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1

Considerations in HIV prevention for women affected by the criminal justice system.  

PubMed

Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system, either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender-responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

Kramer, Katie; Comfort, Megan

2011-11-01

2

Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System  

PubMed Central

Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts.

Comfort, Megan

2011-01-01

3

Disproportionation of organosilanes  

SciTech Connect

A study of the catalytic influence of aluminum halides on the disproportionation of organosilanes showed that their catalytic action increases in the series AlF/sub 3/ < AlCl/sub 3/ < AlI/sub 3/ < AlBr/sub 3/. The presence of chlorides of the alkali metals does not reduce the catalytic activity of aluminum halides. The directions of exchange H/R, Ph/R, and Cl/R (R = H, Me, Cl, CH=CH/sub 2/, CH/sub 2/CH=CH/sub 2/) predominant in the disproportionation of organosilanes; the activity series of the radicals for each direction of exchange were determined. For silanes with the composition Ph/sub n/Me/sub 3-n/SiR (R = H, Cl) the rate of exchange of hydrogen increases with increasing n, while the rate of exchange of chlorine drops.

Sheludyakov, V.D.; Zhun', V.I.; Ten, M.K.

1987-08-20

4

Subtyping undergraduate women along dietary restraint and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster-analytic studies of clinical populations of eating disordered women who binge eat have yielded two subtypes – pure dietary restraint and mixed dietary restraint-negative affect – consistent with etiologic and maintenance models of binge eating. This study aimed to replicate this subtyping scheme in university women. The scores of 623 undergrad females on the TFEQ-restraint and BDI scales were submitted

Eva M. Peñas-Lledó; Katharine L. Loeb; Rosa Puerto; Thomas B. Hildebrandt; Adrián Llerena

2008-01-01

5

Neurocognitive function in women affected by the Bhopal gas disaster  

PubMed Central

Background: Methyl isocynate (MIC) is a reactive, toxic, volatile and inflammable gas. Exposure to MIC causes neurotoxicity and somatic abnormalities in human beings. Aim: We compared neurocognitive function in MIC-exposed women and a control group, as well as cognitive function in the MIC group and examined them with reference to age. Methods: The study sample comprised 30 women and a control group of 30 women. Both the groups were subjected to a detailed neuropsychiatric examination along with assessment of neurocognitive function using the PGI-Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGI-BBD). Results: Mean scores of immediate recall, visual retention, difference in performance quotient/verbal quotient, Nahar–Bensen and Bender–Gestalt test were significantly affected in MIC-exposed women. However, among MIC-exposed women, neurocognitive functions were similarly affected in women in various age groups. Conclusion: Women in the MIC-exposed group had significant neurocognitive dysfunction in some specific areas as compared to women in the control group. The mean score of dysfunction rating of the PGI-BBD showed significant differences in neurocognitive functions between MIC-exposed and non-exposed women.

Sahu, R.N.; Naik, G.P.; Dusad, Asha; Agrawal, Vikas K.

2005-01-01

6

The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease  

PubMed Central

The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution.

Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

2011-01-01

7

Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37%). Speaking was equally prevalent among the 3 groups (12%-19%). Behaviors were associated with nightmares, dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, and altered hormone levels. Citation: Nielsen T; Paquette T. Dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum women. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1162-1169.

Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

2007-01-01

8

An Ecological Approach to Understanding Incarcerated Women's Responses to Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although women are often criticized for not leaving abusive relationships, most abused women actively attempt to protect themselves. This study proposed an ecological model to explain strategic responses to abuse, evaluating factors at four levels: Childhood, Relationship, Individual Impact of Abuse, and Community. Data was retrospectively collected from 85 incarcerated women, a population that is disproportionately affected by trauma and

Melanie J. Bliss; Sarah L. Cook; Nadine J. Kaslow

2007-01-01

9

Women, Work and Health: Issues and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies issues related to worksite health promotion programs for women by examining ways that work factors, health behaviors, family roles and responsibilities, and women's health are linked. Work conditions may affect women uniquely, as in the case of chemical exposure affecting reproductive health; disproportionately, such as the interaction between work and family roles; or differently from men, as

Barbara S. Collins; Roberta B. Hollander; Dyann Matson Koffman; Rebecca Reeve; Susan Seidler

1997-01-01

10

Subtyping undergraduate women along dietary restraint and negative affect.  

PubMed

Cluster-analytic studies of clinical populations of eating disordered women who binge eat have yielded two subtypes--pure dietary restraint and mixed dietary restraint-negative affect--consistent with etiologic and maintenance models of binge eating. This study aimed to replicate this subtyping scheme in university women. The scores of 623 undergrad females on the TFEQ-restraint and BDI scales were submitted to a cluster analysis and revealed three subtypes, "healthy" (47.4%), restrained (36.3%) and mixed (16.3%). In addition, comparisons between subtypes on bulimic behaviors showed that the mixed and restrained subtypes were characterized by greater likelihood than the healthy group to engage in fasting, purging and exercise to control weight, as well as in disinhibition of eating. The mixed subtype revealed higher scores than the restrained subtype on eating disinhibition and purging, and the restrained group was more likely than the mixed subtype to exercise to control weight. These findings provide further support for the reliability and validity of this subtyping scheme, in which the confluence of even mild levels of negative affect and dietary restraint differentiated a more "disturbed" group of undergraduate females. Findings also put into question the dietary restraint theory of eating pathology and suggest the need to control negative affect when studying eating behavior. PMID:18501473

Peñas-Lledó, Eva M; Loeb, Katharine L; Puerto, Rosa; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Llerena, Adrián

2008-11-01

11

What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows signs of addiction to alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an increased risk for breast cancer, heart ...

12

Asian Women in Transitions: How Modernization Affects Their Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain…

Chiang, Linda H.

13

Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explain factors that encouraged and discouraged the participation of Black women in RN completion programs. A qualitative design and a Black feminist theoretical framework guided the study. Ten Black women were interviewed: 7 attended RN completion programs, and 3 were recent graduates. Factors that encouraged the participation of Black women can be grouped

Lolita Chappel Aiken; Ronald M. Cervero; Juanita Johnson-Bailey

2001-01-01

14

Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must

E James Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; GO Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene

2005-01-01

15

Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

Mech, L.D.

1975-01-01

16

Smoking status affects men and women differently on schizotypal traits and cognitive failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men have a greater risk of schizophrenia than women, and are generally heavier smokers than women. Smoking has been viewed as a form of self-medication in both schizophrenia and schizotypy, to the degree that it helps control negative symptoms and enhance cognitive function. To identify how smoking affects men and women differently on schizotypal traits and cognitive failures, the effects

Li Wan; Bruce H. Friedman; Nash N. Boutros; Helen J. Crawford

2008-01-01

17

Insights: Emphasizing Issues that Affect African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter continues and expands the dialogue regarding the oppressions experienced by African American women in higher education. Stakeholders of postsecondary education are invited to use this dialogue to become more aware of the needs of African American women on college campuses, as well as African American people in general.

Hughes, Robin L.; Howard-Hamilton, Mary F.

2003-01-01

18

Chicken extract affects colostrum protein compositions in lactating women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of supplementation with chicken extract on plasma and colostrum protein compositions in lactating women. Thirty healthy pregnant women were evenly divided into the control (n = 15) or chicken extract (CE) group (n = 15). The CE group was given one bottle (70 mL\\/bottle) of chicken extract three times a day to provide 18 g

Jane C.-J. Chao; Hsu-Ping Tseng; Ching Wen Chang; Yi-Yi Chien; Heng Kien Au; Jiun-Rong Chen; Chin-Fa Chen

2004-01-01

19

Associations between Affect, Context, and Sexual Desire in Depressed Young Women.  

PubMed

We investigated associations of sexual desire with time of day, physical and social context, and positive and negative affect using momentary sampling in 44 depressed young women (mean age = 18). Analyses revealed that depressed young women experienced sexual desire when with their boyfriends and later in the evening. Sexual desire was also positively associated with positive affect. Sexual desire was not associated with negative affect or physical context. This research suggests that sexual desire is experienced by depressed young women in normative developmental social contexts. Our findings may help clinicians and sexual health educators in correcting the myth that depressed women do not have sexual desire. PMID:23631748

Mehta, Clare M; Walls, Courtney; Blood, Emily A; Shrier, Lydia A

2014-07-01

20

The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have…

Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.

2011-01-01

21

Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.  

PubMed

Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24841741

Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

2014-08-01

22

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women.

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

23

Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. (Texas Univ. Medical Branch, Galveston (United States))

1991-03-15

24

Do urinary tract infections affect morale among very old women?  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common bacterial infections in women of all ages but the incidence increases with older age. Despite the fact that UTI is a common problem it is still poorly investigated regarding its connection with experienced health and morale. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a diagnosed, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) with or without ongoing treatment on morale or subjective wellbeing among very old women. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study, 504 women aged 85 years and older (range 84-104) were evaluated for ongoing UTI. Of these, 319 (63.3%), were able to answer the questions on the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) which was used to assess morale or subjective wellbeing. Results In the present study sample of 319 women, 46 (14.4%) were diagnosed as having had a UTI with or without ongoing treatment when they were assessed. Women with UTI with or without ongoing treatment had significantly lower PGCMS scores (10.4 vs 11.9, p = 0.003) than those without UTI, indicating a significant impact on morale or subjective wellbeing among very old women. Depression (p < 0.001), UTI (p = 0.014) and constipation (p = 0.018) were the medical diagnoses significantly and independently associated with low morale in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions As UTI seems to be independently associated with low morale or poor subjective wellbeing, there needs to be more focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of UTI in old women.

2010-01-01

25

Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.  

PubMed

Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders. PMID:23790683

Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2013-11-01

26

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

2012-01-01

27

Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

2001-01-01

28

Social Life Factors Affecting Suicide in Japanese Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…

Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

1986-01-01

29

Revisiting psychopathy in women: Cleckley/Hare conceptions and affective response.  

PubMed

Despite increased interest in female psychopathy, more work is needed to establish commonalities between the nomological networks for psychopathy in men and women. The current study sought to advance understanding of affective deficits in female psychopathy, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Forty-eight female inmates were tested in an affect-startle paradigm involving passive viewing of emotional and neutral picture stimuli. Results showed that women scoring high on PCL-R psychopathy exhibited deficits in startle reactivity to unpleasant pictures, especially with regard to victim-distress scenes, highlighting a specific insensitivity to the vicarious distress of others. The deficient affective modulation was specific to interpersonal-affective features and not adult/child antisocial features. These data confirm deficits in affective responding among women high on psychopathy, with implications for fear- versus empathy-related conceptualizations of psychopathic women. PMID:24364611

Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad; Patrick, Christopher J

2013-11-01

30

[Liability in Anaesthesiology: Theory of disproportionate damage].  

PubMed

An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. PMID:23528691

Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

2013-10-01

31

Women Scientists in Academia: Geographically Constrained to Big Cities, College Clusters, or the Coasts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the extent to which jobs of women academic scientists are disproportionately concentrated in large cities, areas with many colleges, and doctoral production centers. Also investigated if employment variables are affected. Found that, irrespective of family status, women faculty are more likely to reside in these areas, and that geographic…

Kulis, Stephen; Sicotte, Diane

2002-01-01

32

Axonal degeneration affects muscle density in older men and women  

PubMed Central

Using data from InCHIANTI, a prospective population-based survey of older persons, we examined the relationship of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (NCV, a measure of nerve myelination) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP, a measure of axonal degeneration) with calf muscle mass and density, two complementary measures of sarcopenia. NCV and CMAP were assessed by surface electroneurography of the right peroneal nerve conducted in 1162 participants, 515 men and 647 women, age 21–96 years, free of major neurological diseases. Cross-sectional muscle area and calf muscle density were measured using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). Both nerve and muscle parameters declined with age although in most cases the decline was not linear. In both sexes, CMAP, but not NCV, was independently and significantly associated with calf muscle density. These findings suggest that intrinsic changes in the muscle tissue are partially caused by a reduction in the number of motor axons.

Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bartali, Benedetta; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giacomini, Vittoria; Corsi, Anna Maria; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

2009-01-01

33

Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition. PMID:23624642

Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

2014-06-01

34

The Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Group for HIV-Infected\\/Affected Incarcerated Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The effectiveness of a psychoeducational group intervention for HIV\\/AIDS-infected and affected women was examined at a large southeastern county jail facility. Method: A quasi- experimental pretest-posttest design was used to examine depression, anxiety, and trauma symp- toms of women inmates. Results: A multivariate analysis of covariance yielded significant differ- ences between the experimental and comparison groups. Subsequent analysis of

Elizabeth C. Pomeroy; Risa Kiam; Eileen M. Abel

1999-01-01

35

Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or fibromyalgia (FMS) completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10 to 12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive affect on average resulted in lower negative affect both directly and in interaction with pain and stress. Finally, increases in weekly negative affect and higher average negative affect related to greater levels of pain in subsequent weeks. In contrast, higher levels of overall positive affect predicted lower levels of pain in subsequent weeks.

Zautra, Alez J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

2008-01-01

36

Propene disproportionation on ZnO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation of propene adsorbed on ZnO in a closed reactor at 296-623 K has been monitored with 1H and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Propane was detected to be formed as one of the reaction products and a simple aromatics of the average composition C7H8 as the other product. The mechanism of propene disproportionation, detected for the first time on zinc oxide catalyst, is discussed.

Gabrienko, Anton A.; Stepanov, Alexander G.

2012-11-01

37

42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disproportionate share adjustment factor. 412.320 Section 412...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM...Disproportionate share adjustment factor. (a) Criteria for classification... (b) Payment adjustment factor. (1) If a hospital...

2013-10-01

38

Microvesicles of women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia affect human trophoblast fate and endothelial function.  

PubMed

Microvesicles shedding from cell membrane affect inflammation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. We hypothesize that microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications reflect pathophysiological state of the patients and affect their endothelial and trophoblast cell function. Microvesicles of healthy pregnant women, women with gestational hypertension, mild, or severe preeclampsia/toxemia, were characterized, and their effects on early-stage or term trophoblasts and endothelial cells were evaluated using apoptosis, migration, and tube formation assays. Patient subgroups differed significantly only in proteinuria levels, therefore their microvesicles were assessed as 1 group, demonstrating higher levels of inflammatory and angiogenic proteins compared with those of healthy pregnant women. In endothelial cells, microvesicles of healthy pregnant women reduced caspase 3/7 activity, increased migration, and induced tube formation. These processes were suppressed by microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications. In early-stage trophoblasts, microvesicles of healthy pregnant women decreased apoptosis compared with untreated cells (6±5% versus 13.8±5.8%; P<0.001) and caspase 3/7 activity and induced higher migration (39.7±10.1 versus 20.3±8.3 mm2; P<0.001). This effect was mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Conversely, microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications increased term trophoblast apoptosis compared with cells exposed to microvesicles of healthy pregnant women (15.1±3.3% versus 6.5±2.1%; P<0.001) and inhibited early-stage trophoblasts migration (21.4±18.5 versus 39.7±10.1 mm2; P<0.001). In conclusion, microvesicle content and effects on endothelial and trophoblast cells vary according to the physiological/pathological state of a pregnant woman. Microvesicles seem to play a pivotal role in the course of pregnancy, which could potentially result in gestational vascular complications. PMID:24082057

Shomer, Einat; Katzenell, Sarah; Zipori, Yaniv; Sammour, Rami N; Isermann, Berend; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat

2013-11-01

39

Automatic and deliberate affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with superficial dyspareunia.  

PubMed

Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further aggravate the dyspareunia-related complaints. To assess whether automatic negative associations are involved in this sexual pain disorder, women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 35) and a control group (n = 35) completed a modified pictorial Affective Simon Task (AST). Questioning the role of dysfunctional automatic associations in superficial dyspareunia, the AST indicated that symptomatic women displayed relatively positive rather than negative automatic associations with sexual stimuli. At the self-report level, however, affective associations with sex cues were significantly more negative for women with dyspareunia than for controls. This discrepancy between "reflective" and "reflexive" affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with dyspareunia points to the relevance of conscious appraisal and deliberate rather than automatic processes in the onset and maintenance of dyspareunia. PMID:18521733

Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J; Huijding, Jorg; Laan, Ellen; ter Kuile, Moniek M

2009-08-01

40

Characteristics of Activities That Affect the Development of Women's Same-Sex Relationships.  

PubMed

The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other. PMID:24885468

Davis-Delano, Laurel R

2014-10-01

41

Biological and Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with STDs\\/HIV in Women: Implications for Behavioral Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are disproportionately affected by the burden and consequences of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).\\u000a Of the estimated 19 million cases of STDs that occur annually in the United States (1), about two-thirds are in women (2).\\u000a Further, both bacterial and viral STDs are associated with negative sequelae in women. Untreated gonococcal and chlamydial\\u000a infections can produce significant and

Donna Hubbard McCree; Anne M. Rompalo

42

General acid catalysis of monochloramine disproportionation  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental understanding of chloramine chemistry is important in the control of water and waste water disinfection, biofouling in power plants, and in assessing the fate of chlorinated effluents discharged into the environment. This paper presents experimental results showing that monochloramine disproportionation, which results in the formation of dichloramine, involves a general acid catalyzed reaction pathway. Rate constants characterizing the effect of hydrogen ion, phosphate, and sulfate were determined by measuring the rate of monochloramine disappearance under pH conditions, which simplified interpretation of results. These rates constants were used to develop a linear free energy relationship that was used to predict the effect of carbonate and silicate. Predictions indicate that carbonate, and possibly silicate, may significantly increase the rate of acid-catalyzed disproportionation at concentrations and pH values typical of many drinking waters. Since this reaction may govern the overall rate of oxidant loss, appropriate consideration must be given to the presence of potential proton donors when predictions relating to chloramine speciation and fate are made on the basis of reaction models or when the results of studies with chloramine solutions are evaluated.

Valentine, R.L.; Jafvert, C.T.

1988-06-01

43

NO disproportionation reactivity of Fe tropocoronand complexes  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and characterization of divalent [Fe(TC-5,5)] (1) and trivalent [Fe(OTf)(TC-5,5)] (2) tropocoronand complexes are described. Compound 1 reacts with 1 equiv of NO to form the {l{underscore}brace}FeNO{r{underscore}brace}{sup 7} complex 3. A single-crystal X-ray structure determination of 3 reveals a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with a linearly coordinated nitrosyl (Fe-N-O = 174.3(4){degree}) having a short Fe-N distance of 1.670(4) {angstrom}. EPR and Moessbauer spectroscopy, SQUID susceptometry, and normal coordinate analysis indicate 3 to be a low-spin {l{underscore}brace}Fe{sup III}(NO{sup {minus}}){r{underscore}brace}{sup 2+} species. In the presence of excess NO, 3 converts to a metastable nitrosyl-nitrito complex that decomposes by losing NO{sub 2}, which subsequently nitrates the aromatic tropolone rings of the ligand. The final products of the NO disproportionation reaction are N{sub 2}O and [Fe(NO)(TC-5,5-NO{sub 2})] (4). The {nu}{sub NO} stretching band of 4 is increased to 1,716 cm{sup {minus}} from its value of 1,692 cm{sup {minus}} in 3, owing to the electron-withdrawing nitro groups on the ligand, and the compound no longer promotes the disproportionation of NO. Mechanistic aspects of the reaction are discussed.

Franz, K.J.; Lippard, S.J.

1999-11-17

44

The Experience of Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder. It has significant and diverse clinical consequences including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological morbidities as well as predisposition to malignancies. It is unclear how women with PCOS experience symptoms of this syndrome. Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the dimensions and components of quality of life in iranian women with PCOS. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative study to explore and document perceptions of women with PCOS about their disorder and quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with open ended questions were conducted with 23 women with PCOS. The interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The study was conducted in the Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results: The study revealed that the most important factors affecting quality of life in women with PCOS were the role functioning items as well as physical, mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions. Conclusions: Comprehensive cares concerning various mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions of quality of life should be planned for women with PCOS.

Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali

2014-01-01

45

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

46

‘It's as if PBC didn’t exist’: The illness experience of women affected by primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the illness experience of women who are affected by primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a rare chronic liver disease which mostly affects women. Despite the fact that PBC is medically recognised, it shares many characteristics with other chronic and controversial conditions which may lead to delegitimation of the patient's experience of illness, impacting on the construction of the

L. Montali; A. Frigerio; P. Riva; P. Invernizzi

2011-01-01

47

Elevated body mass index (BMI) does not adversely affect in vitro fertilization outcome in young women  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if elevated body mass index in young women with normal ovarian reserve was associated with poorer ovarian response, difficulty at embryo transfer, and lower clinical pregnancy rates. Materials and methods Retrospective study of 417 first, fresh in vitro fertilization cycles performed between October 2004 and December 2006. All women were under the age of 35 and had normal cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. Subjects were divided into groups by BMI: <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, ?30. Results Cancellation rates, peak estradiol levels, and mean number of oocytes retrieved were similar in all groups. There was a trend toward increasing difficulty in visualizing the air bubble at time of embryo transfer and lower implantation rates at higher body mass indices. Clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were similar among groups. Conclusion Obesity in young women does not adversely affect clinical pregnancy rates in patients treated with in vitro fertilization.

Ryan, Sarah; Luna, Martha; Copperman, Alan B.

2008-01-01

48

Disproportionation of nitric oxide at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

A facile pressure-induced disproportionation of nitric oxide occurs at 176 K and 1.5 GPa. The reaction products are N/sub 2/O/sub 4/, N/sub 2/O, and a small, variable amount of N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as identified by infrared, Raman, and visible absorption spectroscopies. No free NO, N/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or NO/sub 2/ is observed after warming the sample to room temperature. The N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ product subsequently photolyzes to form N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2//sup +/NO/sub 3//sup -/, and evidence for the nitrite form of N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is reported. The N/sub 2/PO product is stable, once formed, to 14.0 GPa. 27 references, 7 figures.

Agnew, S.F.; Swanson, B.I.; Jones, L.H.; Mills, R.L.

1985-04-25

49

Factors affecting performance of prenatal genetic testing by Israeli Jewish women.  

PubMed

The number of prenatal genetic tests that are being offered to women is constantly increasing. However, there is little national data as to who is performing the tests and the reasons for doing or not doing so. This study evaluated the proportion of Jewish women in Israel who perform the various prenatal genetic tests and the factors affecting the performance of these tests. It was found that 60.9% of the women performed the triple test, 50.8% of women older than 35 years performed amniocentesis, while 63.3 and 24.3% of women performed Tay-Sachs and fragile-X carrier testing respectively. Ninety-six percent of the secular women compared to only 6.7% of the ultrareligious women performed the triple test. It was also found that94.4% of the secular women, 36.4% of the religious, and none of the ultrareligious women older than 35 years performed amniocentesis. In the stepwise regression analysis, being secular, having a higher income, fewer children, and being of Ashkenazi origin remained significant factors in determining performance of Tay-Sachs carrier testing. As regards fragile-X carrier testing, being secular, having fewer than four children, and having a higher income and a supplementary medical insurance remained significant factors. The main reason reported by the women for not performing amniocentesis or the triple test was for religious or moral grounds (53.3 and 67% respectively). The main reason given for not performing Tay-Sachs or fragile-X testing was that they were not referred for the tests (76 and 82% respectively). Consideration should be given to providing first trimester prenatal diagnosis to the ultrareligious group, including state subsidized fragile-X testing and educating the primary care givers about the importance of prenatal genetic testing. The information from the present study is vital for the planning of an equitable prenatal genetic service and provides guidelines for the implementation of such services in other countries. PMID:12838566

Sher, Carron; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Green, Manfred S; Shohat, Tamy

2003-07-30

50

USC study identifies genetic basis for aggressive breast cancer in women of African ancestry:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, together with other scientists, have identified the location of a genetic risk factor for a type of breast cancer that disproportionately affects women of African descent and carries a worse prognosis than other forms of the disease.

51

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

52

Factors affecting satisfaction with treatment in European women with chronic constipation: An internet survey  

PubMed Central

Background Data on factors affecting treatment satisfaction in European women with chronic constipation are limited. Objective To assess factors associated with treatment satisfaction among European women with chronic constipation. Methods A 2011–2012 internet survey was conducted in men and women from 12 European countries. Respondents analysed were female with self-reported chronic constipation (?1 symptoms for ?6 months of lumpy/hard stools, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and pain during defecation, as well as <3 bowel movements/week). For laxative users, satisfaction with treatment, factors affecting satisfaction, and interactions with healthcare professionals were collected. Results and conclusions In total, 4805/50,319 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria (female with chronic constipation). Of the laxative users (1575/4805), 57% (n?=?896) were satisfied with their treatment, while 26% were neutral, and 17% dissatisfied. Dissatisfied respondents visited their GP less frequently in the past 12 months, were more likely to obtain over-the-counter laxatives, and took a dose higher than recommended more frequently than those satisfied. Respondents were most satisfied with ease of use of treatment and least satisfied with relief from bloating. Newer treatments aimed at alleviating symptoms, particularly bloating, are required for respondents neutral or dissatisfied with their current treatment.

Quigley, Eamonn MM; Simren, Magnus; Feng, Yue; Muller-Lissner, Stefan; Urbain, Daniel; Tack, Jan; Bredenoord, Albert J; Sabate, Jean-Marc; Yiannakou, Yan; Andresen, Viola; Cuomo, Rosario; Rey, Enrique; Gryp, Renate Specht; Vandeplassche, Lieve; Solomon, Dory

2013-01-01

53

Sex Differences in Affective Responses to Homoerotic Stimuli: Evidence for an Unconscious Bias Among Heterosexual Men, but not Heterosexual Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigay bias is a well-documented social problem among heterosexual men, though heterosexual women display a lesser tendency toward this bias. Startle eye blink has been established as a valid measure of the affective component of antigay bias in heterosexual men. In the current study, a sample of 91 heterosexual women and 87 heterosexual men were exposed to a variety of

Amanda L. Mahaffey; Angela Bryan; Kent E. Hutchison

2005-01-01

54

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

55

Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health  

PubMed Central

Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns proves that the gender perspective still lacks the promotion of shared responsibilities between men and women. There is a need for institutions that act as ‘policy watchdogs’ to control the gender biases in mass media and pharmaceutical marketing as well as to ensure the proper implementation and maintenance of Spanish equality laws.

Cambronero-Saiz, Belen

2013-01-01

56

Disproportionation of photoexcited C{sub 60}  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of C{sub 60}-toluene solution at room temperature affords two ESR bands with g and {Delta}H{sub pp} values of (2.0013, 0.5 G) and (2.0024, 0.75 G), respectively. In the presence of 6% methanol or 12% benzonitrile, the latter band disappears completely. Below 200 K, only the former bank was observed. They were assigned to be {sup 3}C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}{sup .+}, respectively. In the presence of tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate, the g value of the C{sub 60}{sup .+} cation radical shifts to 2.0006, and an additional broad band of g = 1.9992 and {Delta}H{sub pp}=30 G was observed. Upon cooling, the line width of this new band drops from 30 G at 300 K to 4 G at 77 K. This new band was assigned to be the C{sub 60}{sup .-} anion radical according to its characteristic behavior. At room temperature, photolysis causes the C{sub 60}-toluene solution`s color to turn from purple to brown, and then brown precipitates formed. Desorption chemical ionization (DCI) mass analysis of the brown precipitates indicates the formation of C{sub 60}.H{sub n}(tolyl){sub n} (n = 1-4) adducts. The formation of C{sub 60}{sup .+} and C{sub 60}{sup .-} was rationalized in terms of disproportionation of two {sup 3}C{sub 60}. The brown precipitates were due to the chemical reaction between the C{sub 60}{sup .+} cation radical and the solvent molecules, which rationalizes the `photodegradation` of fullerene as reported in literature. 38 refs., 5 figs.

Yang, C.C.; Hwang, K.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)] [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-05-15

57

Affective Responses to Increasing Levels of Exercise Intensity in Normal-weight, Overweight, and Obese Middle-aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy

Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Erik Lind; Spiridoula Vazou

2010-01-01

58

Comparison of HIV-positive women with children and without children accessing HIV care and treatment in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, women comprise half of all people living with HIV, but in sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately affected. Data were obtained from 8419 HIV-infected women at enrollment into 10 HIV treatment programs in Cameroon, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the Central Africa region of the International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS. We used chi-squared

A. Freeman; J. Newman; J. Hemingway-Foday; J. Iriondo-Perez; K. Stolka; W. Akam; A. Balimba; L. Kalenga; M. Mbaya; B. Mfangam Molu; H. Mukumbi; T. Niyongabo; G. Woelk; M. Kiumbu; J. Atibu

2012-01-01

59

Comparison of HIV-positive women with children and without children accessing HIV care and treatment in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, women comprise half of all people living with HIV, but in sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately affected. Data were obtained from 8419 HIV-infected women at enrollment into 10 HIV treatment programs in Cameroon, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the Central Africa region of the International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS. We used chi-squared

A. Freeman; J. Newman; J. Hemingway-Foday; J. Iriondo-Perez; K. Stolka; W. Akam; A. Balimba; L. Kalenga; M. Mbaya; B. Mfangam Molu; H. Mukumbi; T. Niyongabo; G. Woelk; M. Kiumbu; J. Atibu

2011-01-01

60

Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs.

Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

2012-01-01

61

Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

Nicolas, Michel

2009-12-01

62

ZIRCONIUM IRON DISPROPORTIONATION DURING HYDRIDING REACTIONS IN NUCLEAR GETTERING OPERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the hydriding properties of Zr2Fe and Zr3Fe alloys, including SAES Getters St-198. It was found from examining the X-ray diffraction patterns of alloys hydrided at temperatures ranging from 303 K to 773 K that disproportionation occurs in the Zr2Fe alloys at temperatures above 673 K. In Zr3Fe the temperature at which disproportionation takes place is much lower

Michael Coleman; Dhanesh Chandra; Joseph Wermer; Terrence J. Udovic

63

HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks.

Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

2013-01-01

64

HIV Susceptibility Among Hispanic Women in South Florida  

PubMed Central

Hispanic women (HW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, however, little is known regarding their perceived susceptibility for acquiring HIV (SAHIV). We studied predictive factors for perceiving SAHIV among HW. Participants (88.5%) reported not feeling SAHIV. Women who felt SAHIV, had a significant probability of reporting a higher chance for acquiring HIV from their partner’s actions (OR 9.75), and a higher probability of not being tested for HIV (OR 2.05). Educational strategies to increase perception of SAHIV and HIV testing knowledge would be beneficial giving emphasis to women who do not perceive to be at risk from their partner’s actions.

Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

2011-01-01

65

Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflicting results regarding pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a national study of 171 lesbians and 124 heterosexual women undergoing sperm donation both as D-IUI (lesbian n = 438, heterosexual n = 298) and as embryo transfers (ET) after IVF with donated sperm (lesbians n = 225, heterosexuals n = 230) during 2005–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All clinics in Sweden offering sperm donation recruited patients. Differences in patients' medical history, treatment results and number of treatments to live birth were analyzed using independent samples t-test, Pearson's ?2 test or Fisher's exact probability test. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE 71.8% of heterosexuals and 69.0% of lesbians had a child after treatment. The mean number of treatments was 4.2 for heterosexual women and 3.9 for lesbians. The total live birth rate, regardless of treatment type, was 19.7% for heterosexuals and 19.5% for lesbians. For D-IUI, the live birth rate was 12.8% for heterosexuals and 16.0% for lesbians and the live birth rate for all IVF embryo transfers (fresh and thawed cycles) was 28.7% for heterosexuals and 26.2% for lesbians. There were no differences in live birth rate between the groups for each of the different types of insemination stimulations (natural cycle; clomiphene citrate; FSH; clomiphene citrate and FSH combined). Nor was there a difference in live birth rate between the groups for either fresh or thawed embryo transfer. There was no difference between the proportions of women in either group or the number of treatments needed to achieve a live birth. Heterosexuals had a higher prevalence of smokers (9.2%), uterine polyps (7.2%) or previous children (11.3%) than lesbians (smokers 2.8%, P = 0.03; polyps 1.8%, P = 0.03; child 2.5%, P = 0.003). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study is limited to women living in stable relationships undergoing treatment with donated sperm in a clinical setting and may not apply to single women or those undergoing home inseminations. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These results may influence healthcare policy decisions as well as increase the quality of clinical care and medical knowledge of healthcare professionals. The data also have important implications for individuals regarding screening, infertility diagnostic procedures and treatment types offered to heterosexuals and lesbians seeking pregnancy through sperm donation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Funding was granted by the Stiftelsen Familjeplaneringsfonden i Uppsala; the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare; and the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation. The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjo, G.; Lampic, C.; Akerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

2014-01-01

66

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

67

Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.  

PubMed

This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

2014-02-01

68

Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization.

2013-01-01

69

The factors affecting pregnancy outcomes in the second trimester pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to fetal and maternal health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting birth weight and gestational age and to provide basic data to promote more favorable pregnancy outcomes. Data were collected from 234 pregnant women at two hospitals in Seoul. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and health related habits were obtained using a questionnaire at the hospital visit during the second trimester. Dietary intakes were estimated by 24 hour recall at the hospital visit during the second trimester. Data on pregnancy outcomes, including birth weights and gestational ages, were obtained from hospital records after delivery. Birth weights were divided into a low birth weight group (birth weight<3.1 kg), a normal birth weight group (3.1-3.6 kg) and a high birth weight group (>3.6 kg). Gestational ages were divided into tertiles according to the gestational age of the subjects: group 1 (<38.53 weeks), group 2 (38.53-40.00 weeks) and group 3 (>40.00 weeks). The number of family members was significantly lower in the low birth weight group than in the normal birth weight group (p<0.05). In the low birth weight group, pregnancy weight was significantly lower than in the high birth weight group (p<0.05). Health related habits were not significantly different among any of the groups. Intakes of fiber, phosphorous, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid were significantly higher in the high birth weight group than the low birth weight group (p<0.05). Gestational age was not significantly affected by nutrient intakes, but birth weight was affected by nutrient intake in the results of this study. Therefore, the adequacy of nutrient intake is important for the improvement of pregnancy outcomes.

Bang, Seo Won

2009-01-01

70

Selenium status of lactating women is affected by the form of selenium consumed.  

PubMed

The impact of providing selenomethionine (2.7 mumol Se) or selenium-enriched yeast (2.9 mumol Se) on the selenium status of lactating and nonlactating women with customary intakes of approximately 1.3 mumol Se/d was studied. Plasma selenium declined in unsupplemented lactating women but not in nonlactating women. Selenomethionine increased plasma selenium in both lactating and nonlactating women whereas selenium-enriched yeast increased plasma selenium only in nonlactating women. Erythrocyte selenium concentration was not significantly modified by lactation. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity decreased with duration of lactation in unsupplemented women and selenomethionine or selenium-enriched yeast supplementation prevented the decline. Milk selenium declined markedly for 20 wk after parturition in unsupplemented women. Selenomethionine significantly increased milk selenium concentrations whereas selenium-enriched yeast prevented a decline. These results clearly show that the source of selenium provided to lactating women can significantly influence selected indexes of selenium status, including milk selenium concentration. PMID:8237870

McGuire, M K; Burgert, S L; Milner, J A; Glass, L; Kummer, R; Deering, R; Boucek, R; Picciano, M F

1993-11-01

71

Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.  

PubMed

Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation. PMID:24030483

Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

2013-11-01

72

Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?  

PubMed

In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. PMID:22560372

Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

2012-12-01

73

A survey of women regarding factors affecting colorectal cancer screening compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Women participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening less often than men. Our study objective was to understand factors related to women's use of CRC screening. We examined the personal health, medical care, and psychosocial responses to CRC and screening use of a community-based sample of women.Methods. Women aged 50–80 years at average CRC risk completed a telephone questionnaire. We

David S Weinberg; Barbara J Turner; Hao Wang; Ronald E Myers; Suzanne Miller

2004-01-01

74

Black Militancy, Affective Attachment, and the Fear of Success in Black College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the fear of success in black college women at four campuses indicates that the proportion of fear of success found in Thematic Apperception Test imagery of black women is consistently lower than has been found in studies of such imagery of white women. (Author)

Puryear, Gwendolyn Randall; Mednick, Martha Shuch

1974-01-01

75

Personal and Organizational Correlates Affecting Attitudes of Women Executives Towards Their Job  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid economic growth and industrialization of the Indian economy has created considerable employment opportunities for people, including women, especially for those who possess marketable skills and talents. Historically speaking, women in Indian society have far from had equality with men. The traditional patriarchal attitudes towards women still prevail and restrict the intensity of their efforts towards realizing the benefits

H. S. Sandhu; Ritu Mehta

2007-01-01

76

Latin America: Analysis of the Social Problems Affecting Women in Various Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses the conceptual framework of a study, built around three central ideas: the type of social entity in which women predominantly carry out their activities, sexual stereotypes, and cultural norms. The report discusses the class situation of women, and updates the information regarding the situation of women in education,…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

77

Liver fat and SHBG affect insulin resistance in midlife women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)  

PubMed Central

The liver is an insulin-responsive organ that contributes significantly to both whole body insulin sensitivity and availability of sex steroids through the production of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Our objective was to explore whether lower SHBG was associated with ectopic liver fat and mediated its effect on insulin resistance in The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). A subset of midlife African American and Caucasian women from SWAN (n=208; 50.9±0.18 yrs; 71% Caucasian) had computed tomography scans to quantify visceral, subcutaneous and liver fat. Blood samples were collected and assayed for hormonal and metabolic markers. The cohort, while overweight, was generally healthy, and both liver fat and SHBG were unaffected by menopausal stage or race. Both higher liver fat and lower SHBG levels were significantly associated with higher insulin concentrations after adjustment for adiposity (r=?0.25, p<0.001 and r=?0.18, p=0.01). SHBG and liver fat had additive effects on insulin concentrations such that women with the lowest SHBG and the highest fat levels had the highest values (interaction p=0.09). The association between SHBG and insulin was more apparent among women with fattier livers. SHBG and liver fat appear to have independent effects on insulin levels as adjustment for each other did not diminish the strength of either association (p=0.023 and 0.001 respectively). These results confirmed the strong independent associations between increased liver fat and decreased SHBG with increased metabolic risk in midlife women. Further these data underscore the need for additional research into the role of liver fat in modifying SHBG’s influence on insulin levels.

Kavanagh, Kylie; Espeland, Mark A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.

2012-01-01

78

Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

79

Aerobic exercise affects T-wave alternans and heart rate variability in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 10-week high-intermediate exercise intervention on heart rate variability/microscopic T-wave alternans (HRV/MTWA) in healthy postmenopausal women (PMW). 62 healthy PMW were recruited and randomly divided into an exercise group (EG, n=32) or a control group (CG, n=30). The EG attended a progressively high-intermediate intensity (75-85% heart rate reserve, HRR) group-based step aerobic exercise program for 10 weeks, whereas the CG did not receive any intervention. HRV/MTWA, blood chemistry and physical function-related indices were measured before and within 24?h following the 10-week exercise program. Following a 10-week exercise intervention, the EG had significant mean decreases in SDNN (22.4%), CV (21.4%), NN50 (72.6%), LF (ms2; 55.8%), HF (ms2; 39.9%), LF (n.u.; 11.2%), and LF/HF (34.5%). The EG showed a significant increase in HF (n.u.; 40.0%) and CAV (44.4%), whereas there was no significant finding in the CG. The coupling effect of MTWA and HRV after intervention suggests that exercise intervention potentially affects regulation changes of the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular condition synchronically in PMW. The rebound effect of biomarkers has proven to be a considerable factor on HRV/MTWA measurements. PMID:23757126

Shen, T-W; Wen, H-J

2013-12-01

80

Does hypertension and its pharmacotherapy affect the quality of sexual function in women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has been conducted into the effects of antihypertensive drugs on male sexual functioning. This remains underexplored in women, even though almost half of treated hypertensives are women. An ambulatory medical record-based, case-control study was designed to study sexual function in treated and untreated hypertensive women and healthy controls.We conducted this study at a teaching hospital with satellite clinics

Laurie E. Duncan; Carol Lewis; Paul Jenkins; Thomas A. Pearson

2000-01-01

81

Status of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination and Factors Affecting It in Pregnant Women in Kahramanmaras, an Eastern Mediterranean City of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. Methodology We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2%) pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. Principal Findings Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9%) got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Conclusions/Significance The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9%) and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low vaccination rate among pregnant women. Further studies are required to confirm whether our findings generalize to other influenza seasons and other settings.

Ozer, Ali; Arikan, Deniz Cemgil; Kirecci, Ekrem; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2010-01-01

82

Factors affecting the compliance of Israeli women with screening for intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Violence against women has become a frequent occurrence. In Israel, some 200,000 women are subjected to various types of violence by their intimate partners annually. Routine screening for intimate partner violence is endorsed by the Ministry of Health in Israel; however, screening rates in health-care settings remain problematic. This study aimed to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting women's intention to comply with screening for intimate partner violence. A questionnaire based on the literature review and research model was administered to a convenience sample of 200 married women. Although only 4.5% (n?=?9) of respondents were screened for violence at various health-care institutions over the past year, 75% (n?=?150) of women declared that they intend to cooperate with screening. A positive correlation was found between women's marriage duration, beliefs concerning violence, attitudes towards screening, family member support for compliance with screening-and women's intention to comply with screening. The TRA succeeds in partially predicting women's intention to comply with screening. PMID:23577975

Ben Natan, Merav; Abramov, Luda; Dhokarker, Avigail; Israelov, Etery

2013-04-01

83

Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

84

Hormone Replacement Therapy Does Not Affect Plasma Homocysteine in Postmenopausal Women with Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on plasma homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to investigate associations of homocysteine to other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: The women in this single-center, controlled, and randomized study were examined at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months, after they had been

Ingrid Os; Audun Os; Per Morten Sandset; Silje Bølling; Ingebjorg Seljeflot; Srdjan Djurovic; Arne Westheim

2002-01-01

85

Negative Affect and Vasomotor Symptoms in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are common during the menopausal transition. Negative affect is consistently associated with self-reported VMS, but interpretation of this relationship is limited by infrequent measurement and retrospective recall of VMS. Using prospective data from daily diaries, we examined the daily association between negative affect and reported VMS, as well as temporal associations between negative affect and next day VMS, and VMS and next day negative affect. Methods Data were derived from the third wave of the Daily Hormone Study (DHS) (n=625). DHS is a substudy of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants reported VMS and affect in daily diaries for 12–50 days. Multilevel mixed models were used to determine the associations between reported VMS and negative affect, adjusted by antidepressant use, age, education, menopausal status, self-reported health, and race/ethnicity drawn from annual SWAN visits. Results VMS were reported by 327 women (52.3%). Negative affect was positively associated with VMS (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.43–2.17, p<.001) in cross-sectional analyses. Negative affect, adjusted by same day VMS, was not predictive of next day VMS (OR 1.11, 95% CI .85–1.35, p=.55), whereas VMS, adjusted by same day negative affect, was predictive of negative affect the next day (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03–1.58, p=.01). Conclusions Negative affect was more likely to be reported on the same day and the day after VMS. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship include negative cognitive appraisal, sleep disruption, and unmeasured third factors.

Gibson, Carolyn J.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kamarck, Thomas; Matthews, Karen A.

2011-01-01

86

Addressing the Unique Needs of African American Women in HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet there are few effective HIV prevention interventions that are exclusively tailored to their lives and that address their risk factors. Using an ecological framework, we offer a comprehensive overview of the risk factors that are driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African American women and explicate the consequences of ignoring these factors in HIV prevention strategies. We also recommend ways to improve HIV prevention programs by taking into consideration the unique life experiences of adult African American women.

Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Gilbert, Louisa

2009-01-01

87

Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by health care practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to treat better those women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

Hunter, Eric J; Tanner, Kristine; Smith, Marshall E

2011-10-01

88

Does nutrition information about the energy density of meals affect food intake in normal-weight women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the energy density of foods affected energy intake when subjects were informed about the energy density of their meals. Forty normal-weight women ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory on three separate days. The entrée at each meal was varied in energy density to be either 1·25, 1·50, or 1·75kcal\\/g (5·23, 6·28, or 7·32kJ\\/g), but

T. V. E. Kral; L. S. Roe; B. J. Rolls

2002-01-01

89

Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in bleeding index scores and mean probing depth among different categories of profession, education, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy (P>0.1). The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy (P>0.1). Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables.

Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Lehl, Gurvanit; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K.; Sachdeva, Sonia

2013-01-01

90

How Do Alcohol and Relationship Type Affect Women's Risk Judgment of Partners with Differing Risk Histories?  

PubMed Central

Understanding how women judge male partners’ sexual risk is important to developing risk reduction programs. Applying a cognitive mediation model of sexual decision making, our study investigated effects of alcohol consumption (control, low dose, high dose) and relationship type (disrupted vs. new) on women’s risk judgments of a male sexual partner in three sexual risk conditions (low, unknown, high). After random assignment to an experimental condition, 328 participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual interaction. The story was paused to assess primary appraisals of sexual and relationship potential and secondary appraisals of pleasure, health, and relationship concerns, followed by sexual risk judgments. In all risk conditions, alcohol and disrupted relationship increased sexual potential whereas disrupted relationship increased relationship potential in the low- and high-risk conditions. In the unknown-risk condition, women in the no-alcohol, new relationship condition had the lowest primary sexual appraisals. In all conditions, sexual appraisals predicted all secondary appraisals, but primary relationship appraisals predicted only secondary relationship appraisals. Secondary health appraisals led to increased risk judgments whereas relationship appraisals predicted lower risk judgments. Possible intervention points include helping women to re-evaluate their safety beliefs about past partners, as well as to develop behavioral strategies for decreasing hazardous drinking.

Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Zawacki, Tina; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.

2013-01-01

91

Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

2008-09-01

92

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage.

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

93

Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

2010-01-01

94

Cognitive-Affective Predictors of Women's Readiness to End Domestic Violence Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style)…

Shurman, Lauren A.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

2006-01-01

95

The Role of Coercion in Affecting Women's Inferior Outcomes in Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted by the author into concessions of rightful property, child support and maintenance awards from ex-spouses under pressures from emotional blackmail of coercion. Information was obtained from legal and sociological literature, divorce records in Hennepin County, Minnesota, along with informal interviews with one attorney and eight divorced women. Spousal attempts at coercion during divorce negotiations may influence

Barbara J. Lonsdorf

1992-01-01

96

Protecting girls and women from harmful practices affecting their health: Are we making progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since female genital mutilation (FGM) was first recognized internationally in 1958, it has now become widely accepted and anchored in international law that FGM is a violation of girls' and women's human rights. Declines in the practice, however, are slow overall, and continued work for its elimination requires action and investment at many levels. Where the practice has diminished, community

Jane Cottingham; Eszter Kismodi

2009-01-01

97

The psychological profile and affective response of women diagnosed with unexplained infertility undergoing in vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that unexplained infertility may be related to specific personality and coping styles. We studied two groups of women with explained infertility (EIF, n?=?63) and unexplained infertility (UIF, n?=?42) undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Women completed personality and coping style questionnaires prior to the onset of the cycle, and state depression and anxiety scales before and at two additional time points during the cycle. Almost no in-between group differences were found at any of the measured time points in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 validity and clinical scales, Illness Cognitions and Life Orientation Test, or for the situational measures. The few differences found suggest a more adaptive, better coping, and functioning defensive system in women with EIF. In conclusion, we did not find any clinically significant personality differences or differences in depression or anxiety levels between women with EIF and UIF during an IVF cycle. Minor differences found are probably a reaction to the ambiguous medical situation with its uncertain prognosis, amplifying certain traits which are not specific to one psychological structure but rather to the common experience shared by the group. The results of this study do not support the possibility that personality traits are involved in the pathophysiology of unexplained infertility. PMID:22847827

Aisenberg Romano, Gabi; Ravid, Hila; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Azem, Foad; Shachar, Izhak; Bloch, Miki

2012-12-01

98

Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

2010-01-01

99

Interactive Effects of Estrogen and Serotonin On Brain Activation During Working Memory and Affective Processing in Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

While cognitive changes and mood instability are frequent symptoms reported by menopausal women, the degree to which the decline in estrogen production is responsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogen may produce its effects on cognition and mood through modulation of serotonergic function. To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan depletion (TD) paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically manipulated estrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the individual and combined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory, emotion processing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy predominantly early postmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion followed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after short-term transdermal estradiol 75-150 ug/d administration. There was an estradiol treatment by TD interaction for brain activation during performance on both the N-back Task (working memory) and Emotion Identification Task (affective processing). During the 2-back condition, TD attenuated activation prior to, but not after, estradiol treatment in the right and left dorsal lateral prefrontal and middle frontal/cingulate gyrus. During emotion identification, TD heightened activation in the orbital frontal cortex and bilateral amygdala, and this effect was attenuated by estradiol treatment. These results provide preliminary evidence that serotonergic effects directly mediate the impact of estrogen on brain activation during working memory and affective processing.

Epperson, C. Neill; Amin, Zenab; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Ruben; Loughead, James

2011-01-01

100

Specific matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) haplotype affect the circulating MMP-9 levels in women with migraine.  

PubMed

We investigated whether three relevant polymorphisms (C-1562T, microsatellite -90(CA)(14-24), and Q279R) in the MMP-9 gene, or MMP-9 haplotypes, are associated with migraine and affect MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 levels in patients with migraine. We studied 102 healthy women (controls) and 187 women with migraine (141 without aura - MWA, and 46 with aura - MA). Patients with MWA had higher plasma MMP-9 concentrations than patients with MA. Patients with MA had the highest TIMP-1 and lowest MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios. The MMP-9 "C L Q" haplotype was associated with higher plasma MMP-9 concentrations in migraine patients. PMID:22907074

Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Speciali, Jose G; Fontana, Vanessa; Izidoro-Toledo, Tatiane C; Belo, Vanessa A; Dach, Fabiola; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

2012-11-15

101

Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Fighting for Equality on All Fronts" (Fromont); "Three Questions for Mrs. Lucille Caron"; "Women Shoulder the Burden of Cambodia's Economy" (Roess); and "Renewing Their Relationship with the Land" (Mehra-Kerpelman). (SK)

Fromont, Michel; And Others

1994-01-01

102

[Affective disorders in women with reproductive cancer (to the problem of somatoreactive cyclothymia)].  

PubMed

Based on the observation of 26 female patients, authors present a specific subtype of bipolar disorder - a somatoreactive cyclothymia which develops concomitantly with cancer. The affective disorder manifests itself as an acceptor of the clinical rhythm of cancer: the first and recurrent affective episodes coincide with the key stages of the disease. PMID:23739434

Samushiya, M A; Barinov, V V

2013-01-01

103

Factors affecting women's health-related behaviors and safe motherhood: a qualitative study from a refugee camp in eastern Sudan.  

PubMed

We aim to provide a deeper understanding of a broader range of potential factors affecting risk behaviors related to safe motherhood among refugee women in Eastern Sudan, thus creating a basis for further research in behavioral change. Risk behaviors chosen for this study follow (1) practice of female genital cutting, (2) adopting family planning (FP) practices, (3) usage of a skilled birth attendant, and (4) response to obstetric complications. Analyzing findings with the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, we found that factors frequently were uncontrollable for an individual woman, suggesting the importance of a supportive political, social, and educational environment for safe motherhood. PMID:18726797

Furuta, Marie; Mori, Rintaro

2008-09-01

104

A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.  

PubMed

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height. PMID:23527306

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

105

A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism  

PubMed Central

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drogemuller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

106

The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

2012-04-01

107

The Liposuction-Induced Effects on Adiponectin and Selected Cytokines Are Not Affected by Exercise Training in Women  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training.

Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fabio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

2014-01-01

108

Breast cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide  

PubMed Central

Recent progress with declines in mortality in some high income countries has obscured the fact that for the majority of women worldwide who are newly diagnosed, breast cancer is a neglected disease in the context of other numerically more frequent health problems. For this growing majority, it is also an orphan disease, in that detailed knowledge about tumor characteristics and relevant host biology necessary to provide even basic care are absent. With the possible exception of nutritional recommendations, current international cancer policy and planning initiatives are irrelevant to breast cancer. The progress that has occurred in high income countries has come at extraordinary fiscal expense and patient toxicity, which of themselves suggest non-relevance to women and health care practitioners in middle and low income countries. The implications of these circumstances seem clear: if the promise of the now 60 year-old Declaration of Human Rights, that the fruits of medical science accrue to all mankind, is to be realized with respect to breast cancer, a basic and translational global research initiative should be launched.

Love, Richard R.

2011-01-01

109

Tibolone does not affect muscle power and functional ability in healthy postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Maintenance of neuromuscular function into old age is critical to maintain normal daily activity and functional independence. Maximal muscle strength declines with age, and the age-related loss in power might be even greater. An accelerated loss of muscle strength and power has been observed in women around the time of the menopause. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of tibolone, a synthetic steroid with oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities, on muscle power, endurance and functional ability. A total of 85 healthy women, between 1 and 15 years postmenopausal, were recruited from local paper advertisements. Participants were randomly assigned to 2.5 mg of tibolone or to placebo pills of identical appearance; pills were taken daily for 12 months, orally in the morning. Muscle power was assessed as explosive leg extensor power. Endurance was measured on a 2 min walk test and a 3.5 m walk. Functional ability was determined with the timed Get Up and Go test and a Postural/Locomotor/Manual test. No significant between-group differences were observed for any of the parameters. Possible explanations for this lack of effect are either the absence of an effect of tibolone on muscle power and functional ability, or that our participants were too far above their strength-related functional limits to derive benefit from intervention. Further research is required to resolve this issue. PMID:11834133

Meeuwsen, Ingrid B A E; Samson, Monique M; Duursma, Sijmen A; Verhaar, Harald J J

2002-02-01

110

Physics for Women: The Last Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents issues discussed at the International Conference of Women in Physics held at UNESCO in Paris. Points out the disproportionate attrition of females going into graduate studies in physics and differences between developed and developing countries. (Author/YDS)

Tobias, Sheila; Urry, Meg; Venkatesan, Aparna

2002-01-01

111

Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.  

PubMed

Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P < .00001), both in men ( r = 0.26, P = .03, n = 79) and women ( r = 0.48, P = .003, n = 43), and with insulin resistance (HOMA index) ( r = -0.30, P < .0001) in both. Free cortisol correlated negatively with adiponectin only in women ( r = -0.32, P = .04), but not in men ( r = 0.01, P = .89). Serum CBG concentration was significantly lower among men in the lowest quartile of adiponectin when compared with the remaining subjects (37.3 +/- 5.7 vs 40.6 +/- 5.1, P = .016), whereas men in the highest quartile of adiponectin showed significantly increased free cortisol index (14.2 +/- 3.3 vs 12.2 +/- 3.1, P = .039). Women in the lowest quartile of adiponectin also displayed significantly lower CBG concentration than that present in the remaining subjects (38.6 +/- 6.9 vs 44.4 +/- 5.5, P = .016), whereas free cortisol index was not significantly different across adiponectin quartiles ( P = .1). In a stepwise regression analysis, body mass index ( P = .0011), CBG ( P = .0047), and sex ( P = .04) contributed to 15%, 8%, and 3%, respectively, of adiponectin variance. Using CBG as dependent variable, both adiponectin ( P = .0002) and fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association. PMID:15877287

Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

2005-05-01

112

Barriers to Psychosocial Services Among Homeless Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington

2012-01-01

113

Milk and protein intake by pregnant women affects growth of foetus.  

PubMed

The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

Borazjani, Fatemeh; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Kulkarni, Shanuak S

2013-12-01

114

Beyond Resource Theory: Another Look at Factors Enabling Women to Affect Family Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study concerns the interaction of an equalitarian norm and the wife's contribution of resources with her ability to affect the decision-making and the division of labor in the families of recent Cuban immigrants. The study points up the need to focus on sources of norms as influential factors. (Author)

Richmond, Marie LaLiberte

1976-01-01

115

Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation.  

PubMed

The composition of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary sulfides and sulfates traces the sulfur cycle throughout Earth's history. In particular, depletions of sulfur-34 ((34)S) in sulfide relative to sulfate exceeding 47 per mil (‰) often serve as a proxy for the disproportionation of intermediate sulfur species in addition to sulfate reduction. Here, we demonstrate that a pure, actively growing culture of a marine sulfate-reducing bacterium can deplete (34)S by up to 66‰ during sulfate reduction alone and in the absence of an extracellular oxidative sulfur cycle. Therefore, similar magnitudes of sulfur isotope fractionation in sedimentary rocks do not unambiguously record the presence of other sulfur-based metabolisms or the stepwise oxygenation of Earth's surface environment during the Proterozoic. PMID:21719675

Sim, Min Sub; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

2011-07-01

116

Neurotrophin expression is not affected in uteri of women with adenomyosis.  

PubMed

To investigate the involvement of neurotrophins and nerve fibres in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis, we performed a retrospective, clinical study. Hysterectomy specimens from 40 patients with histologically proven adenomyosis and from 20 patients without adenomyosis or endometriosis were used for immunohistochemical analysis. In order to investigate neurotrophic properties in adenomyosis, the antibodies against nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), the high-affinity NGF receptor (TrkA), the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), the neuronal marker S100 (for myelinated nerve fibres) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5; for intact nerve fibres) were used. There was no significant difference in the NGF, NT-3 and p75(NTR) expression in the myometrium or endometrium between the adenomyosis and the control group. The nerve fibre density (S100, PGP9.5 and p75(NTR)) did not significantly differ between the adenomyosis and control group, the nerve fibre density of the adenomyosis group was tendentially decreased when compared with the nonporous control group. The present study suggests that endometrial and uterine neurotrophin expression and endometrial innervation are not altered in adenomyosis; however, women with adenomyosis or with adenomyosis/endometriosis tendentially had less myometrial nerve fibres than the control group. PMID:22454143

Barcena de Arellano, Maria Luisa; Wagner, Melanie Franziska; Oldeweme, Jeannette; Arnold, Julia; Ebert, Andreas; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

2012-07-01

117

African American women's perspectives on "Down Low/DL" men: Implications for HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) contribute to women’s HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as “Down Low” or “DL”. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D.C. to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours regarding “Down Low/DL” men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV positive women and three groups were composed of HIV negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women’s perspectives on the “DL”: awareness; suspicion; coping with partner infidelity: male vs. female; sexual health communication; empathy; and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV positive and HIV negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women’s perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women’s exposure to HIV risk.

Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

2012-01-01

118

Serum HE4 levels combined with CE CT imaging improve the management of monitoring women affected by epithelial ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) as a marker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) relapse and the combination of this biomarker with contrast-enhanced high-resolution multidetector row computed tomography CE CT imaging to impove the monitoring of EOC patients. Twenty-one patients with advanced EOC (FIGO III/IV) who underwent surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively selected. Each patient contributed 3 serum samples drawn at 3-month intervals: time interval I (1-3 months from surgery), time interval II (4-6 months from surgery) and time interval III (7-10 months from surgery). Serum HE4 and cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels were determined by EIA and IRMA assays, respectively. Nine out of the 21 (Group A) women had disease relapse while 12 out of the 21 (Group B) women had stable disease during the follow-up study. Twenty out of the 21 patients underwent at least two CE CT follow-ups with an interval time of ~6 months. One patient did not undergo a second CE CT. In patients with relapsed EOC, an increase in HE4 was noted in 22, 78 and 89% of patients within the time intervals I, II and III, respectively. Positivity for CA-125 was found later at time interval III and only in 44% of patients. Conversely, for EOC patients in remission, increase over the threshold level was observed only for marker CA-125 (4/12). The evaluation of imaging findings at interval time II showed a significant correlation with high levels of HE4 in 6 out of 9 patients with recurrent disease. This study supports the hypothesis that HE4 may serve as an early biomarker for recurrence of EOC. Moreover, HE4 serum levels combined with CE CT imaging may improve the monitoring management of women affected by ovarian cancer. PMID:23970060

Manganaro, Lucia; Michienzi, Simona; Vinci, Valeria; Falzarano, Renato; Saldari, Matteo; Granato, Teresa; Viggiani, Valentina; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

2013-11-01

119

Biosocial factors affecting vitamin D status of women of childbearing age in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Low serum 25-OHD in female Arab subjects, which may predispose their infants to hypocalcaemia, has been suggested to be due to inadequate sunshine exposure, but may include other sociobiological factors. The effects of duration of sunshine exposure--weighted against the magnitude of clothing (UV exposure) and other sociobiological variables such as age, education and living accommodation--on serum 25-OHD and mineral status of 33 UAE national women of childbearing age were compared with those of 25 non-Gulf Arabs and seventeen Europeans. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone among the groups were not significantly different. The serum concentration of 25-OHD in UAE nationals was 8.6 ng/ml (4.5-17.4), mean +/- 1 SD, and in non-Gulf Arabs 12.6 ng/ml (6.0-26.4); both these values were significantly lower (p = < 0.0001) than the 64.3 ng/ml (49-84.3) found in Europeans. Compared with Europeans, the UAE and non-Gulf Arabs in this study were younger, had fewer years of education and had significantly lower clothing and UV scores (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.59425) between serum 25-OHD and UV score, but not with length of exposure. After adjusting for other confounding variables, nationality, clothing and UV scores remained major determinants of serum 25-OHD (p < 0.0001). Therefore, limited skin exposure to sunlight appears to be an important determinant of vitamin D status in our subjects. Strategies to increase vitamin D stores should include vitamin D supplementation or advice on effective sunlight exposure. PMID:9818552

Dawodu, A; Absood, G; Patel, M; Agarwal, M; Ezimokhai, M; Abdulrazzaq, Y; Khalayli, G

1998-10-01

120

Working memory is differentially affected by stress in men and women.  

PubMed

Stress has been shown to influence working memory. However, sex differences and the potential impact of stimulus emotionality have not received much attention. In a first experiment the effects of stress on a neutral working memory (WM) paradigm were tested in male and female participants (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 employed the same paradigm but used emotional stimuli. For this purpose, healthy participants were exposed either to a stressful (Trierer Social Stress Test (TSST)) or to a non-stressful control condition. Subsequently, WM performance in an n-back task was assessed. In Experiment 1, single digits were used as stimuli, while in Experiment 2 neutral and negative pictures were additionally employed. Salivary cortisol and Alpha-Amylase (sAA) were measured before and three times after the treatment as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis- and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In both experiments, stress caused a substantial cortisol and sAA increase. For WM performance (response time) a stress by sex interaction was apparent. Stress enhanced performance in men, while impairing it in women. In both experiments stress had no effect on response accuracy. No modulating effect of the emotional quality of stimuli on n-back performance was observed (study 2). The results indicate that the effect of acute stress on n-back performance differs between the sexes. In contrast to long-term memory, the influence of stress on WM appears not to be modulated by the emotionality of the employed stimuli if stimuli are potential targets as it is the case in the n-back task. PMID:23238042

Schoofs, Daniela; Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T

2013-03-15

121

Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

Brubaker, P. A.

1985-06-01

122

Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.  

PubMed

Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

2013-10-01

123

Cytogenetics of Premature Ovarian Failure: An Investigation on 269 Affected Women  

PubMed Central

The importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF) is well-known but in many cases POF still remains idiopathic. Chromosome aneuploidy increase is a physiological phenomenon related to aging, but the role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian function is still undiscovered. Standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 269 patients affected by POF: 27 chromosomal abnormalities were identified, including X chromosome and autosomal structural and numerical abnormalities. In 47 patients with 46,XX karyotype we performed interphase FISH using X alpha-satellite probe in order to identify X chromosome mosaicism rate. Aneuploidy rate in the patient group was significantly higher than the general population group. These findings underline the importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of POF and highlight the potential role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian aging that may lead to a premature onset of menopause.

Baronchelli, Simona; Conconi, Donatella; Panzeri, Elena; Bentivegna, Angela; Redaelli, Serena; Lissoni, Sara; Saccheri, Fabiana; Villa, Nicoletta; Crosti, Francesca; Sala, Elena; Martinoli, Emanuela; Volonte, Marinella; Marozzi, Anna; Dalpra, Leda

2011-01-01

124

Climate Change Disproportionately Increases Herbivore over Plant or Parasitoid Biomass  

PubMed Central

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world.

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M.

2012-01-01

125

Pontocerebellar volume deficits and ataxia in alcoholic men and women: no evidence for "telescoping"  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brain volume shrinkage is common in treatment-seeking patients with alcohol use disorders. Whether women are more vulnerable to brain dysmorphology than men despite lower alcohol consumption levels or shorter dependency (“telescoping effect”) remains controversial and has not been considered with respect to infratentorial structures or their potential contribution to ataxia. Methods The 200 participants included 64 men and 31 women with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition alcohol dependence and 105 controls. An infratentorial region (pons, cerebellar hemispheres, vermis (anterior, posterior, and inferior sectors), fissures, cisterns, fourth ventricle) was quantified with atlas-based parcellation. To enable comparison of men and women, regional tissue volumes were expressed as ratios of tissue in the volume. Participants also completed quantitative ataxia testing. Results Total infratentorial and vermian tissue ratios were significantly smaller in alcoholics than controls; alcoholic women did not show disproportionately greater volume deficits than alcoholic men. A re-analysis including alcoholic men and women matched in alcohol consumption, onset age, abstinence duration, and age revealed again that alcoholic women did not have disproportionately greater regional vermian volume deficits than alcoholic men. Alcoholic men and women were impaired in all measures of ataxia, which correlated with low infratentorial tissue ratios in men. Discussion Alcoholic men showed deficits of pontocerebellar volume ratios, yet alcoholic women did not display signs of “telescoping”. Further, alcoholic men and women both showed signs of ataxia of gait and balance, related to affected pontocerebellar systems in the men but not the women, suggesting the need to consider other neural substrates for ataxia in women.

Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

2010-01-01

126

Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated.

Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

2013-01-01

127

Promising Practices for Curbing Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs has been a persistent problem in American education. Being labeled as disabled often has a negative impact on social relationships and self-concept and long-term outcomes such as graduation and employment. Disproportionate identification of students from certain…

Echevarria, Jana; Powers, Kristin; Elliott, Judy

2004-01-01

128

Sulfate formation via ATP sulfurylase in thiosulfate- and sulfite-disproportionating bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionation of thiosulfate or sulfite to sulfate plus sulfide was found in several sulfate-reducing bacteria. Out of nineteen strains tested, eight disproportionated thiosulfate, and four sulfite. Growth with thiosulfate or sulfite as the sole energy source was obtained with three strains (Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans and the strains Bra02 and NTA3); additionally, D. desulfuricans strain CSN grew with sulfite but not with

Michael Kriimer; Heribert Cypionka

1989-01-01

129

Reducing Disproportionate Representation of Culturally Diverse Students in Special and Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the disproportionate representation of students from minority backgrounds in special education and gifted classes, and presents strategies that practitioners can use to better address the educational needs of all students. Chapter 1, "Disproportionate Representation: A Contentious and Unresolved Predicament" (Alfredo J. Artiles…

Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Zamora-Duran, Grace, Ed.

130

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

131

Factors affecting the decision to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy among women with BRCA gene mutation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify factors that affect the decision to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations carriers in South Korea. The medical records of 124 women who had been found to have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation at our institution between May 2003 and December 2011 were reviewed. The carriers were divided into RRSO and non-RRSO groups for comparison of their clinicopathologic, socio-economic, and psychosocial factors. Of the 71 carriers eligible for RRSO, 21 had undergone RRSO. In univariate analysis, classification of carriers into 3 groups by decade of life (4th, 5th, or 6th and later decade) and subsequent analysis revealed that 52.6% of carriers in the 5th decade had undergone RRSO, a rate significantly higher than that of the other age groups (p = 0.007). The RRSO rate was higher in carriers with a personal history of breast cancer than in those without (39.2% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.004), in carriers with a family history of breast cancer than in those without (35.5% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.065), and in carriers with a family history of ovarian cancer than in those carriers without a family history (66.7% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis identified age and personal history of breast cancer as independent factors affecting the decision to undergo RRSO. Age and personal history of breast cancer are important factors in the decision to undergo, and should thus be considered when counseling BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:23504064

Kim, Dongwon; Kang, Eunyoung; Hwang, Euijun; Sun, Young; Hwang, Yoonsun; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Kidong; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Sung-Won

2013-12-01

132

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992. 447.296 Section 447.296 Public Health...disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992. (a) The...

2010-10-01

133

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992. 447.296 Section 447.296 Public Health...disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992. (a) The...

2009-10-01

134

Attitudes and Factors Affecting the Decisions of Men and Women Pediatrics Residents toward Having Children during Their Residencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 417 pediatric residents found more men than women had children during residencies. More married women than men without children felt it would have a negative effect on careers and saw difficulties with child care. Residents having children during residencies did not differ significantly by sex on these issues. (Author/MSE)

Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

1991-01-01

135

Medicaid: Source of Screening Affects Women's Eligibility for Coverage of Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment in Some States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tens of thousands of women die each year from breast or cervical cancer. While screening and early detection through mammograms and Pap tests--followed by treatment--can improve survival, low-income, uninsured women are often not screened. In 1990, Congre...

2009-01-01

136

78 FR 45217 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits...payments that states may make to institutions for mental diseases (IMDs) and other mental health facilities. This notice also...

2013-07-26

137

77 FR 43301 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits...payments that States may make to institutions for mental diseases (IMD) and other mental health facilities. In addition, this...

2012-07-24

138

76 FR 148 - Medicaid Program; Final FY 2009 and Preliminary FY 2011 Disproportionate Share Hospital...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY 2009 and Preliminary FY 2011 Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits...payments that States may make to institutions for mental disease and other mental health facilities. In addition, this notice...

2011-01-03

139

A chromato-mass spectrometric study of the disproportionation of organylfluorosiloxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chromato-mass spectrometric study showed the tendency of organylfluorosiloxanes to undergo disproportionation depending on the nature of the substituents and number of fluorine atoms in the molecule.

M. G. Voronkov; S. V. Basenko; V. Yu. Vitkovskii; R. G. Mirskov

1987-01-01

140

Chemolithotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans sp. nov. by disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Desulfovibrio strain ThAc01 was isolated from freshwater mud; the strain conserved energy for growth under strictly anaerobic conditions by disproportionation of thiosulfate or sulfite to sulfate and sulfide according to the following reactions:

F. Bak; N. Pfennig

1987-01-01

141

A DSC study on the kinetics of disproportionation reaction of (hfac)Cu I(COD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of disproportionation reaction of hexafluoroacetylacetonate-copper(I)-cycloocta-1,5-diene [(hfac)CuI(COD)] was investigated by the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with different heating rates in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. First, the activation energies (Eas) of the disproportionation reaction were estimated with model-free isoconversional methods, respectively. The Eas were found to fall within the range between 17.6 and 18.7kJmol?1, with no temperature and heating

Gene Chen; Chiapyng Lee; Yu-Lin Kuo; Yee-Wen Yen

2007-01-01

142

The critical path of women affected by family violence in Latin America: case studies from 10 countries.  

PubMed

This research examined the critical path followed by women from 10 Latin American countries who suffer family violence. It identified the personal and social processes women experience as a result of their help-seeking actions and the kinds of responses found at local services. The study used an action-oriented qualitative methodology with a standard research protocol that was translated and adapted for the various ethnic groups. The results provided community actors with an understanding of the barriers women face in overcoming the obstacles, humiliation, and inadequate responses they encounter along their critical paths. PMID:16135691

Sagot, Montserrat

2005-10-01

143

Meal composition affects insulin secretion in women with type 2 diabetes: a comparison with healthy controls. The Hoorn prandial study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objective:Early insulin secretion following a meal is representative for normal physiology and may depend on meal composition. To compare the effects of a fat-rich and a carbohydrate-rich mixed meal on insulinogenic index as a measure of early insulin secretion in normoglycemic women (NGM) and in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to assess the relationship of anthropometric and

M Alssema; R K Schindhelm; J M Rijkelijkhuizen; P J Kostense; T Teerlink; G Nijpels; R J Heine; J M Dekker

2009-01-01

144

Immediate reconstruction with implants in women with invasive breast cancer does not affect oncological safety in a matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians are still concerned about the oncological safety regarding immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) in breast cancer\\u000a patients. This study aimed to evaluate possible differences between local, regional, and distant recurrences between women\\u000a having implant-based reconstruction versus women operated with mastectomy alone. Secondary aims were to evaluate time to oncological\\u000a treatment as well as disease-free and breast-cancer-specific survival. In a retrospective

C. Eriksen; J. Frisell; M. Wickman; E. Lidbrink; K. Krawiec; K. Sandelin

2011-01-01

145

The number of cysteine residues per mole in apolipoprotein E affects systematically synchronous neural interactions in women's healthy brains.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in lipid metabolism in the brain, but its effects on brain function are not understood. Three apoE isoforms (E4, E3, and E2) are the result of cysteine-arginine interchanges at two sites: there are zero interchanges in E4, one interchange in E3, and two interchanges in E2. The resulting six apoE genotypes (E4/4, E4/3, E4/2, E3/3, E3/2, E2/2) yield five groups with respect to the number of cysteine residues per mole (CysR/mole), as follows. ApoE4/4 has zero cysteine residues per mole (0-CysR/mole), E4/3 has one (1-CysR/mole), E4/2 and E3/3 each has two (2-CysR/mole), E3/2 has three (3-CysR/mole), and E2/2 has four (4-CysR/mole). The use of the number of CysR/mole to characterize the apoE molecule converts the categorical apoE genotype scale, consisting of 6 distinct genotypes above, to a 5-point continuous scale (0-4 CysR/mole). This allows the use of statistical analyses suitable for continuous variables (e.g. regression) to quantify the relations between various variables and apoE. Using such analyses, here, we show for the first time that apoE affects in a graded and orderly manner neural communication, as assessed by analyzing the relation between the number of CysR/mole and synchronous neural interactions (SNI) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 130 cognitively healthy women. At the one end of the CysR/mole range, the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution had the highest mean, lowest variance, lowest range, and lowest coefficient of variation, whereas at the other end, 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) SNI distribution had the lowest mean, highest variance, highest range, and highest coefficient of variation. The special status of the 4-CysR/mole distribution was reinforced by the results of a hierarchical tree analysis where the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution occupied a separate branch by itself and the remaining CysR/mole SNI distributions were placed at increasing distances from the 4-CysR/mole distribution, according to their number of CysR/mole, with the 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) being farthest away. These findings suggest that the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution could serve as a reference distribution. When the SNI distributions of individual women were expressed as distances from this reference distribution, there was a substantial overlap among women of various CysR/mole. This refocuses the placement of individual brains along a continuous distance from the 4-CysR/mole SNI distribution, in contrast to the common categorical assignment to a specific apoE genotype. Finally, the orderly variation of SNI with the number of CysR/mole found here is in keeping with recent advances and ideas regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of apoE in the brain which emphasize the healthier stability conferred on the apoE molecule by the increasing number of cysteine-arginine interchanges, with 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) being the best case, as opposed to the instability and increased chance of toxic fragmentation of the apoE molecule with lower number of CysR/mole, with 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) as the worst case (Mahley and Huang in Neuron 76:871-885, 2012a). However, our results also document the appreciable variation of SNI properties within the various CysR/mole groups and individuals which points to the existence and important role of other factors involved in shaping brain function at the network level. PMID:23503772

Leuthold, Arthur C; Mahan, Margaret Y; Stanwyck, John J; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

2013-05-01

146

Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada

2008-01-01

147

The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

2013-03-01

148

The influence of negative affectivity on depressive symptoms, perceived social support and marital satisfaction among African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the relationship between depressive symptoms and relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction and perceived spousal social support reflect the influence of a third variable, negative affectivity. Specifically, the study addressed whether the effects of negative affectivity on these other self report measures extend over time. Negative affectivity, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal social support were tested

Ashley Nicole Rink

2009-01-01

149

Comorbidities and Lack of Blood Transfusion May Negatively Affect Maternal Outcomes of Women with Obstetric Hemorrhage Treated with NASG  

PubMed Central

The Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) is a first-aid device to reduce mortality from severe obstetric hemorrhage, the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. We sought to evaluate patient characteristics associated with mortality among a cohort of women treated with the NASG in Nigeria. Data on 1,149 women were collected from 50 facilities participating in the Pathfinder International Continuum of Care: Addressing Postpartum Hemorrhage project in Nigeria from 2007–2012. Characteristics were compared using the appropriate distributional tests, and we estimated multivariable logistic regression models to control for treatment received. There were 201 deaths (17.5%). Women who died were significantly more likely to have any co-morbidity (AOR 3.63, 95% CI: 2.41–5.48), ruptured uterus (AOR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.48–5.28), macerated stillbirth (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.60–5.48) and to have had 6 or more previous births, (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11–2.12), after adjusting for treatment received. These results suggest certain maternal conditions, particularly the presence of another life-threatening co-morbidity or macerated stillbirth, conferred a higher risk of mortality from PPH. This underscores the need for multi-system assessment and a comprehensive approach to the treatment of women with pregnancy complications.

El Ayadi, Alison; Raifman, Sarah; Jega, Farouk; Butrick, Elizabeth; Ojo, Yemisi; Geller, Stacie; Miller, Suellen

2013-01-01

150

Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

Heilbronner, Nancy N.

2009-01-01

151

Evidence for Chromosome 2p16.3 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Susceptibility Locus in Affected Women of European Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Context: A previous genome-wide association study in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) identified a region on chromosome 2p16.3 encoding the LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) genes as a reproducible PCOS susceptibility locus. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the role of the LHCGR and/or FSHR gene in the etiology of PCOS in women of European ancestry. Design: This was a genetic association study in a European ancestry cohort of women with PCOS. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Participants in the study included 905 women with PCOS diagnosed by National Institutes of Health criteria and 956 control women. Intervention: We genotyped 94 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms and two coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to the coding region of LHCGR and FSHR plus 20 kb upstream and downstream of the genes and test for association in the case control cohort and for association with nine quantitative traits in the women with PCOS. Results: We found strong evidence for an association of PCOS with rs7562215 (P = 0.0037) and rs10495960 (P = 0.0046). Although the marker with the strongest association in the Chinese PCOS genome-wide association study (rs13405728) was not informative in the European populations, we identified and genotyped three markers (rs35960650, rs2956355, and rs7562879) within 5 kb of rs13405728. Of these, rs7562879 was nominally associated with PCOS (P = 0.020). The strongest evidence for association mapping to FSHR was observed with rs1922476 (P = 0.0053). Furthermore, markers with the FSHR gene region were associated with FSH levels in women with PCOS. Conclusions: Fine mapping of the chromosome 2p16.3 Chinese PCOS susceptibility locus in a European ancestry cohort provides evidence for association with two independent loci and PCOS. The gene products LHCGR and FSHR therefore are likely to be important in the etiology of PCOS, regardless of ethnicity.

Mutharasan, Priscilla; Galdones, Eugene; Penalver Bernabe, Beatriz; Garcia, Obed A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Legro, Richard S.; Dunaif, Andrea

2013-01-01

152

Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. Conclusion There is an urgent need for more enlightenment about cervical cancer especially by health workers. Also, cervical cancer services should be made available at very affordable cost so that women can easily access the services in order to reduce incidence of invasive cancer.

2012-01-01

153

The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482

van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

2008-04-01

154

Social Security reform: implications for women.  

PubMed

Despite recent economic gains for women, a substantial gender gap in financial security during old age remains, making women more dependent than men upon Social Security. Social Security plays an important role in providing for women's economic security. The implications for women of several proposed changes in Social Security policy, including the call for the partial privatization of Social Security via the introduction of individual accounts, are analyzed. Many of the proposals would have the effect of asking women, particularly low-income women, to shoulder a disproportionate share of the risks and burdens associated with the changes. PMID:11148830

Williamson, J B; Rix, S E

2000-01-01

155

TEM observation of disproportionation of mullite and sillimanaite under shock compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aluminum silicates, mullite and sillimanite are fundamental raw minerals for the refractory industry and ceramics. Shock compression curves of these materials indicate phase transitions above about 30 GPa. Large volume decrease accompanied with the phase transitions have been attributed to disproportionation to alumina and silica. However, detailed behavior of the disproportionation has not been well understood yet. Using transmission electron microscopy, we confirmed very fine (less than 10nm) ?-alumina in mullite specimen shock-loaded to 65 GPa. In sillimanite specimen shock-loaded to 54 GPa, ?-alumina was also observed, but the particle sizes were much larger (10-20 nm) than those in mullite specimen, suggesting that the disproportionation in sillimanite specimen occurred at lower shock pressure than in mullite specimen. Furthermore, characteristic nano texture observed in mullite specimen could not found in sillimanite specimen, which might be caused by difference in crystal structures between mullite and sillimanite.

Atou, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Nobuaki; Kakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-Ichi; Kikuchi, Masae; Ito, Shun; Yubuta, Kunio

2007-06-01

156

Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for attrition was interest in another (non-STEM) field. Participants placed little importance on other reasons for leaving STEM that were identified in previous research, such as competition, social isolation, or financial considerations.

Heilbronner, Nancy N.

157

Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.  

PubMed

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

2014-08-01

158

Salty Taste Acuity Is Affected by the Joint Action of ?ENaC A663T Gene Polymorphism and Available Zinc Intake in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the ?-epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The ?ENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p < 0.05). In women, the salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with ?ENaC AA homozygotes (? = ?0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the ?ENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the ?ENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women.

Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong

2013-01-01

159

Women and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women's Mental Health Bundling HIV Prevention with Prenatal Care Reduces Risky ...

160

African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.  

PubMed Central

African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

161

In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling  

PubMed Central

Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from premenopausal (n?=?6) and postmenopausal (n?=?5) women. In an in vitro model, the myotubes were treated with palmitate (300 µM) for one-, two- or three days during differentiation. Effects on lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin signaling were studied. Palmitate treatment led to a 108% (CI 95%: 50%; 267%) increase in intramyocellular ceramide in the myotubes from the postmenopausal women (post-myotubes) compared with a 26% (CI 95%: ?57%; 96%) increase in myotubes from the premenopausal women (pre-myotubes), (p<0.05). Furthermore, post-myotubes had a 22% (CI 95%: 4%; 34%) increase in pJNK (p?=?0.04) and a 114% (CI 95%: 50%; 177%) increase in Hsp70 protein expression (p?=?0.03) after three days of palmitate treatment, compared with pre-myotubes, in which no increase in either pJNK (?12% (CI 95: ?26%; 2%)) or Hsp70 (7% (CI 95: ?78%; 91%)) was detected. Furthermore, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p?=?0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p?=?0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes.

Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C.; Pedersen, Anette T.; Langley, Katherine G.; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindegaard, Birgitte

2014-01-01

162

In vitro palmitate treatment of myotubes from postmenopausal women leads to ceramide accumulation, inflammation and affected insulin signaling.  

PubMed

Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from premenopausal (n?=?6) and postmenopausal (n?=?5) women. In an in vitro model, the myotubes were treated with palmitate (300 µM) for one-, two- or three days during differentiation. Effects on lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin signaling were studied. Palmitate treatment led to a 108% (CI 95%: 50%; 267%) increase in intramyocellular ceramide in the myotubes from the postmenopausal women (post-myotubes) compared with a 26% (CI 95%: -57%; 96%) increase in myotubes from the premenopausal women (pre-myotubes), (p<0.05). Furthermore, post-myotubes had a 22% (CI 95%: 4%; 34%) increase in pJNK (p?=?0.04) and a 114% (CI 95%: 50%; 177%) increase in Hsp70 protein expression (p?=?0.03) after three days of palmitate treatment, compared with pre-myotubes, in which no increase in either pJNK (-12% (CI 95: -26%; 2%)) or Hsp70 (7% (CI 95: -78%; 91%)) was detected. Furthermore, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p?=?0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p?=?0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes. PMID:25000528

Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C; Pedersen, Anette T; Langley, Katherine G; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindegaard, Birgitte

2014-01-01

163

The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 ?L of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume. PMID:21325473

Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

2011-04-01

164

High progesterone levels in women with high ovarian response do not affect clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The potentially detrimental role of progesterone during the follicular phase has been a matter of controversy for several years; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of combined raised estradiol and progesterone levels on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of high progesterone levels on clinical outcomes in the context of high ovarian response. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study that included 2850 women classified as high responders. The women were subdivided into six groups depending on their progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration: <0.5 ng/ml (1.81 ng/ml (>p90). Ovarian response was classified as high when?>?=20 oocytes were retrieved or when estradiol was?>?=3000 pg/ml. Clinical outcomes of each subgroup were analyzed. We also examined data from frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Results were analyzed with Student’s t- test to compare continuous variables and chi-squared test to compare proportions. A p-value of?women; progesterone levels do not show a significant clinical impact on results.

2014-01-01

165

Women in pharmacy  

PubMed Central

Background: Women have historically been attracted to pharmacy because it is widely perceived as a profession that offers them an opportunity to combine a professional career with a family. Women now make up the majority of practising pharmacists in Canada, yet the literature demonstrates disparities such as gender segregation and underrepresentation of women in senior positions. This study was intended to identify the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacy students about women’s issues in pharmacy and raise awareness of these issues. Methods: First- and fourth-year University of Saskatchewan pharmacy students were invited to share their overall impressions of the status of female pharmacists and the impact of women on the pharmacy profession through an online questionnaire. Results: Of the 60 respondents, the majority disagreed that there is segregation of men and women in pharmacy. More fourth-year students than first-year students recognized the underrepresentation of women in pharmacy management. Many students believed the number of women in pharmacy would have no negative impact on the profession. Forty students (67.8%) agreed that it is important to maintain a significant proportion of men in pharmacy. Conclusion: Most pharmacy students in this study do not recognize gender disparities present in pharmacy or the impact the disproportionate number of women could have on the profession. Can Pharm J 2013;146:109-116.

Janzen, Donica; Fitzpatrick, Kerry; Suveges, Linda

2013-01-01

166

Disproportionate Over-Representation of Indigenous Students in New South Wales Government Special Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant gap exists in the Australian research literature on the disproportionate over-representation of minority groups in special education. The aim of this paper is to make a contribution to the research evidence-base by sketching an outline of the issue as it presents in Australia's largest education system in the state of New South…

Graham, Linda J.

2012-01-01

167

Long-Term Retention Deficits in Two Cases of Disproportionate Retrograde Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of very long-term retention, together with detailed brain imaging correlates, is presented in two patients with disproportionately dense retrograde amnesia. The first patient suffered a severe closed head injury and was left with dense autobiographical amnesia for events that she had experienced prior to her injury. She showed relatively mild, patchy memory impairment on standard anterograde memory tests.

Narinder Kapur; Keith Scholey; Elizabeth Moore; Simon Barker; Jason Brice; Simon Thompson; Agnes Shiel; Roland Carn; Patricia Abbott; John Fleming

1996-01-01

168

Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education Academic, Demographic, and Economic Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on variables that predict disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has often ignored an important variable -- academic achievement. This study examined the prediction of representation of students from various minority racial/ethnic groups using district-level academic, demographic, and economic blocks of…

Hosp, John L.; Reschly, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

169

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur in Marine Sediments Amplified by a Seafloor Fuel Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide and to grow only in the presence of a sulfide scavenger have been enriched electrochemically in marine sediments. During a 7-month experiment designed to demonstrate sustained electrical energy harvesting by a seafloor fuel cell (Tender et al. 2002), a graphite anode embedded in sediment within Yaquina Bay, OR, developed a

N. B. Ryckelynck; C. E. Reimers; H. A. Stecher; D. E. Holmes; D. E. Bond

2002-01-01

170

The potential role of stated preference methods in the Water Framework Directive to assess disproportionate costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of disproportionate costs of Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation using public surveys as a means to inform policy and decision making. Public taxpayers are asked their opinion regarding the implementation of the WFD and its costs. Taxpayers are expected to bear a large share of the cost of WFD implementation, be it through national taxation,

Roy Brouwer

2008-01-01

171

Perspectives of disproportionation driven superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d compounds.  

PubMed

Disproportionation in 3d compounds can give rise to an unconventional electron-hole Bose liquid with a very rich phase diagram, from a Bose metal, to a charge ordering insulator and an inhomogeneous Bose-superfluid. Optimal conditions for disproportionation driven high-T(c) superconductivity are shown to be realized only for several Jahn-Teller d(n) configurations that permit the formation of well defined local composite bosons. These are the high-spin d(4), low-spin d(7), and d(9) configurations given the octahedral crystal field, and the d(1), high-spin d(6) configurations given the tetrahedral crystal field. The disproportionation reaction has a peculiar 'anti-Jahn-Teller' character lifting the bare orbital degeneracy. Superconductivity in the d(4) and d(6) systems at variance with d(1), d(7), and d(9) systems implies unavoidable coexistence of the spin-triplet composite bosons and the magnetic lattice. We argue that unconventional high-T(c) superconductivity, observed in quasi-2d cuprates with tetragonally distorted CuO(6) octahedra and iron-based layered pnictides/chalcogenides with tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(2+) ions presents a key argument to support the fact that the disproportionation scenario is at work in these compounds. PMID:23363546

Moskvin, A S

2013-02-27

172

Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N = 7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a…

Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

2012-01-01

173

Perspectives of disproportionation driven superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disproportionation in 3d compounds can give rise to an unconventional electron-hole Bose liquid with a very rich phase diagram, from a Bose metal, to a charge ordering insulator and an inhomogeneous Bose-superfluid. Optimal conditions for disproportionation driven high-Tc superconductivity are shown to be realized only for several Jahn-Teller dn configurations that permit the formation of well defined local composite bosons. These are the high-spin d4, low-spin d7, and d9 configurations given the octahedral crystal field, and the d1, high-spin d6 configurations given the tetrahedral crystal field. The disproportionation reaction has a peculiar ‘anti-Jahn-Teller’ character lifting the bare orbital degeneracy. Superconductivity in the d4 and d6 systems at variance with d1, d7, and d9 systems implies unavoidable coexistence of the spin-triplet composite bosons and the magnetic lattice. We argue that unconventional high-Tc superconductivity, observed in quasi-2d cuprates with tetragonally distorted CuO6 octahedra and iron-based layered pnictides/chalcogenides with tetrahedrally coordinated Fe2+ ions presents a key argument to support the fact that the disproportionation scenario is at work in these compounds.

Moskvin, A. S.

2013-02-01

174

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite  

SciTech Connect

In bacterial cultures the authors measured sulfur isotope fractionation during transformations of thiosulfate and sulfite, pathways which may be of considerable importance in the cycling of sulfur in marine sediments and euxinic waters. They documented isotope fractionations during the reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite by bacterial enrichments and pure bacterial cultures from marine and freshwater environments. They also measured the isotope fractionation associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate by cyanobacteria. Except for sulfite reduction, isotope fractionations for these processes have not been previously reported. During the dissimilatory reduction of sulfite, H{sub 2}S was depleted in {sup 34}S by 6%, and during the reduction of thiosulfate to H{sub 2}S, depletions were between 7% and 11%. The largest observed isotope fractionation was associated with the bacterial disproportionation of sulfite which caused a {sup 34}S depletion in H{sub 2}S of 20--37% and a {sup 34}S enrichment in sulfate of 7--12%. During the bacterial disproportionation of thiosulfate, isotope fractionations between the outer sulfane sulfur and H{sub 2}S and between the inner sulfonate sulfur and sulfate were <4%. The authors observed isotope exchange between the two sulfur atoms of thiosulfate leading to a depletion of {sup 34}S in H{sub 2}S by up to 12% with a comparable enrichment of {sup 34}S in sulfate. No isotope fractionation was associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate. The depletion of {sup 34}S into H{sub 2}S during the bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite may, in addition to sulfate reduction and the bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur, contribute to the generation of {sup 34}S-depleted sedimentary sulfides.

Habicht, K.S.; Canfield, D.E. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany)] [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Rethmeier, J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)] [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

1998-08-01

175

Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the…

Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

2013-01-01

176

Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

2008-01-01

177

Consumer Information and Price Discrimination: Does the Internet Affect the Pricing of New Cars to Women and Minorities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediating transactions through the Internet removes important cues that salespeople can use to assess a consumer's willingness to pay. We analyze whether dealers' difficulty in identifying consumer characteristics on the Internet and consumers' ease in finding information affects equilibrium prices in car retailing. Using a large dataset of transaction prices for new automobiles, the first part of the paper an-

Fiona M. Scott Morton; Florian Zettelmeyer; Jorge Silva-Risso

2001-01-01

178

Urinary protease inhibitor Serpin B3 is higher in women and is further increased in female patients affected by aldosterone producing adenoma.  

PubMed

A correct diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) requires adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for the classification of subtypes (bilateral hyperplasia, BAH, or adenoma, APA). Since such testing is not easily practicable, appropriate markers for the definition of subtypes are desirable. We hypothesized that an aldosterone excess was associated with abnormalities in urinary proteome, specific for PA subtypes. The project work was divided into 3 phases: (1) screening/identification by proteomic analysis and further characterization by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of the candidate protein; (2) clinical validation by quantitative ELISA assay of 57 (33 M, 24 F) PA patients and 50 normotensive controls (21 M, 29 F); (3) analysis of adrenal tissue of 8 individuals who had undergone adrenalectomy for APA or other adrenal tumors. The proteomic analysis showed a different expression of Serpin B3 Inhibitor-SCCA1 (SB3) in APA and BAH patients. Urine SB3 concentrations in normotensive controls, quantified by ELISA assay and normalized by urinary creatinine, resulted much lower in males (6.72 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 4.43-10.19) than in females (20.56 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 12.43-33.99, p < 0.00001). SB3 concentrations were not significantly different in males affected by different PA subtypes (BAH, n = 19 and APA, n = 14) compared with normotensive subjects (n = 21). In contrast, in PA females, SB3 was significantly higher in APA (n = 13) than in BAH patients (n = 11) or in normotensive controls (n = 29) (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Neither messenger RNA nor SB3 protein were identified in tissue obtained from adrenal tumors and from the surrounding normal gland. In conclusion urine SB3 concentrations are physiologically much lower in males than in females. Hypertensive women, affected by APA, present urinary SB3 concentrations significantly higher than women affected by BAH. PMID:24503858

Olivieri, Oliviero; Cecconi, Daniela; Castagna, Annalisa; Chiecchi, Laura; Guarini, Patrizia; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Morandini, Francesca; Brazzarola, Paolo; Zolla, Lello; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Veglio, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Pizzolo, Francesca

2014-06-01

179

"Disproportionately Influential?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,…

Stuart, Reginald

2010-01-01

180

“Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand”: Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington

2011-01-01

181

The health disparities of uterine fibroid tumors for African American women: a public health issue.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroid tumors (leiomyomas) are the most common benign pelvic tumors in women and are the major indication for hysterectomy. Fibroid tumors are more common and more severe among African American women. Although this disease disproportionately affects the African American population, we understand little about what causes the disparity. Fibroid tumors should be considered a public health issue, given the magnitude of the problem and the costs of health care for this disease. In this review, we examine the burden of disease from fibroid tumors in the African American population and review the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine fibroid tumors, with emphasis on how these can differ, depending on race. We also focus on the socioeconomic burden caused by the disease and describe the anticipated influence of new health care reforms and funding mechanisms for fibroid tumor research. PMID:23942040

Eltoukhi, Heba M; Modi, Monica N; Weston, Meredith; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Stewart, Elizabeth A

2014-03-01

182

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In bacterial cultures we measured sulfur isotope fractionation during transformations of thiosulfate (S2O32?) and sulfite (SO32?), pathways which may be of considerable importance in the cycling of sulfur in marine sediments and euxinic waters. We documented isotope fractionations during the reduction and disproportionation of S2O32? and SO32? by bacterial enrichments and pure bacterial cultures from marine and freshwater environments. We

Kirsten S Habicht; Donald E Canfield

1998-01-01

183

Disproportionation of MgAl2O4 spinel at high pressures and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic spinel (MgAl2O4) has been found to disproportionate into a mixture of its component oxides, periclase and corundum, at a loading pressure of about 180 kbar and between 1000 and 1400°C. The polycrystalline powder sample was compressed in a diamond-anvil cell and heated by a continuous YAG laser. The exact transition pressure is not known due to transient increases in

Ling-gun Liu

1975-01-01

184

Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during anaerobic bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur is an important process in the sulfur cycle of natural sediments and leads to the formation of hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. The oxygen atoms in sulfate during this anaerobic process are completely derived from water according to the overall reaction: 4H 2O + 4S 0 ? 3H 2S + SO 42- + 2H +In the present study, stable oxygen isotope fractionation during formation of sulfate via this reaction was experimentally investigated for a pure culture (Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes) and an enrichment culture ("Kuhgraben") at 28°C. Synthetic FeCO 3 and FeOOH were used as scavengers for hydrogen sulfide to keep the disproportionation reaction exergonic and to suppress polysulfide formation and isotope exchange between elemental sulfur and hydrogen sulfide. Compared to water, dissolved sulfate was enriched in 18O by +17.4 ± 0.1‰ ( Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes) and +16.6 ± 0.5‰ (Kuhgraben) at cell specific sulfur disproportionation rates of 10 -15.4 ± 0.4 mol S° cell -1 h -1 and 10 -14.4 ± 0.9 mol S° cell -1 h -1, respectively. Oxygen isotope fractionation was not influenced by the type of iron-bearing scavenger used, corroborating earlier findings that H 2S oxidation by FeOOH yields elemental sulfur as the dominant oxidation product. Sulfite is suggested to be formed as a metabolic intermediate to facilitate isotope exchange with water. Due to bacterial disproportionation, dissolved sulfate was also enriched in 34S compared to elemental sulfur by +11.0 to +18.4‰ ( D. thiozymogenes) and +12.7 to +17.9‰ (Kuhgraben). FeS was depleted in 32S compared to elemental sulfur by -3.7 to -5.3‰ ( D. thiozymogenes).

Böttcher, M. E.; Thamdrup, B.; Vennemann, T. W.

2001-05-01

185

Lattice-form-dependent orbital shape and charge disproportionation in charge- and orbital-ordered manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbital shapes and charge disproportionations at nominal Mn3+ and Mn4+ sites for the charge- and orbital-ordered phases have been studied on half-doped manganites Pr(Sr0.1Ca0.9)2Mn2O7 and Eu0.5Ca1.5MnO4 with double-layer and single-layer Mn-O networks, respectively, by means of x-ray structural analyses, in comparison with Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 with the pseudocubic network. In a single-layer Eu0.5Ca1.5MnO4 system, the (y2-z2)/(z2-x2) -type orbital shape is observed, while the (3y2-r2)/(3x2-r2) -type orbital shape in a pseudocubic Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 system. In a double-layer Pr(Sr0.1Ca0.9)2Mn2O7 system, the orbital shape is found to undergo a large change upon thermally induced rotation of orbital stripe. Furthermore, clear charge disproportionation is observed for the pseudocubic and double-layer systems, while it is not observed in the single-layer system. These results indicate that the orbital shape and charge disproportionation are sensitive to the dimension of Mn-O network.

Okuyama, D.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kumai, R.; Taguchi, Y.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.

2009-08-01

186

Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment.

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

2014-01-01

187

Iron-containing micronutrient supplementation of Chinese women with no or mild anemia during pregnancy improved iron status but did not affect perinatal anemia.  

PubMed

Universal prenatal daily iron-folic acid (IFA) and multiple micronutrient (MM) supplements are recommended to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anemia, and iron deficiency (ID) during pregnancy, but the evidence of their effect on iron status among women with mild or no anemia is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the iron status [serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI)] before and after micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy. We examined 834 pregnant women with hemoglobin > 100 g/L at enrollment before 20 wk of gestation and with iron measurement data from a subset of a randomized, double-blind trial in China. Women were randomly assigned to take daily 400 ?g of folic acid (FA) (control), FA plus 30 mg of iron, or FA, iron, plus 13 additional MMs provided before 20 wk of gestation to delivery. Venous blood was collected in this subset during study enrollment (before 20 wk of gestation) and 28-32 wk of gestation. We found that, at 28-32 wk of gestation, compared with the FA group, both the IFA and MM groups had significantly lower prevalence of ID regardless of which indicator (SF, sTfR, or BI) was used for defining ID. The prevalence of ID at 28-32 wk of gestation for IFA, MM, and FA were 35.3%, 42.7%, and 59.6% by using low SF, 53.6%, 59.9%, and 69.9% by using high sTfR, and 34.5%, 41.2%, and 59.6% by using low BI, respectively. However, there was no difference in anemia prevalence (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) between FA and IFA or MM groups. We concluded that, compared with FA alone, prenatal IFA and MM supplements provided to women with no or mild anemia improved iron status later during pregnancy but did not affect perinatal anemia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137744. PMID:24744317

Mei, Zuguo; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Jian-Meng; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

2014-06-01

188

Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature  

PubMed Central

Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ?18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity.

Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

2011-01-01

189

Women's Marijuana Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual, cultural, professional, and gender-related factors converge to increase the denial of women's marijuana problems. Recent epidemiological information on marijuana use shows that marijuana is a significant problem for women of various ethnic groups, pregnant women, young adults and workers. Women's marijuana-related problems affect their health, safety, domestic relations, motherhood, and work. Outdated addiction theories, diagnostic tools, and insufficient research

Susan Chacín

1996-01-01

190

[Administration of MICRONIZED PALMITOYLETHANOLAMIDE (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis. Methods: Twenty-four patients with suspected endometriosis affected by severe pelvic pain were enrolled. All patients received two tablets a day of PEA 400 mg and 40 mg polydatin for 90 days consecutively. A Visual Analogic Scale was used for the assessment of the severity of global pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dischezia. A second questionnaire was submitted to patients to assess the quality of life. The compilation of a diary lead us to evaluate the monthly assumption of any painkillers. Patients were evaluated at the begin of the treatment and then monthly until the end of the study (90 days). The statistical analysis was performed by using the ANOVA for the analysis of variance. Results: Statistically significant results were found in relation to pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia compared to the initial evaluation of patients. Results related to dysuria and dischezia were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decrease in pelvic pain leads to an improvement of the quality of life of patients. A decreased assumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was also observed. Conclusion: PEA could be considered an effective supplement to conventional analgesic therapies in the management of pelvic pain related to endometriosis. PMID:23486373

Lo Monte, G; Soave, I; Marci, R

2013-03-13

191

HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women's Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women.

Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

2013-01-01

192

Balancing safety and autonomy: structural and social barriers affecting the exercise participation of women with disabilities in community recreation and fitness facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with disabilities consider exercise an important health promotion activity. A lack of accessible facilities within the community has been identified as a major limiting factor to exercise participation among women with disabilities. To increase exercise participation among women with disabilities, we need to understand the structural and social barriers that they face within community recreation and fitness facilities. Interviews

D. E. Rolfe; K. Yoshida; R. Renwick; C. Bailey

2012-01-01

193

Disproportionate Organizational Injustice: A Close Look at Facilities Exempted from Indoor Smoking Laws in Canada  

PubMed Central

Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans.

Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

2012-01-01

194

Exploring the Experiences of African American Women in an Undergraduate Summer Research Program Designed to Address the Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American women compose a critical proportion of the potential science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce of the future, yet are disproportionately represented and largely underutilized. While various programs and initiatives have been designed and implemented to target women and underrepresented minorities, the…

Reid, Ericka L.

2010-01-01

195

Acceleration of disproportionation of aromatic alcohols through self-emulsification of reactants in water.  

PubMed

Exploration of new and effective routes to conduct organic reactions in water using the special properties of water/organics is of great importance. In this work, we performed the disproportionation of various aromatic alcohols in water and in different organic solvents. It was demonstrated that the disproportionation reactions of the alcohols were accelerated more effectively in water than organic-solvent-based or solvent-free reactions. A series of control experiments were conducted to study the mechanism of the accelerated reaction rate in water. It was shown that the reactants could emulsify the reactant/water systems at the reaction conditions owing to their amphiphilic nature. The regularly orientated reactant molecules at the water/reactant droplet interface improved the contact probability of the reactive groups and the Pd nanocatalysts, which is one of the main reasons for the enhanced reaction rate in water. Controlling the self-emulsification of amphiphilic reactant/water systems has great application potential for optimizing the rate and/or selectivity of many organic reactions. PMID:23090937

Zhang, Binbin; Song, Jinliang; Liu, Huizhen; Han, Buxing; Jiang, Tao; Fan, Honglei; Zhang, Zhaofu; Wu, Tianbin

2012-12-01

196

Catabolic thiosulfate disproportionation and carbon dioxide reduction in strain DCB-1, a reductively dechlorinating anaerobe  

SciTech Connect

Strain DCB-1 is a strict anaerobe capable of reductive dehalogenation. We elucidated metabolic processes in DCB-1 which may be related to dehalogenation and which further characterize the organism physiologically. Sulfoxy anions and CO2 were used by DCB-1 as catabolic electron acceptors. With suitable electron donors, sulfate and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate and thiosulfate supported growth with formate or hydrogen as the electron donor and thus are probably respiratory electron acceptors. Other electron donors supporting growth with sulfate were CO, lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and 3-methoxybenzoate. Thiosulfate also supported growth without an additional electron donor, being disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. In the absence of other electron acceptors, CO2 reduction to acetate plus cell material was coupled to pyruvate oxidation to acetate plus CO2. Pyruvate could not be fermented without an electron acceptor. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was found in whole cells, indicating that CO2 reduction probably occurred via the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. Autotrophic growth occurred on H2 plus thiosulfate or sulfate. Diazotrophic growth occurred, and whole cells had nitrogenase activity. On the basis of these physiological characteristics, DCB-1 is a thiosulfate-disproportionating bacterium unlike those previously described.

Mohn, W.W.; Tiedje, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-04-01

197

Population Differences in Breast Cancer: Survey in Indigenous African Women Reveals Over-Representation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Compared with white women, black women experience a disproportionate burden of aggressive breast cancer for reasons that remain unknown and understudied. In the first study of its kind, we determined the distribution of molecular subtypes of invasive breast tumors in indigenous black women in West Africa. Patients and Methods The study comprised 507 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 2007 at six geographic regions in Nigeria and Senegal. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections were constructed into tissue microarrays and immunostained with 15 antibodies. Five molecular subtypes were determined, and hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to explore subgroups for unclassified cases. Results The mean (± standard deviation) age of 378 patients in the first cohort was 44.8 ± 11.8 years, with the majority of women presenting with large (4.4 ± 2.0 cm) high-grade tumors (83%) in advanced stages (72% node positive). The proportions of estrogen receptor (ER) –positive, progesterone receptor–positive, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive tumors were 24%, 20%, and 17%, respectively. Triple negativity for these markers was predominant, including basal-like (27%) and unclassified subtype (28%). Other subtypes were luminal A (27%), luminal B (2%), and HER2 positive/ER negative (15%). The findings were replicated in the second cohort of 129 patients. The unclassified cases could be grouped into a bad prognosis branch, with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, B-cell lymphoma extra-large protein, and Cyclin E, and a good prognosis branch, with expression of B-cell lymphoma protein 2 and Cyclin D1. Conclusion These findings underscore the urgent need for research into the etiology and treatment of the aggressive molecular subtypes that disproportionately affect young women in the African diaspora.

Huo, Dezheng; Ikpatt, Francis; Khramtsov, Andrey; Dangou, Jean-Marie; Nanda, Rita; Dignam, James; Zhang, Bifeng; Grushko, Tatyana; Zhang, Chunling; Oluwasola, Olayiwola; Malaka, David; Malami, Sani; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeoye, Adewumi O.; Iyare, Festus; Falusi, Adeyinka; Perou, Charles M.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

2009-01-01

198

Childhood inattention and dysphoria and adult obesity associated with the dopamine D4 receptor gene in overeating women with seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention deficit disorder (ADD) comorbidity, and body weight regulation. As part of an ongoing genetic study of increased eating behavior and mood in female subjects, 108 women with winter SAD and carbohydrate craving/weight gain were administered the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to measure childhood ADD symptomatology, and a questionnaire to assess maximal lifetime body mass index (BMI). To test for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used in a subsample of probands providing familial DNA. Standard parametric tests were used to compare childhood ADD symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI across the two genotypic groups defined by the presence or absence of 7R. The TDT found no initial evidence for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD. However, 7R carriers reported significantly greater inattention and dysphoria in childhood (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively) and a higher maximal lifetime BMI (p=0.007) than did probands without this allele. Furthermore, excluding probands with extreme obesity (maximal BMI >40), a strong correlation was found linking childhood inattentive symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI (r=0.35, p=0.001). In overeating women with SAD, the 7R allele of DRD4 may be associated with a unique developmental trajectory characterized by attentional deficits and dysphoria in childhood and mild to moderate obesity in adulthood. This developmental course may reflect different manifestations of the same underlying vulnerability related to central dopamine dysfunction. Given the possibility of population stratification when studying genotype/phenotype relationships, future use of genomic controls and replication of our findings in other overeating and/or ADD populations are needed to confirm these initial results. PMID:14560322

Levitan, R D; Masellis, M; Lam, R W; Muglia, P; Basile, V S; Jain, U; Kaplan, A S; Tharmalingam, S; Kennedy, S H; Kennedy, J L

2004-01-01

199

Bone density and bone area in Canadian Aboriginal women: the First Nations Bone Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Canadian Aboriginal women are at increased risk of fracture compared with the general population.Hypothesis  There is disproportionately reduced bone density in Aboriginal women as compared to white females of similar age.Methods  A random age-stratified (25–39, 40–59 and 60–75) sample of Aboriginal women (n=258) and white women (n=181) was recruited. All subjects had calcaneus and distal forearm bone density measurements, and urban participants

W. D. Leslie; C. J. Metge; H. A. Weiler; M. Doupe; P. Wood Steiman; J. D. O’Neil

2006-01-01

200

HIV/AIDS PREVENTION PRACTICES AMONG RECENT-IMMIGRANT JAMAICAN WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Introduction The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to affect people in the United States and around the world at a profound rate, and African Americans are disproportionately affected. Methods This exploratory, descriptive, and phenomenological study explored the meaning of HIV/AIDS safer sex practices among 20 single, heterosexual women, 18–30 years old, who emigrated from Jamaica in the last 12 years. The study described the participants’ HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge, behaviors, health-beliefs, and social and cultural factors that influenced their behaviors. The Health Belief Model guided the study, and the maximum variation criterion sampling technique was used to select participants. In-depth interviews, journal entries, and field notes were used to collect data. Diekelmann, Allen, and Tanner’s seven-stage process of Heideggarian hermeneutics data analysis was used to produce rich descriptions of shared practices and common meanings. Results Participants in this study acknowledged that HIV/AIDS was serious, but most women did not perceive themselves as susceptible to the disease. Women in this study did not use condoms. These women expressed lack of condom negotiation skills, fear of losing their relationship, and fear of physical or mental abuse from their significant other as barriers to using condoms. Discussion Most women were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS prevention but have religious beliefs and cultural practices that were deeply embedded in their health practices. Many women were not sure of a mutually monogamous relationship, and talking about sexual issues was viewed as taboo. This research provides the foundation for the development of culturally appropriate interventions to decrease HIV/AIDS and improve health disparities among immigrant women.

Gillespie-Johnson, Marjorie

2010-01-01

201

HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

202

Soy isoflavones do not affect bone resorption in postmenopausal women: A dose-response study using a novel approach with Ca41  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of this 3-way crossover study was to identify the effective dose of soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones for suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women using a novel, rapid assessment of antibone resorbing treatments. Methods: Thirteen postmenopausal women (>= 6 yr since menopause) were predosed with Ca-41 iv. After a 200-d baseline period, subjects were given 43

J. M. K. Cheong; B. R. Martin; G. S. Jackson; D. Elmore; G. P. McCabe; J. R. Nolan; S. Barnes; M. Peacock; C. M. Weaver

2007-01-01

203

Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.  

PubMed

Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors. PMID:24966408

Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

204

Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

205

Solvolytic disproportionation of mixed-valence compounds. II. Tb/sub 11/O/sub 20/  

SciTech Connect

The intermediate higher oxides of terbium are solvolytically disproportionated in acid solution to yield Tb/sup 3 +/ (aq) ions and a residue of TbO/sub 2/(c). The starting material and the final solid product have fluorite-like structures requiring no reconstruction of the cation substructure. Tb/sub 11/O/sub 20/ was leached with a mixture of concentrated to hydrochloric and acetic acids and the product examined utilizing electron microscopy to reveal the mechanism of the reaction. It is apparent that all the oxide is dissolved from selected reaction pits to yield Tb/sup 3 +/ (aq) ions and H/sub 2/O. This dissolution is accompanied by oxygen transport into remote regions where Tb/sub 11/O/sub 20/ is oxidized to TbO/sub 2/. This forms an insoluble skeletal fragment of the original crystal. The reaction pits occur at dislocation/surface intersections.

Kang, Z.C.; Eyring, L.

1988-07-01

206

Disproportionation of (Mg,Fe)SiO? perovskite in Earth's deep lower mantle.  

PubMed

The mineralogical constitution of the Earth's mantle dictates the geophysical and geochemical properties of this region. Previous models of a perovskite-dominant lower mantle have been built on the assumption that the entire lower mantle down to the top of the D? layer contains ferromagnesian silicate [(Mg,Fe)SiO3] with nominally 10 mole percent Fe. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, at pressures of 95 to 101 gigapascals and temperatures of 2200 to 2400 kelvin, we found that such perovskite is unstable; it loses its Fe and disproportionates to a nearly Fe-free MgSiO3 perovskite phase and an Fe-rich phase with a hexagonal structure. This observation has implications for enigmatic seismic features beyond ~2000 kilometers depth and suggests that the lower mantle may contain previously unidentified major phases. PMID:24855264

Zhang, Li; Meng, Yue; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Mao, Wendy L; Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Jeong, Jong Seok; Wagner, Andrew J; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Liu, Wenjun; Xu, Ruqing; Mao, Ho-kwang

2014-05-23

207

Lengthening of the duration of xylogenesis engenders disproportionate increases in xylem production.  

PubMed

In cold climates, the expected global warming will lead to earlier cambial resumptions in spring, with a resultant lengthening of the growing season but unknown consequences on forest productivity. The phenological traits of cambium activity and xylem formation were analyzed at a short time scale along a thermal gradient represented by an alti-latitudinal range from the 48th to 53rd parallels and covering the whole closed black-spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] forest in Quebec, Canada. A hypothesis was tested that warmer temperatures influence cambium phenology, allowing longer duration and higher intensity of growth, and resulting in proportionally increased xylem production. From April to October 2012, cell division in cambium and post-cambial differentiation of xylem were observed on anatomical sections obtained from microcores collected weekly from the stem of fifty trees. The southern and warmer site was characterized by the highest radial growth, which corresponded to both the highest rates and longest durations of cell production. The differences in terms of xylem phenology and growth were marginal between the other sites. Xylem growth was positively correlated with rate and duration of cell production, with the latter explaining most variability in growth. Within the range analyzed, the relationship between temperature and most phenological phases of xylogenesis was linear. On the contrary, temperature was related with cell production according to an exponential pattern. Periods of xylogenesis of 14 days longer (+13.1%) corresponded to a massive increase in cell production (33 cells, +109%). This disproportionate change occurred at a May-September average temperature of ca. 14 °C and a snow-free period of 210-235 days. At the lower boundary of the distribution of black spruce, small environmental changes allowing marginal lengthening of the period of cell division could potentially lead to disproportionate increases in xylem cell production, with substantial consequences for the productivity of this boreal species. PMID:24259354

Rossi, Sergio; Girard, Marie-Josée; Morin, Hubert

2014-07-01

208

Disproportionate Contribution of Right Middle Lobe to Emphysema and Gas Trapping on Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

Rationale Given that the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on demonstrating airflow limitation by spirometry, which is known to be poorly sensitive to early disease, and to regional differences in emphysema, we sought to evaluate individual lobar contributions to global spirometric measures. Methods Subjects with COPD were compared with smokers without airflow obstruction, and non-smokers. Emphysema (% low attenuation area, LAAinspdisproportionately to its relatively small size, it also showed the least correlation with spirometry. There was no change in correlation of whole lung CT metrics with spirometry when the middle lobe was excluded from analyses. Similarly, RML had the highest %LAAexpdisproportionate contribution to CT-based emphysema measurements, and low contribution to spirometry, longitudinal studies of emphysema progression may benefit from independent analysis of the middle lobe in whole lung quantitative CT assessments. Our findings may also have implications for heterogeneity assessments and target lobe selection for lung volume reduction. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00608764

Bhatt, Surya P.; Sieren, Jessica C.; Newell, John D.; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Hoffman, Eric A.

2014-01-01

209

Molecular mechanism of the photochemical generation of gold nanoparticles in ethylene glycol: support for the disproportionation mechanism.  

PubMed

It is found that replacement of the chloride ions in tetrachloroauric acid with bulky bromide ions inhibits the formation of gold nanoparticles in the photochemical reduction in ethylene glycol. However, the addition of silver ions to either the bromide or the chloride auric acid solution is found to enhance the rate of gold nanoparticle formation. These results are found to be accounted for by the previously proposed mechanism (Eustis, S.; Hsu, H.-Y.; El-Sayed, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 4811) which involves disproportionation of the chloroauric complexes to generate free gold atoms and chloride ions. The steric effects of the bulky bromide ions inhibit the formation of the Au-Au bond needed in the electron transfer process of the disproportionation reaction. The addition of Ag+ ions results in the formation of insoluble silver halide, which shifts the disproportionation reaction toward the formation of gold atoms and thus the formation of gold nanoparticles. PMID:16854091

Eustis, Susie; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

2006-07-27

210

Insulin and Extremity Muscle Mass in Overweight and Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Obesity disproportionately affects women, especially those of African descent, and is associated with increases in both fat and muscle masses. Although increased extremity muscle mass may be compensatory to fat mass load, we propose that elevated insulin levels resulting from diminished insulin sensitivity may additionally contribute to extremity muscle mass in overweight or obese women. The following measurements were performed in 197 non-diabetic women (57% black, 35% white; age 46±11 years [mean±SD], BMI range 25.0 to 57.7 kg/m2): dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for fat and extremity muscle masses; exercise performance by duration and peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during graded treadmill exercise; fasting insulin and in 183 subjects insulin sensitivity index (SI) calculated from the minimal model. SI (range 0.5 to 14.1 liter/mU?1•min?1) was negatively, and fasting insulin (range 1.9 to 35.6 ?U/mL) positively, associated with extremity muscle mass (both P<0.001), independent of age and height. Sixty-seven percent of women completed 6 months of participation in a weight loss and exercise program: We found a significant association between reduction in fasting insulin and a decrease in extremity muscle mass (P=0.038), independent of reduction in fat mass or improvement in exercise performance by VO2 peak and exercise duration, and without association with change in SI or interaction by race. Thus, hyperinsulinemia in overweight or obese women is associated with increased extremity muscle mass, which is partially reversible with reduction in fasting insulin concentration, consistent with stimulatory effects of insulin on skeletal muscle.

Leon, Benjamin; Jenkins, Shannon; Pepin, Kristen; Chaudhry, Hira; Smith, Kevin; Zalos, Gloria; Miller, Bernard V.; Chen, Kong Y.; Remaley, Alan T.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Sumner, Anne E.; Cannon, Richard O.

2013-01-01

211

Disproportionate pulmonary hypertension in a patient with early-onset pulmonary emphysema treated with specific drugs for pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Severe pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is referred to as 'disproportionate' because the elevated pulmonary artery pressure does not match the degree of air flow limitation. We report a 41-year-old man presenting with early-onset pulmonary emphysema and pulmonary hypertension with a mean pressure of 74 mmHg. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol led to marked hemodynamic improvement, and epoprostenol was successfully replaced with bosentan. The patient has been followed for 3 years without exacerbation. This is the first report demonstrating the long-term efficacy of specific drugs for pulmonary arterial hypertension in disproportionate pulmonary hypertension in COPD. PMID:22001462

Shimizu, Masatoshi; Imanishi, Junichi; Takano, Takatsugu; Miwa, Yoichi

2011-01-01

212

l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Carnipure tartrate (Lonza, Allendale, NJ) supplementation (total dose of 2 g\\/d of l-carnitine) on markers of performance and recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Normally active and healthy men (n = 9, 45.4 ± 5.3 years old) and women (n = 9, 51.9 ± 5.0 years

Jen-Yu Ho; William J. Kraemer; Jeff S. Volek; Maren S. Fragala; Gwendolyn A. Thomas; Courtenay Dunn-Lewis; Michael Coday; Keijo Häkkinen; Carl M. Maresh

2010-01-01

213

Plasma Fatty Acid Ratios Affect Blood Gene Expression Profiles - A Cross-Sectional Study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort  

PubMed Central

High blood concentrations of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) relative to n-3 FAs may lead to a “physiological switch” towards permanent low-grade inflammation, potentially influencing the onset of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancer. To explore the potential effects of FA ratios prior to disease onset, we measured blood gene expression profiles and plasma FA ratios (linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid, LA/ALA; arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, AA/EPA; and total n-6/n-3) in a cross-section of middle-aged Norwegian women (n?=?227). After arranging samples from the highest values to the lowest for all three FA ratios (LA/ALA, AA/EPA and total n-6/n-3), the highest and lowest deciles of samples were compared. Differences in gene expression profiles were assessed by single-gene and pathway-level analyses. The LA/ALA ratio had the largest impact on gene expression profiles, with 135 differentially expressed genes, followed by the total n-6/n-3 ratio (125 genes) and the AA/EPA ratio (72 genes). All FA ratios were associated with genes related to immune processes, with a tendency for increased pro-inflammatory signaling in the highest FA ratio deciles. Lipid metabolism related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) signaling was modified, with possible implications for foam cell formation and development of cardiovascular diseases. We identified higher expression levels of several autophagy marker genes, mainly in the lowest LA/ALA decile. This finding may point to the regulation of autophagy as a novel aspect of FA biology which warrants further study. Lastly, all FA ratios were associated with gene sets that included targets of specific microRNAs, and gene sets containing common promoter motifs that did not match any known transcription factors. We conclude that plasma FA ratios are associated with differences in blood gene expression profiles in this free-living population, and that affected genes and pathways may influence the onset and progression of disease.

Olsen, Karina Standahl; Fenton, Christopher; Fr?yland, Livar; Waaseth, Marit; Paulssen, Ruth H.; Lund, Eiliv

2013-01-01

214

Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.  

PubMed

Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

2012-02-01

215

12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to the contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. 221.111 Section 221.111 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

2009-01-01

216

Rural soldiers continue to account for disproportionately high share of U.S. casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the nation goes to war, all Americans are expected to make sacrifices. Today's rural Americans, however, have fewer job opportunities within their communities, and are joining the military at higher rates. In turn, rural communities are facing military losses in disproportionate numbers to their urban counterparts.

William P. OHare; Bill Bishop

2007-01-01

217

Universal Screening for Behavioral and Emotional Risk: A Promising Method for Reducing Disproportionate Placement in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overrepresentation of U.S. minority students identified for emotional and behavior disorders special education programs plagues schools and challenges researchers and practitioners. Arcane methods including teacher nomination continue to guide referral processes, despite compelling evidence of their influence on disproportionate special…

Raines, Tara C.; Dever, Bridget V.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Roach, Andrew T.

2012-01-01

218

Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

2009-01-01

219

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur in Marine Sediments Amplified by a Seafloor Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide and to grow only in the presence of a sulfide scavenger have been enriched electrochemically in marine sediments. During a 7-month experiment designed to demonstrate sustained electrical energy harvesting by a seafloor fuel cell (Tender et al. 2002), a graphite anode embedded in sediment within Yaquina Bay, OR, developed a biofilm showing a 60% enrichment in ?-Proteobacteria belonging to the genera Desulfobulus/Desulfocapsa. Cytophagales showed a secondary enrichment in 36.7% of 16S rDNA sequences. These two groups of microorganisms made up 23.5% and 8.8%, respectively, of clones derived from graphite scrapings of a control cell with zero current. Sediment porewater profiles show millimolar increases in sulfate and iron concentrations, but also sulfide depletion approaching the active anode. Electron microprobe analyses reveal accumulations of sulfur and iron between the graphite surface of the anode and the overcoating biofilm with a Fe/S ratio below one. Extractions of iron mineral phases also indicate a small decrease in crystalline iron oxide near the anode. These chemical changes are consistent with four interactive processes. (1) Sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur directly at the anode. (2) The elemental sulfur promotes the microbial production of sulfate and FeS + FeS2. (3) Iron sulfide apparently dissolves to re-supply sulfide that is consumed by the anode. (4) Released Fe+2 accumulates and with organic ligands may catalyze the reduction and dissolution of crystalline iron oxide (Luther et al. 1992). Thus, we conclude the anodic half-cell reaction of the marine fuel cell provides a novel experimental approach for in situ enrichment of bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur while highlighting a biogeochemical cycle usually obscured by competing processes. Tender L. M., Reimers C. E., Stecher H. A. III, Holmes D. E., Bond D. R, Lowy, D. A., Pilobello K., Fertig S. J., Lovley D. R., Harnessing microbially generated power on the seafloor, Nature Biotechnology (2002) 20: 821-825. Luther G. W. III, Kostka J. E., Church T. M., Sulzberger B., Stumm W., Seasonal iron cycling in the salt-marsh sedimentary environment: the importance of ligand complexes with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and pyrite, respectively, Marine Chemistry (1992) 40: 81-103

Ryckelynck, N. B.; Reimers, C. E.; Stecher, H. A.; Holmes, D. E.; Bond, D. E.

2002-12-01

220

Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (?10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ?45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon; Mittendorfer, Bettina

2012-03-15

221

Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (?10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ?45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women.

Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon

2012-01-01

222

Crystal dimension of ZSM-5 influences on para selective disproportionation of ethylbenzene.  

PubMed

Crystal size and crystal dimensions are vital role in shape selective feature. Para selective disproportionation of EthylBenzene (Dip-EB) was investigated over ZSM-5 synthesized in acidic medium. The catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal process with various Si/Al ratios (50, 75 and 100) using fluoride ion precursor. This fluoride ion precursor dissolves the ZSM-5 nutrients below it neutral pH between 4 and 6. The synthesized material was subjected into various physico chemical characterizations such as XRD, SEM, TGA and BET analyses. The XRD patterns showed high crystalline nature and their resulting SEM images were also indicate thin prismatic crystals of large dimension compared with alkaline medium synthesized one. The BET results earned good textural property. Catalytic activity of vapor phase Dip-EB was carried out between 523 and 673 K. As their result, diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers were obtained, but para selective Diethylbenzene (p-DEB) was observed higher than others. The high selectivity towards p-DEB was due to large crystal dimension of ZSM-5 catalysts synthesized in fluoride medium. Hence it is good commercial application for petrochemical feed stock production. PMID:24745253

Hariharan, Srinivasan; Palanichamy, Muthaiahpillai

2014-03-01

223

Disproportionation in Li-O{sub 2} Batteries Based on a Large Surface Area Carbon Cathode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report on a kinetics study of the discharge process and its relationship to the charge overpotential in a Li-O{sub 2} cell for large surface area cathode material. The kinetics study reveals evidence for a first-order disproportionation reaction during discharge from an oxygen-rich Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component with superoxide-like character to a Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component. The oxygen-rich superoxide-like component has a much smaller potential during charge (3.2-3.5 V) than the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component (similar to 4.2 V). The formation of the superoxide-like component is likely due to the porosity of the activated carbon used in the Li-O{sub 2} cell cathode that provides a good environment for growth during discharge. The discharge product containing these two components is characterized by toroids, which are assemblies of nanoparticles. The morphologic growth and decomposition process of the toroids during the reversible discharge/charge process was observed by scanning electron microscopy and is consistent with the presence of the two components in the discharge product. The results of this study provide new insight into how growth conditions control the nature of discharge product, which can be used to achieve improved performance in Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Zhai, D.; Wang, H.-H.; Yang, J.; Lau, K. C.; Li, K.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division) [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2013-10-16

224

Electron-doped organics: Charge-disproportionate insulators and Hubbard-Fröhlich metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several examples of metallic electron-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecular crystals have recently been experimentally proposed. Some of them have superconducting components, but most other details are still unknown beginning with structure and the nature of metallicity. We carried out ab initio density functional calculations for La-Phenanthrene (La-PA), here meant to represent a generic case of three-electron doping, to investigate structure and properties of a conceptually simple case. To our surprise we found first of all that the lowest energy state is not metallic but band insulating, with a disproportionation of two inequivalent PA molecular ions and a low P1 symmetry, questioning the common assumption that three electrons will automatically metallize a PAH crystal. Our best metallic structure is metastable and slightly higher in energy, and retains equivalent PA ions and a higher P21 symmetry—the same generally claimed for metallic PAHs. We show that a “dimerizing” periodic distortion opens very effectively a gap in place of a symmetry related degeneracy of all P21 structures near the Fermi level, foreshadowing a possible role of that special intermolecular phonon in superconductivity of metallic PAHs. A Hubbard-Fröhlich model describing that situation is formulated for future studies.

Naghavi, S. Shahab; Fabrizio, Michele; Qin, Tao; Tosatti, Erio

2013-09-01

225

Pressure-induced polymerization of carbon monoxide: disproportionation and synthesis of an energetic lactonic polymer  

SciTech Connect

We have studied pressure-induced chemical reactions in carbon monoxide using both a diamond-anvil cell and a modified large volume press. Our spectroscopic data reveal that carbon monoxide disproportionates into molecular CO{sub 2} and a solid lactone-type polymer; photochemically above 3.2 GPa, thermochemically above 5 GPa at 300K, or at 3 GPa and {approx}2000K as achieved by laser heating. The solid product can be recovered at ambient conditions with a high degree of conversion, measured to be up to 95% of the original CO. Its fundamental chemical structure includes {beta}-lactone and conjugated C=C, which can be considered a severely modified polymeric carbon suboxide with open ladders and smaller five-membered rings. The polymer is metastable at ambient conditions, spontaneously liberating CO{sub 2} gases exothermically. We find that the recovered polymer has a high energy density, 1-8 KJ/g, and is very combustible. We estimate the density of recovered CO polymer to be at least 1.65 g/cm cm{sup 3}.

Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Yoo, C; Herberg, J L; Maxwell, R S; Nicol, M F

2005-10-04

226

Pressure-Induced Polymerization of Carbon Monoxide: Disproportionation and Synthesis of an Energetic Lactonic Polymer  

SciTech Connect

We have studied pressure-induced chemical reactions in carbon monoxide using both a diamond anvil cell and a modified large volume press. Our spectroscopic data reveal that carbon monoxide disproportionates into molecular CO{sub 2} and a solid lactone-type polymer; photochemically above 3.2 GPa, thermochemically above 5 GPa at 300 K, or at 3 GPa and {approx}2000 K as achieved by laser heating. The solid product can be recovered at ambient conditions with a high degree of conversion, measured to be up to 95% of the original CO. Its fundamental chemical structure includes {beta}-lactone and conjugated C=C, which can be considered a severely modified polymeric carbon suboxide with open ladders and smaller five-membered rings. The polymer is metastable at ambient conditions, spontaneously liberating CO{sub 2} gases exothermically. We find that the recovered polymer has a high energy density, 1-8 kJ/g, and is very combustible. We estimate the density of recovered CO polymer to be at least 1.65 g/cm{sup 3}.

Evans, W.J.; Lipp, M.J.; Yoo, C.-S.; Cynn, H.; Herberg, J.L.; Maxwell, R.S.; Nicol, M.F. (UNLV); (LLNL)

2008-10-02

227

Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates  

PubMed Central

The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share hospital (DSH) adjustments to Medicare's prospective payment rates for inpatient services are generally intended to compensate hospitals for patient care costs related to teaching activities and care of low income populations. These adjustments were originally established based on the statistical relationships between IME and DSH and hospital costs. Due to a variety of policy considerations, the legislated levels of these adjustments may have deviated over time from these “empirically justified levels,” or simply, “empirical levels.” In this paper, we estimate the empirical levels of IME and DSH using 2006 hospital data and 2009 Medicare final payment rules. Our analyses suggest that the empirical level for IME would be much smaller than under current law— about one-third to one-half. Our analyses also support the DSH adjustment prescribed by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA)—about one-quarter of the pre-ACA level. For IME, the estimates imply an increase in costs of 1.88% for each 10% increase in teaching intensity. For DSH, the estimates imply that costs would rise by 0.52% for each 10% increase in the low-income patient share for large urban hospitals.

Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan; Sheingold, Steven H.

2011-01-01

228

Effect of particle adsorption rates on the disproportionation process in pickering stabilised bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree of shrinkage of particle stabilised bubbles of various sizes, in a polydisperse bubble dispersion, has been investigated in the light of the finite adsorption times for the particles and the disproportionation kinetics of the bubbles. For the case where the system contains an abundance of particles we find a threshold radius, above which bubbles are stabilised without any significant reduction in their size. Bubbles with an initial radius below this threshold on the other hand undergo a large degree of shrinkage prior to stabilisation. As the ratio of the available particles to the bubbles is reduced, it is shown that the final bubble size, for the larger bubbles in the distribution, becomes increasingly governed by the number of particles, rather than their adsorption time per se. For systems with "adsorption controlled" shrinkage ratio, the final bubble distribution is found to be wider than the initial one, while for a "particle number controlled" case it is actually narrower. Starting from a unimodal bubble size distribution, we predict that at intermediate times, prior to the full stabilisation of all bubbles, the distribution breaks up into a bimodal one. However, the effect is transient and a unimodal final bubble size distribution is recovered, when all the bubbles are stabilised by the particles.

Ettelaie, Rammile; Murray, Brent

2014-05-01

229

Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(?6-C6H6)2 are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX3 (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX2 to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X2U(µ-?6:?6-arene)UX2] and a UX4 by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a ‘cooperative small-molecule activation’ mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX3 are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds.

Arnold, Polly L.; Mansell, Stephen M.; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

2012-08-01

230

Disproportionate-share hospital payment reductions may threaten the financial stability of safety-net hospitals.  

PubMed

Safety-net hospitals rely on disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments to help cover uncompensated care costs and underpayments by Medicaid (known as Medicaid shortfalls). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) anticipates that insurance expansion will increase safety-net hospitals' revenues and will reduce DSH payments accordingly. We examined the impact of the ACA's Medicaid DSH reductions on California public hospitals' financial stability by estimating how total DSH costs (uncompensated care costs and Medicaid shortfalls) will change as a result of insurance expansion and the offsetting DSH reductions. Decreases in uncompensated care costs resulting from the ACA insurance expansion may not match the act's DSH reductions because of the high number of people who will remain uninsured, low Medicaid reimbursement rates, and medical cost inflation. Taking these three factors into account, we estimate that California public hospitals' total DSH costs will increase from $2.044 billion in 2010 to $2.363-$2.503 billion in 2019, with unmet DSH costs of $1.381-$1.537 billion. PMID:24889948

Neuhausen, Katherine; Davis, Anna C; Needleman, Jack; Brook, Robert H; Zingmond, David; Roby, Dylan H

2014-06-01

231

Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

232

Raloxifene Does Not Affect Insulin Sensitivity or Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the metabolic or cardiovascular effects of selective ER modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene hy- drochloride (RLX), in postmenopausal women with type 2 di- abetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, the effect of RLX vs. placebo (PL) on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, as well as effects on a number of hormone, lipid, coagulation, and safety factors were determined in

BJORN ANDERSSON; GUDMUNDUR JOHANNSSON; GORAN HOLM; BENGT-AKE BENGTSSON; ANDREAS SASHEGYI; IMRE PAVO; TIMOTHY MASON; PAMELA W. ANDERSON

233

Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

Josephine Lutz

234

MC1R gene polymorphism affects skin color and phenotypic features related to sun sensitivity in a population of French adult women.  

PubMed

The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is known to play a major role in skin and hair pigmentation and to be highly polymorphic in Caucasians. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between MC1R gene polymorphisms and skin color in a large sample of French middle-aged Caucasian women. The codons 60 to 265 and the codon 294 of the MC1R gene were sequenced in 488 women. The skin color was measured on the inner side of the forearm using a spectrophotometric instrument. Fifteen variants were identified: Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg142His, Asp294His, Ile155Thr, Asp84Glu, Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, Ser83Pro, Thr95Met, Pro256Ser, Val265Ile, Ala166Ala and Gln233Gln. Women carrying Arg151Cys, Asp294His, Arg160Trp and Asp84Glu variants had a significantly higher reflectance in the red region, which indicates a lower level of functional melanin. This association was the most pronounced for women carrying Asp84Glu. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for other variants. Moreover, associations between MC1R polymorphisms and the risks of experiencing sunburn and of having freckles were found independently of skin color. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC1R polymorphisms do not necessarily alter the skin color but should sensitize the skin to UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:19656326

Latreille, Julie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Elfakir, Anissa; Ambroisine, Laurence; Gardinier, Sophie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Gruber, Florian; Rees, Jonathan; Tschachler, Erwin; Guinot, Christiane

2009-01-01

235

Talking from 9 to 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help individuals as well as companies thrive in a working world made up of increasingly diverse work forces and ever more competitive markets, this book addresses the differences in men's and women's speaking styles, without maintaining the superiority of any one style of speaking. Reinforced with extensive examples drawn from…

Tannen, Deborah

236

Low-dose HCG is useful in preventing OHSS in high-risk women without adversely affecting the outcome of IVF cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a rare but potentially fatal condition associated with conventional IVF treatment. It is found predominantly in women with polycystic ovaries who have an exaggerated response to exogenous FSH, leading to a large number of follicles and an overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor with resultant excessive increases in vascular permeability. There is evidence to

Geeta Nargund; Lee Hutchison; Rex Scaramuzzi; Stuart Campbell

2007-01-01

237

The New Health Care Law: How Will Women Near Retirement Fare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn 2009, more than 17 million women lacked health insurance coverage in the United States. A disproportionate number of these women were African American or Latino. In addition, many women aged 55 to 64 lack coverage through either their own employment or access to a spouse’s plan at a time when they face an elevated risk of long-term and life-threatening

Kate C. Prickett; Jacqueline L. Angel

2011-01-01

238

Impact of a women's program for science, mathematics and engineering on undergraduate women: Activity systems on the periphery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National reports such as National Science Foundation's highlight women's disproportionate distribution and differential treatment in the science, mathematics, and engineering (SM&E) fields, in both education and the workforce in the US. Women are less likely than men to choose a career that involves SM&E, and are more likely than men to earn bachelor's degrees in non-science and non-engineering fields. The need for support and encouragement is obvious for women already in college intending to pursue a major in a SM&E field. Comprehensive support networks can be and are established through programs for women entering college and willing to pursue careers in SM&E fields. The context of this research was the Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Mathematics (PWISEM) established in 2001 by a Southern teaching and research university in the US. I constructed a thorough theoretical lens by interweaving the theory of situated learning/legitimate peripheral participation and the cultural-historical activity theory. I explored the interactions and contradictions that affected the science identity formation of the PWISEM students, how they identified themselves as future scientists, and the key factors PWISEM involved in motivating and supporting women students in their intended SM&E majors. The design of the research was dominant-less dominant, the dominant approach being qualitative and the less-dominant being quantitative. The Program was successful in fostering the participation and retention of undergraduate women in SM&E. However, the women in the Program were more likely to internalize the status quo in the SM&E realms without actively challenging it (liberal feminist approach). To change the masculine culture embedded in SM&E, engaging in activism is essential. This research suggests that in fact, programs like PWISEM provide promising contexts for reforming the SM&E culture to be more appealing and inclusive of all. I suggest that there can be both explicit and implicit ways of transformation within such contexts and argue that the implicit approach is more powerful. This research also informs the theory of situated learning in that newcomer interactions are a key aspect and their actions should be understood to involve much more than knowledge circulation.

Kahveci, Ajda

239

Women Helping Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes effort of mental health center staff to implement non-traditional programming for women in situational life crises. Successes in the work have helped overcome some objections to special approaches to women. Projects have community interest and support, have answered many unmet needs of women, and have enhanced service delivery.…

Habib, Miriam; Landgraf, Barbara Joslin

1977-01-01

240

Women in IT Leadership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study published by the Applied Information Management Institute looks at women in IT leadership. Men and women in senior positions in IT were interviewed to explore "1) early experiences affecting womenâÂÂs later interest in IT; 2) career paths and the influence of IT education; 3) barriers to success within IT environments; and 4) organizational practices that may facilitate womenâÂÂs careers in IT." The results show that early engagement and IT education are important, barriers to women's careers in IT remain, and organizational culture is a core concern.

2012-10-16

241

Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

Agosto, William N.

1993-03-01

242

Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

Agosto, William N.

1993-01-01

243

Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis (VP-EA) [brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial compliance (CAC)] in women with minor cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Twenty-five young women with PCOS and 23 eumenorrheic women matched for body mass index (BMI) were studied. The women were subdivided according to BMI and PCOS status, and comparisons were done between PCOS and Control group, regardless of BMI, and between Obese and Lean group, regardless of the presence of PCOS. Insulin resistance was higher in PCOS-group than in control-group and in obese-group than in lean-group. The median of all VP-EA evaluated were similar between PCOS-group and Control-group [FMD: 6.6 versus 8.4% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 6.2 versus 5.6N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)] and between obese-group and lean-group [FMD: 7.8 versus 6.6% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 5.7 versus 6.3N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)]. These results suggest that PCOS and obesity do not affect VP-EA in women with minor CVRFs. PMID:23327607

Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelás; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Baracat, Edmund Chade; Romano, Angela; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel

2013-04-01

244

One Year of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Treatment Does Not Affect Bone Density, Body Composition, or Psychological Measures in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the hypothalamic-GH-insulin-like growth factor I (hypothalamic-GH-IGF-I) axis declines with age, and some of the catabolic changes of aging have been attributed to the somato- pause. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of 1 yr of IGF-I hormone replacement therapy on body composition, bone density, and psychological parameters in healthy, nonobese, postmenopausal women over

ANNE L. FRIEDLANDER; GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD; SHARON MOYNIHAN; JEANINE GRILLO; MARGARET POLLACK; LEAH HOLLOWAY; LEAH FRIEDMAN; JEROME YESAVAGE; DWIGHT MATTHIAS; SCOTT LEE; ROBERT MARCUS; ANDREW R. HOFFMAN

2010-01-01

245

Does Metformin affect ER, PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 expression in women with diabetes mellitus and endometrial cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes mellitus, as a risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), causes an increase in insulin and IGF-1 concentrations in the blood serum. The increase in insulin and IGF-1 are considered mitogenic factors contributory to cancer development. Studies suggest that metformin has preventive activity, decreasing mortality and the risk of neoplasms. Since estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and IGF-1 (IGF-1R) receptor expression and ?-catenin and PAX-2 mutations are significant in the development of endometrial cancer, it was decided to study these factors in patients with endometrial cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to establish the effects of metformin on their expression. Methods The expression of ER, PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 have been immunohistochemically investigated in 86 type I endometrial cancer specimens. Patients were grouped according to the presence of DM2 and the type of hypoglycemic treatment administered. Results Comparing EC patients with DM2 and normal glycemic status, we found increased IGF-1R expression in women with DM2. A decrease in ER expression was noted in women with EC and DM2 receiving metformin as compared to women treated with insulin (p?=?0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 expression among women receiving metformin and other hypoglycemic treatment. Conclusion Although epidemiological studies suggest the beneficial role of metformin in many human cancers, there are still few studies confirming its favorable effect on endometrial cancer. Decreased ER expression in patients receiving metformin needs further research to allow evaluation of its clinical significance.

2013-01-01

246

TREATMENT WITH HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL DID NOT AFFECT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: NO INTERACTION WITH ESTROGEN AND VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENOTYPE POLYMORPHISMS  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in elderly postmenopausal women and also to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor. Methods In a double-blinded placebo controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal elderly women, a secondary analysis of depression was done. Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. We used binary logistic regression to examine the effect of treatment on depression and one-way ANOVA to find relationship between gene polymorphisms and depression. Results There was no effect of hormone therapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.66–4.12; p = 0.277), calcitriol (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.43–3.11; p = 0.772) or hormone therapy with calcitriol (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.36–2.80; p = 0.979) on depression. Neither polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha (XbaI-beta=0.093, CI ?0.337–1.350, p = 0.239 and PvuII-beta=?0.064, CI ?1.171-0.491, p = 0.421) nor vitamin D receptor (BsmI-beta=0.044, CI ?2.546–3.030, p = 0.865 and TaqI-beta=?0.015, CI ?2.900-2.738, p = 0.955) were associated with depression. Conclusion In elderly post-menopausal women there was no effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol either individually or in combination with depression. Estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with depression or the response to intervention in elderly postmenopausal women. Additional trials are required to confirm these findings.

YALAMANCHILI, VINOD; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER

2011-01-01

247

Soy Isoflavones Do Not Affect Bone Resorption in Postmenopausal Women: A Dose-Response Study Using a Novel Approach with 41Ca  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this 3-way crossover study was to identify the effective dose of soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones for suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women using a novel, rapid assessment of antibone resorbing treatments. Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women (?6 yr since menopause) were predosed with 41Ca iv. After a 200-d baseline period, subjects were given 43 g soy protein/d that contained 0, 97.5, or 135.5 mg total isoflavones in randomized order. The soy protein isolate powder was incorporated into baked products and beverages. Each 50-d intervention phase was preceded by a 50-d pretreatment phase for comparison. Serum isoflavone levels and biochemical markers were measured at the end of each phase. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected approximately every 10 d during each phase for 41Ca/Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. Results Serum isoflavone levels reflected the amount of isoflavones consumed in a dose-dependent manner. None of the isoflavone levels had a significant effect on biochemical markers of bone turnover, urinary cross-linked N teleopeptides of type I collagen and serum osteocalcin, or bone turnover as assessed by urinary 41Ca/Ca ratios. Conclusions Soy protein with isoflavone doses of up to 135.5 mg/d did not suppress bone resorption in postmenopausal women. This is the first efficacy trial using the novel technique of urinary 41Ca excretion from prelabeled bone.

Cheong, J. M. K.; Martin, B. R.; Jackson, G. S.; Elmore, D.; McCabe, G. P.; Nolan, J. R.; Barnes, S.; Peacock, M.; Weaver, C. M.

2009-01-01

248

WISEWOMAN: addressing the needs of women at high risk for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

In the United States, the cardiovascular health of women is affected by the disparate impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) on many minority ethnic and racial groups. Women with low income also endure a disproportionate impact of the burden of CVD. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) Program was authorized by Congress in 1993 to extend the preventive health services offered to participants of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). These are low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women. The intent was to expand services of an existing federal program to address cardiovascular health concerns in this vulnerable, high-risk population. CDC funds 19 state health departments and 2 tribal organizations (both in Alaska) to implement WISEWOMAN. In the first 2 years of the current 5-year funding cycle, which began in June 2008, the WISEWOMAN grantees succeeded in providing almost 78,000 screenings, of which 46% were to women of minority racial and ethnic groups. The individual successes are important, and the WISEWOMAN Program also has achieved success in the broader arenas of healthcare and the communities in which WISEWOMAN is implemented. WISEWOMAN impacts clinical systems of care, provider education, physician extenders, and the broader community and will continue to play an important role in connecting low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women with clinical systems of care and other community resources that will result in the prevention, treatment, and management of their CVD risk. PMID:21668383

Vaid, Isam; Wigington, Charles; Borbely, Deborah; Ferry, Patricia; Manheim, Diane

2011-07-01

249

Elemental Sulfur and Thiosulfate Disproportionation by Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov., a New Anaerobic Bacterium Isolated from Marine Surface Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mesophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium, strain SB164P1, was enriched and isolated from oxidized marine surface sediment with elemental sulfur as the sole energy substrate in the presence of ferrihydrite. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Growth was observed exclusively in the presence of a hydrogen sulfide scavenger, e.g., ferrihydrite. In the absence of a scavenger, sulfide and

KAI FINSTER; WERNER LIESACK; BO THAMDRUP

250

Probing Variable Axial Ligation in Nickel Superoxide Dismutase Utilizing Metallopeptide Based Models: Insight into the Superoxide Disproportionation Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) is a bacterial metalloenzyme that possesses a mononuclear Ni-center and catalyzes the disproportionation of O2*- by cycling between NiII and NiIII oxidation states. Herein we present evidence from several SOD active metallopeptide maquettes ([Ni(SODM2H(1)X)]; SODM2H(1)X = H2N-XCDLPCG-COOH; X = H, D, or A) that the Ni-center of NiSOD most likely remains five-coordinate during SOD catalysis using thin-film voltammetry. N3- and CN- titration studies suggest that O2*- disproportionation by [Ni(SODM2H(1)X)] proceeds via an outersphere mechanism. Computationally derived values for the nuclear reorganization energy of the [NiII(SODM2)]/[NiIII(SODM2)] self-exchange reaction combined with the experimentally determined value for ko (450 s-1) suggest that axial ligation enhances the O2*- disproportionation reaction in [Ni(SODM2)] (and NiSOD by analogy) by optimizing the NiII/NiIII redox couple such that it is close to the midpoint of the O2*- reduction and oxidation couples.

Neupane,K.; Gearty, K.; Francis, A.; Shearer, J.

2007-01-01

251

Elemental sulfur and thiosulfate disproportionation by Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine surface sediment.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium, strain SB164P1, was enriched and isolated from oxidized marine surface sediment with elemental sulfur as the sole energy substrate in the presence of ferrihydrite. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Growth was observed exclusively in the presence of a hydrogen sulfide scavenger, e.g., ferrihydrite. In the absence of a scavenger, sulfide and sulfate production were observed but no growth occurred. Strain SB164P1 grew also by disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite. With thiosulfate, the growth efficiency was higher in ferrihydrite-supplemented media than in media without ferrihydrite. Growth coupled to sulfate reduction was not observed. However, a slight sulfide production occurred in cultures incubated with formate and sulfate. Strain SB164P1 is the first bacterium described that grows chemolithoautotrophically exclusively by the disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing analysis placed strain SB164P1 into the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Its closest relative is Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes, and slightly more distantly related are Desulfofustis glycolicus and Desulforhopalus vacuolatus. This phylogenetic cluster of organisms, together with members of the genus Desulfobulbus, forms one of the main lines of descent within the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. Due to the common phenotypic characteristics and the phylogenetic relatedness to Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes, we propose that strain SB164P1 be designated the type strain of Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov. PMID:9435068

Finster, K; Liesack, W; Thamdrup, B

1998-01-01

252

What Works for Women in Undergraduate Physics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics community in the U.S. has been concerned about the low participation by women for many years. Although some progress has been made, the percentage of undergraduate women in physics is still less than half that in mathematics and chemistry. While the percentage of women in physics declines at every step up the academic ladder, the largest decrease occurs in the undergraduate years. Therefore it is worthwhile to look at how undergraduate physics departments might make women students comfortable. We have conducted a study of undergraduate physics departments in order to learn ``what works'' in attracting and retaining women in the undergraduate physics major. With a team of women physicists, we visited nine undergraduate physics departments, five with high participation by women and four with average participation. We also visited six departments in women's colleges, which are known for producing accomplished women in all fields, including science. Three of the 15 schools are historically Black colleges, which produce disproportionate numbers of African-American women scientists. We found that the most important factor in a female-friendly physics department is a warm and inclusive culture that reaches out to introductory students. We also discuss the effects of curriculum, pedagogy, and institutional policy.

Whitten, Barbara L.; Dorato, Shannon R.; Foster, Suzanne R.; Duncombe, Margaret L.

2005-10-01

253

Intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and factors affecting it among married women in Adigrat town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increase in contraceptive use worldwide over the last decade, there is still discrepancy in the need to limit birth and utilization of modern contraceptives specifically long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Intention to use long acting and permanent methods of contraception is an important indicator of the potential demand for family planning services. Objective To assess intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) and identifying associated factors among currently married women in Adigrat town. Methods A community based cross sectional study design complemented with a qualitative method was conducted in three selected Kebeles of Adigrat town. A total of 594 study subjects were interviewed. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study subjects. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Open code software version 3.6.2.0 was used to facilitate coding of the qualitative data. Factors associated with intention were identified using logistic regression model and content analysis was done on the qualitative data. Results Intention to use LAPMs was 48.4%. Intention to use LAPMs was higher among women who knew at least one of LAPMs (AOR?=?4.7, 95% CI?=?1.58, 14.01) and women who do not want to have birth within the next 2 years (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.22, 3.13). Intention to use LAMPs was less among women who perceive poor support from their husbands (AOR?=?0.2, 95% CI?=?0.09, 0.45) and those who perceive LAPMs are harmful for the womb (AOR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.14, 0.41). Similarly, participants in the focus group discussion have expressed their concern on the return of fertility after using implants or IUCD as well as insertion and removal procedures. Conclusions The magnitude of intention to use LAPMs in the study area was low. The main limiting factors were fear of side effect, infertility after LAPMs use, knowledge on LAPMs and perception on partner’s support of LAPMs use. To further promote the use of LAPMs addressing associated misconceptions through effective communication strategies and involving spouses in family planning programs is essential.

2014-01-01

254

Does hormone replacement therapy affect the use of prescription medicines in postmenopausal women: experience from the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Trial [ISRCTN35338757  

Microsoft Academic Search

arms. However, the type of prescribed drugs varied between the arms. After combining data from both hormone therapy arms, for women using HRT the combined hazard ratio was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.05-1.53) for the use of calcium channel blockers, 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for local vaginal treatment, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50-0.99) for hypnotics and sedatives and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-0.99)

P Veerus; K Fischer; S-L Hovi; H Karro; E Hemminki

2007-01-01

255

The Disproportionate and Potentially Negative Influence of Research Universities on the Quality of Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and growing body of research indicating that post-secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is failing to prepare citizens for the 21st century economy. Introductory STEM courses are vital for preparing science majors for their fields of study and are the only exposure to science many college students will receive, but the quality of teaching in these courses is often not informed by research on teaching and learning. Research universities play an especially prominent role in the design of introductory courses. While research and doctoral universities account for only about 6% of all higher education institutions, they confer 32 per cent of the baccalaureate degrees, and 56 per cent of the baccalaureates earned by recent recipients of science and engineering doctorates. By assuming that larger introductory classes occur at research institutions one can estimate that a dominant number of students receiving introductory instruction in the geosciences are probably occurring at research institutions. Moreover, research universities produce the majority of tenure-track faculty who will later teach at four-year colleges, so the role of research institutions in the influence of introductory course design is expected to be disproportionately large. While introductory courses at research universities play a influential role in how such courses are designed, the teaching of introductory courses is too often viewed as an undesirable assignment for instructors at those institutions. The effort seems unrewarding with incentives for improving teaching at research institutions perceived as modest at best, if not negative. It is commonly perceived that teaching introductory courses will decrease opportunities for teaching higher-level courses to graduate students and/or to conduct research. Furthermore, even for those interested in improving their pedagogical methods, current approaches to professional development are generally difficult to scale and/or costly to institutions and outside instructors' normal workflow. This presentation reports on the results of surveys of research university instructors in an attempt to quantify the state of the introductory course. The surveys attempt to identify common barriers to improvement. Based on these surveys strategies for how to best implement systemic change in introductory courses at research universities are presented in the hope of stimulating discussion and a call to action.

Samson, P. J.

2010-12-01

256

A qualitative analysis of South African women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and cervical cancer prevention, vaccine awareness and acceptance, and maternal-child communication about sexual health.  

PubMed

In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and beliefs around HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Therefore, this formative study sought to examine women's attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccine acceptance, maternal-child communication about sexuality, and healthcare decision-making and gender roles within an urban community in South Africa. Women ages 18-44 were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a Black township outside of Johannesburg during the fall of 2008. Twenty-four women participated in three focus groups. Findings indicated that the women talked to their children about a variety of sexual health issues; had limited knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Women were interested in learning more about the vaccine although they had reservations about the long-term affect; they reinforced that grandmothers played a key role in a mother's decisions' about her child's health, and supported the idea that government should provide the HPV vaccine as part of the country's immunization program. Our findings indicate the need to develop primary prevention strategies and materials that will provide women with basic cervical cancer prevention messages, including information about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, screening, and how to talk to their children about these topics. Prevention strategies should also consider the cultural context and the role that grandmothers play in the family unit. PMID:21855591

Francis, Shelley A; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Liverpool, Joan; Hipple, Lauren; Mosavel, Maghboehba; Soogun, Soji; Mofammere, Nokuthula

2011-11-01

257

Role of water in the dynamic disproportionation of Zn-based TCNQ(F4) coordination polymers (TCNQ = tetracyanoquinodimethane).  

PubMed

Intriguingly, coordination polymers containing TCNQ(2–) and TCNQF4(2–) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, TCNQF4 = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, both designated as TCNQ(F4)(2–)) may be generated from reaction of metal ions with TCNQ(F4)•–. An explanation is now provided in terms of a solvent-dependent dynamic disproportionation reaction. A systematic study of reactions associated with TCNQ(F4) and electrochemically generated TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– and TCNQ(F4)MeCN(2–) revealed that disproportionation of TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– radical anions in acetonitrile containing a low concentration of water is facilitated by the presence of ZnMeCN(2+). Thus, while the disproportionation reaction 2TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– TCNQ(F4)MeCN + TCNQ(F4)MeCN(2–) is thermodynamically very unfavorable in this medium (Keq ? 9 × 10(–10); TCNQF4), the preferential precipitation of ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) drives the reaction: ZnMeCN(2+) + 2 TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) + TCNQ(F4)MeCN. The concomitant formation of soluble TCNQ(F4)MeCN and insoluble ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) and the loss of TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– were verified by UV–visible and infrared spectroscopy and steady-state voltammetry. Importantly, the reverse reaction of comproportionation rather than disproportionation becomes the favored process in the presence of ?3% (v/v) water, due to the increased solubility of solid ZnTCNQ(F4)(s). Thus, in this “wet” environment, ZnMeCN(2+) and TCNQ(F4)MeCN•– are produced from a mixture of ZnTCNQ(F4)(s) and TCNQ(F4)MeCN and with the addition of water provides a medium for synthesis of [Zn(TCNQ(F4))2(H2O)2]. An important conclusion from this work is that the redox level of TCNQ(F4)-based materials, synthesized from a mixture of metal cations and TCNQ(F4)•–, is controlled by a solvent-dependent disproportionation/comproportionation reaction that may be tuned to favor formation of solids containing the monoanion radical, the dianion, or even a mixture of both. PMID:24495206

Nafady, Ayman; Le, Thanh Hai; Vo, Nguyen; Haworth, Naomi L; Bond, Alan M; Martin, Lisandra L

2014-02-17

258

Disproportionation of pentaammineruthenium(III)-nucleoside complexes leads to two-electron oxidation of nucleosides without involving oxygen molecules.  

PubMed

Pentaammineruthenium(III) complexes of deoxyinosine (dIno) and xanthosine (Xao) ([Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(L)], L is dIno, Xao) in basic solution were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both Ru(III) complexes disproportionate to Ru(II) and Ru(IV). Disproportionation followed the rate law d[Ru(II)]/dt = (k (o) + k (1)[OH(-)])[Ru(III)]. k (o) and k (1) of disproportionation at 25 °C were 2.1 (±0.1) × 10(-3) s(-1) and 21.4 ± 3.2 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, for [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dIno)], and 3.5 (±0.7) × 10(-4) s(-1) and 59.7 ± 3.6 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, for [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(Xao)]. The [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(Xao)] complex disproportionates at a faster rate than [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dIno)] owing to the stronger electron-withdrawing effect of exocyclic oxygen in Xao. The activation parameters ?H (‡) and ?S (‡) for k (1) of [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dIno)] were 80.2 ± 15.2 kJ mol(-1) and 47.6 ± 9.8 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively, indicating that the disproportionation of Ru(III) to Ru(II) and Ru(IV) is favored owing to the positive entropy of activation. The final products of both complexes in basic solution under Ar were compared with those under O(2). Under both conditions [Ru(NH(3))(5)(8-oxo-L)] was produced, but via different mechanisms. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the deprotonation of highly positively polarized C8-H of Ru-L by OH(-) initiates a two-electron redox reaction. For the next step, we propose a one-step two-electron redox reaction between L and Ru(IV) under anaerobic conditions, which differentiates from Clarke's mechanism of two consecutive one-electron redox reactions between L, Ru(III), and O(2). PMID:23053532

Wolf, Matthew W; Choi, Sunhee

2012-12-01

259

Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: A 19-year prospective study of 1003 women  

PubMed Central

The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty. Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p = 0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p = 0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p = 0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time. In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions.

Nicholls, A.S.; Kiran, A.; Javaid, M.K.; Hart, D.J.; Spector, T.D.; Carr, A.J.; Arden, N.K.

2012-01-01

260

Endometrial Polyps in Women Affected by Levothyroxine-Treated Hypothyroidism--Histological Features, Immunohistochemical Findings, and Possible Explanation of Etiopathogenic Mechanism: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate the possible overexpression of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone (PRs) receptors both in EPs glandular and stromal cells in postmenopausal women with levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism in comparison to EPs detected in women with physiological thyroid hormone levels. During the study period (January-February 2013) 22 patients were eligible (12 treated, 10 controls). The two groups were homogenous for general, EPs sonographic and hysteroscopic features. None of the cases of atypia was found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the two groups were similar for ERs and PRs intensity rates in EPs glandular cells despite a trend of ERs percentage expression more than 60% in 2/3 of treated patients versus 1/3 of controls. In stromal EPs components, ERs intensity was high positive in 10 (83,3%) treated cases while it was high positive in 1 control (10%). Percentage of ERs stromal expression showed a different trend between the two groups despite a borderline statistical significance. Our hypothesis is based on a possible double action of hypothyroidism and thyroxine intake: the subclinical TSH increased levels and its possible circadian oscillation could stimulate the endometrial TSHRs (increasing type 2 DIO activity); the circulating levels of exogenous thyroxine could be locally metabolized in active form by type 2 DIO stimulating ERs.

Saccardi, Carlo; Gizzo, Salvatore; Ludwig, Kathrin; Guido, Maria; Scarton, Mara; Gangemi, Michele; Tinelli, Raffaele; Litta, Pietro Salvatore

2013-01-01

261

Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: a 19-year prospective study of 1003 women.  

PubMed

The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty. Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p=0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p=0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p=0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time. In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions. PMID:21782451

Nicholls, A S; Kiran, A; Javaid, M K; Hart, D J; Spector, T D; Carr, A J; Arden, N K

2012-08-01

262

Women in Islam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore basic beliefs and practices of Islam and examine the different views of women's roles in Islam and modern American society in this lesson. They look closely at two issues that affect American Muslims: hijab and prayer.

Wnet

2008-08-21

263

Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately. PMID:24103188

Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

2014-01-28

264

Safety and efficacy of contra-lateral breast reduction for women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer suffer disability because of disproportionate asymmetry. The case notes of all women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy and immediate contra-lateral reduction mammaplasty for primary breast cancer from February 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed. Thirty-three women were identified of whom twenty-seven underwent inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty and six inferior dermoglandular pedicle

Michael Green; Sebastian Aspinall; James Kollias

2009-01-01

265

Effect of hydrogen on the orientation of carbon layers in deposits from the carbon monoxide disproportionation reaction over Co\\/Al 2O 3 catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid product of CO disproportionation over well-calibrated Co\\/Al2O3 catalysts was studied by HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the case of pure Co or of a mixture of CO and CO2, the disproportionation reaction leads to the formation of carbon nanotubes where graphene layers are coaxial cylinders. When H2 is added to CO or to the CO\\/CO2 mixture,

P. Pinheiro; M. C. Schouler; P. Gadelle; M. Mermoux; E. Dooryhée

2000-01-01

266

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

267

HANDBOOK ON WOMEN WORKERS, 1965.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FACTUAL INFORMATION COVERS THE PARTICIPATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE, THE PATTERNS OF THEIR EMPLOYMENT, THEIR OCCUPATIONS, THEIR INCOME AND EARNINGS, THEIR EDUCATION AND TRAINING, AND THE FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS AFFECTING THE EMPLOYMENT AND THE CIVIL AND POLITICAL STATUS OF WOMEN. IN 1965, ABOUT 26 MILLION WOMEN, 37 PERCENT…

HILTON, MARY N.; AND OTHERS

268

Thermosulfurimonas dismutans gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic sulfur-disproportionating bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.  

PubMed

An extremely thermophilic, anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium (strain S95(T)) was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney located on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, Pacific Ocean, at a depth of 1910 m. Cells of strain S95(T) were oval to short Gram-negative rods, 0.5-0.6 µm in diameter and 1.0-1.5 µm in length, growing singly or in pairs. Cells were motile with a single polar flagellum. The temperature range for growth was 50-92 °C, with an optimum at 74 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-8.0, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Growth of strain S95(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 3.5% (w/v). Strain S95(T) grew anaerobically with elemental sulfur as an energy source and bicarbonate/CO(2) as a carbon source. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. Growth was enhanced in the presence of poorly crystalline iron(III) oxide (ferrihydrite) as a sulfide-scavenging agent. Strain S95(T) was also able to grow by disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite. Sulfate was not used as an electron acceptor. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate belongs to the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. On the basis of its physiological properties and results of phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that the isolate represents the sole species of a new genus, Thermosulfurimonas dismutans gen. nov., sp. nov.; S95(T) (=DSM 24515(T)=VKM B-2683(T)) is the type strain of the type species. This is the first description of a thermophilic micro-organism that disproportionates elemental sulfur. PMID:22199218

Slobodkin, A I; Reysenbach, A-L; Slobodkina, G B; Baslerov, R V; Kostrikina, N A; Wagner, I D; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A

2012-11-01

269

Magnetic Order and Charge Disproportionation in a Spin-Ice Type Kondo Lattice Model: Large Scale Monte Carlo Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase diagram of a spin-ice type Kondo lattice model, potentially relevant to metallic pyrochlore oxides, is obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation implementing the polynomial expansion technique up to a system size with 2048 sites. We identified a new 32-sublattice magnetic phase with concomitant charge disproportionation, along with other phases such as two-in two-out and all-in/all-out orders. The spin and charge pattern can be switched by an external magnetic field to a different one accompanied by the formation of a half-magnetization plateau.

Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Masafumi; Motome, Yukitoshi

2012-11-01

270

Migration and women's health.  

PubMed

Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

2009-08-01

271

Contribution of three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy for women affected by bulky stage II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the outcome and dose distribution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by helical tomotherapy in women treated for large supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin’s disease. Material and methods A total of 13 patients received adjuvant radiation at a dose of 30 Gy to the initially involved sites with a boost of 6 Gy to those areas suspected of harboring residual disease on the simulation CT scan. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months, the two-year progression-free survival was 91.6%, and the 2- and 3-year overall survivals were 100%. We did not report any heart or lung acute side effects. The conformity index of PTV (Planning Target Volume) was better for IMRT than for 3D-CRT (p=0.001). For the breasts, lungs, heart, thyroid and esophagus, the volume distributions favored the IMRT plans. For the breasts, the V20Gy, V25Gy and V30Gy were 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the lung tissues, the V20Gy and V30Gy were 2 times and 4.5 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the heart, the V20Gy and V30Gy were 1.4 and 2 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the esophagus, the V35Gy was 1.7 lower for IMRT than for 3D-CRT, and for the thyroid, the V30Gy was 1.2 times lower for IMRT. Conclusion IMRT by helical tomotherapy improved the PTV coverage and dramatically decreased the dose in organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, but a longer follow-up is necessary to prove a translation of these dosimetric improvements in the outcome of the patients.

2013-01-01

272

Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

2007-01-01

273

Epidemiology, Determinants, and Consequences of Cigarette Smoking in African American Women: An Integrative Review  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW.

Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.

2010-01-01

274

Interaction between BDNF Val66Met and childhood stressful life events is associated to affective memory bias in men but not women.  

PubMed

Recent meta-analyses point towards a pathogenic role of the Val66Met variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder, specifically in males. We investigated whether BDNF Val66Met shows a male-specific interaction with childhood stressful life events on affective memory bias, a cognitive susceptibility factor for depression. Healthy volunteers (n=430; 272 females and 158 males) were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) and completed the self-referent encoding task and a childhood stressful life events scale. BDNF Met carriers reporting childhood events tended to recall a lower proportion of positive words compared to Val/Val homozygotes reporting childhood events. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the BDNF genotype×childhood events interaction was significant in male participants and not in female participants. The results suggest that in males, BDNF Val66Met interacts with childhood life events, increasing the cognitive susceptibility markers of depression. In females, this effect may be independent of BDNF Val66Met. PMID:22033217

van Oostrom, Iris; Franke, Barbara; Rijpkema, Mark; Gerritsen, Lotte; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Fernández, Guillèn; Tendolkar, Indira

2012-01-01

275

Disproportionation, Metal-Insulator Transition, and Critical Interaction Strength in Na1/2CoO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous breaking of symmetry is one of the key concepts of solid state physics related to phase transitions. Charge/spin density wave, or charge/spin ordering if the propagation vector is commensurate, are notorious examples of broken symmetry. The charge disproportionation in Na0.5CoO2 is the main theme of the present work. The results of LDA+U calculations will be presented, exhibiting a charge disproportionation transition at U 3eV. NaxCoO2 attracted considerable attention mainly due to superconductivity of its hydrated form Na0.3CoO2.1.3H2O [1]. Besides the superconductivity NaxCoO2 exhibits several intriguing properties throughout its phase diagram, such crossover from Pauli-like to Curie-Weiss susceptibility at x=0.5, spin-density wave around x=0.7 or several phase transitions for x=0.5 including metal-insulator transition, charge ordering and magnetic ordering [2]. The NaxCoO2 lattice consists of triangular CoO2 layers separated by Na layer. The mobility of Na ions and fractional occupation of Na sublattice provides an additional complication. Using LDA+U functional within FPLO [3] bandstructure method we have performed series of supercell calculations allowing for breaking of the symmetry between different Co sites. We have found that for large enough, but physically realistic, values of the on-site Coulomb interaction U the Co sublattice disproportionates into sites with formal valencies Co^4+ and Co^3+. We have found that at the same time a gap opens in the excitation spectrum. Details of the bandstructure across the transition as well as the driving forces of the transition in the LDA+U mean field picture will be discussed. [1] K. Takada et al., Nature (London) 422, 53 (2003).[2] M. L. Foo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247001 (2004).[3] K. Koepernik and H. Eschrig, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1743 (1999).

Kunes, Jan

2006-03-01

276

Increasing women in leadership in global health.  

PubMed

Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

2014-08-01

277

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of young women’s resources—including employment and material transfers from male partners—and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18–24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that young women’s income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease young women’s negotiating power.

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

278

Formation of NaCl-Type Monodeuteride LaD by the Disproportionation Reaction of LaD2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous x-ray diffraction measurements revealed the pressure-induced decomposition of an fcc LaH2.3 into H-rich and H-poor fcc phases around 11 GPa. The present neutron diffraction measurements on LaD2 confirm the formation of NaCl-type LaD as a counterpart of the D-rich LaD2+? by disproportionation. First-principles enthalpy and lattice dynamic calculations demonstrate that the NaCl-type LaH is stabilized at high pressures and can be recovered at ambient conditions. Finding the NaCl-type LaH will pave the way for investigations on the site-dependent nature of hydrogen-metal interactions.

Machida, A.; Honda, M.; Hattori, T.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Watanuki, T.; Katayama, Y.; Aoki, K.; Komatsu, K.; Arima, H.; Ohshita, H.; Ikeda, K.; Suzuya, K.; Otomo, T.; Tsubota, M.; Doi, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Kojima, Y.; Kim, D. Y.

2012-05-01

279

Genital tract viral load in HIV Type 1-positive women correlates with specific cytokine levels in cervical-vaginal secretions but is not a determinant of infectious virus or anti-HIV activity.  

PubMed

As the AIDS epidemic continues with women being disproportionately affected, it is crucial to understand factors that predict the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. We investigated whether genital tract viral load (GTVL) in cervical-vaginal lavages (CVL) from HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts correlates with cytokine levels, antimicrobial concentrations, and intrinsic anti-HIV activity. CVL were collected from 19 HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts [mean 381 cells/mm(3) (227-536 cells/mm(3))]. None of the women was on antiretroviral therapy. The women were categorized into those with detectable GTVL or those with undetectable GTVL (detectable GTVL RNA levels >?400 copies/ml). Women were also categorized according to bacterial vaginosis (BV) status irrespective of GTVL. The TZM-bl assay was used to determine the presence of infectious virus and anti-HIV activity. Significantly higher levels of RANTES, Eotaxin, Fractalkine, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, TNF-?, and GM-CSF were observed in women with detectable GTVL compared to women with undetectable GTVL. No significant differences were observed in the following cytokines and chemokines: G-CSF, IL-1RA, IL-8, and IP-10. GTVL did not correlate either with antimicrobials known to have anti-HIV activity or with the presence of infectious virus. BV status did not have a significant effect on anti-HIV activity. These findings further our understanding of the role of GTVL in determining the cytokine and chemokine milieu in the female reproductive tract. PMID:22356616

Mukura, Lucy R; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Wira, Charles R

2012-11-01

280

Charge disproportionation in La1-xCaxFeO3-? (x = 0.4 and 0.5) investigated by mechanical spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of charge disproportionation in orthorhombic lanthanum orthoferrites La1-xCaxFeO3-? (x = 0.4 and 0.5) has been investigated by kilohertz mechanical spectroscopy. Contrast to rhombohedral La1-xSrxFeO3-? (x = 0.5), no elastic softening was observed in La1-xCaxFeO3-? above charge disproportionation. This different behavior of elastic modulus in La1-xCaxFeO3-? and La1-xSrxFeO3-? unveils the implicit orbital effect. Below charge disproportionation, an internal friction peak around 140 K was observed in La1-xCaxFeO3-?, which is similar to that in La1-xSrxFeO3-?. This peak is ascribed to an elastic manifestation of charge freezing and can be used as an indirect indication of CD in doped LaFeO3.

Xu, Z. C.; Liu, M. F.; Chen, C. C.; Ying, X. N.

2014-03-01

281

Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

Stevens, Bethany

2012-01-01

282

Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

2009-01-01

283

The complexity of consent: women's experiences testing for HIV at an antenatal clinic in Durban, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informed consent has historically been a cornerstone to ensuring autonomy during HIV testing. However, recent changes to global guidance on HIV testing have led to substantial debate on what policy provisions are necessary to ensure that consent remains meaningful in the context of testing. Despite disproportionate rates of testing during pregnancy, pregnant women's perspectives on the HIV testing process are

Allison K. Groves; Suzanne Maman; Sibekezelo Msomi; Nduduzo Makhanya; Dhayendre Moodley

2010-01-01

284

Women and Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Women with epilepsy face additional challenges when compared to their peers. Hormonal influences may increase seizure activity, alter endocrine function, and affect fertility. In this population, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) reduce the efficacy of contraception methods and increase the risk of fetal malformations. Other pertinent issues to women with epilepsy include breastfeeding as well as bone mineral health. This article summarizes our current, collective knowledge of these issues and makes specific recommendations with respect to management.

O'Connor, Sunila E.; Zupanc, Mary L.

2009-01-01

285

Women and the Reagan Administration: Promises and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the Reagan administration's campaign promises to its actual performance in handling women's issues. Administrative appointments, government programs for women in education, science, and business, federal laws and regulations, and social welfare programs affecting women are examined. (AM)

Schafran, Lynn Hecht

1982-01-01

286

Difficult Exams: Cystocele, Rectocele, Stenotic Cervix\\/Cervical Dilatation, Nonsexually Active Women, Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are various anatomical conditions that can affect the performance of the pelvic exam and may lead to modifications of\\u000a your pelvic examination techniques. These conditions include examinations of women who are not sexually active, women with\\u000a cystoceles or rectoceles, women with atrophic vaginitis, and women with cervical stenosis.

Rhina Acevedo

287

Older women's sexuality.  

PubMed

In consultations with older women, doctors should ask about sexual problems. A holistic approach is needed to examine the many different factors that can affect sexuality. Hormonal changes associated with ageing have an impact on women's sexuality. Doctors need to have a clear idea of the place of hormonal treatment for different sexual problems. Physical changes associated with ageing, including illness and disability, may interfere with sexual expression. Diseases of the endocrine, vascular and nervous systems will most commonly affect sexual function. A broad range of psychosocial factors associated with ageing may influence sexuality. PMID:12797854

Yee, Lesley A; Sundquist, Kendra J

2003-06-16

288

Living with sugar: Socioeconomic status and cultural beliefs about type 2 diabetes among Afro-Caribbean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., individuals of Afro-Caribbean and Latino descent are two to three times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Caribbean and Latin America migrants, particularly minority women bear a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate if Afro-Caribbean women share a cultural belief model

Chrystal A. S Smith

2009-01-01

289

Many steps ahead, a few steps back: U.S. women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, the decades-long slow but steady increase in participation in physics by undergraduate women has stalled. As the numbers of undergraduate majors in physics increase, the numbers of women are not keeping pace. Moreover, women of color represent a disproportionately small fraction of physicists. This means that women of color, and women in general, are an undertapped pool of talent. Significant variation in the participation of women from one institution to the next suggests that local factors, such as department culture, are important, rather than differences in aptitude, motivation, or preparation. Physicists in the U.S. must redouble their efforts to make physics departments and laboratories places where women and men of all backgrounds can thrive and produce exciting science.

Coble, K.; Cunningham, B.; Freeland, E.; Hodapp, T.; Hodari, A. K.; Ivie, R.; Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Ong, M.; Petty, S.; Seestrom, S.; Seidel, S.; Simmons, E.; Thoennessen, M.; Urry, M.; White, H.

2013-03-01

290

Premature Menopause May Affect Women's Brains  

MedlinePLUS

... May 7 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology . There was some evidence that using ... he added. SOURCE: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , news release, May 7, 2014 HealthDay ...

291

Exercise Affects Men's, Women's Hearts Differently  

MedlinePLUS

... ages," said Dr. Gregg Fonarow, associate chief of cardiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and ... the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology, in Washington, D.C. Based on their findings, ...

292

Concomitant Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Biological Factors Associated with the Disproportionate HIV Infection Burden among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities  

PubMed Central

Background American Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood. Methods Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV. Results HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6th (16.2%) were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD); of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND). Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001); less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001); more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p?=?0.011) or chlamydia (p?=?0.020). Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001); and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p?=?0.004), and urethral (p?=?0.025) or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001). They were less likely to report female (p?=?0.002) or transgender partners (p?=?0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia. Conclusions ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily affected community.

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl; Mannheimer, Sharon; Magnus, Manya; del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wilton, Leo; Cummings, Vanessa; Watson, Christopher C.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Gaydos, Charlotte; Eshleman, Susan H.; Clarke, William; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Mao, Cherry; Griffith, Samuel; Wheeler, Darrell

2014-01-01

293

19-electron intermediates and cage-effects in the photochemical disproportionation of [CpW(CO)3]2 with Lewis bases.  

PubMed

The role of 19-electron intermediates in the photochemical disproportionation of [CpW(CO)3]2 (Cp = C5H5) with Lewis bases (PR3; R = OMe, Bu, Ph) is investigated on the ultrafast time scale using femtosecond VIS-pump, IR-probe spectroscopy. Formation of a 19-electron (19e) species CpW(CO)3PR3*by coordination of PR3 with photogenerated 17-electron (17e) radicals CpW(CO)3* is directly observed, and equilibrium is established between the 17e radicals and the 19e intermediates favoring 19e intermediates in the order: Bu > OMe > Ph. Steric effects dominate the 17e/19e equilibrium when the cone-angle of the Lewis base exceeds a certain limiting value (between 132 degrees and 145 degrees ), but below this value electronic properties of the Lewis base control the 17e/19e dynamics. Disproportionation occurs in less than 200 picoseconds by electron transfer between a solvent caged 17e radical and 19e, highly reducing species. The rate and extent of ultrafast disproportionation depends on both the identity and concentration of the Lewis base. In low concentrations of PR3 (typically 1-2 M or less) or with Lewis bases whose equilibrium heavily favors 17e radicals (e.g., PPh3), disproportionation is rate-limited by breakdown of the solvent cage. Density functional theory calculations on vibrational frequencies and charge distributions of the various complexes support the experimental results. PMID:16144403

Cahoon, James F; Kling, Matthias F; Schmatz, Stefan; Harris, Charles B

2005-09-14

294

A novel single-site manganese(II) complex of a pyridine derivative as a catalase mimetic for disproportionation of H2O2 in water.  

PubMed

A novel single site Mn(II) complex was successfully synthesized and tested in the aqueous disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. The complex was found to be stable (HR-XAS) and exhibits catalase-like activity in neutral pH. Theoretical calculations suggested a reaction mechanism involving two complexes, changes in metal oxidation state and proton shuttling. PMID:23549197

Zienkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Szlachetko, Jakub; Lothschütz, Christian; Hodorowicz, Maciej; Jab?o?ska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Sá, Jacinto; Barszcz, Barbara

2013-06-01

295

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

2005-01-01

296

Study of the Effects of an Intervention to Reduce the Disproportionate Identification in the Category of Emotional Disturbance in the Los Angeles Unified School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of persistent disproportionate representation of minority students in special education is now entering its fourth decade. Disproportionality is well documented in the literature and has been the focus of attention from federal agencies, including the Office of Civil Rights and the Office of Special Education Programs. In an effort…

Hernandez, Jaime E.; Ramanathan, Arun K.; Harr, Jenifer; Socias, Miguel

2008-01-01

297

Quenching, radical formation, and disproportionation in the photoreduction of 4-carboxybenzophenone by 4-carboxybenzhydrol, hydrazine, and hydrazinium ion  

SciTech Connect

Laser flash and steady irradiation studies have been carried out on the 4-carboxybenzophenone (CB)-4-carboxy-benzhydrol (CBH/sub 2/) and CB-hydrazine systems over the pH range 5.8 to 12. In reaction with CBH/sub 2/, CB triplet is quenched in part by the carboxylate, k/sub q/ approx. = 4 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/; total reaction, k/sub 4/ = 3.0 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/ leads to the ketyl radical CBH, phi = 1.7. Absorption spectra were recorded for CB triplet, lambda/sub max/ = 535 nm (epsilon = 6600 M/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/), for CBH, lambda/sub max/ = 570 nm (epsilon = 5500), and for the radical anion CB/sup -/, lambda/sub max/ = 660 nm (epsilon = 8100). The pKa ofCBH was determined, 8.2. Rate constants were determined: for combination of CBH to pinacol, 2k/sub 6/ = 1.8 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/; for reactions of CBH with CB/sup -/, k/sub 7/ = 1.1 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/; for disproportionation of 2CB/sup -/, 2k/sub 8/ = 9.8 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/. Factors to convert observed yields of photoreduction by hydrazine to yields of ketyl radical leading to pinacol and hydrol were determined from effects of pH on quantum yields of reduction of CB by CBH/sub 2/. Reduction of CB triplet by neutral hydrazine occurs with k/sub ir/ = 6.8 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/, forming ketyl radical with phi = 1.0, measured relative to the CBH/sub 2/ reaction. The reaction with protonated hydrazine is slower, k'/sub ir/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/. Computer simulation, using the measured rate constants, pK/sub a/ and primary yields, and literature constants for pure hydrazine systems, leads to calculated reduction yields very similar to the observed values, with phi/sub ketyl/ approx. = 0.0 for reaction of triplet with protonated hydrazine, and ratios of rate constants for ketyl-hydrazyl disproportionations appropriately close to unity.

Inbar, S.; Linschitz, H.; Cohen, S.G.

1981-12-02

298

Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions  

PubMed Central

The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies.

Johns, Merida L.

2013-01-01

299

Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.  

PubMed

The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

Johns, Merida L

2013-01-01

300

Another development with Women.  

PubMed

The objective of this discussion of "Another Development with Women" is to add some thoughts to the scientific approach, which combines survey techniques and computer style data analysis (measurability, detachment, and objectivity). Its purpose is to tilt the balance of the development process a bit further towards women, and it proposes to introduce another element into the discussion on development with women--that of experiential knowledge (knowledge based on collective experience). Women researchers have a double consciousness, similar to that of the black or other discriminated minority, an awareness of the motives and strategies of the oppressor as well as the inner view of the oppressed. To find some answers to the question why the development debate is sometimes obscure, sometimes sterile, and usually frustrating, and to understand why the goals of development remain distant oases, it is necessary to turn attention to the actual contribution women are making to development. Fundamentally, most of women's activities seem to fall outside the definition of "gainful employment." The activities are labeled "nonmarket" or "nonmonetized" activities. It is the differential between work and creativity that fundamentally affects women and erodes their economic and social status. Another unperceived dimension to women's work, which further conceals their efforts and prevents them from surfacing, is the fact that until recently socioeconomic series and indicators were not desegregated by sex. Consequently, the available data on key economic and social questions could not answer the fundamental questions of where are women working, in what numbers, in which activities, and at what wage levels. During the last 2 years some global data for an international information base on women has become available, and the new data will make it possible to follow much more closely, and on a comparative basis for a much larger number of countries, new developments concerning women's employment, working conditions, and their contributions to society. To gain some insights into the processes of development, 4 different economic and social indicators are examined: agriculture, industry, health, and education. Also examined are women's main roles in food production, industrial work, health provision, and education. It is clear that in any theory of power and its distribution, women bear the brunt of inequality in terms of income and rewards, assets, and resources. Another Development will have to find ways by which the unexplored creative energies of women are released. PMID:12279570

Ahooja-patel, K

1982-01-01

301

1969 Handbook on Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published periodically by the Women's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor, this handbook assembles factual information covering the participation and characteristics of women in the labor force, the patterns of their employment, occupations, income and earnings, education and training, and the federal and state laws affecting their…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

302

Women, Computers, and Social Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses women's use of computers and considers how the principles of feminism affect computerization. Highlights include the computerization process; gender differences in learning; models for feminist use of computers, including information processing and telecommunications; and a resource list of women's organizations that use computers.…

Eastman, Beva

1991-01-01

303

Origin of radical coercivity reduction in fine Nd-Fe-B-type hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, recombination particles and its recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coercivity variation of fine Nd-Fe-B-type particles prepared by ball milling of HDDR (hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, recombination)-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material was investigated using a HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 material, and it was compared with that of fine particles prepared by mechanical milling of sintered Nd10Pr2.5Fe80.4B6Ga1Cu0.1 magnet. Coercivity of the fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material was radically reduced as particle size decreased. In order to determine the major cause for the radical coercivity reduction, surface oxidation, structural damage (micro-strain), and crystallographic change (lattice shrinkage due to residual hydrogen desorption) in the milled fine particles were examined. The major contributory factor for the observed radical coercivity reduction was surface oxidation. Chemical etching proved an effective means for the recovery of the reduced coercivity in the milled fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material. In contrast to fine particles prepared from sintered Nd-Fe-B-type magnet, the fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated material could have reasonably high coercivity even as a very fine powder.

Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

2014-05-01

304

Shock-induced disproportionation of mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock-recovery experiments have been performed on high-purity mullite polycrystals in the pressure range up to 72 GPa. The recovered samples have been examined by an x-ray diffraction method, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The samples shocked above 65 GPa contain an amorphous SiO2 phase and a ?-Al2O3 phase, indicating that a rapid disproportionation reaction of mullite is induced by shock compression. The recovered amorphous SiO2 has a mean Si-O-Si bond angle roughly 7° narrower than that of the fused SiO2 glass, indicating the formation of the densified amorphous SiO2 phase. The ?-Al2O3 phase is crystallized as very fine particles with grain sizes less than 10 nm in the matrix of the desified amorphous SiO2 phase. The crystallization of ?-Al2O3 is expected to occur during a pressure-release process owing to the crystal size effect concerning the phase stability of Al2O3.

Kawai, Nobuaki; Atou, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-Ichi; Ito, Shun; Yubuta, Kunio; Kikuchi, Masae

2009-07-01

305

Fertility and Women with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Fertility and Women With Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ... offer information on how cancer treatment can affect fertility, ways to preserve fertility before treatment, and fertility ...

306

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

307

Disproportionation of Organic Polysulfides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal decomposition of dimethyl tetrasulfide and trisulfide at 80 deg. was followed by the use of nmr spectroscopy. In the first case, dimethyl tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexasulfides were found in the early stages of the decomposition. In the second...

T. L. Pickering K. J. Saunders A. V. Tobolsky

1966-01-01

308

An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

2011-01-01

309

Feminism and anorectic tendencies in college women.  

PubMed

Anorexia is a debilitating disorder which affects significant numbers of young women. Brumberg has suggested a causal relationship in young women between feminism and anorexia. In this study, traditional-aged female college students completed the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test. The hypothesized relationship between feminism and anorexia was not found. PMID:1454949

Bailey, W T; Hamilton, T L

1992-12-01

310

Birds of Passage Are also Women ....  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a special issue on women and migration. Discusses immigrant women's participation within the world labor market, the ideologies affecting them, the effects of migration on sex roles and family patterns, and women's reasons for migration. Also discusses sex biases in research and policymaking concerning migration. (KH)

Morokvasic, Mirjana

1984-01-01

311

Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... unprotected sex with a man. Some reasons why African-American women are affected by HIV/AIDS more than women of other races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to ...

312

Distinct developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral and caudal isocortex in evolution  

PubMed Central

In adulthood, the isocortex of several species is characterized by a gradient in neurons per unit of cortical surface area with fewer neurons per unit of cortical surface area in the rostral pole relative to the caudal pole. A gradient in neurogenesis timing predicts differences in neurons across the isocortex: neurons per unit of cortical surface area are fewer rostrally, where neurogenesis duration is short, and higher caudally where neurogenesis duration is longer. How species differences in neurogenesis duration impact cortical progenitor cells across its axis is not known. I estimated progenitor cells per unit of ventricular area across the rostro-caudal axis of the isocortex in cats (Felis catus) and in dogs (Canis familiaris) mostly before layers VI-II neurons are generated. I also estimated the ventricular length across the rostro-caudal axis at various stages of development in both species. These two species were chosen because neurogenesis duration in dogs is extended compared with cats. Caudally, cortical progenitors expand more tangentially and in numbers in dogs compared with cats. Rostrally, the cortical proliferative zone expands more tangentially in dogs compared with cats. However, the tangential expansion in the rostral cortical proliferative zone occurs without a concomitant increase in progenitor cell numbers. The tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in the rostral cortex is mediated by a reduction in cell density. These different developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral (i.e., frontal cortex) and caudal cortex (e.g., primary visual cortex) when neurogenesis duration lengthens in evolution.

Charvet, Christine J.

2014-01-01

313

Metabolic switching of BILR 355 in the presence of ritonavir. I. Identifying an unexpected disproportionate human metabolite.  

PubMed

11-Ethyl-5,11-dihydro-5-methyl-8-[2-[(1-oxido-4-quinolinyl)oxy] ethyl]-6H-dipyrido[3,2-b:2',3'-e][1,4]diazepin-6-one (BILR 355) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus-1. BILR 355 exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile and low exposure after oral administration to humans. This article describes the in vitro metabolism of BILR 355, which is correlated with the in vivo nonlinearity findings. Our in vitro studies had demonstrated that BILR 355 was extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A. Thus, BILR 355 was concomitantly administered with ritonavir (RTV) in an attempt to boost systemic exposure, which did occur in humans. In addition, the expectation was that the overall metabolism of BILR 355 would be decreased with concomitant administration of RTV. Subsequent metabolite profiling was performed using human plasma samples obtained from clinical phase Ib studies with concomitant administration of BILR 355 and RTV. A total of 18 metabolites was observed. Their structures were proposed on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technologies, and 10 metabolites were confirmed by comparison with synthetic standards. We were surprised to find that a disproportionate human metabolite, BILR 516, was uncovered during this metabolite profiling study and pharmacokinetic analysis of BILR 516 showed that it had a longer half-life and higher exposure than the parent compound at steady state. Of interest, BILR 516 was not detected in human plasma when BILR 355 was administered alone. Therefore, whereas RTV boosted the exposure of BILR 355, it resulted in a significant metabolic switching of BILR 355. Overall, this article demonstrates an unusual example of metabolic switching and raises concern about the consequence of metabolic switching during drug development. PMID:22393120

Li, Yongmei; Lai, W George; Whitcher-Johnstone, Andrea; Busacca, Carl A; Eriksson, Magnus C; Lorenz, Jon C; Tweedie, Donald J

2012-06-01

314

Two-electron oxidation of deoxyguanosine by a Ru(III) complex without involving oxygen molecules through disproportionation.  

PubMed

Among the many mechanisms for the oxidation of guanine derivatives (G) assisted by transition metals, Ru(III) and Pt(IV) metal ions share basically the same principle. Both Ru(III)- and Pt(IV)-bound G have highly positively polarized C8-H's that are susceptible to deprotonation by OH(-), and both undergo two-electron redox reactions. The main difference is that, unlike Pt(IV), Ru(III) is thought to require O(2) to undergo such a reaction. In this study, however, we report that [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dGuo)] (dGuo = deoxyguanosine) yields cyclic-5'-O-C8-dGuo (a two-electron G oxidized product, cyclic-dGuo) without O(2). In the presence of O(2), 8-oxo-dGuo and cyclic-dGuo were observed. Both [Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)(dGuo)] and cyclic-dGuo were produced from [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dGuo)] accelerated by [OH(-)]. We propose that [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dGuo)] disproportionates to [Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)(dGuo)] and [Ru(IV)(NH(3))(4)(NH(2)(-))(dGuo)], followed by a 5'-OH attack on C8 in [Ru(IV)(NH(3))(4)(NH(2)(-))(dGuo)] to initiate an intramolecular two-electron transfer from dGuo to Ru(IV), generating cyclic-dGuo and Ru(II) without involving O(2). PMID:21678917

Choi, Sunhee; Ryu, DaWeon; DellaRocca, Joseph G; Wolf, Matthew W; Bogart, Justin A

2011-07-18

315

Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women\\u000a and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication\\u000a difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with disabilities to sexual\\u000a assault. However, few studies have examined whether language impairment

E. B. Brownlie; Amina Jabbar; Joseph Beitchman; Ron Vida; Leslie Atkinson

2007-01-01

316

Tracking reactive intermediates by FTIR monitoring of reactions in low-temperature sublimed solids: nitric oxide disproportionation mediated by ruthenium(II) carbonyl porphyrin Ru(TPP)(CO).  

PubMed

Interaction of NO ((15)NO) with amorphous layers of Ru(II) carbonyl porphyrin (Ru(TPP)(CO), TPP(2-) = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion) was monitored by FTIR spectroscopy from 80 K to room temperature. An intermediate spectrally characterized at very low temperatures (110 K) with ?(CO) at 2001 cm(-1) and ?(NO) at 1810 cm(-1) (1777 cm(-1) for (15)NO isotopomer) was readily assigned to the mixed carbonyl-nitrosyl complex Ru(TPP)(CO)(NO), which is the logical precursor to CO labilization. Remarkably, Ru(TPP)-mediated disproportionation of NO is seen even at 110 K, an indication of how facile this reaction is. By varying the quantity of supplied NO, it was also demonstrated that the key intermediate responsible for NO disproportionation is the dinitrosyl complex Ru(TPP)(NO)2, supporting the conclusion previously made from solution experiments. PMID:23573997

Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Martirosyan, Garik G; Ford, Peter C

2013-05-01

317

MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome: A clinico-radiologic phenotype linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase gene mutation.  

PubMed

MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) syndrome, a rare X-linked disorder, generally seen in girls, is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, and disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia. It is caused by inactivating calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene mutations. We report a 2-year-old girl with severe neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, minimal pontine hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and normal looking corpus callosum, with whom the conventional cytogenetic studies turned out to be normal, and an array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis showed CASK gene duplication at Xp11.4. Our case highlights the importance of using clinico-radiologic phenotype to guide genetic investigation and it also confirms the role of a-CGH analysis in establishing the genetic diagnosis of MICPCH syndrome, when conventional cytogenetic studies are inconclusive. PMID:23901204

Saleem, Rashid; Setty, Gururaj; Hussain, Nahin

2013-01-01

318

Women's involvement in multiple roles and psychological distress.  

PubMed

Women's involvement in multiple roles was examined in relation to three stress indices: role overload, role conflict, and anxiety. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses, effects of number of roles occupied; occupancy of the particular roles of paid worker, wife, and mother; and the quality of a woman's experience in her roles were analyzed. Data were from a disproportionate stratified random sample (N = 238) of Caucasian women between 35 and 55 years of age. For the total sample and for employed women, occupancy of the role of mother was related to two stress indices; occupancy of the role of paid worker was related to none. The quality of experience in the work and parental roles was a significant predictor of role overload; quality of parental role experience was a significant predictor of role conflict and of anxiety. PMID:4020611

Barnett, R C; Baruch, G K

1985-07-01

319

Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 190 homeless women in Portland, Oregon, found that most homeless women are young, have minor children, and are mobile. The majority have a history of physical or sexual abuse, many are in poor health, 18 percent have been in a mental hospital, and one-fourth are alcoholic. The implications of these findings for policies and practice are discussed.

Sandra C. Anderson; Tome Boe; Sharon Smith

1988-01-01

320

AMERICAN WOMEN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

321

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

322

Empowering Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

Gomez, Aurelia

2012-01-01

323

Women with Disabilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the National Women's Health Information Center offers a plethora of resources of interest to women with disabilities and those who work and live with them. Divided into topical areas such as abuse, parenting, and sexuality, the site has a range of information about different types of disabilities and how they may particularly affect women. Also provided is information on federal laws and regulations that protect those with disabilities as well as extensive lists of services and support resources. A section on statistics may prove especially useful to researchers and educators. This site has literally hundreds of helpful links and publications and will be useful to both the general public and professionals.

324

Work Careers of Ever Married and Never Married Retired Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between marital status and job involvement in women retired from nonprofessional careers (58 ever married women and 22 never married women). Results showed that marital status affected the form of these women's work careers but not the quality of their work role participation. (JAC)

Keating, Norah; Jeffrey, Barbara

1983-01-01

325

Predicting the Timing of Women's Departure from Abusive Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate forces that affect the timing of women's exit from violent relationships with men. Abused women were recruited from posters in the community and battered women's shelters, interviewed, and followed up for 10 years. Data for this study are based on 100 women and were analyzed using event history analysis.…

Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; McCloskey, Laura A.

2007-01-01

326

Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution.

Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loic

2012-01-01

327

Women Astronomers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the role of women in the scientific community in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century. Specific concern is directed towards the education and career opportunities of female astronomers. (MA)

Warner, Deborah Jean

1979-01-01

328

Smokefree Women  

Cancer.gov

JavaScript is disabled. Skip to Main Content Search Smokefree Women Search Quit Smoking Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before

329

Women's relationship with the environment.  

PubMed

In developing countries, all development activities as well as reclamation of degraded areas, pollution reduction, and preservation of biodiversity affect women's environment, especially in rural areas. Women produce most subsistence foods and cash crops, but control only about 1% of the world's land. Lack of land tenure and of access to it keep women from obtaining credit, training, and other supports, thereby preventing them from using their traditional, longterm conservation practices. In many developing countries, commercial producers force women off the most productive lands and onto marginal lands where they grow subsistence crops. They tend to overuse the marginal land and to allow little time for soil recovery. Soil degradation is exacerbated when women need to travel greater distances to collect fuelwood, water, fodder, and food. Almost complete desertification awaits Rajasthan, India, where such events and intensive cash cropping occur. Heavy pesticide use on large commercial farms increases pest resistance, thereby boosting infestation and reducing species diversity. Women are testing sustainable agricultural techniques, for instance, interplanting and crop rotation. Even though women supply water needs, they tend to be excluded from planning, implementing, and maintaining water supplies. Women depend on forests to provide food, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicines, and many materials for income-earning efforts. Commercial logging, migration and resettlement, agricultural development, and cutting for firewood and charcoal destroy these forests. Reforestation schemes do not consider women's needs. Deforestation and desertification increase women's work burdens. Poor women who have migrated to urban areas also experience environmental degradation, deteriorating health, and resource depletion; most live in squatter settlements. Deteriorating economic circumstances in developing countries, reduced flows of official development assistance to developing countries, rapid population growth, lack of women's support mechanisms, and civil conflict are underlying factors for environmental degradation. PMID:12287131

Davidson, J

1993-02-01

330

Heterogeneity in mammography use across the nation: separating evidence of disparities from the disproportionate effects of geography  

PubMed Central

Background Mammography is essential for early detection of breast cancer and both reduced morbidity and increased survival among breast cancer victims. Utilization is lower than national guidelines, and evidence of a recent decline in mammography use has sparked concern. We demonstrate that regression models estimated over pooled samples of heterogeneous states may provide misleading information regarding predictors of health care utilization and that comprehensive cancer control efforts should focus on understanding these differences and underlying causal factors. Our study population includes all women over age 64 with breast cancer in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries, linked to a nationally representative 5% reference sample of Medicare-eligible women located in 11 states that span all census regions and are heterogeneous in racial and ethnic mix. Combining women with and without cancer in the sample allows assessment of previous cancer diagnosis on propensity to use mammography. Our conceptual model recognizes the interplay between individual, social, cultural, and physical environments along the pathways to health care utilization, while delineating local and more distant levels of influence among contextual variables. In regression modeling, we assess individual-level effects, direct effects of contextual factors, and interaction effects between individual and contextual factors. Results Pooling all women across states leads to quite different conclusions than state-specific models. Commuter intensity, community acculturation, and community elderly impoverishment have significant direct impacts on mammography use which vary across states. Minorities living in isolated enclaves with others of the same race/ethnicity may be either advantaged or disadvantaged, depending upon the place studied. Conclusion Careful analysis of place-specific context is essential for understanding differences across communities stemming from different causal factors. Optimal policy interventions to change behavior (improve screening rates) will be as heterogeneous as local community characteristics, so no "one size fits all" policy can improve population health. Probability modeling with correction for clustering of individuals within multilevel contexts can reveal important differences from place to place and identify key factors to inform targeting of specific communities for further study.

Mobley, Lee R; Kuo, Tzy-Mey (May); Driscoll, David; Clayton, Laurel; Anselin, Luc

2008-01-01

331

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality among american Indian and alaska native women, 1999-2009.  

PubMed

Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR?=?1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR?=?1.84 for regional stage and RR?=?1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (-25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

2014-06-01

332

Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.  

PubMed

Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. PMID:22055674

Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook

2011-11-01

333

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999-2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR?=?1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR?=?1.84 for regional stage and RR?=?1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (?25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

2014-01-01

334

Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

1997-01-01

335

Agenda for Research on Women's Health for the 21st Century. Volume 7. New Frontiers in Women's Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes thousands of issues and questions raised by more than 1,500 women's health professionals and advocates throughout the United States. Their recommendations for addressing the major diseases and health risks affecting women create a c...

2001-01-01

336

Pink-collar medicine: Women and the future of medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of women in medicine is increasing. There is evidence that women practice in different ways than men; are interested\\u000a in different aspects of medicine; work fewer hours; and receive less pay for equivalent hours than men. Women are also less\\u000a likely to be represented in the higher echelons of power within academic medicine. Women’s carrers are adversely affected

Alison M. Heru

2005-01-01

337

Affect and pain in rheumatoid arthritis: Do individual differences in affective regulation and affective intensity predict emotional recovery from pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individual differences in adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis are not fully accounted for by illness severity or duration\\u000a of symptoms.Purpose: In this study, we assessed differences in affect regulation and affect intensity as variables that might be important for\\u000a identifying women with rheumatoid arthritis who are resilient versus those who have disrupted moods following pain exacerbations.Method: Specifically, affective regulation, affect

Nancy A. Hamilton; Alex J. Zautra; John W. Reich

2005-01-01

338

The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Background HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied. Methods We recruited women based on HIV status through a Toronto community health centre. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea molecular testing and vaginal secretions for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Differences in prevalence were assessed for statistical significance using chi-square. Results We recruited 126 HIV-positive and 291 HIV-negative women, with a median age of 40 and 31 years, respectively (p?women (4.8% vs. 0.34%, p?=?0.004; and 47.6% vs. 21.2%, p?women (p?women (50.8% vs. 22.6%, p?women in Toronto. However, HSV-2 prevalence was higher than that reported in previous studies in the general Canadian population and was strongly associated with HIV infection, as was infection with hepatitis B and HPV.

2013-01-01

339

Food insecurity: special considerations for women1234  

PubMed Central

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is the converse state, is often associated with poverty and low income, and has important implications for the health and nutrition of individuals. Given their contribution to food production and preparation, their role in society as child bearers and caregivers, the increasing number of female-headed households worldwide, and their disproportionately poor economic status, women need special consideration in discussions of food insecurity and its effect on health, nutrition, and behavior. This article reviews the scientific literature on issues related to women and food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with obesity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms; risky sexual behavior; poor coping strategies; and negative pregnancy outcomes in women, although evidence about the direction and causality of associations is unclear. There is a lack of evidence and understanding of the effects of food insecurity in resource-poor settings, including its effect on weight, nutritional outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes, as well as its effect on progression of diseases such as HIV infection. More research is needed to guide efficient interventions that address food insecurity among women. However, practical experience suggests that both short-term assistance and longer-term strategies that improve livelihoods, address behavioral and coping strategies, acknowledge the mental health components of food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that women have the same economic opportunities, access to land, and economic power as men are important.

Cullen, Kimberly A

2011-01-01

340

Food insecurity: special considerations for women.  

PubMed

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is the converse state, is often associated with poverty and low income, and has important implications for the health and nutrition of individuals. Given their contribution to food production and preparation, their role in society as child bearers and caregivers, the increasing number of female-headed households worldwide, and their disproportionately poor economic status, women need special consideration in discussions of food insecurity and its effect on health, nutrition, and behavior. This article reviews the scientific literature on issues related to women and food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with obesity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms; risky sexual behavior; poor coping strategies; and negative pregnancy outcomes in women, although evidence about the direction and causality of associations is unclear. There is a lack of evidence and understanding of the effects of food insecurity in resource-poor settings, including its effect on weight, nutritional outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes, as well as its effect on progression of diseases such as HIV infection. More research is needed to guide efficient interventions that address food insecurity among women. However, practical experience suggests that both short-term assistance and longer-term strategies that improve livelihoods, address behavioral and coping strategies, acknowledge the mental health components of food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that women have the same economic opportunities, access to land, and economic power as men are important. PMID:22089447

Ivers, Louise C; Cullen, Kimberly A

2011-12-01

341

Shewanella oneidensis Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase (ccNiR) Does Not Disproportionate Hydroxylamine to Ammonia and Nitrite, Despite a Strongly Favorable Driving Force.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) from Shewanella oneidensis, which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia in vivo, was shown to oxidize hydroxylamine in the presence of large quantities of this substrate, yielding nitrite as the sole free nitrogenous product. UV-visible stopped-flow and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance data, along with product analysis, showed that the equilibrium between hydroxylamine and nitrite is fairly rapidly established in the presence of high initial concentrations of hydroxylamine, despite said equilibrium lying far to the left. By contrast, reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia did not occur, even though disproportionation of hydroxylamine to yield both nitrite and ammonia is strongly thermodynamically favored. This suggests a kinetic barrier to the ccNiR-catalyzed reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia. A mechanism for hydroxylamine reduction is proposed in which the hydroxide group is first protonated and released as water, leaving what is formally an NH2(+) moiety bound at the heme active site. This species could be a metastable intermediate or a transition state but in either case would exist only if it were stabilized by the donation of electrons from the ccNiR heme pool into the empty nitrogen p orbital. In this scenario, ccNiR does not catalyze disproportionation because the electron-donating hydroxylamine does not poise the enzyme at a sufficiently low potential to stabilize the putative dehydrated hydroxylamine; presumably, a stronger reductant is required for this. PMID:24645742

Youngblut, Matthew; Pauly, Daniel J; Stein, Natalia; Walters, Daniel; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R; Bennett, Brian; Pacheco, A Andrew

2014-04-01

342

Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.  

PubMed

In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

2014-01-01

343

Risk factors for homelessness and sex trade among incarcerated women: A Structural equation model  

PubMed Central

Incarcerated women are among the most vulnerable and perhaps the least studied populations in the US. Significant proportions of female inmates are substance users, and many living in unstable housing conditions or being homeless. Female inmates are often at high risk of engaging in sex exchange for drugs or housing needs. While a disproportionate number of incarcerated women have experienced childhood household adversities and maltreatments, the effects of these childhood experiences on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of this population in later life. We apply a life course perspective to examine these pathways in a sample of incarcerated women in Cook County, Illinois. Findings demonstrated lasting, but differential, effects of household adversities and childhood abuse on subsequent life risks and opportunities among these women.

Kim, Seijeoung; Johnson, Timothy P.; Goswami, Samir; Puisis, Michael

2011-01-01

344

Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.  

PubMed

Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080

Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

2010-09-01

345

Impact of Breast Cancer on African American Women: Priority Areas for Research in the Next Decade  

PubMed Central

Despite all the gains that have been made in the area of breast cancer research, African American women suffer disproportionately from the effects of the disease. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among African American women, exceeded only by lung cancer. Improvements in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates among populations are undoubtedly the outcome of quality research. Therefore, there is a need to identify and discuss issues regarding breast cancer among African American women and to determine whether these issues should be a part of the nation's breast cancer research agenda. This commentary summarizes the results of the Summit Meeting Evaluating Research on Breast Cancer in African American Women, which was held September 8–11, 2000, in Washington, DC. Listed are priority areas and some of the questions that fueled this 2-day discussion among 130 participants, including health advocates, cancer survivors, and experts representing various areas of cancer research.

Jones, Lovell A.; Chilton, Janice A.

2002-01-01

346

Women with bleeding disorders.  

PubMed

Menorrhagia, or excessive menstrual bleeding, is a common clinical problem affecting reproductive-age women; however, the cause is undetermined in 50% of cases. Von Willebrand disease (VWD) or other bleeding disorders may be the underlying source of heavy bleeding. Women with menorrhagia and/or VWD are at increased risk for several conditions including anemia, bleeding during pregnancy, post-partum hemorrhage, and reduced quality of life (OOL). Proper diagnosis and management can decrease complications and unnecessary surgical interventions. The Division of Blood Disorders (DBD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has implemented studies to ascertain physician awareness of bleeding disorders, establish prevalence in the U.S., and determine the best treatment options. PMID:18001180

Byams, Vanessa R

2007-11-01

347

International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

348

Battered Women Syndrome Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identification and assistance in understanding battered women were studied. Among the conclusions were that women behaved in ways that were reactive to battering. Battered women come from all social classes, they held attitudes toward women's roles that w...

L. E. Walker

1983-01-01

349

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health.

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

2011-01-01

350

Learning and Violence: Women Speak Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of a bilingual periodical dedicated to the investigation of women's access to education and to feminist analysis of education and learning presents a variety of stories written by women who have experienced abuse that affected their education. The issue opens with an editorial, presented in full in both French and English, by…

Starr, Christina, Ed.; And Others

1992-01-01

351

Workplace/Women's Place: An Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Paula England); "Introduction to the Study of Women and Work" (Dana Dunn); "Gender Culture and Socialization" (Rita Mae Kelly); "Parental Influence and Women's Careers" (Sue Joan Mendelson Freeman); "Shortchanging Girls: Gender Socialization in Schools" (Peggy Orenstein); "Factors Affecting Female…

Dunn, Dana

352

Dimensions of Women's Health across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This teaching strategy provides students with an opportunity to promote women's health literacy via construction of a creative health information booklet. Students will be able to: (1) Identify health issues that affect women during one particular lifespan stage; (2) Categorize issues according to the seven dimensions of health; (3)…

Vamos, Cheryl A.; Vamos, Sandra D.

2008-01-01

353

Policy Inroads Undermining Women in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…

Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle

2013-01-01

354

Geographic Constraints on Married Women's Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from questionnaires completed by and interviews with faculty spouses are analyzed to study how moves for a husband's job or lack of geographic mobility for a wife's own employment may affect women's careers. Women with advanced degrees and greater career commitment are found to experience greater geographic constraint. (Author/CH)

Deitch, Cynthia H.; Sanderson, Susan Walsh

1987-01-01

355

78 FR 14433 - Women's History Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...simple creed that each of us is created equal. It is...potential. That legacy of change is all around us. Women are nearly half...These issues affect all of us, and failing to address...and to empower women around the world with full...

2013-03-06

356

[Stress incontinence in elderly women].  

PubMed

Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women. PMID:23680859

Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

2013-06-01

357

Women's Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Background. HIV-infected women are disproportionately burdened by gynaecological complications, psychological disorders, and certain sexually transmitted infections that may not be adequately addressed by HIV-specific care. We estimate the prevalence and covariates of women's health care (WHC) utilization among harder-to-reach, treatment-experienced HIV-infected women in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods. We used survey data from 231 HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) study, which recruited harder-to-reach populations, including aboriginal people and individuals using injection drugs. Independent covariates of interest included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, individual health status, structural factors, and HIV clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted estimates of associations between use of WHC and covariates of interest. Results. Overall, 77% of women reported regularly utilizing WHC. WHC utilization varied significantly by region of residence (P value <0.01). In addition, women with lower annual income (AOR (95%?CI) = 0.14 (0.04–0.54)), who used illicit drugs (AOR (95%?CI) = 0.42 (0.19–0.92)) and who had lower provider trust (AOR (95%?CI) = 0.97 (0.95–0.99)), were significantly less likely to report using WHC. Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women's holistic health.

Wang, Xuetao; Salters, Kate A.; Zhang, Wen; McCandless, Lawrence; Money, Deborah; Pick, Neora; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.; Kaida, Angela

2012-01-01

358

Does menopause affect the epilepsy?  

PubMed

Hormonal fluctuations in the menstrual cycle have been shown to have an impact on the epilepsy in women with catamenial epilepsy. The epilepsy frequency is higher in the elderly, and this part of the population is steadily increasing. It is therefore of interest whether the hormonal changes in the menopausal transition affects the epilepsy. The perimenopause is associated with hormonal fluctuations and may worsen the epilepsy in women with catamenial epilepsy. It has been suggested that seizures may improve after menopause, particularly in the women with catamenial epilepsy. There is still however, limited data on the effects of menopause on the epilepsy. Prospective studies imply a long time span, and research in this field is scarce. More research on the relationship between hormonal fluctuations and seizures may enable us to predict the effect on the epilepsy. Special awareness should be given to a woman with epilepsy in the menopausal transition. PMID:18164217

Røste, Line Sveberg; Taubøll, Erik; Svalheim, Sigrid; Gjerstad, Leif

2008-03-01

359

Survival Strategies for Women Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that women have been admitted to the higher echelons of management, they can begin to work together to remove those barriers which still affect their full participation in administration. Strategies for overcoming these barriers must focus on the lack of opportunity as well as on the establishment of programs specifically designed to place…

Burkhardt, Carolyn M.

360

Sexual assault in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual assault is a crime of violence affecting modern American society. Victims of sexual assault tend to be women from a broad cross-section of social, economic, ethnic, and age groups. The postmenopausal woman is not immune from sexual assault and is increasingly a victim. The author presents the topic of sexual assault within the general framework of the physician's role

Susan M. Ramin

1997-01-01

361

Women in War: Operational Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Armed Forces is an all volunteer force comprised of male and female troops with women accounting for 20% of force strength. Military personnel face unique challenges such as war, deployment and field training and two issues that affect m...

L. A. Christopher

2004-01-01

362

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

363

Women Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of force by and against women police officers using survey data from a large sample of female and male officers in six departments. Results suggested that female officers and same-gender female-female officer pairs used less force, and were less likely to use physical force, in police-citizen encounters when compared to their male counterparts. There was

Amie M. Schuck; Cara Rabe-Hemp

2007-01-01

364

Obesity in women.  

PubMed

Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

2014-02-01

365

Effective catalytic disproportionation of aqueous H2O2 with di- and mono-nuclear manganese(II) complexes containing pyridine alcohol ligands.  

PubMed

The two novel manganese(II) complexes with 2-hydroxymethylpyridine (2-CH2OHpy) {[Mn2(?-Cl)2(2-CH2OHpy)4]Cl2·2H2O (1)} and 2-hydroxyethylpyridine (2-(CH2)2OHpy) {[Mn(2-(CH2)2OHpy)2(NCS)2] (2)} were synthesized and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, IR, EPR, HF EPR spectroscopy, magnetic and TG/DTG data. The complexes show catalase-like activity in neutral aqueous solution since they were able to disproportionate H2O2 to harmless H2O and O2. Both complexes act as true catalysts since they reverted to their original form after depleting all the H2O2, as suggested by the operando resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy (RIXS) measurements. PMID:24406400

Zienkiewicz, M; Jab?o?ska-Wawrzycka, A; Szlachetko, J; Kayser, Y; Stadnicka, K; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W; Jezierska, J; Barszcz, B; Sá, J

2014-06-21

366

Disproportionation of Iron(III) Porphyrin pi-Cation Radicals in the Presence of Sterically Hindered Pyridines. Spectroscopic Detection of Asymmetric Highly Oxidized Intermediates.  

PubMed

The reactivity of iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin pi-cation radical (TPP(*))Fe(III)(ClO(4))(2), (1-1) iron(III) tetra-p-tolylporphyrin pi-cation radical (TTP(*))Fe(III)(ClO(4))(2) (1-2) and iron(III) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical (TMP(*))Fe(III)(ClO(4))(2) (1-3) complexes with 2,4,6-collidine, 2,3,6-collidine, 2-picoline, 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, and 2,6-dibromopyridine has been examined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in dichloromethane-d(2) solution at low temperatures. These complexes undergo hydration processes which are essential in the generation of highly oxidized species via acid base/equilibria of coordinated water followed by disproportionation pathway, giving as sole stable products [(TPP(*))Fe(III)OFe(III)(TPP)](+) (4-1), [(TTP(*))Fe(III)OFe(III)(TTP)](+) (4-2), and (TMP)Fe(III)(OH) (6) respectively. The sterically hindered pyridines act as efficient proton scavengers. Two novel highly oxidized iron complexes have been detected by (1)H NMR spectroscopy after addition of 2,4,6-collidine to (TTP(*))Fe(III)(ClO(4))(2) or (TPP(*))Fe(III)(ClO(4))(2) in dichloromethane-d(2) solution at 202 K. New intermediates have been identified as iron porphyrin N-oxide complexes, i.e., iron(III) porphyrin N-oxide cation radical (2-n) and iron(IV) porphyrin N-oxide radical (3-n). The (1)H NMR results indicate that the D(4)(h)() symmetry of the parent iron(III) pi-cation radical is drastically reduced upon disproportionation in the presence of proton scavengers. Both species are very unstable and were observed from 176 to 232 K. The intermediate 2-2 has a (1)H NMR spectrum which demonstrates large hyperfine shifts (ppm) for the meso p-tolyl substituents (ortho 98.0, 94.8, 92.9, 91.7; meta -34.8, -38.7, -41.5, -42.3; p-CH(3) -86.3, -88.0) which are consistent with presence of an N-substituted iron porphyrin radical in the product mixture. The characteristic (1)H NMR spectrum of 2-2 includes six pyrrole resonances at 149.6, 118.2, 115.4, 88.3, 64.6, and 55.7 ppm at 202 K, i.e., in the positions corresponding to iron(III) high-spin porphyrins. On warming to 222 K, the pyrrole resonances broaden and then coalesce pairwaise. Such dynamic behavior is accounted for by a rearrangement mechanism which involves an inversion of the porphyrin puckering. The pattern of p-tolyl resonances revealed the cation radical electronic structure of 3-2. The p-tolyl resonances are divided in two distinct sets showing opposite direction of the isotropic shift for the same ring positions. The pyrrole resonances of 3-2 also demonstrated downfield and upfield shifts. A disproportionation mechanism of the hydrated iron porphyrin cation radicals to generate 2 and 3 has been proposed. Both intermediates react with triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide and high-spin iron porphyrins. Addition of 2,4,6-collidine to (TMP(*))Fe(III)(ClO(4))(2) does not produce analogs of 2 and 3 found for sterically unprotected porphyrins. It results instead in the formation of a variety of X(TMP(*))Fe(IV)O (5) complexes also accounted for by the disproportionation process. PMID:11666301

Rachlewicz, Krystyna; Latos-Grazynski, Lechoslaw

1996-02-28

367

Pressure/temperature/substitution-induced melting of A-site charge disproportionation in Bi1-xLaxNiO3 (0?x?0.5)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-insulator transitions strongly coupled with lattice were found in Bi1-xLaxNiO3 . Synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction revealed that pressure ( Ptilde 3GPa , T=300K ), temperature ( Ttilde 340K , x=0.05 ), and La substitution ( xtilde 0.075 , T=300K ) caused the similar structural change from a triclinic (insulating) to an orthorhombic (metallic) symmetry, suggesting melting of the A-site charge disproportionation. Comparing crystal structure and physical properties with the other ANiO3 series, an electronic state of the metallic phase can be described as [ A3+?? , Ni2+?1-? ], where a ligand-hole ? contributes to a conductivity. We depicted a schematic P-T phase diagram of BiNiO3 including a critical point (3 GPa, 300 K) and an inhomogeneous region, which implies universality of ligand-hole dynamics in ANiO3 ( A=Bi , Pr, Nd… ).

Ishiwata, S.; Azuma, M.; Hanawa, M.; Moritomo, Y.; Ohishi, Y.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Nishibori, E.; Sakata, M.; Terasaki, I.; Takano, M.

2005-07-01

368

WOMEN-S HEALTH USA 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

Women's Health USA 2002, the first annual report on the health status of America's women is presented by the HRSA's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and the Office of Women's Health. This first edition of the Women's Health USA data book brings together key facts and figur...

369

Hereditary angioedema in women: specific challenges.  

PubMed

Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE) present with more frequent and more severe attacks than men. The disease is often affected by estrogenic status. Estrogens increase kininogenase activities. Deliveries seem to be safe but it is advised to have C1 inhibitor (C1Inh) concentrate in the delivery room; in case of worsening during the pregnancy, it is recommended to use short-term prophylaxis with C1Inh concentrate. Women often badly tolerate attenuated androgen: 30% of women have weight gain, 30% irregular menstruations, and 6% virilization. Acid tranexamic and progestins are preferred for long-term prophylaxis for women with HAE. PMID:24176215

Bouillet, Laurence; Gompel, Anne

2013-11-01

370

Women's Education, Autonomy, and Reproductive Behaviour: Experience from Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's access to education has been recognized as a fundamental right. At the national level, educating women results in improved productivity, income, and economic development, as well as a better quality of life, notably a healthier and better nourished population. It is important for all kinds of demographic behaviour, affecting mortality, health, fertility, and contraception, The personal benefits that women

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy

371

On Campus with Women, Volume 12, No. 1, Summer 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments concerning women's education and employment, legislation and court cases that affect women, and the latest model programs and resources are presented in this newsletter issue. Contents include: an editorial on progress made toward educational equity for women since the enactment of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; five…

On Campus with Women, 1982

1982-01-01

372

Facing Women's Fear of Failure: An AWEsome Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from research on fear of failure and anecdotes from personal experience with the first women's expedition to ski to the South Pole, this discussion centers on how fear of failure affects women. Fear of failure leads to procrastination and performance well below one's ability. Women generally express more fear of failure than do men, partly…

Dal Vera, Anne

373

Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

2012-01-01

374

Unfulfilled expectations: How circumstances impinge on women's reproductive choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Europe women are having fewer babies, but more of them are being delivered by caesarean section. There is some evidence that this major surgical procedure discourages women and\\/or their partners from having further children. This study is aimed at ascertaining the extent to which mode of delivery in first confinement affected women's decision-making about having another child. This paper

Maureen Porter; Siladitya Bhattacharya; Edwin van Teijlingen

2006-01-01

375

Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

376

Sexual assault of women.  

PubMed

Sexual violence affects up to one third of women during their lifetime. Sexual assault is underreported, and more than one half of assaults are committed by someone known to the survivor. Although both men and women can be sexually assaulted, women are at greatest risk. Some groups are more vulnerable, including adolescents; survivors of childhood sexual or physical abuse; persons who are disabled; persons with substance abuse problems; sex workers; persons who are poor or homeless; and persons living in prisons, institutions, or areas of military conflict. Family physicians care for sexual assault survivors immediately and years after the assault. Immediate care includes the treatment of injuries, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, administration of emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy, and the sensitive management of psychological issues. Family physicians should collect evidence for a "rape kit" only if they are experienced in treating persons who have been sexually assaulted because of the legal ramifications of improper collection and storage of evidence. Sexual assault may result in long-term mental and physical health problems. Presentations to the family physician may include self-destructive behaviors, chronic pelvic pain, and difficulty with pelvic examinations. Prevention of sexual assault is societal and should focus on public health education. Safety and support programs have been shown to reduce sexual assaults. PMID:20148503

Luce, Helen; Schrager, Sarina; Gilchrist, Valerie

2010-02-15

377

Women on Campus in the Eighties: Old Struggles, New Victories. University Women: A Series of Essays, Volume IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of essays focuses on the programs and people in the women's movement at the University of Wisconsin (UW) System who shaped, and were shaped by, the decade of the 1980s. The first part, "Programs," reflects the broadened concerns of the women's movement, with programs which affected women at all levels of society. The second part,…

Swoboda, Marian J., Ed.; And Others

378

Yoga experience as a predictor of psychological wellness in women over 45 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Although high levels of subjective well-being (SWB) are common in old age, a subset of older individuals is disproportionately vulnerable to negative affect. Yoga has been shown to have many short-term benefits, but researchers have not determined whether a long-term or frequent yoga practice increasingly protects older women from low levels of psychological well-being. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which psychological attitudes, transcendence, mental mastery, and subjective vitality in a sample of female yoga practitioners over 45 years varied according to the length and frequency of yoga practice. Materials and Methods: We administered online surveys to a non-probability sample of 211 female yoga practitioners 45 to 80. We used weighted least squares regression analyses to evaluate the relationship of extent of yoga experience to the outcome variables after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. Results: Participants had practiced yoga for as long as 50 years and for up to 28 h per week. There were significant positive relationships between yoga experience and all outcome variables. These significant relationships remained after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. When we computed yoga experience in terms of total calendar years, without accounting for hours of practice, significant relationships did not remain. Transcendence of the ordinary was the most strongly associated with current yoga practice frequency, and positive psychological attitudes were the most strongly associated with total lifetime hours of practice. Conclusions: Among a non-probability sample of female yoga practitioners between 45 and 80 years, increased yoga experience predicted increased levels of psychological well-being. Results showed a dose-response effect, with yoga experience exercising an increasingly protective effect against low levels of SWB and vitality.

Moliver, N; Mika, EM; Chartrand, MS; Haussmann, RE; Khalsa, SBS

2013-01-01

379

Hair loss in elderly women.  

PubMed

Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

2010-01-01

380

Gender attitudes, feminist identity, and body images among college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural forces influence body-image development in gender-contingent ways, such that women in our society possess more dysfunctional\\u000a body-image attitudes than men do. However, few studies have examined how women’s body-image experiences relate to their own\\u000a gender attitudes and ideologies. This investigation of 122 college women assessed multiple parameters of body image (i.e.,\\u000a evaluation, investment, and affect) and different facets of

Thomas F. Cash; Julie R. Ancis; Melissa D. Strachan

1997-01-01

381

Public health consequences of global climate change in the United States--some regions may suffer disproportionately.  

PubMed Central

Current risk assessments of the likely regional health impacts of global climate change (GCC) are hindered by two factors. First, dose-response relationships between weather parameters and many of the likely health effects have not been developed, and second, reliable estimates of future regional climates across the United States are still beyond the scope of current modeling efforts. Consequently, probabilistic risk estimates of most of the likely regional health impacts of GCC have such a high degree of uncertainty that their usefulness to health officials dealing with regional issues is very limited. With the numerous pressures on today's health care systems, it is understandable that the possible consequences of GCC have received scant attention from regional health care decision makers. Indeed, the consensus among this community appears to be that any increases in health effects associated with GCC will be easily handled by the current health care system. However, such a position may be naive as the potential exists that an unequal distribution of such effects could overwhelm some regions, whereas others may feel little or no impact. This review of the likely regional impacts of GCC has been structured as a semianalytical look at this issue of distributional effects. Because of the lack of dose-response information and reliable estimates of future regional climates, however, it takes a historical perspective. That is, it assumes that the quality and quantity of health risks a region faces under GCC will be directly related to its recent history of health risks from warm weather/climate-related diseases as well as to the size, characteristics, and distribution of the sensitive subpopulations currently residing within its borders. The approach is semiquantitative; however, it uses national data gathered on a regional level and as such should only be used to generate a hypothesis rather than test it. When applied to the United States, its outcome leads to the hypothesis that if indeed history repeats itself, some states or regions may be more greatly affected by GCC than others, not only because historically they are more prone to summer weather/climate-related diseases, but also because they contain a greater proportion of the sensitive subpopulations in the United States. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Longstreth, J

1999-01-01

382

Reality television and its impact on women's body image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that both print media and television may affect the body image of young women. Tiggerman and Pickering (1996) found that it was not just the amount of television viewed, but the viewing of appearance focused shows that affected body image. Schooler, Ward, Merriwether and Caruthers (2004) came to the conclusion that women's viewing of shows with

Ayarza Manwaring

2011-01-01

383

Globalization, poverty and women's health: mapping the connections.  

PubMed

Poverty and other forms of inequity undermine individual and population health and retard development. Although absolute poverty has reportedly declined in recent years, research suggests that relative poverty or the gap between the rich and poor within and between countries has been exacerbated over this same period. There is growing concern about the feminization of poverty, and the impact globalization is having on this important social problem. Gender inequality persists in all regions, and women and girls continue to be over-represented among the world's poor. This suggests that women are not consistently benefitting from the economic, political and social gains globalization can offer. Instead, it appears that poor women and girls, particularly those living in developing countries, are disproportionately burdened by the costs of these swift changes to the detriment of their personal health and well-being. Immediate action is needed to correct these disparities and ensure that globalization supports both national and international commitments to poverty reduction, and the, promotion of women's health and human rights. PMID:16512333

Sicchia, Suzanne R; Maclean, Heather

2006-01-01

384

Predictors of Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic Women in South Florida  

PubMed Central

U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19–52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression.

Vermeesch, Amber L.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P.

2013-01-01

385

Panic Disorder and Women  

MedlinePLUS

... educational collaboration with The Affordable Care Act and Women's Health Screening Tests to Supplements: Preventive Care and ACA ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...

386

Women and the Stars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the contributions of 15 women astronomers to the modern understanding of the stars. Discussed are early women pioneers, early spectrographic studies, and recent women astronomers. A list of 29 references is included. (CW)

Spradley, Joseph L.

1990-01-01

387

Issues Specific to Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Business POC Subscribe PTSD Awareness More Health Care Veterans Health Administration Health Benefits Health Benefits Home Apply for ... services offered to women Veterans, including the Women Veterans Health Care Program. Rape of Women in a War ...

388

Unsettled women.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Amy Bock (alias Percy Redwood) created a media sensation when "The Case of the Woman Bridegroom" hit the newspapers throughout New Zealand in 1909. She was hailed as the "queerest and most interesting character that has ever been before the New Zealand public" and "pitiable in her freakish exploits." Debates ensued as to whether her crimes were evidence of a mania, a disease, or simply due to a flawed, criminal character. This article focuses on media portrayals of women who did not conform to normative constructions of acceptable womanhood within the latter decades of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century in New Zealand, as a means of tracing the mutable boundaries of intelligible genders. Newspaper debates and emergent discourses around the medicalisation of social de-viancy are drawn upon to demonstrate how normative constructions of gender were premised upon a defining matrix of mad/bad/woman. PMID:24807564

Coleman, J

2001-01-01

389

Disproportionate Representation of Students from Minority Ethnic/Racial Groups in Special Education: A Policy Forum To Develop Action Plans for High Priority Recommendations (Pentagon City, Virginia, August 25-26, 1994). Final Report. Project FORUM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the design, purpose, implementation, and outcomes of a policy forum on disproportionate representation of students from minority ethnic/racial groups in special education. The purpose of this policy forum was to develop an action agenda for implementation of two recommendations assigned a high priority by a group of…

National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

390

The Disproportionate Incarceration of Black and Hispanic Youth in New Jersey. Report of the Governor's Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Committee and Its Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Minority Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the disproportionate incarceration of minority youth in the state of New Jersey. It opens with an introduction followed by a section, "Problem Statement," which describes the plight of New Jersey's Black and Hispanic children, research in this area, recent historical trends, state and community programs, and the need for…

New Jersey State Law Enforcement Planning Agency, Trenton.

391

Conflict and the women of Chad.  

PubMed

Chad was used as an example of how women and children were the most affected during national and international conflicts. The conditions of women before and during the conflict were described. Chad has been a country involved in a war provoked by psychological differences between the way of life, economic activity, and culture of Arab Muslims who are nomadic pastoralists, and Animist and Christian farmers. The important year was 1979, when the country was torn apart by civil war. Women before the conflict were part of a patriarchal society of men heading households and sole producers for the family. One decision maker controlled family matters: the man. Men also possessed all household goods. Women were biological and social producers, and value was placed on having large numbers of children. Muslim women lived in seclusion. Married women, who engaged in commercial activity, were mocked and exposed their husbands to the humiliation of not being able to provide sufficiently for the family. Between 1979 and 1982, many men were exiled to other countries nearby, which sometimes meant the abandonment of women and children. The remaining men were limited in their ability to earn money, and reverted to fishing, farming, and hunting. Gender relations changed. Survival strategies were developed, such as women working as domestics or selling products. Petty trading and agricultural and market gardening enterprises were flourishing. Women learned skills in dressmaking, embroidery, or knitting. Sometimes long distances were traveled in order to secure income. Women set up their own banking system with a system of "tontines" or savings cooperatives. The war's impact was to disrupt social and private life, which allowed women to enter the public domain and contribute to economic security. The downside of the conflict was the toll in human life and poverty for vast numbers of women and children. The physical, financial, and psychological exhaustion helped to create an awareness of women's essential role in the survival of their families and communities. PMID:12345211

Sy, A D

1993-06-01

392

Women and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Historical and Personal Psychosocial Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents brief historical look at women, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Describes women as invisible participants in AIDS epidemic and notes how societal sexism, racism, and classism have affected public perception of HIV infection and AIDS in women. Also considers the role of women as…

Wiener, Lori S.

1991-01-01

393

Disproportionation of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 into MgSiO3 perovskite and an Fe-rich hexagonal silicate in the deep lower mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of the Earth's deep interior have been built upon the basic assumption that the lower mantle down to the top of the D? layer mainly consists of orthorhombic perovskite (pv) with nominally 10 mol% Fe. Using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, our experiments at pressures of 95-105 GPa and temperatures of 2200~2400 K show that such perovskite is unstable; it loses its Fe and disproportionates into a nearly Fe-free MgSiO3 pv and an Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)SiO3 phase with a previously unknown hexagonal structure, causing a small volume reduction. Using the newly developed high-pressure multigrain crystallography technique, we have identified 154 individual crystallites belonging to the hexagonal phase in one experiment, each has a unique orientation matrix with as many as 27 diffraction spots that gives identical unit-cell parameters, while 130 individual crystallites of the coexisting pv phase were indexed to the known Pbnm space group. This new mineral physics observation leads to a fresh view on geophysical, geochemical and geodynamic paradigms for the lower mantle below 2000 kilometers depth.

Zhang, L.; Meng, Y.; Yang, W.; Wang, L.; Mao, W. L.; Zeng, Q. C.; Jeong, J.; Wagner, A. J.; Mkhoyan, K.; Liu, W.; Xu, R.; Mao, H.

2013-12-01

394

Conditional VHL gene deletion causes hypoglycemic death associated with disproportionately increased glucose uptake by hepatocytes through an upregulated IGF-I receptor.  

PubMed

Our conditional VHL knockout (VHL-KO) mice, having VHL gene deletion induced by tamoxifen, developed severe hypoglycemia associated with disproportionately increased storage of PAS-positive substances in the liver and resulted in the death of these mice. This hypoglycemic state was neither due to impaired insulin secretion nor insulin receptor hypersensitivity. By focusing on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has a similar effect on glucose metabolism as the insulin receptor, we demonstrated that IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) protein expression in the liver was upregulated in VHL-KO mice compared to that in the mice without VHL deletion, as was the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1. The interaction of the receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) 1, which predominantly binds to VHL, was enhanced in VHL-KO livers with IGF-IR, because VHL deletion increased free RACK1 and facilitated the IGF-IR-RACKI interaction. An IGF-IR antagonist retarded hypoglycemic progression and sustained an euglycemic state. These IGF-IR antagonist effects on restoring blood glucose levels also attenuated PAS-positive substance storage in the liver. Because the effect of IGF-I on HIF-1? protein synthesis is mediated by IGF-IR, our results indicated that VHL inactivation accelerated hepatic glucose storage through the upregulation of IGF-IR and GLUT1 and that IGF-IR was a key regulator in VHL-deficient hepatocytes. PMID:23874892

Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Morita, Taku; Inoue, Keiji; Sato, Takayuki; Furihata, Mutsuo

2013-01-01

395

Conditional VHL Gene Deletion Causes Hypoglycemic Death Associated with Disproportionately Increased Glucose Uptake by Hepatocytes through an Upregulated IGF-I Receptor  

PubMed Central

Our conditional VHL knockout (VHL-KO) mice, having VHL gene deletion induced by tamoxifen, developed severe hypoglycemia associated with disproportionately increased storage of PAS-positive substances in the liver and resulted in the death of these mice. This hypoglycemic state was neither due to impaired insulin secretion nor insulin receptor hypersensitivity. By focusing on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has a similar effect on glucose metabolism as the insulin receptor, we demonstrated that IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) protein expression in the liver was upregulated in VHL-KO mice compared to that in the mice without VHL deletion, as was the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1. The interaction of the receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) 1, which predominantly binds to VHL, was enhanced in VHL-KO livers with IGF-IR, because VHL deletion increased free RACK1 and facilitated the IGF-IR-RACKI interaction. An IGF-IR antagonist retarded hypoglycemic progression and sustained an euglycemic state. These IGF-IR antagonist effects on restoring blood glucose levels also attenuated PAS-positive substance storage in the liver. Because the effect of IGF-I on HIF-1? protein synthesis is mediated by IGF-IR, our results indicated that VHL inactivation accelerated hepatic glucose storage through the upregulation of IGF-IR and GLUT1 and that IGF-IR was a key regulator in VHL-deficient hepatocytes.

Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Morita, Taku; Inoue, Keiji; Sato, Takayuki; Furihata, Mutsuo

2013-01-01

396

Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Health: Does Sexism Influence Women's Health?  

PubMed

: This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences. PMID:25054736

Molix, Lisa

2014-08-01

397

Cardiovascular risk in women: focus on hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a major concern in women, contributing to the risk for morbidity and mortality and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart attack, and stroke. A woman's risk for the development of hypertension increases with age. Although it also affects younger women, hypertension is prevalent in approximately 60% of women >65 years of age. In addition to age, there are specific risk factors and lifestyle contributors for the development of hypertension in women, including obesity, ethnicity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Risk reduction strategies need to be used to help reduce hypertension; maintaining a healthy body weight through diet and exercise, reduced sodium intake, and lower alcohol intake are a few of the approaches for hypertension risk reduction in women. There are several proposed mechanisms for the development of hypertension that are unique to women and pertain to the aging-related elevated risk for hypertension resulting from falling estrogen levels during menopause. Oral contraceptives, pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome are special considerations concerning the development and progression of hypertension in women. There are significant awareness issues and care gaps in the treatment of hypertension in women. Therefore, these problems must be faced and efforts need to be taken to resolve the issues surrounding the treatment and control of hypertension in women. PMID:24786446

Abramson, Beth L; Melvin, Rochelle G

2014-05-01

398

Disparities in Child Abuse Victimization in Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Women in the Nurses' Health Study II  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research documents multiple health disparities by sexual orientation among women, yet little is known about the possible causes of these disparities. One underlying factor may be heightened risk for abuse victimization in childhood in lesbian and bisexual women. Using survey data from 63,028 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II, we investigated sexual orientation group differences in emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence. Multivariable log-binomial and linear regression models were used to examine orientation group differences in prevalence and severity of abuse, with heterosexual as the referent and controlling for sociodemographics. Results showed strong evidence of elevated frequency, severity, and persistence of abuse experienced by lesbian and bisexual women. Comparing physical abuse victimization occurring in both childhood and adolescence, lesbian (30%; prevalence ratio [PR] 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40, 1.84) and bisexual (24%; PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.00, 1.60) women were more likely to report victimization than were heterosexual women (19%). Similarly, comparing sexual abuse victimization occurring in both age periods, lesbian (19%; PR 2.16; 95% CI 1.80, 2.60) and bisexual (20%; PR 2.29; 95% CI 1.76, 2.98) women were more likely to report victimization than were heterosexual women (9%). This study documents prevalent and persistent abuse disproportionately experienced by lesbian and bisexual women.

Austin, S. Bryn; Jun, Hee-Jin; Jackson, Benita; Spiegelman, Donna; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Corliss, Heather L.; Wright, Rosalind J.

2014-01-01

399

Screening Adolescents and Young Women  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Recent guidelines from multiple organizations, including the USPSTF, ACS/ASCCP/ASCP, ACOG and most recently the 2013 Update to the 2006 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines, all stress screening initiation no sooner than the age of 21 years and increased screening intervals for women aged 21 to 29 years. Primary prevention with HPV vaccination has the potential to significantly impact the development of high-grade cervical lesions, including cancer, and will likely affect screening guidelines in the future.

Boardman, Lori A.; Robison, Katina

2013-01-01

400

Aging women with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

2003-01-01

401

NYU Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

For more than 25 years, the NYU Women’s Health Study has been committed to studying the potential causes of serious diseases in women in the United States. When the study began in 1985, its goal was to identify the role of hormones and diet in the development of the most common cancers in women, especially breast cancer.

402

Women and Technical Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Skills Training for Women" (Dabney), a description of a program for displaced homemakers and single parents in Oklahoma that provides job training and support to reentry women; and "Celebrating Women's Technological Contributions" (Pierce), a unit to encourage students to look at women's technological accomplishments. (JOW)

Dabney, Gina A.; Pierce, Alan J.

1996-01-01

403

Friendships Among Old Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of widowhood, divorce, retirement, and prejudice against them, old women are in special need of friendships with other women. Old women's friendships have many valuable functions. It is dangerous to depend on just one friend. There are impediments to making friendships in old age including projection of negativity about again on other old women, lack of resources and transportation,

Ruth Harriet Jacobs

1990-01-01

404

Women and Nontraditional Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief has the following contents: statistics on the number of women in nontraditional occupations, summary of legislation about women and employment, barriers inhibiting the entry of women into nontraditional training and employment, and strategies to overcome barriers to women entering nontraditional work settings. The statistics section…

Wider Opportunities for Women, Inc., Washington, DC.

405

Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

2012-01-01

406

Insomnia in women: an overlooked epidemic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insomnia is a common and significant healthcare problem, and affects a large percentage of women seen by general practitioners, obstetrician-gynecologists and mental health professionals. Specific risk factors for insomnia may be gender-related, including higher prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among women, environmental and social factors, as well as reproductive-related factors (e.g., peri-menstrual difficulties and menopause-related symptoms).

C. N. Soares

2005-01-01

407

Pregnancy outcome in women with autoimmune hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic disease of unknown cause, characterized by progressive hepatocellular inflammation\\u000a and necrosis, frequently leading to cirrhosis. AIH usually affects young women and may influence fertility and pregnancy in\\u000a them. Nearly 200 pregnancies have been reported so far in the world literature in women with AIH, and no definite guidelines\\u000a have been established. We hereby report

Neelam Aggarwal; Seema Chopra; Vanita Suri; Pooja Sikka; R. K. Dhiman; Yogesh Chawla

2011-01-01

408

BabyBoomWomen@Work2020  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BabyBoomWomen@Work2020 is part of a research project at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. The project examines how women born between 1946 and 1964 (i.e., the Baby Boom) see paid work after the age of 65 and the ways in which public policy will affect this aging sector of the female workforce. The site offers information on its ongoing studies as well as a varied collection of links.

409

Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.  

PubMed

Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages. PMID:24767591

Parrott, Heather Macpherson

2014-07-01

410

Affective syndrome during perimenopause.  

PubMed

Perimenopause is characterized by decreasing levels of estrogens and progesterone until gonadal secretion comes to a complete halt. There are still very different views and positions on the significance of the menopause. Physical, mental-vegetative and depressive symptoms during climacteric are different in each culture. Currently, there is some controversy as to whether or not there really is a rise in actual depression during the perimenopausal phase of woman's life. The observations from humans taken together indicate that depressive disorders, as defined in ICD-10, do not occur more frequently during perimenopause. In this context, the terms subthreshold depression and or subsyndromal depression are important, describing depressive symptoms which do not fulfil the complete clinical picture of a depressive episode, either because there are not enough symptoms or because they are not severe enough. The affected women still suffer, but until now not enough studies have been carried out on this particular area. In view of the complexity and relevance of the perimenopausal period in a woman's life, it is necessary to establish and maintain a network of treatment between the family physician, gynecologist, psychiatrist and or psychotherapist, as soon as significant depressive symptoms occur. PMID:11955791

Banger, M

2002-04-15

411

Bladder Tests before Urinary Incontinence Surgery in Women May Be Unnecessary  

MedlinePLUS

... to affect 13 million Americans, most of them women. Stress urinary incontinence occurs when the bladder leaks urine ... function tests are often performed before surgery in women who demonstrate stress incontinence upon office evaluation,” said study lead author ...

412

75 FR 28818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...effectively to sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and...

2010-05-24

413

75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...effectively to sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and...

2010-07-20

414

Review Issues and Barriers Relating to Women in Apprenticeship. Project 1B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objectives of the study were to identify issues positively and negatively affecting the participation of women in apprenticeship; to identify and document factors, techniques, and programs that increase the number of women apprentices and th...

A. H. Silon D. Gosselin Koralek

1988-01-01

415

Women's empowerment revisited: a case study from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

This article explores the changing dimensions of women's empowerment over time in three Bangladesh villages where one of the authors has been conducting research since 1991. The article discusses theoretical issues related to the measurement of women's empowerment, and describes findings from a recent study in the villages exploring the current salience of indicators developed for a 1992 survey. In the article we discuss the types of social, economic, and political change that affect the measurement of women’s empowerment; propose and explain a new set of indicators for the rural Bangladesh setting; and discuss implications for measuring women's empowerment in other settings.

Islam, Farzana; Rottach, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

416

Maternal Stress and Affect Influence Fetal Neurobehavioral Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated associations between maternal psychological and fetal neurobehavioral functioning with data provided at 24, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. Found that fetuses of women who were more affectively intense, appraised their lives as more stressful, and reported more pregnancy-specific hassles were more active across gestation. Fetuses of women

DiPietro, Janet A.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Hawkins, Melissa; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Pressman, Eva K.

2002-01-01

417

The self-disproportionation of the enantiomers (SDE) of methyl n-pentyl sulfoxide via achiral, gravity-driven column chromatography: a case study.  

PubMed

This work explores the self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) of chiral sulfoxides via achiral, gravity-driven column chromatography using methyl n-pentyl sulfoxide as a case study. A major finding of this work is the remarkable persistence and high magnitude of the SDE for the analyte. Thus, it is the first case where SDE is observed even in the presence of MeOH in the mobile phase. The study demonstrated the practical preparation, in line with theory, of enantiomerically pure (>99.9% ee) samples of methyl n-pentyl sulfoxide starting from a sample of only modest ee (<35%). Remarkably, it was found that the order of elution was inverted, i.e. enantiomerically depleted fractions preceded later eluting enantiomerically enriched ones, when the stationary phase was changed from silica gel to aluminum oxide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first occurrence of inverted SDE behavior due solely to a change in the stationary phase. Aberrant SDE behavior was observed in that the ee did not always fall continuously during the progression of the chromatography, and this was attributed to the complexity of the system at hand which cannot be described in simple terms such as the formation only of homo- and heterochiral dimers based on a single interaction. The results nevertheless suggest that all compounds with a chiral sulfoxide moiety in their structure are likely to exhibit the SDE phenomenon and thus this work constitutes the first example of SDE predictability. Moreover, it could well be that optical purification based on the SDE phenomenon is a simple, convenient, and inexpensive method for the optical purification of this class of compounds with a high degree of proficiency. PMID:24873904

Wzorek, Alicja; Klika, Karel D; Drabowicz, Józef; Sato, Azusa; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A

2014-06-11

418

The disproportionation reaction phase transition, mechanical, and lattice dynamical properties of the lanthanum dihydrides under high pressure: A first principles study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure-induced disproportionation reaction phase transition, mechanical, and dynamical properties of LaH2 with fluorite structure under high pressure are investigated by performing first-principles calculations using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method. The phase transition of 2LaH2 ? LaH + LaH3 obtained from the usual condition of equal enthalpies occurs at the pressure of 10.38 GPa for Perdew-Wang (PW91) functional and 6.05 GPa for Ceperly-Adler (CA) functional, respectively. The result shows that the PW91 functional calculations agree excellently with the experimental finding of 11 GPa of synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray diffraction (XRD) of Machida et al. and 10 GPa of their PBE functional theoretical result. Three independent single-crystal elastic constants, polycrystalline bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, elastic anisotropy, Poisson's ratio, the brittle/ductile characteristics and elastic wave velocities over different directions dependences on pressure are also successfully obtained. Especially, the phonon dispersion curves and corresponding phonon density of states of LaH2 under high pressure are determined systematically using a linear-response approach to density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). Our results demonstrate that LaH2 in fluorite phase can be stable energetically up to 10.38 GPa, stabilized mechanically up to 17.98 GPa, and stabilized dynamically up to 29 GPa, so it may remain a metastable phase above 10.38 GPa up to 29 GPa, these calculated results accord with the recent X-Ray diffraction experimental finding and theoretical predictions of Machida et al.

Yang, Jin-Wen; Gao, Tao; Gong, Yan-Rong

2014-06-01

419

Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviors Surrounding Organ Donation among Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hispanic individuals are disproportionately in need of donor organs and are less likely to consent to donation than their non-Hispanic counterparts. This review addresses psychological constructs including attitudes and beliefs surrounding organ donation within Hispanic communities and highlights the importance of women in the domain of organ donation. Recent findings Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Mistrust of the medical profession, concerns about religious acceptance of donation, perceptions of inequity in the distribution of donated organs, and the context in which donation requests typically are made serve as barriers to consent. Women are more likely to consent to donation than men. Summary Hispanic American groups are heterogeneous. Culturally-sensitive approaches to communicating a donation request must consider ethnic origin and language preference. Family discussion of donation should be encouraged by the medical community as part of health care decision making (independent of death or crisis); women may serve as an excellent bridge between healthcare providers and families in this regard.

Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

2009-01-01

420

Needed: "women-friendly" bills.  

PubMed

During a 1992 Roundtable Discussion on the National Legislative Agenda for Women in the Philippines, the Institute for Social Studies and Action presented its appraisal of bills and resolutions introduced during 1988-91 which would affect reproductive health. A resolution to strengthen the population program should be rejected because the program has not yet been clearly defined. A resolution to protect fetuses from the moment of conception and to affirm the right of couples to practice family planning (FP) should be rejected because it failed to stipulate which FP methods would be condoned. A bill to create a Department of Population Control should be amended to emphasize fertility management instead of control. A bill requiring secondary schools to teach FP should be expanded to call for education at all levels. Incentives to practice FP included in several bills should be abandoned, and the incentive funds should be used to improve FP service delivery. Bills to promote natural FP should be rejected because they may limit access to contraception. Bills designating abortion a drug-related crime punishable by death should be rejected because they fail to recognize the realities faced by women and ignore women's rights. Bills which are biased against the IUD and which cite its potential side effects should be rejected because they ignore the fact that many women rely on the method and use it safely. A resolution on safe motherhood should be endorsed with the note that this emphasis ignores the health needs of women throughout their lives. The women's movement was enjoined to play a more aggressive role in national politics and to start attacking such repressive potential laws. PMID:12288564

Aragon-choudhury, P

1992-01-01

421

Women in Military Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

American women have participated in and made significant contributions to the defense of this nation during both war and peace times. Their contributions, however, have gone largely unacknowledged and unrewarded. The history of women serving in defense of our nation began more than 220 years ago with women who served in the American Revolution and continues with those who serve today. The Women's Memorial Web site is dedicated to recognizing the achievements of women who have served in the military and also honors other women who have served in direct support of the US armed forces, particularly during times of war or conflict. The site offers historical data on valiant women who served in America's military as well as educational resources for teachers and students. It also provides information on how to plan a trip to the Women's Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, where the women who have served in this country's armed forces are individually and collectively honored.

1997-01-01

422

Barriers to care for women veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

As the number of women veterans continues to rise, an issue of concern is whether those with mental health symptoms experience disproportionate barriers to care. The purpose of this study was to examine unmet medical needs and barriers to health care among women veterans who screened positive for lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), current depressive symptoms, both or neither. Using the National Survey of Women Veterans dataset (N = 3,593), we compared women veterans corresponding to these 4 groups on whether they had unmet medical needs in the past year, reasons for unmet needs, and barriers to using VA care for those not currently doing so. The majority of women veterans who screened positive for both PTSD and depressive symptoms had unmet medical care needs in the prior 12 months (59%), compared to 30% of women with PTSD symptoms only, 18% of those with depressive symptoms only, and 16% of women with neither set of symptoms. Among those reporting unmet medical needs (n = 840), those with both PTSD and depressive symptoms were more likely than the other groups to identify affordability as a reason for going without or delaying care. Among women veterans not using VA health care (n = 1,677), women with both PTSD and depressive symptoms were more likely to report not knowing if they were eligible for VA benefits and were less likely to have health insurance to cover care outside of the VA. These data highlight specific areas of vulnerability of women veterans with comorbid PTSD and depressive symptoms and identify areas of concern as VA and other health facilities work to ensure equitable access to care. PMID:23730964

Lehavot, Keren; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Simpson, Tracy L; Sadler, Anne G; Washington, Donna L

2013-05-01

423

Young African women must have empowering and receptive social environments for HIV prevention.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 young women aged 15-19 years, from Busoga Region in Eastern Uganda. Given the focus on young women's voices within norms of gender inequality, a narrative methodology was used as a safe space for participants to speak about their lives, expanding on research experiences with young people. The methods used included drawing; written stories and drama; aspirational writing and diary keeping. Forty-eight narratives, in image and word form, represented everyday experiences in young women's lives, as well as difficult experiences of inequality and resistance. Young women portrayed considerable social barriers to empowerment, and a challenging environment of poverty and educational limitations. Young women's representations were analysed using a gender empowerment and positive sexuality framework. The resulting analysis was then critically applied to HIV prevention paradigms. Evidence from the study showed that prevailing HIV prevention paradigms reinforce the difficulties faced by young women in their sexual lives. This research adds to calls for alternative and wider approaches to HIV prevention, underpinned by gender empowerment. Alternative approaches need to build young African women's voices in the spaces of homes, schools and communities. It is vital, however, that such efforts are embedded in more radical change leading to social environments receptive to the needs of young women. PMID:22908853

Conn, Cath

2013-01-01

424

HIV+ women's narratives of non-disclosure: resisting the label of immorality  

PubMed Central

Increasing partner disclosure rates among HIV positive individuals is widely seen as an important public health strategy to reduce HIV transmission. One approach for encouraging disclosure is to emphasize individuals’ moral responsibility to disclose their status to their partners. We use South Africa as a case study to draw attention to two problems with labeling non-disclosure as immoral. First, we argue that because women are tested for HIV at much higher rates than men, any approach that involves blaming HIV positive individuals for not disclosing their status will disproportionately burden women. Second, through the narratives of six HIV positive women, we highlight how a focus on morality undervalues the complexity of sexual partnerships. Specifically, women describe how their perceived obligation to disclose is directly influenced by communication with their sexual partners. Women also discuss how the onset of different life events might alter the meaning of HIV and change obligations regarding disclosure within the partnership. The differences in testing rates across gender combined with the complexity of sexual partnerships leads us to suggest that labeling non-disclosure as immoral does little to advance HIV prevention. There is an urgent need to identify alternative interventions that support women through the disclosure process.

Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre

2014-01-01

425

Trends in the contraceptive practices of women seeking abortions in the 1980s.  

PubMed

The demographic features and contraceptive practices of 1000 women attending Parkview clinic of Wellington Hospital for termination of pregnancy were studied over an eight month period in 1988-9. Comparisons were made with a previous study at the same clinic in 1980-1. The overall abortion rate has increased from 6.8/1000 women in the Wellington statistical area in 1981 to 9.8 in 1989. The proportion of Pacific Island and Asian women presenting for abortions is high and has increased disproportionately between 1981 and 1989. The abortion rate has also increased in lower socioeconomic groups in 1989. The proportion of women using contraception at the time of conception increased from 50% in 1981 to 68.5% in 1989. The methods used by women presenting for abortion have changed significantly. There has been an increase in the proportion of women using condoms (from 13.3% to 36.2%) and the oral contraceptive pill from (14% to 21.4%). PMID:2020459