

    Mott, L

    1995-01-01

    Children receive greater exposures to environmental pollutants present in air, food, and water because they inhale or ingest more air, food, or water on a body-weight basis than adults do. Communities of color are disproportionately exposed to hazardous wastes, dioxin, and air pollution. Existing data demonstrate that children of color are the subgroup of the population most exposed to certain pollutants, including lead, air pollution, and pesticides. Government standards do not take into account children's differential exposures or the cumulative nature of these exposures. Federal regulations fail to protect the most highly exposed and most sensitive subgroups of the population. More often than not this group is children of color. PMID:8549485

  18. Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part II: Weak guidelines take a disproportionate toll.

    PubMed

    Bertron, P; Barnard, N D; Mills, M

    1999-04-01

    Many diet-related chronic diseases take a disproportionate toll among members of racial minorities. Research shows the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and heart disease is higher among various ethnic groups compared with whites. The Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid, however, promote the use of multiple servings of meats and dairy products each day and do not encourage replacing these foods with vegetables, legumes, fruits, and grains. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage a 30% caloric reduction in fat intake and make no provision for further reductions for those who wish to minimize health risks. Abundant evidence has shown that regular exercise combined with diets lower in fat and richer in plant products than is encouraged by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are associated with reduced risk of these chronic conditions. While ineffective Dietary Guidelines potentially put all Americans at unnecessary risk, this is particularly true for those groups hardest hit by chronic disease. PMID:10333669

  19. Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

  20. Medicaid program; disproportionate share hospital payments--uninsured definition. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This final rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social Security Act (the Act). Under this limitation, DSH payments to a hospital cannot exceed the uncompensated costs of furnishing hospital services by the hospital to individuals who are Medicaid-eligible or "have no health insurance (or other source of third party coverage) for the services furnished during the year.'' This rule provides that, in auditing DSH payments, the quoted test will be applied on a service-specific basis; so that the calculation of uncompensated care for purposes of the hospital-specific DSH limit will include the cost of each service furnished to an individual by that hospital for which the individual had no health insurance or other source of third party coverage. PMID:25470829

  1. The disproportionate impact of environmental health threats on children of color

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, L.

    1995-09-01

    Children receive greater exposures to environmental pollutants present in air, food, and water because they inhale or ingest more air, food, or water on a body-weight basis than adults do. Communities of color are disproportionately exposed in hazardous wastes, dioxin, and air pollution. Existing data demonstrate that children of color are the subgroup of the population most exposed to certain pollutants, including lead, air pollution, and pesticides. Government standards do not take into account children`s differential exposures or the cumulative nature of these exposures. Federal regulations fail to protect the most highly exposed and most sensitive subgroups of the population. More often than not this group is children of color. 13 refs.

  2. Disproportionation of (Mg,Fe)SiO₃ perovskite in Earth's deep lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Meng, Yue; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Mao, Wendy L; Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Jeong, Jong Seok; Wagner, Andrew J; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Liu, Wenjun; Xu, Ruqing; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2014-05-23

    The mineralogical constitution of the Earth's mantle dictates the geophysical and geochemical properties of this region. Previous models of a perovskite-dominant lower mantle have been built on the assumption that the entire lower mantle down to the top of the D″ layer contains ferromagnesian silicate [(Mg,Fe)SiO3] with nominally 10 mole percent Fe. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, at pressures of 95 to 101 gigapascals and temperatures of 2200 to 2400 kelvin, we found that such perovskite is unstable; it loses its Fe and disproportionates to a nearly Fe-free MgSiO3 perovskite phase and an Fe-rich phase with a hexagonal structure. This observation has implications for enigmatic seismic features beyond ~2000 kilometers depth and suggests that the lower mantle may contain previously unidentified major phases. PMID:24855264

  3. Disproportionate Exposures in Environmental Justice and Other Populations: The Importance of Outliers

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We examined traditional environmental justice populations and other groups whose exposure to contaminants is often disproportionately high. Risk assessment methods may not identify these populations, particularly if they are spatially dispersed. We suggest using a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey approach to oversample minority communities and develop methods for assessing exposure at different distances from pollution sources; publishing arithmetic and geometric means and full distributions for minority populations; and paying particular attention to high-end exposures. Means may sufficiently characterize populations as a whole but are inadequate in identifying vulnerable groups and subgroups. The number of individuals above the 95th percentile of any distribution may be small and unrepresentative, but these outliers are the ones who need to be protected. PMID:21551384

  4. Strengthening community capacity to participate in making decisions to reduce disproportionate environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

  5. The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

    2011-01-01

    The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

  6. The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

    2011-01-01

    The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in

  7. Disproportionate Contribution of Right Middle Lobe to Emphysema and Gas Trapping on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Surya P.; Sieren, Jessica C.; Newell, John D.; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Given that the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on demonstrating airflow limitation by spirometry, which is known to be poorly sensitive to early disease, and to regional differences in emphysema, we sought to evaluate individual lobar contributions to global spirometric measures. Methods Subjects with COPD were compared with smokers without airflow obstruction, and non-smokers. Emphysema (% low attenuation area, LAAinspdisproportionately to its relatively small size, it also showed the least correlation with spirometry. There was no change in correlation of whole lung CT metrics with spirometry when the middle lobe was excluded from analyses. Similarly, RML had the highest %LAAexpdisproportionate contribution to CT-based emphysema measurements, and low contribution to spirometry, longitudinal studies of emphysema progression may benefit from independent analysis of the middle lobe in whole lung quantitative CT assessments. Our findings may also have implications for heterogeneity assessments and target lobe selection for lung volume reduction. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00608764 PMID:25054539

  8. Lengthening of the duration of xylogenesis engenders disproportionate increases in xylem production.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Girard, Marie-Jose; Morin, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    In cold climates, the expected global warming will lead to earlier cambial resumptions in spring, with a resultant lengthening of the growing season but unknown consequences on forest productivity. The phenological traits of cambium activity and xylem formation were analyzed at a short time scale along a thermal gradient represented by an alti-latitudinal range from the 48th to 53rd parallels and covering the whole closed black-spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] forest in Quebec, Canada. A hypothesis was tested that warmer temperatures influence cambium phenology, allowing longer duration and higher intensity of growth, and resulting in proportionally increased xylem production. From April to October 2012, cell division in cambium and post-cambial differentiation of xylem were observed on anatomical sections obtained from microcores collected weekly from the stem of fifty trees. The southern and warmer site was characterized by the highest radial growth, which corresponded to both the highest rates and longest durations of cell production. The differences in terms of xylem phenology and growth were marginal between the other sites. Xylem growth was positively correlated with rate and duration of cell production, with the latter explaining most variability in growth. Within the range analyzed, the relationship between temperature and most phenological phases of xylogenesis was linear. On the contrary, temperature was related with cell production according to an exponential pattern. Periods of xylogenesis of 14 days longer (+13.1%) corresponded to a massive increase in cell production (33 cells, +109%). This disproportionate change occurred at a May-September average temperature of ca. 14 C and a snow-free period of 210-235 days. At the lower boundary of the distribution of black spruce, small environmental changes allowing marginal lengthening of the period of cell division could potentially lead to disproportionate increases in xylem cell production, with substantial consequences for the productivity of this boreal species. PMID:24259354

  9. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism does not affect bone mass as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography and quantitative bone ultrasound in Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    Roncero-Martin, Raul; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F.; Santos-Vivas, Mercedes; Vera, Vicente; Martínez-Alvárez, Mariana; Rey-Sanchez, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The results of studies examining the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on bone have generated considerable interest but also controversy. The present research aims to evaluate the effects of L-T4 treatment on different skeletal sites in women. Material and methods A group of 45 premenopausal (mean age: 43.62 ±6.65 years) and 180 postmenopausal (mean age: 59.51 ±7.90 years) women with SCH who were undergoing L-T4 replacement therapy for at least 6 months were compared to 58 pre- and 180 postmenopausal women with SCH (untreated) matched for age. The mean doses of L-T4 were 90.88 ±42.59 µg/day in the premenopausal women and 86.35 ±34.11 µg/day in the postmenopausal women. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. Results No differences were observed between patients and untreated controls in these bone measurements except in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (p = 0.0214) in postmenopausal women, which was greater in treated women than in untreated controls. Conclusions Our results indicate that adequate metabolic control through replacement treatment with L-T4 in pre- and postmenopausal women does not affect bone mass. PMID:26528344

  10. Breast cancer survival among economically disadvantaged women: the influences of delayed diagnosis and treatment on mortality.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily Rose; Adams, Swann Arp; Das, Irene Prabhu; Bottai, Matteo; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R

    2008-10-01

    Breast cancer affects thousands each year in the United States, and disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, the incidence of breast cancer in South Carolina is lower in African American compared with European American women by approximately 12% to 15%, but their mortality rate is twice as high as in European American women. The purpose of the study was to assess factors associated with breast cancer mortality between African American and European American women. Participants (n=314) in South Carolina's Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (SCBCCEDP), which provides breast cancer screening and treatment services, during the years 1996-2004 were included in the study. Data, including tumor characteristics, delay intervals, and race, were examined using the chi(2) test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between delay intervals and other factors. No racial differences were found in age at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, or delay intervals. Time delay intervals did not explain differences and mortality rates by race. Survival, however, was affected by prognostic factors as well as by a significant interaction between hormone-receptor status and race. Despite the excellent record of the SCBCCEDP in screening and diagnostic or treatment referrals, the racial disparities in breast cancer mortality continue to exist in South Carolina. These findings highlight the need for future research into the etiology of racial differences, and their impact on breast cancer survival. PMID:18835941

  11. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Tetens, Inge; Björck, Inger; Flint, Anne; Holst, Jens J; Astrup, Arne; Elmståhl, Helena; Raben, Anne

    2011-09-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and subjective appetite ratings after a test meal were better after 10-wk ad libitum intake of a LGI compared to a HGI diet. EE and substrate oxidation rates were, however, not affected. These findings give some support to recommendations to consume a LGI diet. PMID:21775528

  12. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has

  13. African American Women Principals: Heeding the Call to Serve as Conduits for Transforming Urban School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this…

  14. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  15. African American Women Principals: Heeding the Call to Serve as Conduits for Transforming Urban School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Whitney Sherman; Niemeyer, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    African American women leaders are often found in urban schools that have been exhausted of resources and lack support. However, due to their disproportionate representation in urban schools, African American women principals have become adept at uniting and engaging stakeholders in marginalized school settings into action. The intent for this

  16. Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger

  17. Male Sex Roles and Epithets for Ethnic Women in American Slang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Irving Lewis

    1984-01-01

    Research shows that derogatory names used for women of ethnic outgroups (1) are aimed disproportionately at women of racial minorities; (2) stereotype physical differences between ethnic groups; (3) make derogatory sexual allusions, often using food and animal metaphors; and (4) display the strains of traditional male sex roles in ethnic and

  18. Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

  19. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  20. Angina in Women without Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Kamakki; Lo, Monica; Khera, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Angina in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, sometimes referred to as cardiac syndrome X (CSX), is a debilitating condition that disproportionately affects women. More than 50% of women evaluated for angina have non-obstructive disease by cardiac catheterization, although the total numbers of women affected by CSX are unknown. Varying clinical definitions and the lack of large scale epidemiologic studies focusing on this illness have resulted in limited knowledge about its risk factors, although there appears to be an association with black race, estrogen deficiency, and insulin resistance. Contrary to prior beliefs about the benign nature of this entity, these women suffer considerable morbidity with costly economic implications that approach the lifetime costs of healthcare utilization for those with obstructive coronary disease. Two prevailing hypotheses have emerged to explain CSX: the ischemic hypothesis detailing abnormal coronary microvascular function and the non-ischemic hypothesis describing altered pain perception and myocardial hypersensitivity. Treatment strategies have focused on both of these pathways with the main goal of improving symptoms. Beta blockers provide the most convincing evidence for benefit, with other antianginals having secondary roles. Other promising pharmacologic therapies include xanthine derivatives, estrogen replacement therapy, ACE inhibitors, and statin medications, among other emerging treatment options. Neurostimulation and lifestyle factors including exercise can also be beneficial in reducing symptoms. However, managing patients with CSX can be frustrating for both patients and physicians, as there is a lack of data regarding an optimal treatment algorithm including few large-scale randomized controlled trials to clarify effective therapies. PMID:21286281

  1. Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Key Populations Affected by HIV in Asia: An Unfinished Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Petruney, Tricia; Minichiello, Shanthi Noriega; McDowell, Misti; Wilcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Like all women, women living with and at risk of acquiring HIV have the right to determine the number and timing of their pregnancies and to safely achieve their reproductive intentions. Yet, many women in Asia affected by HIV lack access to family planning services and experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Programs that have succeeded in promoting condom use and providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this region have largely missed the opportunity to address the contraceptive needs of the key populations they serve. The importance of better linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs is now widely recognized by global health policymakers and donors. However, to date, most of the efforts to improve these linkages have been conducted in Africa. Greater attention is needed to the developing, implementing, and evaluating of integrated family planning/HIV approaches that are tailored to the political, cultural, and public health context in Asia. In this paper, we describe the use of and need for family planning among key populations affected by HIV in Asia, discuss the challenges to effectively addressing of these needs, and offer recommendations for strengthening the linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs in the region. PMID:22991656

  2. Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur in Marine Sediments Amplified by a Seafloor Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryckelynck, N. B.; Reimers, C. E.; Stecher, H. A.; Holmes, D. E.; Bond, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    Bacteria known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide and to grow only in the presence of a sulfide scavenger have been enriched electrochemically in marine sediments. During a 7-month experiment designed to demonstrate sustained electrical energy harvesting by a seafloor fuel cell (Tender et al. 2002), a graphite anode embedded in sediment within Yaquina Bay, OR, developed a biofilm showing a 60% enrichment in δ-Proteobacteria belonging to the genera Desulfobulus/Desulfocapsa. Cytophagales showed a secondary enrichment in 36.7% of 16S rDNA sequences. These two groups of microorganisms made up 23.5% and 8.8%, respectively, of clones derived from graphite scrapings of a control cell with zero current. Sediment porewater profiles show millimolar increases in sulfate and iron concentrations, but also sulfide depletion approaching the active anode. Electron microprobe analyses reveal accumulations of sulfur and iron between the graphite surface of the anode and the overcoating biofilm with a Fe/S ratio below one. Extractions of iron mineral phases also indicate a small decrease in crystalline iron oxide near the anode. These chemical changes are consistent with four interactive processes. (1) Sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur directly at the anode. (2) The elemental sulfur promotes the microbial production of sulfate and FeS + FeS2. (3) Iron sulfide apparently dissolves to re-supply sulfide that is consumed by the anode. (4) Released Fe+2 accumulates and with organic ligands may catalyze the reduction and dissolution of crystalline iron oxide (Luther et al. 1992). Thus, we conclude the anodic half-cell reaction of the marine fuel cell provides a novel experimental approach for in situ enrichment of bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur while highlighting a biogeochemical cycle usually obscured by competing processes. Tender L. M., Reimers C. E., Stecher H. A. III, Holmes D. E., Bond D. R, Lowy, D. A., Pilobello K., Fertig S. J., Lovley D. R., Harnessing microbially generated power on the seafloor, Nature Biotechnology (2002) 20: 821-825. Luther G. W. III, Kostka J. E., Church T. M., Sulzberger B., Stumm W., Seasonal iron cycling in the salt-marsh sedimentary environment: the importance of ligand complexes with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and pyrite, respectively, Marine Chemistry (1992) 40: 81-103

  3. Disproportionate Minority Representation in Suspension and Expulsion in Minnesota Public Schools: A Report from the Minnesota Department of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anfinson, Allison; Autumn, Stephanie; Lehr, Cammy; Riestenberg, Nancy; Scullin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The suspension of any student is problematic for students from all groups. Suspension and expulsion as interventions are inadequate to change behavior unless they are paired with teaching replacement behaviors. However, African American/Black, American Indian and Hispanic students are suspended and expelled at rates that are disproportionate to

  4. 12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to the contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. 221.111 Section 221.111 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  5. Universal Screening for Behavioral and Emotional Risk: A Promising Method for Reducing Disproportionate Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, Tara C.; Dever, Bridget V.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The overrepresentation of U.S. minority students identified for emotional and behavior disorders special education programs plagues schools and challenges researchers and practitioners. Arcane methods including teacher nomination continue to guide referral processes, despite compelling evidence of their influence on disproportionate special…

  6. The Disproportionate Use of Discipline: An Investigation of the Potential Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardino, David Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 35 years, the disproportionate use of discipline by gender, race/ethnicity, and disability status has been consistently documented. Specifically, Black males receive the majority of suspensions and expulsions. Discipline for Native American and Hispanic students, while often showing overrepresentation, is less consistent. There is

  7. Universal Screening for Behavioral and Emotional Risk: A Promising Method for Reducing Disproportionate Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, Tara C.; Dever, Bridget V.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The overrepresentation of U.S. minority students identified for emotional and behavior disorders special education programs plagues schools and challenges researchers and practitioners. Arcane methods including teacher nomination continue to guide referral processes, despite compelling evidence of their influence on disproportionate special

  8. Two-dimensional charge disproportionation of the unusual high valence state Fe(4+) in a layered double perovskite.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Yoshiteru; Ichikawa, Noriya; Saito, Takashi; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Attfield, J Paul; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-17

    The crystal and magnetic structures of charge-disproportionated Ca2FeMnO6 were analyzed by neutron powder diffraction. Ca2FeMnO6 is a layered double perovskite oxide with a two-dimensional arrangement of Mn(4+) and unusual high valence Fe(4+) at room temperature. When cooled, the compound shows charge disproportionation followed by magnetic transition. Around 200 K, the Fe(4+) shows the charge disproportionation to Fe(3+) and Fe(5+), which are ordered in a checkerboard pattern in the two-dimensional FeO6 octahedral layers. The magnetic transition occurs at 95 K, which is much lower than the charge disproportionation temperature. The magnetic structure is commensurate but noncollinear, and the antiferromagnetic coupling of Fe(3+) and Fe(5+) spins in the FeO6 octahedral layers gives the ferrimagnetic moments. The unique magnetic structure is described as a result of two-dimensional localization of the ligand holes with effective spins. PMID:26018730

  9. Parental Etiological Explanations and Disproportionate Racial/Ethnic Representation in Special Education Services for Youths with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, May; Forness, Steven R.; Ho, Judy; McCabe, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been long concern about underidentification or misidentification of children with emotional or behavioral disorders in special education, recent attention has also been focused on disproportionate racial and ethnic representation of children in the school category of emotional disturbance (ED). There is evidence that African

  10. 12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution to joint venture as extension of... joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to the contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered the question whether a joint...

  11. Knowledge of Abortion Laws and Services Among Low-Income Women in Three United States Cities.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diana; Holt, Kelsey; Pea, Melanie; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Low-income women and women of color are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy. Lack of knowledge of abortion laws and services is one of several factors likely to hinder access to services, though little research has documented knowledge in this population. Survey with convenience sample of 1,262 women attending primary care or full-scope Ob/Gyn clinics serving low-income populations in three large cities and multivariable analyses with four knowledge outcomes. Among all participants, 53% were first-generation immigrants, 25% identified the correct gestational age limit, 41% identified state parental consent laws, 67% knew partner consent is not required, and 55% knew where to obtain abortion services. In multivariable analysis, first-generation immigrants and primarily Spanish speakers were significantly less likely than higher-generation or primarily English speakers to display correct knowledge. Design and evaluation of strategies to improve knowledge about abortion, particularly among migrant women and non-primary English speakers, is needed. PMID:25488893

  12. Neither Folic Acid Supplementation nor Pregnancy Affects the Distribution of Folate Forms in the Red Blood Cells of Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Brenda A.; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30–36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P < 0.0022). No difference was found between the NPW-1 and NPW-5 groups. We detected 5-methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83–84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6–3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741077. PMID:24991041

  13. Gas phase Boudouard disproportionation reaction between highly vibrationally excited CO molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essenhigh, Katherine; Utkin, Yurii; Bernard, Chad; Adamovich, Igor; Rich, William

    2006-10-01

    The gas-phase Boudouard disproportionation reaction (1) between highly vibrationally excited CO molecules in nonequilibrium optically excited plasma has been studied in this work. CO(v) + CO(w) -> CO2 +C The experiments were conducted in a mixture of Ar and CO at different CO partial pressures. The cw CO laser beam (14 Watt) was used to create an optically pumped plasma in a small glass reactor. The vibrational distribution function (VDF) of CO was measured in the plasma region using the fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. Carbon dioxide production rate was determined from the absorption of CO2 asymmetric stretch. Small amounts of helium was added to the mixture to alter the VDFs and change the of CO2 production rate. The activation energy Ea 11eV was inferred by using the transition state theory to fit the experimental data. This activation energy is very close to the CO dissociation energy of 11.09eV. Such a high activation energy suggests that both colliding particles have to be in very highly excited vibrational states for the reaction (1) to occur. The total rate constant KB for the reaction (1) was found to be 6.10-17 cm^3/sec.

  14. Laser-induced charge-disproportionated metallic state in LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Karolak, M.; Trabant, C.; Holldack, K.; Fhlisch, A.; Kummer, K.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Spiwek, M.; Belozerov, A.; Poteryaev, A.; Lichtenstein, A.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the origin of the spin transition in LaCoO3 is one of the long-standing aims in condensed matter physics. Aside from its fundamental interest, a detailed description of this crossover will have a direct impact on the interpretation of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) and the properties of the high-temperature metallic phase in this compound, which has shown to have important applications in environmentally friendly energy production. To date, the spin transition has been investigated mainly as a function of temperature in thermal equilibrium. These results have hinted at dynamical effects. In this paper, we have investigated the SMT by means of pump-probe soft x-ray reflectivity experiments at the O K , Co L , and La M edges and theoretical calculations within a DFT++ formalism. The results point towards a laser-induced metallization in which the optical transitions stabilize a metallic state with high-spin configuration and increased charge disproportionation.

  15. Disproportionation of thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires as a result of the annealing process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmin; Berger, Andreas; Cagnon, Laurent; Gsele, Ulrich; Nielsch, Kornelius; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2010-12-14

    P-type thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires were fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. Subsequently, the nanowires were annealed at 423, 523 and 673 K in an inert atmosphere for 4 h. With increasing temperature, it was observed that the Te compound incongruently sublimates due to its high vapor pressure, leading to disproportionation (from Bi(2)Te(3) to Bi(4)Te(3)via Bi(4)Te(5)). The crystalline structure of the nanowires was then investigated using XRD and SAED, with nanowire compositions investigated using an EDX attached to a TEM. The crystallinity of the nanowires was found to be enhanced with increased annealing temperature, and nanowires annealed at 673 K were stably maintained in the Bi(4)Te(3) phase. Additionally, the Seebeck coefficient was determined and the thermopower of nanowires annealed at a temperature of 423 K was shown to be slightly enhanced. Significantly suppressed Seebeck values for annealing temperatures of 523 K and 673 K were also observed. PMID:21046022

  16. Kinetics of toluene disproportionation over unmodified and modified ZSM-5 zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Uguina, M.A.; Sotelo, J.L.; Serrano, D.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of toluene disproportionation has been studied over both unmodified and Si-Mg modified ZSM-5 catalysts using an integral reactor and taking into account the reversibility of the reaction. It has been found that xylene dealkylation is the major secondary reaction, whereas toluene dealkylation can be considered negligible. For the unmodified ZSM-5, heterogeneous models based in the alkyl-transfer mechanism allowed the experimental results to be fit better than first and second pseudohomogeneous models, the best concordance being obtained when toluene adsorption is assumed as the rate-limiting step. The corresponding kinetic equation has been further applied to the modified zeolite (SiMg/ZSM-5), leading to the development of a kinetic model which includes the effect of the toluene and p-xylene intracrystalline diffusion rate and the presence of nonselective acid sites on the external zeolite surface. This model describes adequately the selective formation of p-xylene over modified ZSM-5, reproducing the experimental product distribution with an average relative error of 2.8%.

  17. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

  18. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan; Sheingold, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share hospital (DSH) adjustments to Medicare's prospective payment rates for inpatient services are generally intended to compensate hospitals for patient care costs related to teaching activities and care of low income populations. These adjustments were originally established based on the statistical relationships between IME and DSH and hospital costs. Due to a variety of policy considerations, the legislated levels of these adjustments may have deviated over time from these “empirically justified levels,” or simply, “empirical levels.” In this paper, we estimate the empirical levels of IME and DSH using 2006 hospital data and 2009 Medicare final payment rules. Our analyses suggest that the empirical level for IME would be much smaller than under current law— about one-third to one-half. Our analyses also support the DSH adjustment prescribed by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA)—about one-quarter of the pre-ACA level. For IME, the estimates imply an increase in costs of 1.88% for each 10% increase in teaching intensity. For DSH, the estimates imply that costs would rise by 0.52% for each 10% increase in the low-income patient share for large urban hospitals. PMID:22340777

  19. Paraffin isomerization and disproportionation catalyzed by Pd-loaded fluorided mordenites

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, J.A. Jr.; Dooley, K.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Fluorided, Pd-loaded ({approximately}1.1 wt% Pd) mordenites, with 8, 12, 28, and 100% replacement of {minus}OH groups, were synthesized from H-mordenite. These materials were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, the adsorption of N{sub 2} and 2-methylpentane, and their activity for paraffin reactions. Except in the case of 100% nominal fluoridation, the fluorided mordenites retained their crystallinity, displayed enhanced acid strengths and adsorption capacities for paraffinic hydrocarbons, and were catalytically active (at 533-573 K and {approximately}0.1 bar hydrocarbon partial pressure) for the transformation of n-butane to isobutane and products of both higher and lower molecular weights. The presence of a small amount of isobutene in the feed greatly accelerated these transformations and increase yields to the pentane isomers. The primary reactions were apparently acid-catalyzed, with the role of Pd confined to activity maintenance. The mildly fluorided zeolites in some cases proved more active overall than the parent zeolites H-mordenite and Pd-mordenite and were especially selective for the formation of the pentane isomers, apparently through a combination of disproportionation reactions and secondary alkylation reactions involving light hydrocarbon primary products.

  20. Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment Reductions May Threaten Financial Stability of Safety-Net Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Neuhausen, Katherine; Davis, Anna C.; Needleman, Jack; Brook, Robert H.; Zingmond, David; Roby, Dylan H.

    2014-01-01

    Safety-net hospitals rely on Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to help cover uncompensated care costs and underpayments by Medicaid (known as Medicaid shortfalls). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) anticipates that insurance expansions will increase safety-net hospitals’ revenues, and reduces DSH payments accordingly. We examined the impact of the ACA’s Medicaid DSH reductions on California public hospitals’ financial stability by estimating how total DSH costs (uncompensated care costs and Medicaid shortfalls) will change as a result of insurance expansions and the offsetting DSH reductions. Decreases in uncompensated care costs due to the ACA insurance expansion may not match the ACA’s DSH reductions because of the high number of residually uninsured patients, low Medicaid reimbursement, and medical cost inflation. Taking these three factors into account, we estimate that California public hospitals’ total DSH costs will increase from $2.044 billion in 2010 to $2.363 billion in 2019, with unmet DSH costs of $1.381 billion to $1.537 billion. PMID:24889948

  1. Disproportionation of marokite at high pressures and temperatures with geophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin-gun

    1983-07-01

    Natural marokite (CaMn 2O 4) has been studied at high pressures and temperatures using a diamond-anvil press coupled with laser heating in the pressure range 100-250 kbar. A mixture of marokite, CaMnO 3 (perovskite) and MnO (rocksalt) has been observed in all runs in the above pressure range by X-ray diffraction study of the quenched samples. It was interpreted that marokite disproportionates into the mixture CaMnO 3 (perovskite) + MnO (rocksalt) at pressures below 100 kbar. A general comparison of the molar volume for all known compounds having the marokite-related structures (including CaFe 2O 4 and CaTi 2O 4) with those for a mixture of perovskite plus rocksalt structures suggested that the mixture is more stable than the marokite-related structures at high pressures, as confirmed by the present experimental result. The CaFe 2O 4-modification of common nepheline (NaAlSiO 4) is also suggested to be unstable relative to the component oxides of ?-NaAlO 2 + SiO 2 (stishovite) at high pressures.

  2. Disproportionation in Li-O{sub 2} Batteries Based on a Large Surface Area Carbon Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, D.; Wang, H.-H.; Yang, J.; Lau, K. C.; Li, K.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

    2013-10-16

    In this paper we report on a kinetics study of the discharge process and its relationship to the charge overpotential in a Li-O{sub 2} cell for large surface area cathode material. The kinetics study reveals evidence for a first-order disproportionation reaction during discharge from an oxygen-rich Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component with superoxide-like character to a Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component. The oxygen-rich superoxide-like component has a much smaller potential during charge (3.2-3.5 V) than the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component (similar to 4.2 V). The formation of the superoxide-like component is likely due to the porosity of the activated carbon used in the Li-O{sub 2} cell cathode that provides a good environment for growth during discharge. The discharge product containing these two components is characterized by toroids, which are assemblies of nanoparticles. The morphologic growth and decomposition process of the toroids during the reversible discharge/charge process was observed by scanning electron microscopy and is consistent with the presence of the two components in the discharge product. The results of this study provide new insight into how growth conditions control the nature of discharge product, which can be used to achieve improved performance in Li-O{sub 2} cell.

  3. Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Mansell, Stephen M; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

    2012-08-01

    Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(η(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX(3) (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX(2) to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X(2)U(µ-η(6):η(6)-arene)UX(2)] and a UX(4) by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a 'cooperative small-molecule activation' mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX(3) are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds. PMID:22824900

  4. Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Polly L.; Mansell, Stephen M.; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

    2012-08-01

    Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(?6-C6H6)2 are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX3 (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX2 to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X2U(-?6:?6-arene)UX2] and a UX4 by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a cooperative small-molecule activation mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX3 are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds.

  5. Subthreshold amounts of social odorant affect mood, but not behavior, in heterosexual women when tested by a male, but not a female, experimenter.

    PubMed

    Lundstrm, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2005-12-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that exposure to the endogenous steroid androstadienone has the ability to modulate women's mood in that they feel more focused [Lundstrom, J.N., Goncalves, M., Esteves, F., Olsson, M.J., 2003a. Psychological effects of subthreshold exposure to the putative human pheromone 4,16-androstadien-3-one. Hormones and Behaviour 44 (5), 395-401]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that androstadienone exposure would modulate participating women's mood and corresponding behavior as measured by a sustained attention task. Thirty-seven women participated in a double-blind, within-group experiment and were tested by either a female or a male experimenter. Effects on mood, psychophysiological arousal, sustained attention, and ratings of male facial attractiveness were assessed. Sensory detection of the experimental substance was rigorously controlled for by psychophysical testing. The results showed that exposure to a non-detectable amount of androstadienone modulated women's psychophysiological arousal and mood in a positive direction but did not change attention performance or rating of facial attractiveness. Moreover, mood effects were only evident when an experimenter of the opposite sex conducted the testing. This suggests that social context is important for mood effects of androstadienone exposure in women. PMID:16242537

  6. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  7. Intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviors among Iranian women with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Rimaz, Shahnaz; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Back, Sudie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Abad, Masoumeh; Shamsalizadeh, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behaviors are serious and overlapping public health problems that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. Despite the fact that drug-using women experience extensive IPV, to date, no studies have investigated the association of IPV and risky sexual behaviors among drug-using women in Iran. Methods: Drug-using women (N =120) were recruited from a rehabilitation center in Tehran from March to October, 2009. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), a standardized questionnaire, was used to collect data regarding violence. We used t-test and logistic regression models to explore the relationship between IPV domains and specific sexual risk behavior outcomes using SPSS 21. Results: The means (sd) for CTS2 domains were as follows: negotiation 4.29 (1.55), psychological violence 2.55 (1.51), sexual violence 0.37 (1.00), physical abuse 1.17 (1.49), injury 2.18 (1.97), and the mean total score was 1.69 (0.96). We found significantly higher injury scores, but lower sexual abuse scores among women with sexually-transmitted infection (STI) compared to women without STI (p-values 0.030 and <0.0001, respectively). In addition, we found that psychological abuse was positively associated with STI (p-value 0.03) and increased condom use (p = 0.010), possibly mediated through an increased likelihood of having multiple partners. Conclusion: The findings revealed that in Iran drug-involved women experience high rates of IPV and that IPV is associated with increased risky sexual behavior. Implication: Preventive interventions for violence that are integrated within drug treatment programs, as well as harm reduction programs are highly recommended. PMID:26034727

  8. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities. PMID:20574877

  9. Talking from 9 to 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah

    Intended to help individuals as well as companies thrive in a working world made up of increasingly diverse work forces and ever more competitive markets, this book addresses the differences in men's and women's speaking styles, without maintaining the superiority of any one style of speaking. Reinforced with extensive examples drawn from

  10. They Have Already Thrown Away Their Chicken: Barriers Affecting Participation by HIV-infected Women in Care and Treatment Programs for Their Infants in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Marie Collins; Dube, Queen; Dow, Anna; Umar, Eric; Van Rie, Annelies

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected infants and young children are at high risk of serious illness and death. Morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced through early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite global efforts to scale-up of EID and infant ART, uptake of these services in resource poor, high HIV burden countries remains low. We conducted a qualitative study of 59 HIV-infected women to identify and explore barriers women face in accessing HIV testing and care for their infants. To capture different perspectives, we included mothers whose infants were known positive (n=9) or known negative (n=14), mothers of infants with unknown HIV status (n=13), and pregnant HIV-infected women (n=20). Five important themes emerged: lack of knowledge regarding EID and infant ART, the perception of health care workers as authority figures, fear of disclosure of own and/or childs HIV status, lack of psychosocial support, and intent to shorten the life of the child. A complex array of cultural, economic and psychosocial factors creates barriers for HIV-infected women to participate in early infant HIV testing and care programs. For optimal impact of EID and infant ART, reasons for poor uptake should be better understood and addressed in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:22348314

  11. Law and Policy Affecting Addicted Women and Their Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains the text of a one of a series of Congressional hearings called to examine substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women and to explore prevention and treatment strategies. This hearing focuses on federal and state policies designed to address the urgency of perinatal substance abuse. Witnesses provide testimony on state

  12. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  13. A critical test of the assumption that men prefer conformist women and women prefer nonconformist men.

    PubMed

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Wellauer, Richard; McIntyre, Jason C; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-06-01

    Five studies tested the common assumption that women prefer nonconformist men as romantic partners, whereas men prefer conformist women. Studies 1 and 2 showed that both men and women preferred nonconformist romantic partners, but women overestimated the extent to which men prefer conformist partners. In Study 3, participants ostensibly in a small-group interaction showed preferences for nonconformist opposite-sex targets, a pattern that was particularly evident when men evaluated women. Dating success was greater the more nonconformist the sample was (Study 4), and perceptions of nonconformity in an ex-partner were associated with greater love and attraction toward that partner (Study 5). On the minority of occasions in which effects were moderated by gender, it was in the reverse direction to the traditional wisdom: Conformity was more associated with dating success among men. The studies contradict the notion that men disproportionately prefer conformist women. PMID:25805768

  14. Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO{sub 2}/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shengkai; Liu Honggang; Toriumi, Akira

    2012-08-06

    GeO disproportionation into GeO{sub 2} and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO {yields} GeO{sub 2} + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 {+-} 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO{sub 2}/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO{sub 2} is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

  15. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  16. Disproportionation pathways of aqueous hyponitrite radicals (HN2O2(*)/N2O2(*-)).

    PubMed

    Poskrebyshev, Gregory A; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Lymar, Sergei V

    2008-09-11

    Pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis are used to generate the hyponitrite radicals (HN2O2(*)/N2O2(*-)) by one-electron oxidation of the hyponitrite in aqueous solution. Although the radical decay conforms to simple second-order kinetics, its mechanism is complex, comprising a short chain of NO release-consumption steps. In the first, rate-determining step, two N2O2(*-) radicals disproportionate with the rate constant 2k = (8.2 +/- 0.5) x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) (at zero ionic strength) effectively in a redox reaction regenerating N2O2(2-) and releasing two NO. This occurs either by electron transfer or, more likely, through radical recombination-dissociation. Each NO so-produced rapidly adds to another N2O2(*-), yielding the N3O3(-) ion, which slowly decomposes at 300 s(-1) to the final N2O + NO2(-) products. The N2O2(*-) radical protonates with pKa = 5.6 +/- 0.3. The neutral HN2O2(*) radical decays by an analogous mechanism but much more rapidly with the apparent second-order rate constant 2k = (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The N2O2(*-) radical shows surprisingly low reactivity toward O2 and O2(*-), with the corresponding rate constants below 1 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The previously reported rapid dissociation of N2O2(*-) into N2O and O(*-) does not occur. The thermochemistry of HN2O2(*)/N2O2(*-) is discussed in the context of these new kinetic and mechanistic results. PMID:18707066

  17. Disproportionate Declines in Ground-Foraging Insectivorous Birds after Mistletoe Removal.

    PubMed

    Watson, David M

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous birds have been recognized as disproportionately sensitive to land-use intensification and habitat loss, with those species feeding primarily on the ground exhibiting some of the most dramatic declines. Altered litter inputs and availability of epigeic arthropods have been suggested to underlie reduced abundances and shrinking distributions but direct evidence is lacking. I used a patch-scale removal experiment in southern Australia to evaluate whether ground-feeding insectivores are especially vulnerable to altered litter-fall. Building on work demonstrating the importance of mistletoe litter to nutrient dynamics, litter was reduced by removing mistletoe (Loranthaceae) from one set of eucalypt woodlands, responses of birds three years after mistletoe removal compared with otherwise similar control woodlands containing mistletoe. Despite not feeding on mistletoes directly, insectivores exhibited the greatest response to mistletoe removal. Among woodland residents, ground-foraging insectivores showed the most dramatic response; treatment woodlands losing an average of 37.4% of their pre-treatment species richness. Once these 19 species of ground-foraging insectivores were excluded, remaining woodland species showed no significant effect of mistletoe removal. This response reflects greater initial losses in treatment woodlands during the study (which coincided with a severe drought) and double the number of species returning to control woodlands (where mistletoe numbers and litter were not manipulated) post-drought. These findings support the productivity-based explanation of declining insectivores, suggesting diminished litter-fall reduced habitat quality for these birds via decreased availability of their preferred prey. In addition to altered prey availability, interactions between litter-fall and epigeic arthropods exemplify the importance of below-ground / above-ground linkages driving ecosystem function. PMID:26640895

  18. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-03-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  19. Disproportionate Declines in Ground-Foraging Insectivorous Birds after Mistletoe Removal

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous birds have been recognized as disproportionately sensitive to land-use intensification and habitat loss, with those species feeding primarily on the ground exhibiting some of the most dramatic declines. Altered litter inputs and availability of epigeic arthropods have been suggested to underlie reduced abundances and shrinking distributions but direct evidence is lacking. I used a patch-scale removal experiment in southern Australia to evaluate whether ground-feeding insectivores are especially vulnerable to altered litter-fall. Building on work demonstrating the importance of mistletoe litter to nutrient dynamics, litter was reduced by removing mistletoe (Loranthaceae) from one set of eucalypt woodlands, responses of birds three years after mistletoe removal compared with otherwise similar control woodlands containing mistletoe. Despite not feeding on mistletoes directly, insectivores exhibited the greatest response to mistletoe removal. Among woodland residents, ground-foraging insectivores showed the most dramatic response; treatment woodlands losing an average of 37.4% of their pre-treatment species richness. Once these 19 species of ground-foraging insectivores were excluded, remaining woodland species showed no significant effect of mistletoe removal. This response reflects greater initial losses in treatment woodlands during the study (which coincided with a severe drought) and double the number of species returning to control woodlands (where mistletoe numbers and litter were not manipulated) post-drought. These findings support the productivity-based explanation of declining insectivores, suggesting diminished litter-fall reduced habitat quality for these birds via decreased availability of their preferred prey. In addition to altered prey availability, interactions between litter-fall and epigeic arthropods exemplify the importance of below-ground / above-ground linkages driving ecosystem function. PMID:26640895

  20. Impact of a women's program for science, mathematics and engineering on undergraduate women: Activity systems on the periphery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    National reports such as National Science Foundation's highlight women's disproportionate distribution and differential treatment in the science, mathematics, and engineering (SM&E) fields, in both education and the workforce in the US. Women are less likely than men to choose a career that involves SM&E, and are more likely than men to earn bachelor's degrees in non-science and non-engineering fields. The need for support and encouragement is obvious for women already in college intending to pursue a major in a SM&E field. Comprehensive support networks can be and are established through programs for women entering college and willing to pursue careers in SM&E fields. The context of this research was the Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Mathematics (PWISEM) established in 2001 by a Southern teaching and research university in the US. I constructed a thorough theoretical lens by interweaving the theory of situated learning/legitimate peripheral participation and the cultural-historical activity theory. I explored the interactions and contradictions that affected the science identity formation of the PWISEM students, how they identified themselves as future scientists, and the key factors PWISEM involved in motivating and supporting women students in their intended SM&E majors. The design of the research was dominant-less dominant, the dominant approach being qualitative and the less-dominant being quantitative. The Program was successful in fostering the participation and retention of undergraduate women in SM&E. However, the women in the Program were more likely to internalize the status quo in the SM&E realms without actively challenging it (liberal feminist approach). To change the masculine culture embedded in SM&E, engaging in activism is essential. This research suggests that in fact, programs like PWISEM provide promising contexts for reforming the SM&E culture to be more appealing and inclusive of all. I suggest that there can be both explicit and implicit ways of transformation within such contexts and argue that the implicit approach is more powerful. This research also informs the theory of situated learning in that newcomer interactions are a key aspect and their actions should be understood to involve much more than knowledge circulation.

  1. Two-Step Suppression of Charge Disproportionation in CaCu3Fe4O12 under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Takateru; Sekiya, Yoshihiro; Mimura, Ayano; Kobayashi, Kana; Tokumichi, Keita; Yamada, Ikuya; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kawamura, Naomi; Shimakawa, Yuichi; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Ishimatsu, Naoki; Hayashi, Naoaki; Takano, Mikio

    2016-03-01

    The electronic properties of a perovskite Fe4+ oxide, CaCu3Fe4O12, pressurized in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 50 GPa, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electrical resistance measurements, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The first transformation from a charge-disproportionated (Fe3+ and Fe5+) semiconducting high-spin state to an approximately charge-uniform (Fe(4‑δ)+ and Fe(4+δ)+) metallic high-spin state occurred at ˜15 GPa. This was followed by a second transformation to a completely charge-uniform (Fe4+) metallic low-spin state at ˜30 GPa. This is the first observation of pressure-induced two-step suppression of charge disproportionation in perovskite iron oxides.

  2. Application of high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry for the elucidation of the disproportionation reaction of iodobenzene diacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luiz F., Jr.; Vasconcelos, Ramon S.; Lopes, Norberto P.

    2008-09-01

    Disproportionation reactions take place in solution of (diacetoxyiodo)benzene (DIB) in acetonitrile in the presence of water, giving iodine(V) and iodine(I) species. This redox reaction is accelerated by the presence of water and by increasing the temperature. Several species of the solution of DIB were identified by high-resolution ESI-MS/MS, which allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms of disproportionation for DIB in gas phase and in solution. Key species in the process are the dimers [PhI(OH)OIPh]+ at m/z 440.8864, [PhI(OAc)OIPh]+ at m/z 482.8947, and [PhI(O)(OAc)OIPh]+ at m/z 498.8887.

  3. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants aremore » 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  4. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li-air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2- produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1 and 0.67 s-1 M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  5. Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Capobianco, Daniela; Miccheli, Alfredo; Praticò, Giulia; Campagna, Giuseppe; Laforgia, Nicola; Capursi, Teresa; Baldassarre, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation to a mother during the perinatal period can have a positive impact on the breast milk composition. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, during late pregnancy and lactation, on breast milk levels of beneficial bacteria and some functional components (oligosaccharides and lactoferrin) potentially able to have a positive influence on the microbiota. Breast milk microbiota was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took daily either the probiotic (n=33) or a placebo (n=33). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that the amounts of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the colostrum and mature milk of the mothers taking VSL#3 in comparison to those taking placebo. The analysis of bacterial strains and species present in breast milk of VSL#3 supplemented mothers indicated that the administered probiotic microorganisms did not pass from maternal gut to mammary gland. In women with vaginal delivery, significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were detected in colostrum and mature milk of probiotic treated group in comparison to placebo group, whereas no significant difference was observed between groups in women who had caesarean section, neither in colostrum nor in mature milk. Milk levels of oligosaccharides and lactoferrin were similar in placebo and probiotic supplemented groups at all timepoints and regardless of the mode of delivery. Our results indicate a probiotic-dependent modulation of breast milk microbiota in vaginally delivering women, possibly exerted through a systemic effect. PMID:25836922

  6. Elemental Sulfur and Thiosulfate Disproportionation by Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov., a New Anaerobic Bacterium Isolated from Marine Surface Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Finster, Kai; Liesack, Werner; Thamdrup, Bo

    1998-01-01

    A mesophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium, strain SB164P1, was enriched and isolated from oxidized marine surface sediment with elemental sulfur as the sole energy substrate in the presence of ferrihydrite. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Growth was observed exclusively in the presence of a hydrogen sulfide scavenger, e.g., ferrihydrite. In the absence of a scavenger, sulfide and sulfate production were observed but no growth occurred. Strain SB164P1 grew also by disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite. With thiosulfate, the growth efficiency was higher in ferrihydrite-supplemented media than in media without ferrihydrite. Growth coupled to sulfate reduction was not observed. However, a slight sulfide production occurred in cultures incubated with formate and sulfate. Strain SB164P1 is the first bacterium described that grows chemolithoautotrophically exclusively by the disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing analysis placed strain SB164P1 into the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Its closest relative is Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes, and slightly more distantly related are Desulfofustis glycolicus and Desulforhopalus vacuolatus. This phylogenetic cluster of organisms, together with members of the genus Desulfobulbus, forms one of the main lines of descent within the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. Due to the common phenotypic characteristics and the phylogenetic relatedness to Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes, we propose that strain SB164P1 be designated the type strain of Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov. PMID:9435068

  7. Isotopic disproportionation during hydrogen isotopic analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nair, Sreejesh; Geilmann, Heike; Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Gehre, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Brand, Willi A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale High-precision hydrogen isotope ratio analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic materials using high-temperature conversion (HTC) techniques has proven troublesome in the past. Formation of reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) has been suspected as a possible cause of incomplete H2 yield and hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Methods The classical HTC reactor setup and a modified version including elemental chromium, both operated at temperatures in excess of 1400 °C, have been compared using a selection of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds, including caffeine. A focus of the experiments was to avoid or suppress hydrogen cyanide (HCN) formation and to reach quantitative H2 yields. The technique also was optimized to provide acceptable sample throughput. Results The classical HTC reaction of a number of selected compounds exhibited H2 yields from 60 to 90 %. Yields close to 100 % were measured for the experiments with the chromium-enhanced reactor. The δ2H values also were substantially different between the two types of experiments. For the majority of the compounds studied, a highly significant relationship was observed between the amount of missing H2and the number of nitrogen atoms in the molecules, suggesting the pyrolytic formation of HCN as a byproduct. A similar linear relationship was found between the amount of missing H2 and the observed hydrogen isotopic result, reflecting isotopic fractionation. Conclusions The classical HTC technique to produce H2 from organic materials using high temperatures in the presence of glassy carbon is not suitable for nitrogen-bearing compounds. Adding chromium to the reaction zone improves the yield to 100 % in most cases. The initial formation of HCN is accompanied by a strong hydrogen isotope effect, with the observed hydrogen isotope results on H2 being substantially shifted to more negative δ2H values. The reaction can be understood as an initial disproportionation leading to H2 and HCN with the HCN-hydrogen systematically enriched in 2H by more than 50 ‰. In the reaction of HCN with chromium, H2 and chromium-containing solid residues are formed quantitatively.

  8. The Disproportionate and Potentially Negative Influence of Research Universities on the Quality of Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is a large and growing body of research indicating that post-secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is failing to prepare citizens for the 21st century economy. Introductory STEM courses are vital for preparing science majors for their fields of study and are the only exposure to science many college students will receive, but the quality of teaching in these courses is often not informed by research on teaching and learning. Research universities play an especially prominent role in the design of introductory courses. While research and doctoral universities account for only about 6% of all higher education institutions, they confer 32 per cent of the baccalaureate degrees, and 56 per cent of the baccalaureates earned by recent recipients of science and engineering doctorates. By assuming that larger introductory classes occur at research institutions one can estimate that a dominant number of students receiving introductory instruction in the geosciences are probably occurring at research institutions. Moreover, research universities produce the majority of tenure-track faculty who will later teach at four-year colleges, so the role of research institutions in the influence of introductory course design is expected to be disproportionately large. While introductory courses at research universities play a influential role in how such courses are designed, the teaching of introductory courses is too often viewed as an undesirable assignment for instructors at those institutions. The effort seems unrewarding with incentives for improving teaching at research institutions perceived as modest at best, if not negative. It is commonly perceived that teaching introductory courses will decrease opportunities for teaching higher-level courses to graduate students and/or to conduct research. Furthermore, even for those interested in improving their pedagogical methods, current approaches to professional development are generally difficult to scale and/or costly to institutions and outside instructors' normal workflow. This presentation reports on the results of surveys of research university instructors in an attempt to quantify the state of the introductory course. The surveys attempt to identify common barriers to improvement. Based on these surveys strategies for how to best implement systemic change in introductory courses at research universities are presented in the hope of stimulating discussion and a call to action.

  9. Evidence and characteristics of hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter during metasomatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Leigh C.; DeWitt, Ed

    2001-11-01

    Petroleum-geochemical analyses of carbonaceous regionally metamorphosed rocks, carbonaceous rocks from ore deposits, and alkalic plutonic rocks from diverse settings, demonstrated the presence of very low to moderately low concentrations of solvent-extractable organic matter, this observation in spite of the fact that some of these rocks were exposed to extremely high metamorphic temperatures. Biomarker and ? 13C analyses established that the extractable organic matter originated as sedimentary-derived hydrocarbons. However, the chemistry of the extractable bitumen has been fundamentally transformed from that found in sediment bitumen and oils. Asphaltenes and resins, as defined in the normal petroleum-geochemical sense, are completely missing. The principal aromatic hydrocarbons present in oils and sediment bitumens (especially the methylated naphthalenes) are either in highly reduced concentrations or are missing altogether. Instead, aromatic hydrocarbons typical of sediment bitumens and oils are very minor, and a number of unidentified compounds and oxygen-bearing compounds are dominant. Relatively high concentrations of alkylated benzenes are typical. The polar "resin" fraction, eluted during column chromatography, is the principal compound group, by weight, being composed of six to eight dominant peaks present in all samples, despite the great geologic diversity of the samples. These, and other, observations suggest that a strong drive towards equilibrium exists in the "bitumen." Gas chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbons commonly have a pronounced hump in both the n-paraffins and naphthenes, centered near the C 19 to C 26 carbon numbers, and a ubiquitous minimum in the n-paraffin distribution near n-C 12 to n-C 14. Multiple considerations dictate that the bitumen in the samples is indigenous and did not originate from either surficial field contamination or from laboratory procedures. Our observations are consistent with the hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter (HDOM), in which water and organic matter, including hydrocarbons, easily exchange hydrogen or oxygen with one another under certain conditions (Helgeson et al., 1993). The process appears to take place via well-known organic-chemical redox reaction pathways and is most evident in open-fluid systems. The conclusion that HDOM took place in the analyzed samples, thus producing the chemistry of the extractable bitumen, is supported by numerous previously published organic-geochemical studies of metamorphic, volcanic, plutonic, and ore-deposit-related rocks by other investigators. HDOM is suggested as an unrecognized geologic agent of fundamental importance. The process appears to control major chemical reactions in diverse geologic environments including, but not limited to, petroleum geology and geochemistry, regional metamorphism, and base- and precious-metal ore deposition.

  10. Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare taxa in time series from a wide variety of ecosystems and discovered that not only were conditionally rare taxa present in all of the examples, but they also contributed disproportionately to temporal changes in diversity when they were most abundant. This result indicates an important and general role for rare microbial taxa within their communities. PMID:25028427

  11. WISEWOMAN: addressing the needs of women at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Isam; Wigington, Charles; Borbely, Deborah; Ferry, Patricia; Manheim, Diane

    2011-07-01

    In the United States, the cardiovascular health of women is affected by the disparate impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) on many minority ethnic and racial groups. Women with low income also endure a disproportionate impact of the burden of CVD. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) Program was authorized by Congress in 1993 to extend the preventive health services offered to participants of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). These are low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women. The intent was to expand services of an existing federal program to address cardiovascular health concerns in this vulnerable, high-risk population. CDC funds 19 state health departments and 2 tribal organizations (both in Alaska) to implement WISEWOMAN. In the first 2 years of the current 5-year funding cycle, which began in June 2008, the WISEWOMAN grantees succeeded in providing almost 78,000 screenings, of which 46% were to women of minority racial and ethnic groups. The individual successes are important, and the WISEWOMAN Program also has achieved success in the broader arenas of healthcare and the communities in which WISEWOMAN is implemented. WISEWOMAN impacts clinical systems of care, provider education, physician extenders, and the broader community and will continue to play an important role in connecting low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women with clinical systems of care and other community resources that will result in the prevention, treatment, and management of their CVD risk. PMID:21668383

  12. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  13. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  14. The Volume of Nipple Aspirate Fluid Is Not Affected by 6 Months of Treatment with Soy Foods in Premenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M.; Pagano, Ian S.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 ?L of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume. PMID:21325473

  15. How does acupuncture affect insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance? Study protocol of a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanhua; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ng, Ernest H Y; Li, Juan; Wu, Xiaoke; Ma, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (IR) are key features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome. The effect of 5 weeks of acupuncture treatment has been investigated in a completed prospective pilot trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01457209), and acupuncture with electrical stimulation applied to insulin-resistant rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS was shown to improve insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we now aim to conduct a prospective pilot study to evaluate whether using the same acupuncture treatment protocol given over a longer period of time (6 months) than in the previous pilot trial will improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS and IR. Our hypothesis is that acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation of the needles will improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS and IR. Methods/analysis This is a prospective pilot trial. A total of 112 women with PCOS and IR will be recruited and categorised according to their body mass index (BMI) as normal weight (BMI=18.5−23 kg/m2) or as overweight/obese (BMI>23 kg/m2). Acupuncture will be applied three times per week for 6 months at 30 min per treatment. The primary outcome will be the change in insulin sensitivity before and after 6 months of acupuncture treatment, as measured by an oral glucose tolerance test. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval of this study has been granted from the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (No. 2013039). Written and informed consent will be obtained from each patient before any study procedure is performed, according to good clinical practice. The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trial registration numbers NCT02026323 and ChiCTR-OCH-13003921. PMID:25941189

  16. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  17. Supplementation with calcium and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides affects markers of bone turnover but not bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Slevin, Mary M; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Bonham, Maxine P; Naughton, Violetta R; Strain, J J; Duffy, Maresa E; Wallace, Julie M; Mc Sorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    This 24-mo randomized, double-blind, controlled trial aimed to examine whether supplementation with a natural marine-derived multi-mineral supplement rich in calcium (Ca) taken alone and in conjunction with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOSs) has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal women. A total of 300 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca, 800 mg of Ca with 3.6 g of scFOS (CaFOS), or 9 g of maltodextrin. BMD was measured before and after intervention along with BTMs, which were also measured at 12 mo. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA identified that the change in BMD in the Ca and CaFOS groups did not differ from that in the maltodextrin group. Secondary analysis of changes to BTMs over time identified a greater decline in osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in the Ca group compared with the maltodextrin group at 12 mo. A greater decline in CTX was observed at 12 mo and a greater decline in osteocalcin was observed at 24 mo in the CaFOS group compared with the maltodextrin group. In exploratory subanalyses of each treatment group against the maltodextrin group, women classified with osteopenia and taking CaFOS had a smaller decline in total-body (P = 0.03) and spinal (P = 0.03) BMD compared with the maltodextrin group, although this effect was restricted to those with higher total-body and mean spinal BMD at baseline, respectively. Although the change in BMD observed did not differ between the groups, the greater decline in BTMs in the Ca and CaFOS groups compared with the maltodextrin group suggests a more favorable bone health profile after supplementation with Ca and CaFOS. Supplementation with CaFOS slowed the rate of total-body and spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia-an effect that warrants additional investigation. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN63118444. PMID:24453130

  18. What Works for Women in Undergraduate Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Barbara L.; Dorato, Shannon R.; Foster, Suzanne R.; Duncombe, Margaret L.

    2005-10-01

    The physics community in the U.S. has been concerned about the low participation by women for many years. Although some progress has been made, the percentage of undergraduate women in physics is still less than half that in mathematics and chemistry. While the percentage of women in physics declines at every step up the academic ladder, the largest decrease occurs in the undergraduate years. Therefore it is worthwhile to look at how undergraduate physics departments might make women students comfortable. We have conducted a study of undergraduate physics departments in order to learn "what works" in attracting and retaining women in the undergraduate physics major. With a team of women physicists, we visited nine undergraduate physics departments, five with high participation by women and four with average participation. We also visited six departments in women's colleges, which are known for producing accomplished women in all fields, including science. Three of the 15 schools are historically Black colleges, which produce disproportionate numbers of African-American women scientists. We found that the most important factor in a female-friendly physics department is a warm and inclusive culture that reaches out to introductory students. We also discuss the effects of curriculum, pedagogy, and institutional policy.

  19. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism. PMID:25794197

  20. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Publication available in: PDF (49 ... that affect peak bone mass. Factors Affecting Peak Bone Mass A variety of genetic and environmental factors ...

  1. Differences in Sexual Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Risk Factors Among Foreign-Born and US-Born Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Allshouse, Amanda; Collins, Caitilin; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie; Campbell, Thomas B.; MaWhinney, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic women in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There are very limited data on the sexual risk differences among US-born Hispanic women (USBHW) and foreign-born Hispanic women (FBHW). Sexually active USBHW and FBHW were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Demographics, sexual history, testing for HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI), condom use, partner sexual risk and alcohol/substance use were compared between USBHW and FBHW. FBHW were 3.5 years older than USBHW at first sexual experience (95% CI: 2.8, 4.1; P < 0.001). This remained significant after controlling for age and education. There was no difference between groups in the proportion of women with >1 reported sexual partner in the last year. FBHW reported fewer risk behaviors and lower rates of STI and alcohol/drug abuse. However, FBHW were less likely to have been tested for HIV. HIV prevention strategies would better target Hispanic women in the US if differences in risk behavior between FBHW and USBHW were incorporated. PMID:21932002

  2. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064).

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  3. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  4. Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: a 19-year prospective study of 1003 women.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, A S; Kiran, A; Javaid, M K; Hart, D J; Spector, T D; Carr, A J; Arden, N K

    2012-08-01

    The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty. Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p=0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p=0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p=0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time. In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions. PMID:21782451

  5. Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: A 19-year prospective study of 1003 women

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, A.S.; Kiran, A.; Javaid, M.K.; Hart, D.J.; Spector, T.D.; Carr, A.J.; Arden, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty. Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p = 0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p = 0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p = 0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time. In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions. PMID:21782451

  6. Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 1855 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy relationships. PMID:25226418

  7. Women and AIDS caregiving: women's work?

    PubMed

    Songwathana, P

    2001-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley. I show that women who are responsible for caring for both themselves and others, including members of their immediate families or extended family members, face a double jeopardy by virtue of their inferior role and status. When HIV-infected women experience illness, sometimes they feel split; they are incapable of functioning normally, yet they are obligated to do "What they've got to do." Women as carers feel that they have to care because they want to free someone else from suffering despite the fact that they are also suffering. Women roles as family carers seem to be both psychologically and socially constructed. AIDS care is not just a labour of love, but also is done in the spirit of work following Buddhist beliefs of karma and metta. In conclusion, traditional, persistent gender imbalances and inequalities influence women's sexuality, vulnerability, responsibility, and caregiving. When women become infected with HIV and sick with AIDS, their quality of life drops because of the physical, psychological, cultural value, and economic burdens of care they face. AIDS then necessitates rather than prevents women from fulfilling their multiple roles. Consequently, there is a need for greater support especially among Thai women who are afflicted and affected with AIDS. PMID:11814072

  8. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to

  9. Women's Speech, Women's Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer

    A discussion of women's oral discourse patterns focuses on the uses made of minimal responses, hedges, and tag questions. The analysis draws on transcriptions of conversations among a group of women friends over a period of months. It is proposed that the conventional treatment of these forms as "weak" is inappropriate in all-female discourse. In

  10. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to…

  11. The forgotten casualties: women, children, and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cutter, S L

    1995-06-01

    The author posits that women and children bear a disproportionate burden of environmental degradation and are in the worst position to mitigate the consequences of deteriorating environmental conditions. This article discusses the concept of environmental equity or fairness and its sociospatial impacts and the different adjustments made by women and children. Environmental equity is both an outcome and a process. Process equity includes the underlying causes of uneven distributions of resources. The 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development defines 27 specific principles that broadly follow three forms of equity: social equity, generational equity, and procedural equity. Social equity is defined as the role of social, economic, and political forces in resource consumption and environmental degradation. Environmental risk is related to locational criteria such as cheap land and transportation access and by the social geography of places. Hazardous waste dumping is used to illustrate inequitable waste disposal in developing countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Lebanon, Syria, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, and South Korea. Generational equity is defined as fairness over time. The issue of permanent radioactive waste disposal is a current issue that has implications for future generations. Three strategies are important in assuring generational equity: the maintenance of natural and cultural diversity; a reduction in environmental degradation; and the provision of equal access to resources. Preservation of parkland is a positive strategy and lack of access to health services and reproductive health care is a negative strategy. Procedural equity is defined as the extent to which regulations are applied fairly. The example is given of higher fines for dumping waste in "nice White communities" compared to minority ones. Environmental law regulating hazardous waste exports has been minimally effective. Women and children are affected by particulate pollution and environmental toxins (lead and pesticides) in the air and water of urban areas and by a composite of poverty, development, and urbanization. PMID:12320249

  12. The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2008-07-01

    It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

  13. Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.

    PubMed

    Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

    2014-01-28

    The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately. PMID:24103188

  14. The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor

  15. Self-management of multiple chronic conditions among African American women with asthma: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Janevic, Mary R.; Ellis, Katrina R.; Sanders, Georgiana M.; Nelson, Belinda W.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective African American women are disproportionately burdened by asthma morbidity and mortality, and may be more likely than asthma patients in general to have comorbid health conditions. This study sought to identify the self-management challenges faced by African American women with asthma and comorbidities, how they prioritize their conditions, and behaviors perceived as beneficial across conditions. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African-American women (mean age 52 years) with persistent asthma and at least one of the following: diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis. Information was elicited on women’s experiences managing asthma and concurrent health conditions. The constant-comparison analytic method was used to develop and apply a coding scheme to interview transcripts. Key themes and subthemes were identified. Results Participants reported an average of 5.7 comorbidities. Fewer than half of the sample considered asthma their main health problem; these perceptions were influenced by beliefs about the relative controllability, predictability, and severity of their health conditions. Participants reported ways in which comorbidities affected asthma management, including that asthma sometimes took a ‘backseat’ to conditions considered more troublesome or worrisome. Mood problems, sometimes attributed to pain or functional limitations resulting from comorbidities, reduced motivation for self-management. Women described how asthma affected comorbidity management; e.g., by impeding recommended exercise. Some self-management recommendations, such as physical activity and weight control, were seen as beneficial across conditions. Conclusions Multiple chronic conditions that include asthma may interact to complicate self-management of each condition. Additional clinical attention and self-management support may help reduce multimorbidity-related challenges. PMID:24161047

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and its Health Impact on Ethnic Minority Women [corrected].

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  17. Lifetime Abuse Victimization and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata in Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Uterine leiomyomata (UL) are a major contributor to gynecologic morbidity and medical costs, and black women are disproportionately affected by the condition. Previous studies have linked UL to psychosocial stress, including child abuse. We assessed the association between lifetime abuse victimization and UL among 9,910 premenopausal women. Study Design Data were derived from the Black Womens Health Study, a prospective cohort study. In 2005, participants reported their experiences of physical and sexual abuse within each life stage (childhood, adolescence, adulthood). Biennial follow-up questionnaires from 2005 through 2011 ascertained new UL diagnoses. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. Results There were 1,506 incident UL cases diagnosed by ultrasound or surgery. UL incidence was higher among women who reported child abuse, particularly sexual abuse. Relative to no abuse across the lifespan, RRs were 1.16 (CI, 1.021.33) for physical abuse only, 1.34 (CI, 1.091.66) for sexual abuse only, and 1.17 (CI, 0.991.39) for both physical and sexual abuse in childhood. RRs for 13 and ?4 incidents of child sexual abuse were 1.29 (CI, 1.041.61) and 1.41 (CI, 1.071.85), respectively, while RRs for low, intermediate, and high frequencies of child physical abuse were 1.19, 1.04, and 1.23, respectively. The association was strongest for the highest category of child abuse severity (RR=1.57, CI, 1.192.07). No associations were found for teen or adult abuse. Conclusions In the present study, child sexual abuse was an independent risk factor for UL, supporting the hypothesis that childhood adversity increases UL risk. PMID:23295977

  18. Immunogenicity and Safety of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in HIV-1Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Kang, Minhee; Cespedes, Michelle S.; Umbleja, Triin; Godfrey, Catherine; Allen, Reena T.; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Palefsky, Joel M.; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer Y.; Saah, Alfred; Aberg, Judith A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are disproportionately affected by human papillomavirus (HPV)related anogenital disease, particularly with increased immunosuppression. AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5240 was a trial of 319 HIV-infected women in the United States, Brazil, and South Africa to determine immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in 3 strata based on screening CD4 count: >350 (stratum A), 201350 (stratum B), and ?200 cells/L (stratum C). Methods.?Safety and serostatus of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were examined. HPV serological testing was performed using competitive Luminex immunoassay (HPV-4 cLIA). HPV type-specific seroconversion analysis was done for participants who were seronegative for the given type at baseline. Results.?Median age of patients was 36 years; 11% were white, 56% black, and 31% Hispanic. Median CD4 count was 310 cells/L, and 40% had undetectable HIV-1 load. No safety issues were identified. Seroconversion proportions among women at week 28 for HPV types 6, 11,16, and 18 were 96%, 98%, 99%, and 91%, respectively, for stratum A; 100%, 98%, 98%, and 85%, respectively, for stratum B, and 84%, 92%, 93%, and 75%, respectively, for stratum C. Conclusions.?The quadrivalent HPV vaccine targeted at types 6, 11, 16, and 18 was safe and immunogenic in HIV-infected women aged 1345 years. Women with HIV RNA load >10 000 copies/mL and/or CD4 count <200 cells/L had lower rates of seroconversion rates. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00604175. PMID:24723284

  19. Self-harm history predicts resistance to inpatient treatment of body shape aversion in women with eating disorders: The role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David

    2015-06-01

    Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n=2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n=845), bulimia nervosa (n=565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n=651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:25868550

  20. Aspirin-induced increase in intestinal paracellular permeability does not affect the levels of LPS in venous blood of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2015-07-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, also referred to as endotoxin, in the circulation may induce a pro-inflammatory immune response that leads to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent data indicate that high-fat meals may elevate circulating levels of LPS. However, it is currently unclear how the LPS transits from the gut lumen to the general circulation. We determined whether aspirin-induced damage of the small intestinal mucosa, evidenced by an increase in the paracellular permeability, allows greater transit of LPS into the systemic circulation. The 3-h cumulative excretion of lactulose was significantly increased after the consumption of aspirin solution relative to that after the consumption of an equal volume of water in 15 healthy women (median after aspirin 0.09% of dose vs. median after water 0.03% of dose; P?=?0.004). Dosage with aspirin also significantly increased the lactulose : mannitol ratio (median after aspirin 0.014 vs. median after water 0.005; P?=?0.017). However, serum LPS levels after the consumption of the aspirin solution were not significantly different from those after consumption of the control (plain water). Further, there was no correlation between body fat content and circulating levels of LPS. PMID:25398227

  1. Migration and women's health.

    PubMed

    Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2009-08-01

    Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

  2. Bipolar disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  3. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  4. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the

  5. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with

  6. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  7. Uneasy Locations: Complexities from a High School for Formerly Incarcerated Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiners, Erica

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this article situates and describes the conceptualization, implementation and 'success' of a project--an alternative high school for formerly incarcerated men and women--within the flourishing prison industrial complex in the United States, a structure that disproportionately impacts poor people and/or people of colour. The

  8. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  9. Aqueous copper-mediated living polymerization: exploiting rapid disproportionation of CuBr with Me6TREN.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wilson, Paul; Li, Zaidong; McHale, Ronan; Godfrey, Jamie; Anastasaki, Athina; Waldron, Christopher; Haddleton, David M

    2013-05-15

    A new approach to perform single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) in water is described. The key step in this process is to allow full disproportionation of CuBr/Me6TREN (TREN = tris(dimethylamino)ethyl amine to Cu(0) powder and CuBr2 in water prior to addition of both monomer and initiator. This provides an extremely powerful tool for the synthesis of functional water-soluble polymers with controlled chain length and narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index approximately 1.10), including poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), N,N-dimethylacrylamide, poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), and an acrylamido glyco monomer. The polymerizations are performed at or below ambient temperature with quantitative conversions attained in minutes. Polymers have high chain end fidelity capable of undergoing chain extensions to full conversion or multiblock copolymerization via iterative monomer addition after full conversion. Activator generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water was also conducted as a comparison with the SET-LRP system. This shows that the addition sequence of l-ascorbic acid is crucial in determining the onset of disproportionation, or otherwise. Finally, this robust technique was applied to polymerizations under biologically relevant conditions (PBS buffer) and a complex ethanol/water mixture (tequila). PMID:23597244

  10. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  11. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  12. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (2050 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14?g protein, 85?g carbohydrate and 50?g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3?mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (02?h) for C-peptide in nmol.120?min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2?h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  13. High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Promotes Postexercise Hypotension Greater than Moderate Intensity and Affects Cardiac Autonomic Responses in Women Who Are Hypertensive.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Brito, Aline; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do S; Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio V; Sarmento da Nbrega, Thereza K; Lcia de Moraes Forjaz, Cludia; da Cruz Santos, Amilton

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) sessions on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation, and forearm blood flow (FBF). Sixteen trained hypertensive women (n = 16, 56 3 years) completed the following 3 experimental sessions: control (CS), RE at 50% (EX50%), and RE at 80% (EX80%) of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Both EX50% and EX80% comprised a set of 10 repetitions of 10 exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Measurements were taken preintervention and postintervention (at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery). Reductions in systolic/diastolic BP after exercise were greater in EX80% (largest declines, -29 4/-14 5 mm Hg) than EX50% (largest declines, -18 6/-8 5 mm Hg, p ? 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) increased more in relation to pre-exercise values in EX80% than EX50% (largest increases 96 3 vs. 90 4 bmin, LF/HF = 1.77 0.25 vs. 1.40 0.20, respectively, p ? 0.05). Increases in FBF and hyperemia was also higher in EX80% than EX50% compared with pre-exercise (4.97 0.28 vs. 4.36 0.27 mlmin100 ml and 5.90 0.20 vs. 5.38 0.25 mlmin100 ml; p ? 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that RE of higher intensity promoted greater postexercise hypotension accompanied by greater increases in FBF, vasodilator response, HR, and cardiac sympathovagal balance. PMID:25992658

  14. A nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern does not affect total daily dietary cost in North American women in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Lamarche, Benot; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of adopting a Mediterranean diet on dietary cost and energy density in free-living conditions. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 group courses and 7 individual sessions with a dietician in a sample of 73 healthy women. To evaluate the dietary response to the nutritional intervention, a registered dietician administered a FFQ at 0, 6, 12, and 24 wk. Total daily dietary cost was calculated using a price list including all items from the FFQ. Our findings indicated that daily energy cost evaluated at wk 12 vs. wk 0 [1046 +/- 217 vs. 967 +/- 192 kJ/Canadian dollars (CAN$), respectively, P = 0.18] and total daily dietary cost (8.61 +/- 2.13 vs. 8.75 +/- 2.50 CAN$/d per participant, respectively, P = 0.58) did not change. Total daily energy density at wk 12 decreased compared with wk 0 (2.56 +/- 0.76 vs. 2.20 +/- 0.67 kJ/g; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet led to increased cost related to vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and seeds, canola/olive oil, whole grains, poultry, and fish (P < or = 0.01) and to reduced dietary cost for red meat, refined grains, desserts and sweets, and fast food (P < or = 0.008). In conclusion, these data suggest that adherence to a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean food pattern is not associated with increased daily dietary cost or energy cost but led to a reduction in energy density. Consequently, increased cost should not be considered a barrier to the promotion and adoption of a Mediterranean diet. PMID:18156404

  15. Women in development.

    PubMed

    White, E H

    1980-01-01

    The author reports on travel in the Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, and conditions she found affecting development. Development for women in the Philippines has been hampered by a dichotomy between home economics and agricultural work. Although the majority of students in agriculture are women, many village cooperatives have been formed with less than 10% women members. Malaysia has a high level of education; development projects can easily be implemented. The National Association of Women's Institutes of Peninsular Malaysia (NAWIPM) emphasizes training for rural women. Its activiti include nursuries, poultry raising, home improvement, cooperatives, and income generating projects such as catering and tailoring. As in the Philippines ther is an important Muslim minority; Muslim women lag behind other Sri Lankans in education. The Mahila Samiti is the organization which trains rural women i some 1500 chapters. The women of Pakistan have the greatest need for assistance. Less than 15% Pakistan women are literate; their enrollment in school lags far behind the boys. The All Pakistan Women's Association works on problems of development through its Nutrition Education Training Courses. The centers have begun poultry raising and gardening as parts of its program. PMID:12261905

  16. Increasing Women in Leadership in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Reif, Lindsey K.; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of womens health. In this article, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  17. Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Hoffman, Monica A; Ulibarri, Monica D; Dyer, Typhanye V Penniman

    2012-01-01

    The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex) are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs) with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning). However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals, men, couples, and social networks. There is also a critical need for the development of culturally tailored combination HIV prevention interventions that not only incorporate evidence-based behavioral and biomedical approaches (eg, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, female-initiated barrier methods) but also take into account the risk environment at the physical, social, economic and political levels. Ultimately, this approach will have a significant impact on reducing HIV infections among drug-using women with histories of partner violence. PMID:24500422

  18. Alcohol Abuse, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women in Moshi Urban District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779

  19. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. PMID:24612972

  20. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-01-01

    Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 1829, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with someone who had contracted HIV. Conclusion This study offers a foundation for further research that may be used to create culturally relevant HIV prevention programs for African-American women. PMID:15774003

  1. A synthesis of the theory of silencing the self and the social ecological model: understanding gender, race, and depression in African American women living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Latrona; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2015-03-01

    The challenges that face African American women living with HIV are immense. African American women continue to be disproportionately infected and affected by this chronic and life-threatening infection in a complex context of individual experience, interactions with the environment, formal and informal support systems, and cultural belief systems. This article identifies the Theory of Silencing the Self (STS) and a widely known model, the Social Ecological Model (SEM), as a synthesized explanatory framework in helping nurses understand how to address research questions and clinical care that is congruent with the experience of African American women living with HIV infection. In synthesizing the components of these two frameworks, an explanation of the relationship between disempowerment and depression in this population will be uncovered as a key component to making relationships at the individual, family, and community level better. Helping African American women living with HIV infection to explore and address how choosing to be silent across their life systems will advance healthcare adherence as we currently know it to improved self-management of a chronic, gender-specific, culturally-bound experience of depression. PMID:25614997

  2. Disparities in Mammography Rate Among Immigrant and Native-Born Women in the U.S.: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionately low mammography rates among U.S. immigrants have been of persistent concern. In light of policies to increase access to screening, this study identifies differences in factors associated with screening among immigrant and native-born women in 2000 and 2008. Data from immigrant and native-born women aged 40+ years in the 2000 and 2008 National Health Interview Surveys were included in descriptive and multivariate regression analyses. Mammography rates rose from 60.2 to 65.5 % among immigrant women, remaining lower than the 68.9 % rate among native-born in 2008. Among immigrants, short length of residency and lower education were associated with lower screening rates in 2000 but not in 2008, while public insurance coverage was positively associated with screening only in 2008. In contrast to immigrants, among the native-born education and income were associated with mammography receipt in 2008, and in both groups health care access was associated with greater screening rates. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing access to mammography may be positively affecting immigrant screening disparities. Access to primary care and public insurance coverage are likely to be very important in maintaining and furthering improvements in mammography rates. PMID:23430466

  3. Women's oral health issues.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B J

    2000-09-01

    Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when hormonal fluctuations may affect oral tissues. PMID:11324047

  4. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the

  5. Minority Women & Higher Education, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Various myths concerning black women and their educational status are examined, with current statistics provided to indicate their validity. Overall results of this examination indicate that minority women fare less well than minority men, just as white women fare less well than white men. It is suggested that minority women are affected by both

  6. Thermodynamics of disproportionation and heats of hydration of 1,4-benzosemiquinone and 1,4-naphthosemiquinone at pH 7. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alegria, A.E.; Munoz, C.; Rodriguez, M.S. )

    1990-01-25

    The thermodynamics of disproportionation of 1,4-benzosemiquinone (BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}) and 1,4-naphthosemiquinone (NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}) in cacodylic-cacodylate buffer at pH 7.1 was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and solution calorimetry. The disproportionation of BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} was found to be more exergonic and exothermic than that corresponding to NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} in both aqueous and gas phases. These semiquinones disproportionate about 40 times more exothermically in the gaseous than in the aqueous phase. The differences between the enthalpies of disproportionation corresponding to BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} are 51 and 14 kJ/mol in the gaseous and aqueous phases, respectively. The heats of hydration of BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} were determined with a convenient thermochemical cycle based on the enthalpies of disproportionation. The single-ion heats of hydration of BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} were found to be {minus}360 and {minus}377 kJ/mol, respectively. The heats of hydration of the net negative charge in BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} were found to be the same.

  7. [Schimke's immuno-osseous dysplasia as an explanation for the rare combination of disproportionately short stature and the nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    de Jong, M; van Wijk, J A E; van der Hulst, J P C M; Ludwig, M; Bökenkamp, A

    2005-09-24

    A 10-year-old Turkish boy with consanguineous parents was presented with a disproportionately short stature and a nephrotic syndrome. The mild form of Schimke's immuno-osseous dysplasia was diagnosed as the common cause. This rare, autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia is characterised by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, facial dysmorphism, T-cell immunodeficiency and progressive renal failure due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In Schimke's immuno-osseous dysplasia, a severe early-onset form and a milder later-onset form can be distinguished on the basis of the clinical course. The patient was treated by fluid and salt restriction, enalapril and later also losartan, which led to a decrease in the proteinuria and an increase in serum albumin concentration. Two years later, the renal function was still normal. PMID:16223078

  8. Improving medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS: Leveraging the provider role and peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi T

    2016-02-01

    African-American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV-related morbidity and mortality. To address the burden of HIV/AIDS among this at-risk population, there is need to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence and affect their care-seeking behavior and specifically adherence to antiretroviral treatment. A preliminary qualitative study was conducted with a sample of the target population (n?=?10) using grounded theory as the methodological approach. Similarly, 21 healthcare providers - physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and case managers - were then interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts compared care-provider perceptions and narrated experiences with those from the patient participants. Themes related to patient care perceived to enhance medication adherence included (1) provider-patient relationship; (2) holistic and patient-centered care; (3) adequacy of patient education and counseling; (4) modeling adherence behavior; and (5) motivation. Two intervention strategies are proposed - Peer educators as an integral part of the care team and Patient Advisory Groups as a feedback mechanism to enhance effective delivery of patient care in the target population. This exploratory research lays a foundation for the design of targeted interventions to improve linkage to care and enhance medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26278429

  9. African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women. PMID:19271331

  10. Risk factors among handgun retailers for frequent and disproportionate sales of guns used in violent and firearm related crimes

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, G; Cook, P; Wright, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the retailer and community level factors associated with frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes (VFC handguns). Design: Cross sectional. The authors used California records to identify all handguns sold by study subjects during 19962000 and federal gun tracing records to determine which of these guns had been recovered by a police agency in the US or elsewhere and traced by 30 September 2003. Subjects and setting: The 421 licensed gun retailers in California selling at least 100 handguns annually during 19962000. Main outcome measure: The number of VFC handguns per 1000 gun years of exposure. Differences are expressed as incidence rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Subjects accounted for 11.7% of California retailers with handgun sales, 81.5% of handgun sales, and 85.5% of VFC handguns. Among subjects, the 3426 VFC handguns accounted for 48.0% of all traced handguns and 65.0% of those linked to a specified crime. The median VFC handgun trace rate was 0.5/1000 gun years (range 08.8). In multivariate analysis, this rate increased substantially for each single-point increase in the percentage of proposed sales that were denied because the purchasers were prohibited from owning guns (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.56), and was increased for pawnbrokers (RR 1.26; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.55). Community level crime rates and sociodemographics had little predictive value. Conclusions: Risk factors, largely determined at the retailer level, exist for frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes. Screening to identify high risk retailers could be undertaken with data that are already available. PMID:16326771

  11. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  12. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new

  13. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  14. Racial Disparities in Functional Disability among Older Women with Newly Diagnosed Non-metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Cynthia; Schluchter, Mark; Koroukian, Siran M.; Mazhuvanchery, Suzanne; Berger, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess racial differences in functional disability among older women with non-metastatic breast cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Between April 2008 and December 2012, women aged ?65 years with newly diagnosed stage IIII breast cancer were recruited from ambulatory oncology clinics at an academic center. Prior to receiving any adjuvant treatment participants completed a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The primary outcome was functional disability, defined as dependency in any Basic or Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, Yes or No. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken. Results We enrolled 190 women whose mean age was 75.0 years at diagnosis (SD=7.0, range 6593 years). Thirty-two percent were African-American (AA), and 39 percent had functional disability. Controlling for age, participants with functional disability were more likely to be AA [versus (vs.) non-Hispanic White], Odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) =2.128.27. Fifty-nine percent of the racial difference in functional disability was explained by a higher prevalence of lower income and education among AA. Additionally, the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions and obesity among AA, after accounting for socioeconomic factors, further explained 40% of the Black-White difference in functional disability. Conclusion Among older women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer, functional disability is highly prevalent and African-Americans are disproportionately affected. Interventions to optimize the functional status of at-risk individuals, particularly African-Americans, during and after cancer treatment may improve treatment tolerance and overall survival outcomes. PMID:24114615

  15. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes’ Hearing Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Braga, J.; Loubes, J-M.; Descouens, D.; Dumoncel, J.; Thackeray, J. F.; Kahn, J-L.; de Beer, F.; Riberon, A.; Hoffman, K.; Balaresque, P.; Gilissen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species’ sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the “hypertrophied” cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  16. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    PubMed

    Braga, J; Loubes, J-M; Descouens, D; Dumoncel, J; Thackeray, J F; Kahn, J-L; de Beer, F; Riberon, A; Hoffman, K; Balaresque, P; Gilissen, E

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  17. Suicide in women

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  18. Suicide in women.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  19. Violence Against Women

    PubMed Central

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  20. Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking

  1. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to

  2. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an

  3. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  4. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  5. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized quickly as individuals. It also may be partially attributed to the relative youth of the women involved. They are too young to have encountered the severe discrimination others experienced in the past, and too young to have reached the barriers that have traditionally prevented women from advancing to higher positions. No figures are available that would allow comparison between salaries of male and female holders of bachelor's and master's degrees.

  6. Sleep and Womens Health

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Sara; Meers, Jessica; Heimbach, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints) often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the womans lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed. PMID:25688329

  7. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  8. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albelda, Randy; Tilly, Chris

    This book, through a review of the status of working women on bottom and on the top, refutes a set of myths about women, work, and poverty that have shaped welfare reform. Chapter 1 highlights the big changes affecting women in the U.S. economy. Chapter 2 describes who is poor in the United States and examines how poverty has come to be defined.

  9. Concomitant Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Biological Factors Associated with the Disproportionate HIV Infection Burden among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl; Mannheimer, Sharon; Magnus, Manya; del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wilton, Leo; Cummings, Vanessa; Watson, Christopher C.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Gaydos, Charlotte; Eshleman, Susan H.; Clarke, William; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Mao, Cherry; Griffith, Samuel; Wheeler, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Background American Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood. Methods Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV. Results HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6th (16.2%) were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD); of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND). Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001); less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001); more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.011) or chlamydia (p = 0.020). Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001); and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.004), and urethral (p = 0.025) or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001). They were less likely to report female (p = 0.002) or transgender partners (p = 0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia. Conclusions ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily affected community. PMID:24498067

  10. The abiotic disproportionation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) produces sulfate with an oxygen isotope signature close to the isotope composition of seawater sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Max, Thomas; Breuer, Christian; Reeves, Eoghan P.; Thal, Janis; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Whereas the sulfur isotope effects during the abiotic disproportionation of SO2 were thoroughly investigated in the last years, data on the oxygen isotope signature of produced sulfate is scarce. To fill in this gap in knowledge, we performed laboratory experiments which simulated the abiotic SO2 disproportionation at temperatures ranging from 150C to 320C. In our experiments SO2 disproportionated rapidly into sulfate and elemental sulfur. The oxygen isotope fractionation between produced sulfate and water is in the range of the observed oxygen isotope offset between seawater sulfate and seawater. The isotope fractionations observed for the experiments is likely composed of an initial kinetic oxygen isotope fractionation, which is rapidly overprinted by equilibrium oxygen isotope between sulfate and water (reaching completion probably within a time frame of to 1 hour. Our observations raise the questions if disproportionation of magmatic SO2 in submarine hydrothermal vent systems is an important control for today's seawater sulfate isotope composition, and if so, if marine hydrothermal SO2 disproportiantion shaped the oxygen isotope signature of marine sulfate over geological times.

  11. Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

    2005-01-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors

  12. Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

    2005-01-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

  13. The heroism of women and men.

    PubMed

    Becker, Selwyn W; Eagly, Alice H

    2004-04-01

    Heroism consists of actions undertaken to help others, despite the possibility that they may result in the helper's death or injury. The authors examine heroism by women and men in 2 extremely dangerous settings: the emergency situations in which Carnegie medalists rescued others and the holocaust in which some non-Jews risked their lives to rescue Jews. The authors also consider 3 risky but less dangerous prosocial actions: living kidney donations, volunteering for the Peace Corps, and volunteering for Doctors of the World. Although the Carnegie medalists were disproportionately men, the other actions yielded representations of women that were at least equal to and in most cases higher than those of men. These findings have important implications for the psychology of heroism and of gender. PMID:15222859

  14. Cationic cluster formation versus disproportionation of low-valent indium and gallium complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthaler, Martin R.; Stahl, Florian; Kratzert, Daniel; Heidinger, Lorenz; Schleicher, Erik; Hamann, Julian; Himmel, Daniel; Weber, Stefan; Krossing, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Group 13 MI compounds often disproportionate into M0 and MIII. Here, however, we show that the reaction of the MI salt of the weakly coordinating alkoxyaluminate [GaI(C6H5F)2]+[Al(ORF)4]− (RF=C(CF3)3) with 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) yields the paramagnetic and distorted octahedral [Ga(bipy)3]2+•{[Al(ORF)4]−}2 complex salt. While the latter appears to be a GaII compound, both, EPR and DFT investigations assign a ligand-centred [GaIII{(bipy)3}•]2+ radical dication. Surprisingly, the application of the heavier homologue [InI(C6H5F)2]+[Al(ORF)4]− leads to aggregation and formation of the homonuclear cationic triangular and rhombic [In3(bipy)6]3+, [In3(bipy)5]3+ and [In4(bipy)6]4+ metal atom clusters. Typically, such clusters are formed under strongly reductive conditions. Analysing the unexpected redox-neutral cationic cluster formation, DFT studies suggest a stepwise formation of the clusters, possibly via their triplet state and further investigations attribute the overall driving force of the reactions to the strong In−In bonds and the high lattice enthalpies of the resultant ligand stabilized [M3]3+{[Al(ORF)4]−}3 and [M4]4+{[Al(ORF)4]−}4 salts. PMID:26478464

  15. Highly oriented NdFeCoB nanocrystalline magnets from partially disproportionated compacts by reactive deformation under low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying Yu, Yunping; Lian, Lixian

    2014-05-07

    In the present investigation, we take advantage of the ultrafine grain size of NdFeCoB partially hydrogen-disproportionated phases, and prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Our results suggest that the pressure could properly promote an occurrence of desorption-recombination reaction due to a shorter-range rearrangement of the atoms, and the newly recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately after the phase transformation, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The maximum magnetic properties, (BH){sub max} = 25.8 MGOe, Br = 11.8 kG, H{sub cj} = 5.5 kOe, were obtained after being treated for 5 min at 820 °C in vacuum. The present study highlights the feasibility to prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with homogeneous microstructure and a strong (00l) texture of uniform grain size under low pressure.

  16. Effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and women's status on women's health in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kuate Defo, B

    1997-04-01

    Research on the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and women's status on women's health is important for policy makers in developing countries, where limited resources make it crucial to use existing maternal and child health care resources to the best advantage. Using a community-based data set collected prospectively in Cameroon, this study attempts to understand the extent to which socioeconomic factors and women's status have influences on women's health. The most important finding is that the burden of illness rests disproportionately on the economically disadvantaged women and on those with low social status. The long-term effects of social disadvantage are apparent in the excesses of morbidity among women who are not employed at the time of their children's birth, women living in poor neighborhoods, and those living in households without modern amenities. The maternal morbidity patterns during the postpartum period indicate that the women's reports of their recovery and health status from childbirth extend far beyond the first few weeks that previous studies have focused on. From a theoretical perspective, this study has demonstrated the importance of the "intermediate" framework for the study of women's health: the operations of effects of a number of background characteristics are mediated by more proximate determinants of women's health. These results remain robust even after controlling for other measured factors and after correcting for unmeasured heterogeneity and sample selection; this helps to dismiss the potential influence of some artifacts. While this study suggests that there are opportunities within the existing health care system for meeting many of the health care needs of the socially disadvantaged, further biobehavioral and psychosocial research is needed to determine how women's status and social disadvantage influence the demand for health care services, in order to ensure equitable as well as a more effective delivery of health care services and to break the vicious circle of disadvantage. PMID:9089923

  17. Another development with Women.

    PubMed

    Ahooja-patel, K

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this discussion of "Another Development with Women" is to add some thoughts to the scientific approach, which combines survey techniques and computer style data analysis (measurability, detachment, and objectivity). Its purpose is to tilt the balance of the development process a bit further towards women, and it proposes to introduce another element into the discussion on development with women--that of experiential knowledge (knowledge based on collective experience). Women researchers have a double consciousness, similar to that of the black or other discriminated minority, an awareness of the motives and strategies of the oppressor as well as the inner view of the oppressed. To find some answers to the question why the development debate is sometimes obscure, sometimes sterile, and usually frustrating, and to understand why the goals of development remain distant oases, it is necessary to turn attention to the actual contribution women are making to development. Fundamentally, most of women's activities seem to fall outside the definition of "gainful employment." The activities are labeled "nonmarket" or "nonmonetized" activities. It is the differential between work and creativity that fundamentally affects women and erodes their economic and social status. Another unperceived dimension to women's work, which further conceals their efforts and prevents them from surfacing, is the fact that until recently socioeconomic series and indicators were not desegregated by sex. Consequently, the available data on key economic and social questions could not answer the fundamental questions of where are women working, in what numbers, in which activities, and at what wage levels. During the last 2 years some global data for an international information base on women has become available, and the new data will make it possible to follow much more closely, and on a comparative basis for a much larger number of countries, new developments concerning women's employment, working conditions, and their contributions to society. To gain some insights into the processes of development, 4 different economic and social indicators are examined: agriculture, industry, health, and education. Also examined are women's main roles in food production, industrial work, health provision, and education. It is clear that in any theory of power and its distribution, women bear the brunt of inequality in terms of income and rewards, assets, and resources. Another Development will have to find ways by which the unexplored creative energies of women are released. PMID:12279570

  18. Women, aging, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lord, J E; Richards, C

    1993-01-01

    Women over 65 bear high risk for developing cancer. The risk for developing most cancers grows'with increasing age. Of the 1.13 million people estimated to develop cancer in 1992,362,000 (32 percent) will be women over 65 years old (American Cancer Society, 1992). The few early detection and prevention programs that have focused on this age group have found that the women often have problems with utilization, misconceptions, and plain lack of correct information. Treatment for women over 65 with cancer may differ from that for younger women because of age bias, comorbidity, stage of disease at time of diagnosis, and a lack of research on women of this age. Even quality of life and survivorship for the woman over 65 become issues due to the lack of knowledge about how women over 65 view these concepts. The Healthy People 2000 Report has developed goals for a healthier society by the year 2000. The priority areas in relation to cancer include reduction in cigarette smoking, dietary changes, greater utilization of early detection mechanisms, and decreasing exposure to occupational and environmental carcinogens. Implementation of these goals should affect future generations in terms of healthy aging: however, specific programs do need to focus on the woman over 65 and her present needs which will impact current and future health status. PMID:23077997

  19. Women as torture victims.

    PubMed

    Allodi, F; Stiasny, S

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports a retrospective study of the frequency, severity, modalities and mental health consequences of torture in 28 Latin American refugee women in Toronto. The data on these women and a comparison group of male torture victims were retrieved from case records in a hospital outpatient clinic. The results support the hypotheses implicit in the scanty literature available that the frequency and effects of torture in women differ from those found in men. In female victims, as in their male counterparts, the severity of the torture was related to the degree of their political involvement. However, torture was more frequently sexual, and its consequences more often affected the women's sexual adaptation. PMID:2317742

  20. Disproportionate Minority Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to…

  1. Women's Participation in American Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Leona

    Women's participation in sport is emphasized in this historical, philosophical, and sociological sketch of sport and physical recreation activities. Various sports are traced from the time of George Washington up through the present noting cultural influences that affected their development. Under the heading "Past Events," American Indian women,

  2. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

  3. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Merida L.

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

  4. Pregnancy course and outcomes in women with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anke R; Tichnell, Crystal; te Riele, Anneline S J M; Murray, Brittney; Groeneweg, Judith A; Sawant, Abhishek C; Russell, Stuart D; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; van den Berg, Maarten P; Wilde, Arthur A; Tandri, Harikrishna; Judge, Daniel P; Hauer, Richard N W; Calkins, Hugh; van Tintelen, J Peter; James, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterise pregnancy course and outcomes in women with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). Methods From a combined Johns Hopkins/Dutch ARVD/C registry, we identified 26 women affected with ARVD/C (by 2010 Task Force Criteria) during 39 singleton pregnancies >13 weeks (1–4 per woman). Cardiac symptoms, treatment and episodes of sustained ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and heart failure (HF) ≥ Class C were characterised. Obstetric outcomes were ascertained. Incidence of VA and HF were compared with rates in the non-pregnant state. Long-term disease course was compared with 117 childbearing-aged female patients with ARVD/C who had not experienced pregnancy with ARVD/C. Results Treatment during pregnancy (n=39) included β blockers (n=16), antiarrhythmics (n=6), diuretics (n=3) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) (n=28). In five pregnancies (13%), a single VA occurred, including two ICD-terminated events. Arrhythmias occurred disproportionately in probands without VA history (p=0.045). HF, managed on an outpatient basis, developed in two pregnancies (5%) in women with pre-existing overt biventricular or isolated right ventricular disease. All infants were live-born without major obstetric complications. Caesarean sections (n=11, 28%) had obstetric indications, except one (HF). β Blocker therapy was associated with lower birth weight (3.1±0.48 kg vs 3.7±0.57 kg; p=0.002). During follow-up children remained healthy (median 3.4 years), and mothers were without cardiac mortality or transplant. Neither VA nor HF incidence was significantly increased during pregnancy. ARVD/C course (mean 6.5±5.6 years) did not differ based on pregnancy history. Conclusions While most pregnancies in patients with ARVD/C were tolerated well, 13% were complicated by VA and 5% by HF. PMID:26719359

  5. Disproportionate Participation of Students from Ethnic and Cultural Minorities in Special Education Classes and Programs: Forum To Examine Current Policy. Project FORUM. Report of a Policy Forum (Alexandria, Virginia, June 3-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

    A policy forum was convened on the disproportionate participation of students from ethnic and cultural minorities in special education classes and programs, to promote a constructive national dialogue. The charge to participants was to identify the issues underlying the problem of disproportionate participation of minorities and to identify

  6. Exercise has a Disproportionate Role in the Pathogenesis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy in Patients Without Desmosomal Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Abhishek C.; Bhonsale, Aditya; te Riele, Anneline S. J. M.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Russell, Stuart D.; Tandri, Harikrishna; Tedford, Ryan J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is associated with age?related penetrance and arrhythmic risk in carriers of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C)?associated desmosomal mutations; however, its role in patients without desmosomal mutations (gene?elusive) is uncertain. This study investigates whether exercise is (1) associated with onset of gene?elusive ARVD/C and (2) has a differential impact in desmosomal and gene?elusive patients. Methods and Results Eighty?two ARVD/C patients (39 desmosomal, all probands) were interviewed about regular physical activity from age 10. Participation in endurance athletics, duration (hours/year), and intensity (MET?Hours/year) of exercise prior to clinical presentation were compared between patients with desmosomal and gene?elusive ARVD/C. All gene?elusive patients were endurance athletes. Gene?elusive patients were more likely to be endurance athletes (P<0.001) and had done significantly more intense (MET?Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation (P<0.001), particularly among cases presenting < age 25 (P=0.027). Family history was less prevalent among gene?elusive patients (9% versus 40% desmosomal, P<0.001), suggesting a greater environmental influence. Gene?elusive patients without family history did considerably more intense exercise than other ARVD/C patients (P=0.004). Gene?elusive patients who had done the most intense (top quartile MET?Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation had a younger age of presentation (P=0.025), greater likelihood of meeting ARVD/C structural Task Force Criteria (100% versus 43%, P=0.02), and shorter survival free from a ventricular arrhythmia in follow?up (P=0.002). Conclusions Gene?elusive, non?familial ARVD/C is associated with very high intensity exercise suggesting exercise has a disproportionate role in the pathogenesis of these cases. As exercise negatively modifies cardiac structure and promotes arrhythmias, exercise restriction is warranted. PMID:25516436

  7. Birds of Passage Are also Women ....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokvasic, Mirjana

    1984-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on women and migration. Discusses immigrant women's participation within the world labor market, the ideologies affecting them, the effects of migration on sex roles and family patterns, and women's reasons for migration. Also discusses sex biases in research and policymaking concerning migration. (KH)

  8. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... unprotected sex with a man. Some reasons why African-American women are affected by HIV/AIDS more than women of other races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to ...

  9. How does living with HIV impact on women's mental health? Voices from a global survey

    PubMed Central

    Orza, Luisa; Bewley, Susan; Logie, Carmen H; Crone, Elizabeth Tyler; Moroz, Svetlana; Strachan, Sophie; Vazquez, Marijo; Welbourn, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women living with HIV experience a disproportionate burden of mental health issues. To date, global guidelines contain insufficient guidance on mental health support, particularly regarding perinatal care. The aim of this article is to describe the extent and impact of mental health issues as experienced by women living with HIV on their sexual and reproductive health and human rights (SRH&HR). Methods A global, mixed-methods, user-led and designed survey on SRH&HR of women living with HIV was conducted using snowball sampling, containing an optional section exploring mental health issues. Statistical quantitative data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analysis for the mental health responses. Thematic analysis of open free-text responses was performed for qualitative data. Results A total of 832 respondents from 94 countries participated in the online survey with 489 responses to the optional mental health section. Of the respondents, 82% reported depression symptoms and 78% rejection. One-fifth reported mental health issues before HIV diagnosis. Respondents reported experiencing a 3.5-fold higher number of mental health issues after diagnosis (8.71 vs 2.48, t[488]=23.00, p<0.001). Nearly half (n=224; 45.8%) had multiple socially disadvantaged identities (SDIs). The number of SDIs was positively correlated with experiencing mental health issues (p<0.05). Women described how mental health issues affected their ability to enjoy their right to sexual and reproductive health and to access services. These included depression, rejection and social exclusion, sleep problems, intersectional stigma, challenges with sexual and intimate relationships, substance use and sexual risk, reproductive health barriers and human rights (HR) violations. Respondents recommended that policymakers and clinicians provide psychological support and counselling, funding for peer support and interventions to challenge gender-based violence and to promote HR. Conclusions Interventions addressing intersecting stigmas and any especial impacts of diagnosis during pregnancy are required to ensure women's SRH&HR. Global policy guidelines regarding women living with HIV must incorporate mental health considerations. PMID:26643460

  10. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the

  11. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

  12. MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome: A clinico-radiologic phenotype linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Rashid; Setty, Gururaj; Hussain, Nahin

    2013-01-01

    MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) syndrome, a rare X-linked disorder, generally seen in girls, is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, and disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia. It is caused by inactivating calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene mutations. We report a 2-year-old girl with severe neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, minimal pontine hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and normal looking corpus callosum, with whom the conventional cytogenetic studies turned out to be normal, and an array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis showed CASK gene duplication at Xp11.4. Our case highlights the importance of using clinico-radiologic phenotype to guide genetic investigation and it also confirms the role of a-CGH analysis in establishing the genetic diagnosis of MICPCH syndrome, when conventional cytogenetic studies are inconclusive. PMID:23901204

  13. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within international and government efforts to promote change. Policies should be questioned that rely on a traditional division of labor. Countries vary widely in the status of women and economic, social, and political structures. The recommendations should be taken into account in the upcoming 1995 World Summit on Social Development. PMID:12346587

  14. Electronic effects on the catalytic disproportionation of formic acid to methanol by [Cp*Ir(III)(R-bpy)Cl]Cl complexes.

    PubMed

    Sasayama, A F; Moore, C E; Kubiak, C P

    2016-02-14

    A series of [Cp*Ir(III)(R-bpy)Cl]Cl (R-bpy = 4,4'-di-R-2,2'-bipyridine; R = CF3, H, Me, tBu, OMe) complexes was prepared and studied for catalytic formic acid disproportionation. The relationship between the electron donating strength of the bipyridine substituents and methanol production of the corresponding complexes was analyzed; the unsubstituted (R = H) complex was the most selective for methanol formation. PMID:26786279

  15. Interlayer charge disproportionation in the layered organic superconductor ?(H)-(DMEDO-TSeF)2[Au(CN)4](THF) with polar dielectric insulating layers.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Tadashi; Mori, Takehiko; Graf, David; Brooks, James S; Takahide, Yamaguchi; Uji, Shinya; Shirahata, Takashi; Imakubo, Tatsuro

    2012-10-01

    We report the molecular dipole effect on conduction electrons in the title superconductor. The angular-dependent magnetoresistance has a peak for fields nearly parallel to the conducting layer, and the peak width scales as the field component perpendicular to the layer, indicating incoherent interlayer transport. However, two closed Fermi surfaces are observed in quantum oscillation. Accordingly, crystallographically independent layers have different charge densities in a bulk single crystal. The electric dipole of tetrahydrofuran gives rise to interlayer charge disproportionation. PMID:23083272

  16. Interlayer Charge Disproportionation in the Layered Organic Superconductor ?H-(DMEDO-TSeF)2[Au(CN)4](THF) with Polar Dielectric Insulating Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tadashi; Mori, Takehiko; Graf, David; Brooks, James S.; Takahide, Yamaguchi; Uji, Shinya; Shirahata, Takashi; Imakubo, Tatsuro

    2012-10-01

    We report the molecular dipole effect on conduction electrons in the title superconductor. The angular-dependent magnetoresistance has a peak for fields nearly parallel to the conducting layer, and the peak width scales as the field component perpendicular to the layer, indicating incoherent interlayer transport. However, two closed Fermi surfaces are observed in quantum oscillation. Accordingly, crystallographically independent layers have different charge densities in a bulk single crystal. The electric dipole of tetrahydrofuran gives rise to interlayer charge disproportionation.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. PMID:25841599

  18. Women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A

    1993-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1800s, the American Medical Association, antiobscenity crusaders, and even women's groups supported criminalization of abortion. By 1900, it was illegal nationwide. In the late 1960s, women, physicians, and states began questioning abortion laws, since many women had unsafe, often fatal, illegal abortions. By 1973, 4 states had legalized abortion and 15 other states had liberalized abortion laws. A mid-1960 study showed that private patients comprised about 95% of all elective abortions. Poor clinic patients did not have the power to convince 3 physicians to support their request for an abortion. IN 1965, the Supreme Court agreed that a Connecticut Planned Parenthood Affiliate had the right to distribute contraceptives. The 1973 Roe v. Wade Court decision advanced this decision, by confirming a woman's right to abortion during the first 2 semesters of pregnancy. In 1976, the US Congress passed the Hyde amendment forbidding federal funding (e.g., Medicaid) for abortions except to save a mother. 2 1980 Supreme Court decisions supported the Hyde amendment. The Hyde amendment and these court decisions showed discrimination against poor women. Since then there have been other decisions that have whittled away at Roe v. Wade. Contraceptive failure is responsible for about 50% of the 1.6 million abortions/year. About 60% of women having an abortion are under 25 years old. Thus, criminalization of abortion would adversely affect many women as well as society. Many prochoice physicians had cared for women who suffered from botched abortions. Physicians under 45 years old tend to not know how to perform a 2nd trimester abortion because most obstetrician/gynecology residency training programs do not require them to learn it, and they do not want to do them. 2nd trimester abortion should be a required part of residency training. Physicians as preservers of women's health should be advocating safe abortion and not adopt the legal vs. illegal abortion dichotomy. PMID:8333437

  19. Substance-abusing women: false stereotypes and real needs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M E

    1995-11-01

    Substance-abusing women are a diverse group, but some of them are among the most disadvantaged individuals in the United States. This article reviews and interprets some recent literature on substance abuse problems and treatments among women. Contrary to popular stereotypes, alcohol and drug abuse among women occurs at similar rates among poor and nonpoor people and among white people and people of color. Major risk factors include childhood sexual or physical abuse, adult victimization by domestic violence, and a spouse or partner who abuses substances. Standard treatment programs are based on male processes of recovery, and there are enormous problems of access to treatment for women with minor children. Although most studies have found that white women and women of color use substances during pregnancy at similar rates, women of color are disproportionately tested for drug use and receive more child protective services interventions. The findings discussed in this article indicate that prevention of substance abuse-related problems among women requires more than just education. PMID:8629044

  20. Medicine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

    Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into

  1. AMERICAN WOMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL

  2. Stellar Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1900s, researchers at the Harvard College Observatory conducted an astonishing amount of astronomical research. A handful of women were integral to this research. Describes the professional lives and scientific findings of five of these women scientists at Harvard to inspire students. Classroom activities are included. (PVD)

  3. Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to

  4. Breast cancer in African American women: nursing essentials.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Sandra Millon

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer impacts all population groups. However, when measures of mortality and length of survival are compared by racial/ethnic groups, African American women are noted to bear a disproportionate burden. In an era where evidence-based practice is the standard, it is imperative that nurses engaged in practice with women within acute care and community-based settings, have a breadth of knowledge of the anatomy and pathophysiology of breast cancer, are knowledgeable of the standards of breast care, and knowledgeable of the availability and accessibility of breast care resources within their service area. This report provides an overview for nurse of trends in breast cancer morbidity and mortality among African American women, breast cancer pathology, breast cancer screening guidelines and breast cancer clinical practice recommendations. PMID:16596895

  5. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  6. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's

  7. On Campus with Women, Number 34, Spring 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    On Campus with Women, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Developments concerning women's education and employment, legislation and court cases that affect women, and the latest model programs and resources are presented in this newsletter issue. Specific topics include: sexual harassment and sexual attacks on women on college campuses; the progress of black and white women in science and engineering;

  8. Women and HIV Disease: An Emerging Social Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise

    1991-01-01

    Addresses major social issues faced by women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and explores gender differences in HIV transmission, disease progression, and diagnosis. Discusses how women's sexuality and reproductive rights are affected. Examines specific issues regarding HIV-infected women who use intravenous drugs, women of color,

  9. On Campus with Women, Number 33, Winter 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    On Campus with Women, 1982

    1982-01-01

    News concerning developments affecting women at colleges and universities is presented. Among the issues are the following: the Graduate Women's Network at the University of Michigan; a portable campus that provides career help to rural women in Minnesota; reentry programs into the corporate world for women 35 to 45 years old; an increase in

  10. Poverty, Gender Inequities, and Womens Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Medlin, Carol A.; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Padian, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of womens and girls circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in womens disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance womens access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce womens poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways. PMID:17954681

  11. Reproductive rights denied: the Hyde Amendment and access to abortion for Native American women using Indian health service facilities.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Shaye Beverly

    2014-10-01

    Restrictions on the use of federal funds to provide abortions have limited the access to abortion services for Native American women receiving care at Indian Health Service facilities. Current data suggest that the vast majority of Indian Health Service facilities are unequipped to provide abortions under any circumstances. Native American women experience disproportionately high rates of sexual assault and unintended pregnancy. Hyde Amendment restrictions systematically infringe on the reproductive rights of Native American women and present a pressing public health policy concern. PMID:25122025

  12. Heterogeneity in mammography use across the nation: separating evidence of disparities from the disproportionate effects of geography

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Lee R; Kuo, Tzy-Mey (May); Driscoll, David; Clayton, Laurel; Anselin, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammography is essential for early detection of breast cancer and both reduced morbidity and increased survival among breast cancer victims. Utilization is lower than national guidelines, and evidence of a recent decline in mammography use has sparked concern. We demonstrate that regression models estimated over pooled samples of heterogeneous states may provide misleading information regarding predictors of health care utilization and that comprehensive cancer control efforts should focus on understanding these differences and underlying causal factors. Our study population includes all women over age 64 with breast cancer in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries, linked to a nationally representative 5% reference sample of Medicare-eligible women located in 11 states that span all census regions and are heterogeneous in racial and ethnic mix. Combining women with and without cancer in the sample allows assessment of previous cancer diagnosis on propensity to use mammography. Our conceptual model recognizes the interplay between individual, social, cultural, and physical environments along the pathways to health care utilization, while delineating local and more distant levels of influence among contextual variables. In regression modeling, we assess individual-level effects, direct effects of contextual factors, and interaction effects between individual and contextual factors. Results Pooling all women across states leads to quite different conclusions than state-specific models. Commuter intensity, community acculturation, and community elderly impoverishment have significant direct impacts on mammography use which vary across states. Minorities living in isolated enclaves with others of the same race/ethnicity may be either advantaged or disadvantaged, depending upon the place studied. Conclusion Careful analysis of place-specific context is essential for understanding differences across communities stemming from different causal factors. Optimal policy interventions to change behavior (improve screening rates) will be as heterogeneous as local community characteristics, so no "one size fits all" policy can improve population health. Probability modeling with correction for clustering of individuals within multilevel contexts can reveal important differences from place to place and identify key factors to inform targeting of specific communities for further study. PMID:18590540

  13. Dysregulation of the vitamin D nuclear receptor may contribute to the higher prevalence of some autoimmune diseases in women.

    PubMed

    Proal, Amy D; Albert, Paul J; Marshall, Trevor G

    2009-09-01

    Researchers have noted that the incidence of autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is markedly higher in women than in men, but to date the reason for this disparity has been unclear. The vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) is expressed in the human cycling endometrium. Because the VDR controls expression of the cathelicidin and beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides (AmPs), dysregulation of the receptor greatly compromises the innate immune response. Increasing evidence indicates the presence of a chronic, intraphagocytic, metagenomic microbiota in patients with autoimmune disease that may survive by dysregulating the VDR. VDR dysregulation, in turn, prevents the breakdown of the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) by CYP24. In silico data suggest that when 1,25-D rises above its normal range, it binds the alpha/beta thyroid receptors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), and the androgen receptor (AR), displacing their native ligands and causing an array of hormonal imbalances. If T3 is displaced from alpha-thyroid, thyroiditis may result. Because the VDR, GCR, and AR also express multiple families of AmPs, expression of these natural antibiotics further wanes in response to dysregulation by 1,25-D. The end result is a system-wide drop in AmP expression that may allow pathogens to spread with greater ease. Because women have an extra site of VDR expression in the endometrium, the drop in AmP expression associated with nuclear receptor dysregulation may disproportionately affect them. This would cause women to accumulate higher bacterial loads than their male counterparts, particularly during early pregnancy when 1,25-D levels rise by 40%. PMID:19758159

  14. How men can excel as mentors of women.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Janet

    2014-08-01

    Most male professionals have more experience mentoring men than they do mentoring women, and their male mentees progress further than their female mentees. Yet, in academic medicine, men have few forums in which to discuss the gender-related issues that they encounter. To address the gender-related questions that commonly arise, the author of this commentary offers perspectives and recommendations, consolidated from over 25 years of experience leading career and talent development programs, to assist men in successfully mentoring women. Her recommendations are organized around three questions: (1) How do women's and men's experiences in mentoring relationships tend to differ? (2) What interferes with the accurate evaluation of women's skills? and (3) Is the current generation of female trainees still at a gender-related disadvantage? She argues that men's ability to effectively mentor women depends to a great extent on their understanding of the challenges that women disproportionately face in developing their careers. Mentors who are skilled in adapting to the gender-related needs of mentees will contribute to women's retention and development in academic medicine, enhance the leadership capacity of their organizations and the profession, and extend their own legacies. PMID:24853197

  15. Relative anterior spinal overgrowth in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis--result of disproportionate endochondral-membranous bone growth? Summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Chau, W-W; Chan, Y-L; Cheng, J-C-Y; Burwell, R G; Dangerfield, P H

    2005-11-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The text for this EFG was written by Professor Jack Cheng and his colleagues who used whole spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to re-investigate the relative anterior spinal overgrowth of progressive AIS in a cross-sectional study. The text is drawn from research carried out with his co-workers including measurement of the height of vertebral components anteriorly (vertebral body) and posteriorly (pedicles) in girls with AIS and in normal subjects. The findings confirm previous anatomical studies and support the consensus view that in patients with thoracic AIS there is relatively faster growth of anterior and slower growth of posterior elements of thoracic vertebrae. The disproportionate anteroposterior vertebral size is associated with severity of the scoliotic curves. In interpreting the findings they consider the Roth/Porter hypothesis of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the spine but point out that knowledge of normal vertebral growth supports the view that the scoliosis deformity in AIS is related to longitudinal vertebral body growth rather than growth of the canal. In the mechanical mechanism (pathomechanism) they implicitly adopt the concept of primary skeletal change as it affects the sagittal plane of the spine with anterior increments and posterior decrements of vertebral growth and, in the biological mechanism (pathogenesis) propose a novel histogenetic hypothesis of uncoupled endochondral-membranous bone formation. The latter is viewed as part of an 'intrinsic abnormality of skeletal growth in patients with AIS which may be genetic'. The hypothesis that AIS girls have intrinsic anomalies (not abnormalities) of skeletal growth related to curve progression and involving genetic and/or environmental factors acting in early life is not original. While the findings of Professor Cheng and his colleagues have added MRI data to the field of relative anterior spinal overgrowth in AIS their interpretation engenders controversy. Three new hypotheses are proposed to interpret their findings: (1) hypoplasia of articular processes as a risk factor for AIS; (2) selection from the normal population to AIS involves anomalous vertebral morphology and soft tissue factors--this hypothesis may also apply to certain types of secondary scoliosis; and (3) a new method to predict the natural history of AIS curves by evaluating cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) motion at the cranio-cervical junction. What is not controversial is the need for whole spine MRI research on subjects with non-idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:16133084

  16. Women's relationship with the environment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J

    1993-02-01

    In developing countries, all development activities as well as reclamation of degraded areas, pollution reduction, and preservation of biodiversity affect women's environment, especially in rural areas. Women produce most subsistence foods and cash crops, but control only about 1% of the world's land. Lack of land tenure and of access to it keep women from obtaining credit, training, and other supports, thereby preventing them from using their traditional, longterm conservation practices. In many developing countries, commercial producers force women off the most productive lands and onto marginal lands where they grow subsistence crops. They tend to overuse the marginal land and to allow little time for soil recovery. Soil degradation is exacerbated when women need to travel greater distances to collect fuelwood, water, fodder, and food. Almost complete desertification awaits Rajasthan, India, where such events and intensive cash cropping occur. Heavy pesticide use on large commercial farms increases pest resistance, thereby boosting infestation and reducing species diversity. Women are testing sustainable agricultural techniques, for instance, interplanting and crop rotation. Even though women supply water needs, they tend to be excluded from planning, implementing, and maintaining water supplies. Women depend on forests to provide food, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicines, and many materials for income-earning efforts. Commercial logging, migration and resettlement, agricultural development, and cutting for firewood and charcoal destroy these forests. Reforestation schemes do not consider women's needs. Deforestation and desertification increase women's work burdens. Poor women who have migrated to urban areas also experience environmental degradation, deteriorating health, and resource depletion; most live in squatter settlements. Deteriorating economic circumstances in developing countries, reduced flows of official development assistance to developing countries, rapid population growth, lack of women's support mechanisms, and civil conflict are underlying factors for environmental degradation. PMID:12287131

  17. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life. PMID:21248971

  18. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ruby C; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly affecting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen, but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAAs at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  20. Stroke Prevention in Women: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bushnell, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Women have a 20% lifetime risk of stroke. In addition, the majority of stroke-related deaths occur in women. Reducing the burden of stroke in women through prevention would positively affect public health. Unfortunately, most of the data used to develop specific evidence-based guidelines for stroke prevention in women were derived from coronary heart disease studies. Stroke was a secondary and less common outcome, if it was included at all. In addition, women have traditionally been underrepresented in stroke prevention trial cohorts. Stroke prevention in women offers many challenges, not only related to data extrapolated from clinical trials primarily composed of men, but also because physicians may underestimate cardiovascular risk in women, and therefore prevention strategies may not be appropriately undertaken. The opportunities to improve stroke prevention in women include increasing patient and physician awareness of risk and optimizing management of key modifiable risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes). PMID:18606106