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1

75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected...Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected...Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately...

2010-08-19

2

The food, fuel, and financial crises affect the urban and rural poor disproportionately: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with the rural poor to these types of shocks. It reviews some of the unique characteristics of urban life that could make the urban poor particularly susceptible to price and financial shocks and summarizes the evidence regarding the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban poor. The focus is on impacts on poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition. The review shows that although the urban poor are clearly one of the population groups most affected by the current (and previous) crises, the rural poor, landless, and net buyers are in no better position to confront the crisis without significant suffering. The poorest of the poor are the ones who will be most affected, irrespective of the continent, country, or urban or rural area where they live. The magnitude and severity of their suffering depends on their ability to adapt and on the specific nature, extent, and duration of the coping strategies they adopt. A better understanding of how these coping strategies are used and staggered is critical to help design triggers for action that can prevent households from moving to more desperate measures. Using these early coping strategies as early warning indicators could help prevent dramatic losses in welfare. PMID:19939990

Ruel, Marie T; Garrett, James L; Hawkes, Corinna; Cohen, Marc J

2010-01-01

3

[Harmful practices affecting women's health].  

PubMed

The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

1990-07-01

4

Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Young Women: Lifestyle-related factors that increase heart disease risk ...

5

Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How many women are affected/at risk? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content How many women are affected by vaginitis? Most women will have ...

6

What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... health issues or conditions affect women differently than men? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Some health issues that are common to both men and women affect women differently. Although the symptoms ...

7

A qualitative assessment of decisions affecting contraceptive utilization and fertility intentions among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. The increasing provision of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) with improved prognosis and maternal-fetal outcomes calls for an understanding of fertility planning for HIV-positive women. We describe the effect of HIV and HAART on pregnancy desires and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV-positive women of reproductive age. Analysis was performed using ATLAS-ti (ATLAS-ti Center, Berlin). Emergent themes were impact of HIV diagnosis on pregnancy intentions; factors affecting contraceptive uptake including real and normative side effects, body image, and perceived vaginal wetness; and the mitigating influence of partnership on both pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use. Routine counseling about pregnancy desires and contraception should be offered to HIV-positive women. PMID:19308719

Laher, Fatima; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Phofa, Rebecca; Behane, Xoliswa; Mohapi, Lerato; Gray, Glenda

2009-06-01

8

Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System  

PubMed Central

Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

Comfort, Megan

2011-01-01

9

Stress Affects Women, Men with Heart Disease Differently  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Stress Affects Women, Men With Heart Disease Differently, Study Shows Finding suggests ... different physical and mental reactions in women and men with heart disease, new research indicates. The study ...

10

Active Microbial Sulfur Disproportionation in  

E-print Network

Active Microbial Sulfur Disproportionation in the Mesoproterozoic David T. Johnston,1 *. Boswell A E. Canfield5 The environmental expression of sulfur compound disproportionation has been placed sulfur isotope 33S. These measurements imply that sulfur compound disproportionation was an active part

Long, Bernard

11

The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

2008-01-01

12

Sex affects health: women are different than men  

E-print Network

. Autoimmune conditions Sex affects health Males & females have different patterns of illness & health Cancer lactation Women have 34% less lean body mass Females more likely to maintain body fat than males Males but women have a much poorer outcome once diagnosed with heart disease. The death rate due to CVD

Dever, Jennifer A.

13

Affective decision making in women with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The affective decision making of 41 recently treated outpatient women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared to 41 healthy controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Non-affective executive functions (EF) of working memory, interference control, and motor inhibition were also compared. Associations among affective and non-affective EF were examined. Despite normal range intelligence, Stroop interference, motor inhibition, and working memory, women with BPD made significantly more disadvantageous IGT decisions than controls (Cohen's d = .72) that were unrelated to substance abuse history, education, psychotropic use, or attentional deficits. Correlates of EF and IGT performance varied by group. Intellect, BPD, and intact behavioral control explained 35% of the adjusted variance in net IGT performance. Disadvantageous IGT decision making was the only EF to predict BPD. IGT deficits in BPD may be separable from IQ and other EF as supported by the somatic marker hypothesis and suggest a stable, trait-like vulnerability favoring immediate reward over long-term gain in women with the disorder. PMID:24845226

LeGris, Jeannette; Toplak, Maggie; Links, Paul S

2014-10-01

14

Older women's cognitive and affective response to moderate drinking  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective In this paper we investigated the question, how do older women who drink moderate amounts of alcohol differ from those who do not drink on measurements of cognitive function, memory, affect and health? Methods The nonprobability sample of female participants (n = 182) averaged 75 years of age and had a Mini Mental State Examination scores of 28. The participants were asked to indicate whether they drank alcohol or abstained (yes/no) and if they indicated that they did drink, to describe how many drinks they consumed in a given period of time (day/week/month). Results None of the participants acknowledged drinking more than 2 drinks a day. Caucasian women had the largest number of moderate drinkers (53% vs 47%), while the majority of African–American and Hispanic women reported not drinking. The moderate drinkers reported less depression, had higher self-reported health, performed better on instrumental everyday tasks, had stronger memory self-efficacy, and used more strategies to improve memory performance. In addition, these women had higher performance on tests of executive function: attention, concentration, psychomotor skills, verbal-associative capacities, and oral fluency. Conclusions The circumstances under which people drink are complex and were not evaluated in this study. Therefore, rather than endorsing drinking behavior, these findings suggest that future research might examine why elders make the decision to drink, the circumstances that predispose women to drink (alone/with others), and other qualities that characterize female drinkers over the age of 65. PMID:15481070

Zimmerman, Teena; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

2008-01-01

15

Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explain factors that encouraged and discouraged the participation of Black women in RN completion programs. A qualitative design and a Black feminist theoretical framework guided the study. Ten Black women were interviewed: 7 attended RN completion programs, and 3 were recent graduates. Factors that encouraged the participation of Black women can be grouped

Lolita Chappel Aiken; Ronald M. Cervero; Juanita Johnson-Bailey

2001-01-01

16

Asian Women in Transitions: How Modernization Affects Their Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain…

Chiang, Linda H.

17

Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must

E James Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; GO Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene

2005-01-01

18

Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

19

Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

1997-01-01

20

How does health insurance affect the retirement behavior of women?  

PubMed

The availability of health insurance is a crucial factor in the retirement decision. Women are substantially less likely to have health insurance from their own employment. Using the Health and Retirement Study, we examine the role of employer-provided retiree health insurance in the retirement decisions of single women, and women in single-earner and dual-earner couples. We compare the effect of health insurance on female and male retirement. Our results show that retiree health insurance increases retirement for all groups except single men. We find suggestive evidence that the role of health insurance for women hinges on their husbands' labor force status. PMID:21634262

Kapur, Kanika; Rogowski, Jeannette

2011-01-01

21

HIV Susceptibility Among Hispanic Women in South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hispanic women (HW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, however, little is known regarding their perceived susceptibility for acquiring HIV (SAHIV). We studied predictive factors for perceiving SAHIV among HW. Participants (88.5%) reported not feeling SAHIV. Women who felt SAHIV, had a significant probability of reporting a higher chance for acquiring HIV from their partner's actions (OR 9.75), and a higher

Rosina Cianelli; Natalia Villegas; Rosa Gonzalez-Guarda; Lorena Kaelber; Nilda Peragallo

2010-01-01

22

HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2006-01-01

23

Factors that affect women's attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey.  

PubMed

This article examines the attitudes of Turkish women toward justification of intimate partner violence. The data were gathered from the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 8,075, aged 15-49, participated in the survey. The findings underline the importance of patriarchal beliefs and the associated practice of brides-money in addition to rural residence, large household, illiteracy, lack of wealth, and younger age at marriage as the sources of acceptance of violence among women. The study provides a theoretical explanation for how patriarchal ideology is translated into an accepting attitude toward violence and also discusses the factors that serve as mechanisms that help women resist patriarchal hegemony and not justify domestic violence against women. The final section of the article addresses policy implications. PMID:20514820

Marshall, Gul Aldikacti; Furr, L Allen

2010-01-01

24

42 CFR 447.298 - State disproportionate share hospital allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false State disproportionate share hospital allotments. 447.298 Section 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...298 State disproportionate share hospital allotments. (a) Calculation...

2011-10-01

25

42 CFR 447.298 - State disproportionate share hospital allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false State disproportionate share hospital allotments. 447.298 Section 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...298 State disproportionate share hospital allotments. (a) Calculation...

2010-10-01

26

42 CFR 447.298 - State disproportionate share hospital allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false State disproportionate share hospital allotments. 447.298 Section 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...298 State disproportionate share hospital allotments. (a) Calculation...

2012-10-01

27

42 CFR 447.298 - State disproportionate share hospital allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false State disproportionate share hospital allotments. 447.298 Section 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...298 State disproportionate share hospital allotments. (a) Calculation...

2013-10-01

28

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

29

Hydrogenated fat consumption affects cholesterol synthesis in moderately hypercholesterolemic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine mechanisms by which hydroge- nated fat influences plasma lipid levels, 14 women (65-71 yrs with LDL-C > 130 mg ? dl 2 1 ) consumed, for 5-week peri- ods each, a baseline (BL) diet (39% kcal fat, 164 mg chol ? 1000 kcal 2 1 ) and reduced fat diets (30% kcal) where two-thirds of the fat was

Nirupa R. Matthan; Lynne M. Ausman; Alice H. Lichtenstein; Peter J. H. Jones

30

Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

2010-01-01

31

Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

2001-01-01

32

Some factors affecting women's participation in psychology in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaires were returned by 129 male and 102 female Anglophone Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) members and by 60 male and 87 female Anglophone graduate students in Canadian psychology departments. The data contradicted several myths about women, and in some areas there was no evidence of sex differences for CPA members or graduate students. However, there was considerable evidence that married

Tannis M. Williams; Merle L. Zabrack; Linda F. Harrison

1980-01-01

33

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

2012-01-01

34

An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to

Giorgio A. Tasca; John Kowal; Louise Balfour; Kerri Ritchie; Barbara Virley; Hany Bissada

2006-01-01

35

Do Labor Market Opportunities Affect Young Women's Work and Family Decisions? Experimental Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do labor market opportunities for women affect marriage and fertility decisions? We provided three years of recruiting services to help young women in randomly selected rural Indian villages get jobs in the business process outsourcing industry. Because the industry was so new at the time of the study, there was almost no awareness of these jobs, allowing us in effect

Robert Jensen

2012-01-01

36

[Liability in Anaesthesiology: theory of disproportionate damage].  

PubMed

An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. PMID:23528691

Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

2013-10-01

37

Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

2005-01-01

38

Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition. PMID:23624642

Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

2014-06-01

39

The Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Group for HIV-Infected\\/Affected Incarcerated Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The effectiveness of a psychoeducational group intervention for HIV\\/AIDS-infected and affected women was examined at a large southeastern county jail facility. Method: A quasi- experimental pretest-posttest design was used to examine depression, anxiety, and trauma symp- toms of women inmates. Results: A multivariate analysis of covariance yielded significant differ- ences between the experimental and comparison groups. Subsequent analysis of

Elizabeth C. Pomeroy; Risa Kiam; Eileen M. Abel

1999-01-01

40

Iron Status Indicators in Women with Prior Neural Tube Defect-Affected Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Objectives: Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in pregnant women and has been linked to negative impacts on the\\u000a fetus. We describe the association of various iron-deficiency indices with risk of neural tube defect (NTD) among a high-risk\\u000a Mexican-American population. Methods: The study included 158 case-women (NTD-affected pregnancies) and 189 control-women (normal births) who were residents of\\u000a the

Marilyn M. Felkner; Lucina Suarez; Jean Brender; Barbara Scaife; Kate Hendricks

2005-01-01

41

Factors affecting the quality of antenatal care provided to remote dwelling Aboriginal women in northern Australia.  

PubMed

Objective: there is a significant gap in pregnancy and birth outcomes for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women compared with other Australian women. The provision of appropriate and high quality antenatal care is one way of reducing these disparities. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to antenatal guidelines by clinicians and identify factors affecting the quality of antenatal care delivery to remote dwelling Aboriginal women. Setting and design: a mixed method study drew data from 27 semi-structured interviews with clinicians and a retrospective cohort study of Aboriginal women from two remote communities in Northern Australia, who gave birth from 2004-2006 (n=412). Medical records from remote health centres and the regional hospital were audited. Measurements and findings: the majority of women attended antenatal care and adherence to some routine antenatal screening guidelines was high. There was poor adherence to local guidelines for follow-up of highly prevalent problems including anaemia, smoking, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. Multiple factors influenced the quality of antenatal care. Key conclusions and implications for practice: the resourcing and organisation of health services and the beliefs, attitudes and practices of clinicians were the major factors affecting the quality of care. There is an urgent need to address the identified issues in order to achieve equity in women's access to high quality antenatal care with the aim of closing the gap in maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:23809580

Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue

2014-03-01

42

Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

Willmarth, John Gary

43

The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke in young women (E. N. Lopez, D. J. Drobes, J. K. Thompson, & T. H. Brandon, 2008). This study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and

Elena N. Lopez Khoury; Erika B. Litvin; Thomas H. Brandon

2009-01-01

44

Academic Climate and Advisor Support Affect the Quality of Womens' Experiences in Graduate School  

E-print Network

by the Department. There were statistically significant differences in student responses based on gender (pAcademic Climate and Advisor Support Affect the Quality of Womens' Experiences in Graduate School of their graduate school experience in the Department of Mechanical Engineering were sought. We conducted

Agogino, Alice M.

45

In the Mood for Love or Vice Versa? Exploring the Relations Among Sexual Activity, Physical Affection, Affect, and Stress in the Daily Lives of Mid-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight\\u000a women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings\\u000a every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner\\u000a on one day significantly

Mary H. Burleson; Wenda R. Trevathan; Michael Todd

2007-01-01

46

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in women with postpartum affective disorder and suicidality.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in postpartum women, according to the presence of postpartum affective disorder (PPAD) and suicidality. A cross-sectional study was carried out with women between 45 and 90 days after delivery. PPAD (depression, manic and mixed episode) and suicide risk were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. BDNF was assessed using a commercial ELISA kit. Linear regression was used for multivariate analyses. A hundred ninety women participated in the study, 15.3 % had PPAD, 7.4 % showed PPAD with suicide risk. BDNF levels were lower in subjects with three or more Stressful Life Events (P = 0.01). The serum BDNF levels of women with PPAD presenting suicide risk were significantly lower than those of women without suicide risk (1.50 ± 1.38 and 2.33 ± 1.28 ng/ml, P = 0.02). Clinicians should enquire postpartum women about their history of stressful life events, PPAD, and suicidality. This study shows the potential role of BDNF in the neurobiology of the association of PPAD and suicidality. PMID:22851352

Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares; da Cunha Coelho, Fábio Monteiro; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; Gazal, Marta; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Giovenardi, Márcia; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Oses, Jean Pierre

2012-10-01

47

Variation in NGFB is associated with primary affective disorders in women.  

PubMed

Affective disorders (AFDs) are highly comorbid with substance dependence (SD) and both are genetically influenced. However, the specific etiology of the comorbidity is not well understood. We genotyped an array of 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 130 genes in 868 European-Americans (EAs), including 182 individuals with primary AFDs (PAFDs), 214 with SD comorbid with AFD (CAFD), and 472 screened controls. NGFB, which encodes nerve growth factor ? and was represented in the array by 15 SNPs, showed the strongest evidence of association, but only among women with PAFDs. Six of the SNPs showed nominally significant association with PAFDs in women (P's?=?0.0007-0.01); three (rs2856813, rs4332358, and rs10776799) were empirically significant based on 1,000,000 permutations (P's?=?0.008-0.015). Seven haplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (P's?=?0.0014-0.01), of which six were significant based on empirical permutation analysis (minimal P?=?0.0045). Four diplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (global P's?=?0.001-0.01). The specific diplotype GG-TC, reconstructed from rs2856813 and rs6678788, showed the strongest evidence of association with PAFDs in women (OR?=?4.07, P?=?4.2E-05). No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with PAFDs in men or with CAFDs in either sex. We conclude that variation in NGFB is a risk factor for PAFDs in women, but not for CAFD. PMID:21294249

Cui, Donghong; Zhang, Huiping; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Listman, Jennifer B; Li, Dawei; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; Anton, Raymond F; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel

2011-06-01

48

Factors affecting decision making of low-income young women with unplanned pregnancies in Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide better information and services to reduce the impact, both physical and mental, of the selected choice. PMID:16124455

Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc

2005-05-01

49

HIV\\/AIDS Stigma and Religiosity Among African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV\\/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what

Nancy Muturi; Soontae An

2010-01-01

50

Mental disorders associated with subpopulations of women affected by violence and abuse.  

PubMed

Violence against women is a major public health problem associated with mental disorders. Few studies have examined the heterogeneity of interpersonal violence and abuse (IVA) among women and associated mental health problems. Latent class analysis was used to identify subpopulations of women with similar lifetime histories of IVA victimization and to examine 10 associated past-year mental disorders. Participants were 19,816 adult women who participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The 3-class model was best supported by the data. Class 1 (6.7%) had a high probability of witnessing domestic violence as a child. Class 2 (21.8%) had a low probability of all events except lifetime sexual assault. Class 3 (71.5%) had a low probability for all events. Mental disorders were more common among members of Classes 1 and 2 than Class 3. For example, members in Class 1 were approximately 8 and 9 times more likely than members in Class 3 to have had posttraumatic stress disorder or a drug use disorder, respectively, during the past year. Of the 10 mental disorders, 5 were more common among members of Class 1 than of Class 2. Findings suggest the mental health consequences of IVA among women are extensive and interventions should be tailored for distinct subpopulations affected by IVA. PMID:23813596

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Martins, Silvia S; Petras, Hanno; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

2013-08-01

51

Factors affecting the use of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Glasgow.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Use of folic acid supplements preconception, and during the first trimester, is associated with a reduced incidence of first and subsequent neural tube defects. The Department of Health guidelines recommend the use of folic acid supplements by all women planning a pregnancy. AIM: To ascertain the proportion using folic acid supplements and the factors affecting their use. METHOD: Questionnaires were distributed postpartum to the 515 women who delivered normal babies in three maternity units in Glasgow over a four-week period. RESULTS: Forms were completed by 487 (95%) women. Only 57% took supplements at some point during their pregnancy, and only 21% took them before conception. Failure to take supplements was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancy, younger age, and previous pregnancies. Lack of awareness of the potential benefits associated with folic acid use was the commonest reason cited by women for not taking supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Increased health education through health care professionals and mass media campaigns can improve awareness and thereby increase the use of supplements in planned pregnancies. However, 42% of women in our study had unplanned pregnancies. Intake of folic acid supplements in this group can only be increased by improvements in dietary intake within the population as a whole, and by fortification of commonly ingested foods. PMID:9474827

McGovern, E; Moss, H; Grewal, G; Taylor, A; Bjornsson, S; Pell, J

1997-01-01

52

Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…

Ramirez, Dawn Marie

2012-01-01

53

A qualitative analysis of South African women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and cervical cancer prevention, vaccine awareness and acceptance, and maternal-child communication about sexual health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a

Shelley A. Francis; Michele Battle-Fisher; Joan Liverpool; Lauren Hipple; Maghboehba Mosavel; Soji Soogun; Nokuthula Mofammere

2011-01-01

54

Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.  

PubMed

Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses. PMID:19856092

Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

2010-08-01

55

USC study identifies genetic basis for aggressive breast cancer in women of African ancestry:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, together with other scientists, have identified the location of a genetic risk factor for a type of breast cancer that disproportionately affects women of African descent and carries a worse prognosis than other forms of the disease.

56

Intimate partner violence affects skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya.  

PubMed

Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:21688110

Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D

2012-07-01

57

Plasma leptin in men and women with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy matched controls.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a specific clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of depression, which typically occur during the winter with periods of remission during the spring and summer. These depression episodes are accompanied by hyperphagia with cravings for carbohydrates and moderate weight gain, and usually respond to light therapy. We examined potential relationships between leptin, a hormone known to affect appetite and weight regulation, and seasonal changes in mood and appetite by measuring plasma leptin, clinical severity of depression, appetite scores, and body mass index (BMI) in 19 women and 8 men with SAD and matched controls (20 women and 8 men) in the summer and winter. Plasma leptin was positively correlated with BMI in patients and controls during both seasons. Women and men with SAD both experienced depression in the winter, which was associated with increased appetite, caloric intake, and carbohydrate craving. Increased body weight during the winter in subjects with SAD was paralleled by a lack of concomitant changes in plasma leptin, which suggests that leptin sensitivity to changes in body weight may be influenced by seasons in subjects with SAD, similar to seasonal mammals. PMID:15702439

Cizza, G; Romagni, P; Lotsikas, A; Lam, G; Rosenthal, N E; Chrousos, G P

2005-01-01

58

Status of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination and Factors Affecting It in Pregnant Women in Kahramanmaras, an Eastern Mediterranean City of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza.MethodologyWe enrolled 314 of

Ali Ozer; Deniz Cemgil Arikan; Ekrem Kirecci; Hasan Cetin Ekerbicer; Benjamin J. Cowling

2010-01-01

59

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

60

Increased total cell-free DNA in the serum of pregnant women carrying a fetus affected by trisomy 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Analysis of the levels of cell-free fetal and total DNA in serum of women carrying a male fetus affected by trisomy 21, and comparison of these levels with those in women carrying a normal male fetus. Methods DNA was extracted from archived second-trimester maternal serum samples collected as part of a prenatal screening program. A total of 10 cases

Kevin Spencer; J. B. de Kok; D. W. Swinkels

2003-01-01

61

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY IMAGE DISPARITY AND CULTURALLY SPECIFIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT IN BLACK AND WHITE WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Sixty women participated in highly structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique. We asked, ''How does being a Black (White) woman affect your weight?'' Body image disparity (BID) was determined with the Stunkard Figure Rating scale by comparing the women's current body image perception to their ideal body image. Results: Food preparation and selection were major factors

Jamy D. Ard; Lori F. Greene; Christie Z. Malpede; Wendy K. Jefferson

2007-01-01

62

Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

Vahabi, Mandana

2010-01-01

63

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

64

Women's reactions to dominant and Agreeable men: how are initial judgements of attraction affected by peer discussion  

E-print Network

University In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2001 Group: Psychology 2 WOMEN'S REACTIONS TO DOMINANT AND AGREEABLE MEN: HOW ARE INITIAL JUDGMENTS OF ATTRACTION AFFECTED BY PEER DISCUSSION... as to style and content by: William G. Graziano (Fellows Advisor) uX Edward A. Funkhouser (Executive Director) April 2001 Group: Psychology 2 ABSTRACT Women's Reactions to Dominant and Agreeable Men: How are Initial Judgments of Attraction Affected...

Dean, Cynthia Maria

2013-02-22

65

Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

2013-12-01

66

Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

Nicolas, Michel

2009-12-01

67

Gender and access to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatments in Thailand: Why do women have more and earlier access?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent scale-up of antiretroviral treatment, gender differences in access to treatment have been reported. In Thailand, as the HIV epidemic became more generalised, there has been a shift from men being disproportionately affected to increased vulnerability of women. In 2007, the Living with Antiretrovirals (LIWA-ANRS 12141) study investigated the gender distribution of all adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

Sophie Le Coeur; Intira J. Collins; Julie Pannetier; Éva Lelièvre

2009-01-01

68

Comparison of HIV-positive women with children and without children accessing HIV care and treatment in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, women comprise half of all people living with HIV, but in sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately affected. Data were obtained from 8419 HIV-infected women at enrollment into 10 HIV treatment programs in Cameroon, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the Central Africa region of the International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS. We used chi-squared

A. Freeman; J. Newman; J. Hemingway-Foday; J. Iriondo-Perez; K. Stolka; W. Akam; A. Balimba; L. Kalenga; M. Mbaya; B. Mfangam Molu; H. Mukumbi; T. Niyongabo; G. Woelk; M. Kiumbu; J. Atibu

2012-01-01

69

Comparison of HIV-positive women with children and without children accessing HIV care and treatment in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, women comprise half of all people living with HIV, but in sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately affected. Data were obtained from 8419 HIV-infected women at enrollment into 10 HIV treatment programs in Cameroon, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the Central Africa region of the International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS. We used chi-squared

A. Freeman; J. Newman; J. Hemingway-Foday; J. Iriondo-Perez; K. Stolka; W. Akam; A. Balimba; L. Kalenga; M. Mbaya; B. Mfangam Molu; H. Mukumbi; T. Niyongabo; G. Woelk; M. Kiumbu; J. Atibu

2011-01-01

70

Women’s Sexual Responses to Heterosexual and Lesbian Erotica: The Role of Stimulus Intensity, Affective Reaction, and Sexual History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a “category-specific” genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on\\u000a average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual\\u000a versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for

Zoë D. Peterson; Erick Janssen; Ellen Laan

2010-01-01

71

78 FR 28551 - Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions AGENCY: Centers...state Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) allotments annually from fiscal...state Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotments annually from...

2013-05-15

72

78 FR 45217 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits for FY 2012, and Preliminary FY 2013 Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Limits AGENCY:...

2013-07-26

73

78 FR 57293 - Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions AGENCY: Centers...state Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) allotments annually from fiscal...state Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotments annually from...

2013-09-18

74

76 FR 148 - Medicaid Program; Final FY 2009 and Preliminary FY 2011 Disproportionate Share Hospital...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary FY 2011 Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments, and Final FY 2009 and Preliminary...Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...Federal share disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotments for Federal FY...

2011-01-03

75

77 FR 43301 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits for FYs 2010, 2011, and Preliminary FY 2012 Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Limits AGENCY:...

2012-07-24

76

Women are more strongly affected by dizziness in static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging scanners.  

PubMed

Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7?T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields. PMID:25089803

Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

2014-10-01

77

Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.  

PubMed

This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

2014-02-01

78

Capturing Women’s Voices: Socioeconomics and Gender-Roles in Pastoralist Households in the Ruaha Landscape, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pastoralists in East Africa face a multitude of challenges relating to land ownership, environmental concerns and access \\u000ato government services. These difficulties may disproportionately affect women due to traditional gender roles within \\u000apastoralist society. {HALI} project team members conducted an assessment of gender-roles in pastoralist households during a \\u000alongitudinal survey of study households and focus group meetings in an effort

Mariam Nguvava; Deana Clifford; Michel Masozera; Peter Coppolillo; Harrison Sadiki; Jonna Mazet

2009-01-01

79

Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD. Patients and methods 61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery. Results Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD. Interpretation Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women. PMID:22489886

2012-01-01

80

A survey of women regarding factors affecting colorectal cancer screening compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Women participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening less often than men. Our study objective was to understand factors related to women's use of CRC screening. We examined the personal health, medical care, and psychosocial responses to CRC and screening use of a community-based sample of women.Methods. Women aged 50–80 years at average CRC risk completed a telephone questionnaire. We

David S Weinberg; Barbara J Turner; Hao Wang; Ronald E Myers; Suzanne Miller

2004-01-01

81

How Do Alcohol and Relationship Type Affect Women’s Risk Judgment of Partners with Differing Risk Histories?  

PubMed Central

Understanding how women judge male partners’ sexual risk is important to developing risk reduction programs. Applying a cognitive mediation model of sexual decision making, our study investigated effects of alcohol consumption (control, low dose, high dose) and relationship type (disrupted vs. new) on women’s risk judgments of a male sexual partner in three sexual risk conditions (low, unknown, high). After random assignment to an experimental condition, 328 participants projected themselves into a story depicting a sexual interaction. The story was paused to assess primary appraisals of sexual and relationship potential and secondary appraisals of pleasure, health, and relationship concerns, followed by sexual risk judgments. In all risk conditions, alcohol and disrupted relationship increased sexual potential whereas disrupted relationship increased relationship potential in the low- and high-risk conditions. In the unknown-risk condition, women in the no-alcohol, new relationship condition had the lowest primary sexual appraisals. In all conditions, sexual appraisals predicted all secondary appraisals, but primary relationship appraisals predicted only secondary relationship appraisals. Secondary health appraisals led to increased risk judgments whereas relationship appraisals predicted lower risk judgments. Possible intervention points include helping women to re-evaluate their safety beliefs about past partners, as well as to develop behavioral strategies for decreasing hazardous drinking. PMID:24003264

Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Zawacki, Tina; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.

2013-01-01

82

Understanding the Process: How Mediated and Peer Norms Affect Young Women's Body Esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of interpersonal and mediated perceived norms to young women's body esteem among first-year college women. In addition, we examined the role of social comparison as a mediator for the relationship between norms and body esteem. Several findings were notable. First, interpersonal norms do have a significant relationship with esteem. Young women who perceived that their

Marina Krcmar; Steve Giles; Donald Helme

2008-01-01

83

Don’t take another bite: How sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance.

Erin J. Strahan; Steven J. Spencer; Mark P. Zanna

2007-01-01

84

Self-Focused Attention, Meaning, and Posttraumatic Growth: The Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Affect for Bereaved Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the mediating impact of positive and negative affect on the relationship between two distinct self-focusing tendencies (i.e., reflection and rumination) and meaning and posttraumatic growth among bereaved women. Supporting the study hypotheses, positive affect mediated the relationship between self-focusing tendencies and both meaning and posttraumatic growth. Reflection and rumination also had indirect effects on meaning through negative

Güler Boyraz; Natalie Efstathiou

2011-01-01

85

Selective toluene disproportionation over pore size controlled MFI zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Selective disproportionate of toluene to p-xylene was studied over modified MFI aluminosilicate. The relationship between extent of silica deposition and para selectivity was established. The effect of reaction parameters such as temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on para selectivity was considered. Kinetics of reaction in the temperature range 723--773 K was carried out. The estimated activation energy value is lower than reported for toluene disproportionation in the literature. This has been explained on the basis of enhanced intracrystalline diffusion in the modified zeolite.

Das, J.; Bhat, Y.S.; Halgeri, A.B. (Indian Petrochemicals Corp. Ltd., Gujarat (India). Research Centre)

1994-02-01

86

Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

Frisby, Cynthia M.

87

Factors Affecting Women's Health-Related Behaviors and Safe Motherhood: A Qualitative Study From a Refugee Camp in Eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to provide a deeper understanding of a broader range of potential factors affecting risk behaviors related to safe motherhood among refugee women in Eastern Sudan, thus creating a basis for further research in behavioral change. Risk behaviors chosen for this study follow (1) practice of female genital cutting, (2) adopting family planning (FP) practices, (3) usage of a

Marie Furuta; Rintaro Mori

2008-01-01

88

Subtyping Women With Bulimia Nervosa Along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective studies that found that young women with threshold (n = 48) and

Eric Stice; Cara Bohon; C. Nathan Marti; Kathryn Fischer

2008-01-01

89

Aerobic exercise affects T-wave alternans and heart rate variability in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 10-week high-intermediate exercise intervention on heart rate variability/microscopic T-wave alternans (HRV/MTWA) in healthy postmenopausal women (PMW). 62 healthy PMW were recruited and randomly divided into an exercise group (EG, n=32) or a control group (CG, n=30). The EG attended a progressively high-intermediate intensity (75-85% heart rate reserve, HRR) group-based step aerobic exercise program for 10 weeks, whereas the CG did not receive any intervention. HRV/MTWA, blood chemistry and physical function-related indices were measured before and within 24?h following the 10-week exercise program. Following a 10-week exercise intervention, the EG had significant mean decreases in SDNN (22.4%), CV (21.4%), NN50 (72.6%), LF (ms2; 55.8%), HF (ms2; 39.9%), LF (n.u.; 11.2%), and LF/HF (34.5%). The EG showed a significant increase in HF (n.u.; 40.0%) and CAV (44.4%), whereas there was no significant finding in the CG. The coupling effect of MTWA and HRV after intervention suggests that exercise intervention potentially affects regulation changes of the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular condition synchronically in PMW. The rebound effect of biomarkers has proven to be a considerable factor on HRV/MTWA measurements. PMID:23757126

Shen, T-W; Wen, H-J

2013-12-01

90

Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal observational study determined the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use during adolescence on peak bone mass (PBM). The sample comprised 62 non-Hispanic, White females in The Penn State Young Women's Health Study, who were studied for 8 years between the ages of 12 and 20. There were 28 OC users who used OCs for a minimum of 6 months and were still using them at age 20, and 34 nonusers who had never used the regimen. Total body bone, dedicated hipbone, and body composition measurements were made by dual-energy roentgenogram absorptiometry. There was no difference between OC users and nonusers in the anthropometric, body composition, or total body bone measurements. By age 20, the average duration of OC use by the user group was 22 months. At this age, the groups remained indistinguishable in anthropometric, body composition, total body, and hipbone measurements, and in age of menarche and sports exercise scores. These findings suggest that OC use by healthy, White, teenage females does not affect acquisition of PBM. PMID:11020515

Lloyd, T; Taylor, D S; Lin, H M; Matthews, A E; Eggli, D F; Legro, R S

2000-10-01

91

She Left, He Left: How Employment and Satisfaction Affect Men's and Women's Decisions to Leave Marriages  

PubMed Central

Most past studies examining determinants of divorce have ignored differences between the factors that elevate wives’ and husbands’ initiation of divorce. We use three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. We assess who left using each ex-spouse’s answer to a question that asked who had wanted the breakup more. We find that when men are not employed, either husbands or wives are more likely to leave. When wives report better than average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither their nor their husbands’ exits. However, when wives report below average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely that they will leave. We compare findings to predictions from two theories: an institutional perspective that sees divorce to result from a violation of gender-specific norms, and exchange/bargaining theory, which posits that resources allow a spouse to leave if exchange and bargaining fail to provide a satisfactory marriage. To amend the theories to better fit the data, we foreground the asymmetric nature of gender change in recent decades, with women changing more than men. PMID:21932472

Sayer, Liana C.; England, Paula; Allison, Paul; Kangas, Nicole

2012-01-01

92

Disproportionation and polymerization of plutonium(IV) in dilute aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

The rates of polymerization and disproportionation of Pu(IV) have been studied using low concentrations: (1.7 - 10) x 10{sup -}M Pu, (0.8 - 12) x 10{sup -}M HCl and 0.0iM ionic strength. Osmium(II) complexes such as the tris-4,4`-2,2`-bipyridine complex were found to react rapidly with Pu(IV) but very slowly, if at all, with Pu(IV) polymer, Pu(III), or Pu(V). Thus, it is possible to determine unreacted Pu(IV) in the presence of rection products by using Os(II) complexes. Disproportionation reaction products, Pu(III) and Pu(V), were determined using their reactions with Ce(IV) sulfate. We find -d[Pu(IV)]/dt = k`[Pu(IV)]{sup 2} at constant pH. Log k` varies from about 4.25 at pH 3 to about 7.0 at pH 4.1 (units for k` are M{sup -1}min{sup -1}). The [H{sup +}] dependence varies from about -2 to -3 over the pH range studied. The measured rate is the sum of those for polymerization and disproportionation; the latter reaction amounts to about 75% of the total at pH 3 and 20% at pH 4. The second-order rate constants for disproportionation are very much larger than expected on the basis of extrapolation from 0.2 to 1.0M HC10{sub 4} solutions. The products of the reaction do not affect the rate, but U(VI), aged Pu(IV) polymer, and CO{sub 2} increase the rate.

Newton, T.W.; Rundberg, V.L.

1983-12-31

93

Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.  

PubMed

Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate. PMID:18089279

Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

2007-12-01

94

DISPROPORTIONATION RESISTANT ALLOY DEVELOPMENT FOR HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSION  

E-print Network

DISPROPORTIONATION RESISTANT ALLOY DEVELOPMENT FOR HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSION Mark Golben David H compressor is an absorption-based system that uses the properties of reversible metal hydride alloys to silently and cleanly compress hydrogen; hydrogen is absorbed into an alloy bed at ambient temperature and

95

Perceptions of Women's Sexual Interest and Acquaintance Rape. The Role of Sexual Overperception and Affective Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored factors related to male college students' perceptions of sexual intent, measuring self-reported sexual behavior and attitudes contributing to a more sexualized processing of women's intent. Men who engaged in sexually aggressive behavior were significantly more likely to misperceive women's sexual intent than were other people. Cognitive…

Bondurant, Barrie; Donat, Patricia L.

1999-01-01

96

Influences Affecting the Treatment of Women Prisoners in Toronto, 1880 to 1890  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of women prisoners in the 1880’s was largely dependent on the general attitudes towards the importance of their roles in society. In late nineteenth century Toronto the expected roles of women of all classes were those of wife and mother within the home and, to a very limited extent, of worker within the community. The responses and behaviour of

M. Jennifer Brown

1975-01-01

97

The Relationship Between Perceived Body Image and Depression: How College Women See Themselves May Affect Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for the ideal body type is an area of focus for many women, and the inability to reach the ideal for some women is devastating. The relationship between low body image perceptions and depression has been studied numerous times over the past few decades. Past research indicates that as a woman becomes more focused on her appearance, or

Sabrina R. Hamilton

2008-01-01

98

Factors affecting women's preference for type of prenatal screening test for chromosomal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain, by means of a questionnaire, women's preferences for four different approaches to prenatal screening for Down syndrome. Methods Women attending antenatal clinics at six UK maternity units were asked to put in order of prefer- ence four different approaches to screening for Down syndrome all of which had the same false positive rate of 5%. The options

K. Spencer; D. Aitken

2004-01-01

99

The Impact of Uterine Leiomyomas: A National Survey of Affected Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the impact of uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) in a racially diverse sample of women in the United States. Study Design A total of 968 women (573 White, 268 African-American, 127 other races) aged 29–59 with self-reported symptomatic uterine leiomyomas participated in a national survey. We assessed diagnosis, information seeking, attitudes about fertility, impact on work, and treatment preferences. Frequencies and percentages were summarized. Chi-square test was used to compare age groups. Results Women waited an average of 3.6 years before seeking treatment for leiomyomas, and 41% saw two or more healthcare providers for diagnosis. Almost a third of employed respondents (28%) reported missing work due to leiomyoma symptoms, and 24% felt that their symptoms prevented them from reaching their career potential. Women expressed desire for treatments that do not involve invasive surgery (79%), preserve the uterus (51%), and preserve fertility (43% of women under 40). Conclusions Uterine leiomyomas cause significant morbidity. When considering treatment, women are most concerned about surgical options, especially women under 40 who want to preserve fertility. PMID:23891629

Borah, Bijan J.; Nicholson, Wanda K.; Bradley, Linda; Stewart, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

100

Does Group Prenatal Care Affect Satisfaction And Prenatal Care Utilization in Iranian Pregnant Women?  

PubMed Central

Background: The need to provide high quality prenatal care services, which take account of women’s views and specifically address their need for information, support and communication, has been advocated and group prenatal care, had been suggested as one of the ways to achieve this objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on satisfaction and prenatal care use. Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with the health center as the randomization unit that conducted in 2007. Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire, and the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to measure prenatal care utilization. Results: We recruited 678 women (group prenatal care, (N= 344) and individual prenatal care, (N=334) in the study. Women in group prenatal care model were more satisfied than women in individual prenatal care model in all areas evaluated, including information, communication, co-ordination and quality of care. Group care women were significantly more likely to have adequate prenatal care than individual care women were (OR=1.35 95% CI=1.26–1.44). Conclusions: Group prenatal care was associated with a significant improvement in client satisfaction and prenatal care utilization. This model of care has implications for the planning and provision of prenatal services within public health system, which is moving toward a better quality health care, and increasing use of services. PMID:23113007

Jafari, F; Eftekhar, H; Mohammad, K; Fotouhi, A

2010-01-01

101

HIV\\/AIDS Programming in the United States: Considerations Affecting Transgender Women and Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be truly gender responsive, HIV\\/AIDS programming for women and girls also needs to be fully gender inclusive. Gender identity is not necessarily determined by one’s sex assigned at birth and not everyone is only or always simply “male” or “female.” Transgender women (transwomen) and girls are those individuals whose gender identity and\\/or expression do not align with the “male”

Jae M. Sevelius; JoAnne Keatley; Luis Gutierrez-Mock

2011-01-01

102

Barriers affecting access to and use of formal social supports among abused immigrant women.  

PubMed

Social support is critical for women dealing with intimate partner violence (IPV).When support from their informal sources, such as family, friends, and neighbours, is limited, women tend to access services provided by health professionals, social workers, and settlement workers. In this qualitative descriptive study, community leaders who were also first-generation immigrants describe the complexities of immigrant women's access to and use of formal supports to deal with IPV in Canada.The findings show that a number of factors negatively shape the experiences of these women: lack of familiarity with services, inappropriate services and intervention strategies, lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, lack of portability and coordination of services, confidentiality concerns, and discriminatory and racist practices embedded in services and service delivery. In order to improve care for women dealing with IPV in the post-migration context, health professionals must collaborate with social workers and settlement workers to address structural barriers that limit women's access to and use of formal social support. PMID:19831055

Guruge, Sepali; Humphreys, Janice

2009-09-01

103

Gln27Glu variant of Beta2-adrenoceptor gene affects male type fat accumulation in women  

PubMed Central

Background The ?2-adrenergic receptor (BAR2) is the main lipolytic receptor in white human adipose tissue. There is a functional glutamine 27 glutamic acid (Gln27Glu, rs 1042714) polymorphism in its gene, which has been variably associated with body mass index. This gene variant may be associated with male-type adiposity in women and thus increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether the BAR2 Gln27Glu polymorphism is associated with visceral fat and coronary intima thickness in women. Methods The amount of mesenteric and omental fat was directly measured and anthropometric measurements were done from 112 forensic autopsy cases of women aged 15 to 49 years. The thickness of the coronary intima, which reflects the severity of atherosclerosis, was measured by computerized image analysis. The BAR2 Gln27Glu polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results We found that the amount of visceral fat was significantly higher in women with the Glu allele (689 ± 555 g) compared to Gln/Gln homozygotes (481 ± 392 g, P = 0.023). The waist-hip ratio also tended to be higher in women with the Glu allele compared to Gln/Gln homozygotes (p = 0.050). There were no statistically significant differences between the genotype groups in BMI or the thickness of coronary intima. Conclusion The Glu allele of the BAR2 gene may be a risk factor for visceral fat accumulation in young to middle-aged women. However, this polymorphism was not associated with preclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:19832974

Kunnas, Tarja; Lahtio, Riikka; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Kalela, Anne; Nikkari, Seppo T

2009-01-01

104

Does the diabetes of type 2 affect the sexual functions of women?  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate female sexual dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Using the Index of Female Sexual Function, the authors compared the sexual function of type 2 diabetic women with that of nondiabetic women. Participants were 76 sexually active women with type 2 diabetes (study group) and 100 sexually active nondiabetic women (control group); all women were 24-47 years of age and had similar backgrounds. The participants with type 2 diabetes were selected from those women who applied to the Diabetes Polyclinic of the Istanbul University. Results were analyzed using chi-square and Student's t test. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher among the study group than in the control group. The authors found that if HbA1c, body mass index, and duration of diabetes increase, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction also increases. The authors of this article conclude that all diabetic patients should be considered to have sexuality, and patients with sexual dysfunction should be referred to appropriate medical centers. PMID:24341832

Bal, Meltem Demirgöz; Y?lmaz, Sema Dereli; Celik, Selda Gedik; Dinça?, Nevin; Beji, Nezihe K?z?lkaya; Yalç?n, Onay

2015-01-01

105

Actinides in Solution: Disproportionation, Strong Correlations, and Emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium in acid solutions can be found in oxidation states III through VI. There is a striking near perfect degeneracy of the reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials, each being about 1 volt. Neptunium is the only other element that approaches this degree of degeneracy. One consequence of the redox degeneracy is a marked tendency of plutonium ions to disproportionate; up to four different oxidation states can coexist simultaneously in the same solution, greatly complicating the environmental chemistry of the element. While the degeneracy could simply be a coincidence, it could also be the manifestation of a higher-level organizing principle at work. Other systems that exhibit disproportionation raise the possibility of an emergent negative-U attractive interaction. The hypothesis is tested by combining first-principles relativistic density-functional calculations using the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package with exact diagonalizations of Hubbard-like models of the strong correlations between the actinide 5f electrons.

Marston, Brad; Horowitz, Steven

2010-03-01

106

Addressing the Unique Needs of African American Women in HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet there are few effective HIV prevention interventions that are exclusively tailored to their lives and that address their risk factors. Using an ecological framework, we offer a comprehensive overview of the risk factors that are driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African American women and explicate the consequences of ignoring these factors in HIV prevention strategies. We also recommend ways to improve HIV prevention programs by taking into consideration the unique life experiences of adult African American women. PMID:19372518

Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Gilbert, Louisa

2009-01-01

107

Cleidocranial dysplasia: a rare cause of disproportionate severe short stature.  

PubMed

Skeletal dysplasia is an uncommon cause of short stature in children. An 11-year-old girl was evaluated for severe short stature in a tertiary care hospital. Clinical examination revealed severe disproportionate short stature and classical triad of multiple supernumerary teeth, and complete absence of clavicles and open sagittal sutures and fontanelles. Skeletal survey confirmed these findings, in addition to other features associated with the syndrome. PMID:23074552

Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mantoo, Suhail; Choudry, Khalid; Kotwal, Suman; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad

2012-09-01

108

A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.  

PubMed

African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

2013-04-01

109

Who's responsible for the care of women during and after a pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes?  

PubMed

Despite its increasing incidence and high conferred risk to women and their children, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is managed inconsistently during and after pregnancy due to an absence of a systemic approach to managing these women. New guidelines for GDM testing and diagnosis are based on stronger evidence, but raise concerns about increased workloads and confusion in a landscape of multiple, conflicting guidelines. Postnatal care and long-term preventive measures are particularly fragmented, with no professional group taking responsibility for this crucial role. Clearer guidelines and assistance from existing frameworks, such as the National Gestational Diabetes Register, could enable general practitioners to take ownership of the management of women at risk of type 2 diabetes following GDM, applying the principles of chronic disease management long term. PMID:25047889

Wilkinson, Shelley A; Lim, Siew S; Upham, Susan; Pennington, Andrew; O'Reilly, Sharleen L; Asproloupos, Dino; McIntyre, H David; Dunbar, James A

2014-08-01

110

Obesity and Black Women: Special Considerations Related to Genesis and Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Black women in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity, with almost two-thirds considered obese based on body mass index. Obesity has been directly linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in black women. Therefore, understanding contributors to the genesis of obesity in black women is imperative. While biologic differences likely result in varying obesity prevalence across racial/ethnic groups, behaviors such as post-partum weight retention and limited leisure-time physical activity, may especially contribute to obesity in black women. Black women also appear to be particularly susceptible to cultural, psychosocial, and environmental factors that can promote weight gain. Therapeutic interventions are being tailored to specifically address these social determinants of health and to foster lifestyle modification; however, more work is needed to understand barriers to behavior change for black women. Knowledge gaps also remain in identifying mechanisms by which pharmacologic and surgical treatments for obesity modify cardiovascular risk in black women. PMID:24159367

Agyemang, Priscilla; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

2013-01-01

111

An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.  

PubMed

Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns. PMID:23930875

Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

2013-08-01

112

77 FR 2500 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments-Uninsured Definition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments-- Uninsured Definition AGENCY...SUMMARY: This proposed rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social...

2012-01-18

113

Feminism, postmodernism, and affect: An unlikely love triangle in women's media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative media project explores gender as a socially constructed concept and historical category constantly in flux. Throughout I utilize diverse women-orientated artifacts, focusing primarily on those residing in the popular culture realm, to track the production and consumption of gendered myths through cultural products. I argue that these female-directed texts act as both antagonist and aid for feminist work

Melissa Ames

2007-01-01

114

Intimate Practices, Conjugal Ideals: Affective Ties and Relationship Strategies Among Lala (Lesbian) Women in Contemporary Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a range of marital ideologies and relationship strategies in the lives of lala (lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing. Although new discourses on same-sex marriage rights and sexual equality are becoming popular in parts of Chinese lala communities, the traditional mar- riage ideal continues to appear desirable, and it structures same-sex life aspirations as well as social, romantic,

Elisabeth Lund Engebretsen

2009-01-01

115

Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

2008-01-01

116

How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the relationship between teenage childbearing, human capital investment, and wages in early adulthood, using a sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a large set of potential instruments for fertility-principally state and county-level indicators of the costs of fertility and fertility control. Adolescent fertility substantially reduces years of formal education and teenage work experience

Daniel Klepinger; Shelly Lundberg; Robert Plotnick

1999-01-01

117

More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

2009-01-01

118

Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

2010-01-01

119

Women with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy demonstrate worse health and are adversely affected by odours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objectives of this study were (1) to determine aversive stimuli that are related to nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP); (2) to determine food and fluid intake in early pregnancy; and (3) to explore relationships between aversive stimuli and health measures. A total of 273 women in an antenatal setting completed a questionnaire survey, incorporating the Nausea and

B. L. SWALLOW; S. W. LINDOW; E. A. MASSON; D. M. HAY

2005-01-01

120

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage. PMID:22106751

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

121

Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

2010-01-01

122

Affect Regulation and the Cycle of Violence Against Women: New Directions for Understanding the Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of the intergenerational transmission of violence is not well understood. A risk and resilience model of criminal violence against women was investigated using secondary data. The sample was composed of adolescent male juvenile delinquents who had been physically abused by their parents, and who were followed up at ages 25 and 31. A series of structural equation models

Mary E. Dankoski; Margaret K. Keiley; Volker Thomas; Pamela Choice; Sally A. Lloyd; Brenda L. Seery

2006-01-01

123

Interactive Effects of Estrogen and Serotonin On Brain Activation During Working Memory and Affective Processing in Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

While cognitive changes and mood instability are frequent symptoms reported by menopausal women, the degree to which the decline in estrogen production is responsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogen may produce its effects on cognition and mood through modulation of serotonergic function. To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan depletion (TD) paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically manipulated estrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the individual and combined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory, emotion processing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy predominantly early postmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion followed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after short-term transdermal estradiol 75-150 ug/d administration. There was an estradiol treatment by TD interaction for brain activation during performance on both the N-back Task (working memory) and Emotion Identification Task (affective processing). During the 2-back condition, TD attenuated activation prior to, but not after, estradiol treatment in the right and left dorsal lateral prefrontal and middle frontal/cingulate gyrus. During emotion identification, TD heightened activation in the orbital frontal cortex and bilateral amygdala, and this effect was attenuated by estradiol treatment. These results provide preliminary evidence that serotonergic effects directly mediate the impact of estrogen on brain activation during working memory and affective processing. PMID:21820247

Epperson, C. Neill; Amin, Zenab; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Ruben; Loughead, James

2011-01-01

124

Disproportionate early fetal growth predicts postnatal thymic size in humans.  

PubMed

Prenatal events can affect neonatal thymus size and adult immune function. The causal insults are unknown, although fetal nutrient restriction is suspected. We used ultrasound at three time points during pregnancy (14, 19 and 30 weeks) to measure the growth of six fetal dimensions in rural Bangladeshi women participating in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study. Postnatal ultrasound was used to calculate thymic index (TI) at birth, 2, 6 and 12 m. Of the 3267 women recruited, 2861 participated by providing data at least at one fetal biometry and one TI time point. Patterns of fetal growth were summarized using principal components calculated from fetal dimension z-scores. Random effects regression, controlling for infant size and season of measurement were used to relate these patterns to TI. We found that smaller leg length relative to head circumference, characteristic of head-sparing growth restriction, was predictive of lower TI. This association was significant at all time points but strongest in earlier pregnancy. Each standard deviation increase in leg-head proportion was associated with an increase in TI of ?5%. We conclude that growth patterns typical of poor fetal nutrition are associated with poor thymic development. The greater strength of this association in the first trimester is consistent with a period of vulnerability during the early ontogeny of the thymus and suggests that preventative intervention would need to be given in early pregnancy. PMID:25054841

Fulford, A J C; Moore, S E; Arifeen, S E; Persson, L Å; Neufeld, L M; Wagatsuma, Y; Prentice, A M

2013-06-01

125

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992...

2011-10-01

126

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992...

2013-10-01

127

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992...

2012-10-01

128

42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992....

2013-10-01

129

42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992....

2012-10-01

130

42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992....

2010-10-01

131

42 CFR 447.294 - Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotment reductions for Federal fiscal year 2014...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotment reductions for Federal...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...294 Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotment reductions for...

2013-10-01

132

42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992....

2011-10-01

133

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992 through...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1, 1992...

2010-10-01

134

Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.  

PubMed

Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185?cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

2014-01-01

135

HIV/AIDS programming in the United States: considerations affecting transgender women and girls.  

PubMed

To be truly gender responsive, HIV/AIDS programming for women and girls also needs to be fully gender inclusive. Gender identity is not necessarily determined by one's sex assigned at birth and not everyone is only or always simply "male" or "female." Transgender women (transwomen) and girls are those individuals whose gender identity and/or expression do not align with the "male" sex they were assigned at birth. This definition is inclusive of a diverse population whose identities, language, communities, and behaviors may vary widely. However, based on recent increases in public health literature that aims to elucidate the social context that puts transwomen and girls at risk for adverse health outcomes, we offer some formative considerations for the implementation of gender-responsive and gender-inclusive HIV/AIDS programming in the United States. PMID:22055679

Sevelius, Jae M; Keatley, Joanne; Gutierrez-Mock, Luis

2011-11-01

136

Intimate practices, conjugal ideals: Affective ties and relationship strategies among Lala (Lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a range of marital ideologies and relationship strategies in the lives of lala (lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing. Although new discourses on same-sex marriage rights and sexual equality are becoming\\u000a popular in parts of Chinese lala communities, the traditional marriage ideal continues to appear desirable, and it structures\\u000a same-sex life aspirations as well as social, romantic, and

Elisabeth Lund Engebretsen

2009-01-01

137

Does Religiosity Affect Health Risk Behaviors in Pregnant and Postpartum Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We examined the association between religious involvement and health risk behaviors such as smoking, drinking, marijuana\\u000a use, and having multiple sex partners among a multiethnic sample of pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Using data from the National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated multivariate logistic regression models to determine the\\u000a association between various aspects of religious involvement (e.g., attendance,

Robin L. Page; Christopher G. Ellison; Jinwoo Lee

2009-01-01

138

Estrogen affects post-menopausal women differently than estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial (WHI RCT), estrogen-only treatment compared with combined estrogen-progestin treatment resulted in less coronary artery disease, no increase in breast cancer and no reduction in colorectal cancer. Since we previously reasonably replicated the combined estrogen-progestin WHI RCT using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD), estrogen- only treatment was investigated using a

Richard L. Tannen; Mark G. Weiner; Dawei Xie; Kurt Barnhart

2007-01-01

139

women  

Microsoft Academic Search

background: More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review

Oskari Heikinheimo; Pekka Lahteenmaki

2002-01-01

140

Factors affecting women's health-related behaviors and safe motherhood: a qualitative study from a refugee camp in eastern Sudan.  

PubMed

We aim to provide a deeper understanding of a broader range of potential factors affecting risk behaviors related to safe motherhood among refugee women in Eastern Sudan, thus creating a basis for further research in behavioral change. Risk behaviors chosen for this study follow (1) practice of female genital cutting, (2) adopting family planning (FP) practices, (3) usage of a skilled birth attendant, and (4) response to obstetric complications. Analyzing findings with the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, we found that factors frequently were uncontrollable for an individual woman, suggesting the importance of a supportive political, social, and educational environment for safe motherhood. PMID:18726797

Furuta, Marie; Mori, Rintaro

2008-09-01

141

Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8?±?4.7?years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.

Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

2014-01-01

142

Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

2013-01-01

143

Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

De War, Joshua J.

2009-01-01

144

Negative Affect and Somatically Focused Anxiety in Young Women Reporting Pain With Intercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a long history of privileging psychosexual etiological factors over pain and physiological processes, dyspareunia has enjoyed 1 decade of pointed research focused on the presenting problem of pain. Although it is generally acknowledged that certain affective and cognitive styles may play a role in an individual's experience of pain in general, investigations into these questions specifically as they pertain

Marta Meana; Amy Lykins

2009-01-01

145

Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement  

PubMed Central

We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

2011-01-01

146

Manganese-dependent disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide in bicarbonate buffer.  

PubMed

At physiological concentrations of HCO3- and CO2, Mn(II) catalyzes disproportionation of H2O2. This catalase-like activity is directly proportional to the concentrations of Mn(II) and H2O2, and it increases exponentially with increases in pH. The effect of increasing pH is almost completely attributable to the concomitant increase in HCO3- concentration. The rate is proportional to the third power of the HCO3- concentration, suggesting that 3 equivalents of HCO3- combine with 1 equivalent of Mn(II) to form the catalytic complex. It is presumed that the redox potential of the Mn(II) in equilibrium with Mn(III) couple in such a complex permits H2O2 to carry out facile reactions with Mn(II) comparable to those that occur with Fe(III) and Cu(II) chelate complexes, in which OH. and O2-. are established intermediates. The Mn-catalyzed disproportionation of H2O2 does not occur at physiological pH in the absence of HCO3-. Hepes, inorganic phosphate, and inorganic pyrophosphate inhibit the reaction catalyzed by the Mn/HCO3- system. These results are similar to those of Sychev et al. [Sychev, A.Y., Pfannmeller, U. & Isak, V.G. (1983) Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 57, 1690-1693]. The catalase-like activity of Mn(II)-bicarbonate complexes reported here, together with the superoxide dismutase activity of Mn complexes demonstrated by Archibald and Fridovich [Archibald, F.S. & Fridovich, I. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 214, 452-463], strengthen the proposition that Mn may play an important role in the protection of cells against oxygen radical-mediated damage. PMID:2296593

Stadtman, E R; Berlett, B S; Chock, P B

1990-01-01

147

Barriers to Psychosocial Services Among Homeless Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington

2012-01-01

148

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

2008-12-01

149

Biosocial factors affecting vitamin D status of women of childbearing age in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Low serum 25-OHD in female Arab subjects, which may predispose their infants to hypocalcaemia, has been suggested to be due to inadequate sunshine exposure, but may include other sociobiological factors. The effects of duration of sunshine exposure--weighted against the magnitude of clothing (UV exposure) and other sociobiological variables such as age, education and living accommodation--on serum 25-OHD and mineral status of 33 UAE national women of childbearing age were compared with those of 25 non-Gulf Arabs and seventeen Europeans. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone among the groups were not significantly different. The serum concentration of 25-OHD in UAE nationals was 8.6 ng/ml (4.5-17.4), mean +/- 1 SD, and in non-Gulf Arabs 12.6 ng/ml (6.0-26.4); both these values were significantly lower (p = < 0.0001) than the 64.3 ng/ml (49-84.3) found in Europeans. Compared with Europeans, the UAE and non-Gulf Arabs in this study were younger, had fewer years of education and had significantly lower clothing and UV scores (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.59425) between serum 25-OHD and UV score, but not with length of exposure. After adjusting for other confounding variables, nationality, clothing and UV scores remained major determinants of serum 25-OHD (p < 0.0001). Therefore, limited skin exposure to sunlight appears to be an important determinant of vitamin D status in our subjects. Strategies to increase vitamin D stores should include vitamin D supplementation or advice on effective sunlight exposure. PMID:9818552

Dawodu, A; Absood, G; Patel, M; Agarwal, M; Ezimokhai, M; Abdulrazzaq, Y; Khalayli, G

1998-10-01

150

Working memory is differentially affected by stress in men and women.  

PubMed

Stress has been shown to influence working memory. However, sex differences and the potential impact of stimulus emotionality have not received much attention. In a first experiment the effects of stress on a neutral working memory (WM) paradigm were tested in male and female participants (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 employed the same paradigm but used emotional stimuli. For this purpose, healthy participants were exposed either to a stressful (Trierer Social Stress Test (TSST)) or to a non-stressful control condition. Subsequently, WM performance in an n-back task was assessed. In Experiment 1, single digits were used as stimuli, while in Experiment 2 neutral and negative pictures were additionally employed. Salivary cortisol and Alpha-Amylase (sAA) were measured before and three times after the treatment as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis- and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In both experiments, stress caused a substantial cortisol and sAA increase. For WM performance (response time) a stress by sex interaction was apparent. Stress enhanced performance in men, while impairing it in women. In both experiments stress had no effect on response accuracy. No modulating effect of the emotional quality of stimuli on n-back performance was observed (study 2). The results indicate that the effect of acute stress on n-back performance differs between the sexes. In contrast to long-term memory, the influence of stress on WM appears not to be modulated by the emotionality of the employed stimuli if stimuli are potential targets as it is the case in the n-back task. PMID:23238042

Schoofs, Daniela; Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T

2013-03-15

151

Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

Brubaker, P. A.

1985-06-01

152

Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.  

PubMed

Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

2013-10-01

153

How does the content of consultations affect the recognition by general practitioners of major depression in women?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Major depression is a common and disabling condition. However, for many reasons, the condition is not recognized in about half of the patients with major depression. AIM. The aim of the study was to establish whether the content of general practice consultations affected general practitioners' recognition of major depressive illness in women patients. METHOD. The 30-item general health questionnaire was used as a first stage screening instrument for psychiatric morbidity. Patients newly recognized as depressed by their general practitioner and those not recognized as depressed who scored 11 or more on the questionnaire were interviewed, usually within three days of consulting their general practitioner, using the combined psychiatric interview. Videorecordings of the consultations for these two groups of women were analysed; analyses were based on mentions of physical, psychiatric and social symptoms and on whether the first mention of a psychiatric symptom was within the first four mentions of any symptoms (early in the consultation) or after four mentions of any symptoms (late) or if psychiatric symptoms were not mentioned. RESULTS. A paired sample of 72 women with major depression was obtained from patients consulting 36 general practitioners, each general practitioner providing one patient whom he or she had correctly recognized as being depressed and one patient whose depression had not been recognized. Women with major depression were about five times more likely to have their depression recognized if they mentioned their psychiatric symptoms early in the consultation compared with those who either left it later to mention such symptoms or never mentioned them. Major depression was more likely to be recognized if no physical illness was present. After adjusting for physical illness, depression was 10 times less likely to be recognized if the first psychiatric symptom was mentioned late in the consultation, or not mentioned at all, than if it was mentioned early in the consultation. CONCLUSION. General practitioners need to remember that patients who present with symptoms of physical illness may also have depression. They also need to remember to give equal importance diagnostically to mentions of symptoms at whatever point they occur in the consultation, regardless of the presence or absence of physical illness. PMID:8554836

Tylee, A; Freeling, P; Kerry, S; Burns, T

1995-01-01

154

Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and twenty-six breast milk samples were collected from lactating women from 3 blocks of North-24 Paragans, one of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 226 samples, only in 39 samples arsenic was detected. Urine, hair, and nail samples were also analyzed to know the arsenic body burden of the lactating women. Arsenic in drinking water

Gautam Samanta; Dipankar Das; Badal K. Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Dipankar Chakraborti; Arup Pal; Sad Ahamed

2007-01-01

155

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Inferred from a Field Study of Stable-Isotope Fractionations between Elemental Sulfur and Pyrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (ES) is a common product of pyrite oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD), but bacterial disproportionation of ES has not previously been inferred in acidic environments. Pore water profiles were collected seasonally within a coal-mine waste deposit, Minnehaha, in Southwest Indiana that has been abandoned for over 30 years. Geochemical characterization and modeling were used to assess how the interactions between the sulfur and iron cycle are affected by seasonally dynamic hydrologic conditions. Pore waters were collected seasonally and concentrations of Fe-species and sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate were determined. Additionally, a sediment core was collected and used for sequential extraction and isotopic characterization of solid-phase sulfur species including elemental sulfur (?34Ses), pyrite (?34Spy), acid-volatile sulfides, water-soluble sulfates, and acid-soluble sulfates. The dominant disulfide phase was found to be pyrite through x-ray diffraction of an additional sediment core. Sulfur isotope fractionations between ?34Spy and ?34Ses (?34Ses-py) of up to -33% are inferred to indicate bacterial disproportionation of ES in the presence of a non-limiting sulfide 'scrub' Fe(III). The initial isotopic composition, following formation from pyrite oxidation, is inferred from ?34Spy, found to be ? 8.75% at the study site. Although ES has previously been found to accumulate in acidic Fe(III)-rich pore waters, ES is typically assumed to account for less than 1% of the oxidized sulfur pool and measurements of the ES isotopic composition are often neglected during field studies of acid AMD. The pore waters at Minnehaha were seasonally suboxic with sharp transitions from Fe(III)- to Fe(II)- dominated conditions near the phreatic surface. It is hypothesized that the sulfide product of ES disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6%, is immediately re-oxidized to ES near the redox gradient via reaction with Fe(III). Sulfide re-oxidation allows for the accumulation of isotopically light ES that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for ES, incorporating seasonally varying rates for pyrite oxidation, ES disproportionation, and ES oxidation, was developed in order to determine the potential and conditions necessary for extensive recycling of ES by disproportionating bacteria to produce ES enriched in 32S compared to the pyrite source. Simulations run for 32 seasonal cycles resulted in a ?34Ses-py of -16.4.% and an ES concentration of 170 ppm, which is consistent with average values obtained from the sediment core. The findings suggest that ES disproportionation is likely an important microbial process in AMD that should be considered at similar mining waste deposits experiencing seasonally varying hydrologic conditions and that ?34Ses-py can be used to estimate multiple cycles of ES disproportionation in oxic settings where the original source of ES is pyrite oxidation.

Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L. M.; Olyphant, G. A.; Bell, J.; Johnson, A.

2011-12-01

156

Men supporting women computer science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become clear that, for a variety of reasons, women CS enrollments are declining at a disproportionate rate and that the number of women “in the pipeline” is insufficient to mentor and otherwise support the development of CS interests among current young women in the field. Recommendations have been made for male assistance in this mentoring effort; and some

J. Paul Myers Jr.; San Antonio

1992-01-01

157

Do Religious Physicians Disproportionately Care for the Underserved?  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Religious traditions call their members to care for the poor and marginalized, yet no study has examined whether physicians’ religious characteristics are associated with practice among the underserved. This study examines whether physicians’ self-reported religious characteristics and sense of calling in their work are associated with practice among the underserved. METHODS This study entailed a cross-sectional survey by mail of a stratified random sample of 2,000 practicing US physicians from all specialties. RESULTS The response rate was 63%. Twenty-six percent of US physicians reported that their patient populations are considered underserved. Physicians who were more likely to report practice among the underserved included those who were highly spiritual (multivariate odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.7], those who strongly agreed that their religious beliefs influenced their practice of medicine (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.5), and those who strongly agreed that the family in which they were raised emphasized service to the poor (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). Physicians who were more religious in general, as measured by intrinsic religiosity or frequency of attendance at religious services, were much more likely to conceive of the practice of medicine as a calling but not more likely to report practice among the underserved. CONCLUSIONS Physicians who are more religious do not appear to disproportionately care for the underserved. PMID:17664502

Curlin, Farr A.; Dugdale, Lydia S.; Lantos, John D.; Chin, Marshall H.

2007-01-01

158

Photochemical Control of DNA Structure via Radical Disproportionation  

PubMed Central

Photolysis of an aryl sulfide containing 5,6-dihydropyrimidine (1) at 350 nm produces high yields of thymidine and products resulting from trapping of 5,6-dihydrothymidin-5-yl radical by O2 or thiols. Thymidine is believed to result from disproportionation of the radical pair originally generated from C-S bond homolysis in 1 on the microsecond timescale, which is significantly shorter than other photochemical transformations of modified nucleotides into their native forms. Duplex DNA containing 1 is destabilized, presumably due to disruption of ?-stacking. Incorporation of 1 within the binding site of the restriction endonuclease EcoRV, provides a photochemical switch for turning on the enzyme's activity. In contrast, 1 is a substrate for endonuclease VIII and serves as a photochemical off switch for this base excision repair enzyme. Modification 1 also modulates the activity of the 10–23 DNAzyme despite its incorporation into a non-duplex region. Overall, dihydropyrimidine 1 shows promise as a tool that provides spatiotemporal control over DNA structure on the miscrosecond tiimescale. PMID:23940105

Pedro, Joanna Maria N. San; Greenberg, Marc M.

2013-01-01

159

Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

2013-01-01

160

Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be administered as a dietary supplement in breast cancer primary prevention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN74096908. PMID:23981814

2013-01-01

161

High octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gasoline, propylene, and isobutane by disproportionation, clevage and alkylation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing high octane value gasoline which comprises in a disproportionation zone subjecting propylene and a mixture of propylene and ethylene obtained as hereinafter delineated to disproportionation conditions to produce a stream containing ethylene and a stream containing butenes, passing the ethylene-containing stream from said disproportionation zone together with a catalytic cracking gasoline to a cleavage zone under disproportionation conditions and subjecting the mixture of hydrocarbons therin to cleavage to produce said mixture of propylene and ethylene, a C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline-containing product and butenes and wherein the butenes obtained in the overall operation of the disproportionation zone and the cleavage zone are passed to an alkylation zone wherein said butenes are used to alkylate an isoparaffin to produce additional high octane value product.

Banks, R.

1980-07-08

162

Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1 %) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucteotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

Weber, Arthur L.

1997-01-01

163

Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1%) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucleotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

Weber, Arthur L.

1997-01-01

164

Climate Change Disproportionately Increases Herbivore over Plant or Parasitoid Biomass  

PubMed Central

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M.

2012-01-01

165

Disproportionate subarachnoid space hydrocephalus--outcome and perivascular space  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to identify the prevalence of MRI features of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus in possible idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (DESH-iNPH) and to describe the clinico-radiological features and outcomes of a community-based investigation (The Vienna Trans-Danube Aging study). Methods Of the 697 inhabitants (all 75 years old), 503 completed extensive neurological examinations at baseline and were followed up every 30 months thereafter with MRIs, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Section (UPDRSM). The DESH-iNPH participant data were compared with the data from participants with Evans index ratios >0.3 (ex vacuo hydrocephalus), cerebral small-vessel diseases, and normal MRIs. The widening of perivascular space was also evaluated by MRI in these groups. Results Eight participants with DESH-iNPH (1.6%) and 76 with ex vacuo hydrocephalus (16.1%) at baseline were identified. The mean MMSE in DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs was 26.4, 27.9, and 28.3, respectively, and the mean UPDRSM was 9.75, 2.96, and 1.87, respectively. After a 90-month follow-up, the mortality rates for DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs were 25.0%, 21.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. The perivascular-space widening scores were significantly smaller in the DESH-iNPH cases, particularly at the centrum semiovale, compared to cerebral small-vessel disease and ex vacuo hydrocephalus cases. Interpretation The prevalence of DESH-iNPH was 1.6% for participants aged 75 years and revealed significantly lower MMSE and higher UPDRSM scores compared to the ex vacuo hydrocephalus and controls. Moreover, it is suggested that perivascular-space narrowing is a morphological and pathophysiological marker of DESH-iNPH. PMID:25356428

Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Budka, Herbert; Watanabe, Yuko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Shiino, Akihiko; Ogita, Mihoko; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Jungwirth, Susanne; Krampla, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter

2014-01-01

166

Negative affect-induced food intake in non-dieting women is reward driven and associated with restrained–disinhibited eating subtype  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans the presence of negative affect is thought to promote food intake, although widespread variability surrounds this issue. Susceptibility to negative affect-induced eating may depend on trait eating behaviours, notably ‘emotional eating’, ‘restrained eating’ and ‘disinhibited eating’, but the evidence is not consistent. In the present study, 30 non-obese, non-dieting women were given access to palatable food while in

Stephanie H. Fay; Graham Finlayson

2011-01-01

167

Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

Muller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

168

Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640

2014-01-01

169

42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain...Costs § 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share...

2011-10-01

170

42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain...Costs § 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share...

2013-10-01

171

42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain...Costs § 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share...

2012-10-01

172

42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain...Costs § 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share...

2010-10-01

173

Why Did Poverty Feminize When Women Have Always Been Poor?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that women have always been disproportionately represented among those in poverty and that recent attempts to promote the view of a feminization of poverty masks and promotes sexist and racist public policy agendas. (JDH)

Marciano, Teresa D.

1986-01-01

174

Metformin reduces pregnancy complications without affecting androgen levels in pregnant polycystic ovary syndrome women: results of a randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Investigation of a possible effect of metformin on androgen levels in pregnant women with poly- cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Forty pregnant women with PCOS received diet and lifestyle counselling and were random- ized to either metformin 850 mg twice daily or placebo. Primary outcome measures were changes in serum

E. Vanky; R. Heimstad; K. J. Fougner; P. Romundstad; S. M. Carlsen

2004-01-01

175

Institutionalized masculinity in US police departments: how maternity leave policies (or lack thereof) affect women in policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, no research has specifically concentrated on the maternity leave policies of police departments. In addition to offering an overview of police departmental policies in the USA, this study will present the self?reported experiences of women police officers dealing with pregnancy and police work. The results of a 2007–2008 survey of women police officers are presented. It was found

Corina Schulze

2010-01-01

176

The Production of 34S-Depleted Sulfide During Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur fractionate sulfur isotopes such that sulfate is enriched in sulfur-34 by 12.6 to 15.3 per mil and sulfide is depleted in sulfur-34 by 7.3 to 8.6 per mil. Through a repeated cycle of sulfide oxidation to S^0 and subsequent disproportionation, these bacteria can deplete sedimentary sulfides in sulfur-34. A prediction, borne out by observation, is

Donald E. Canfield; Bo Thamdrup

1994-01-01

177

The effect of zeolite structure on the disproportionation of trimethylbenzenes to xylenes and tetramethylbenzenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dimensionality and channel geometry of different structural types of zeolites on the conversion and selectivity in the disproportionation of 1,3,5- and 1,2,4- trimethylbenzenes was investigated. Large pore zeolites of MOR, FAU and BEA structures exhibit high activity in this disproportionation, however, FAU is not stable in long time-on-stream experiments due to a severe deactivation. In addition, significant

Ji?í ?ejka; Andrea Krej?í; Ji?í Hanika

1999-01-01

178

Disproportionate Body Composition and Neonatal Outcome in Offspring of Mothers With and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE High birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal complications. It is not known if the risk differs with body proportionality. The primary aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to body proportionality in large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants stratified by maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based study of all LGA (birth weight [BW] >90th percentile) infants born to women with GDM (n = 1,547) in 1998–2007. The reference group comprised LGA infants (n = 83,493) born to mothers without diabetes. Data were obtained from the Swedish Birth Registry. Infants were categorized as proportionate (P-LGA) if ponderal index (PI) (BW in grams/length in cm3) was ?90th percentile and as disproportionate (D-LGA) if PI >90th percentile. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity: Apgar score 0–3 at 5 min, birth trauma, respiratory disorders, hypoglycemia, or hyperbilirubinemia. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for adverse outcomes. RESULTS The risk of composite neonatal morbidity was increased in GDM pregnancies versus control subjects but comparable between P- and D-LGA in both groups. D-LGA infants born to mothers without diabetes had significantly increased risk of birth trauma (OR 1.19 [95% CI 1.09–1.30]) and hypoglycemia (1.23 [1.11–1.37]). D-LGA infants in both groups had significantly increased odds of Cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS The risk of composite neonatal morbidity is significantly increased in GDM offspring. In pregnancies both with and without GDM, the risk of composite neonatal morbidity is comparable between P- and D-LGA. PMID:24159180

Persson, Martina; Fadl, Helena; Hanson, Ulf; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

2013-01-01

179

Turning On and Turning Off: A Focus Group Study of the Factors That Affect Women's Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to inform the development of a questionnaire to assess a woman's tendency to respond with sexual excitation\\/inhibition in different situations. Nine focus groups, involving 80 women (M age = 34.3 years; range, 18-84), were conducted. Women described a wide range of physical (genital and nongenital), cognitive\\/emotional, and behavioral cues to arousal. The relationship between

Cynthia A. Graham; Stephanie A. Sanders; Robin R. Milhausen; Kimberly R. McBride

2004-01-01

180

Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.  

PubMed

To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

2013-05-01

181

Mechanism of charge transfer/disproportionation in LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-Cu intersite charge transfer and Fe charge disproportionation are interesting phenomena observed in some LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides) compounds containing light and heavy Ln atoms, respectively. We show that a change in the spin state is responsible for the intersite charge transfer in the light Ln compounds. At the high-spin state, such systems prefer an unusual Cu d8 configuration, whereas at the low-spin state they retreat to the normal Cu d9 configuration through a charge transfer from Fe to the Cu 3dxy orbital. We find that the strength of the crystal-field splitting and the relative energy ordering between Cu 3dxy and Fe 3d states are the key parameters determining the intersite charge transfer (charge disproportionation) in light (heavy) Ln compounds. It is further proposed that the size of Ln affects the on-site interaction strength of Cu 3d states, leading to a strong modification of the Cu L3-edge spectrum, as observed by the x-ray-absorption spectroscopy.

Rezaei, N.; Hansmann, P.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.

2014-03-01

182

Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada

2008-01-01

183

Portrayal of Women and Elderly Patients in Psychotropic Drug Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs for men and women have been well documented, especially in antidepressants and anxiolitics. One explanation offered is that physicians are influenced by gender stereotyping in pharmaceutical drug advertisements. It is argued that if drug ads display disproportionately more women than men, or if they portray women only as helpless, depressed, and incompetent, cultural

Finy Josephine Hansen; Dawn Osborne

1995-01-01

184

Context of Risk for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Incarcerated Women in the South: Individual, Interpersonal, and Societal Factors.  

PubMed

Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

2014-01-01

185

The influence of negative affectivity on depressive symptoms, perceived social support and marital satisfaction among African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the relationship between depressive symptoms and relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction and perceived spousal social support reflect the influence of a third variable, negative affectivity. Specifically, the study addressed whether the effects of negative affectivity on these other self report measures extend over time. Negative affectivity, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal social support were tested

Ashley Nicole Rink

2009-01-01

186

Sexual concurrency among young African American women.  

PubMed

Young African-American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sexually transmitted infections (STI), and engage in greater sexual concurrency than other race/ethnicities. It is important to evaluate behaviors and characteristics associated with the risk of sexual concurrency, so that interventions can target factors most likely to affect positive change. An emphasis on correlates of concurrency beyond individual-level factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify individual- and partner-level characteristics associated with sexual concurrency among high-risk, young African-American women. Data were collected from 570 African-American adolescent women (aged 15-21) recruited from a STI clinic, a family planning clinic, and a teen clinic located in Atlanta, GA from March 2002 through August 2004. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2012 to evaluate correlates of sexual concurrency. Results show that almost one-quarter of participants reported sexually concurrent partnerships and 28.4% suspected male partner concurrency. Logistic regression results indicated the number of lifetime sexual partners and relationship factors were the primary contributors to engaging in concurrency in this sample. These findings suggest relationship factors may be important contributors to the prevalence of sexual concurrency among young African-American women. Interventions targeted toward sexual health among young African-American women may need to specifically address partner/relationship factors. Through these findings, we hope to better understand sexual risk taking and develop strategies that would overcome barriers to existing interventions aimed at improving the sexual health outcomes of young African-American women. PMID:23363034

Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna G; Davis, Teaniese L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

2013-01-01

187

Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n?=?1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n?=?77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n?=?184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2) ?=?12.93 p?=?0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor-Leste, impacting on their health, child-rearing and ability to participate fully in socio-economic development. PMID:23950885

Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

2013-01-01

188

Comorbidities and Lack of Blood Transfusion May Negatively Affect Maternal Outcomes of Women with Obstetric Hemorrhage Treated with NASG  

PubMed Central

The Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) is a first-aid device to reduce mortality from severe obstetric hemorrhage, the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. We sought to evaluate patient characteristics associated with mortality among a cohort of women treated with the NASG in Nigeria. Data on 1,149 women were collected from 50 facilities participating in the Pathfinder International Continuum of Care: Addressing Postpartum Hemorrhage project in Nigeria from 2007–2012. Characteristics were compared using the appropriate distributional tests, and we estimated multivariable logistic regression models to control for treatment received. There were 201 deaths (17.5%). Women who died were significantly more likely to have any co-morbidity (AOR 3.63, 95% CI: 2.41–5.48), ruptured uterus (AOR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.48–5.28), macerated stillbirth (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.60–5.48) and to have had 6 or more previous births, (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11–2.12), after adjusting for treatment received. These results suggest certain maternal conditions, particularly the presence of another life-threatening co-morbidity or macerated stillbirth, conferred a higher risk of mortality from PPH. This underscores the need for multi-system assessment and a comprehensive approach to the treatment of women with pregnancy complications. PMID:23950937

El Ayadi, Alison; Raifman, Sarah; Jega, Farouk; Butrick, Elizabeth; Ojo, Yemisi; Geller, Stacie; Miller, Suellen

2013-01-01

189

SHBG, testosterone, androstenedione, 17-OH-Progesterone plasma levels in PCO affected women treated with a triphasic oral contraceptive.  

PubMed

A triphasic oral contraceptive Trigynon (Schering) or Triphasil (Wyeth) was administered to 13 anovulatory women with hyperandrogenism, enlarged polycystic ovaries and reversal of LH/FSH ratio. After three months of treatment total Testosterone, Androstenedione and 17-OH-Progesterone levels significantly decreased while SHBG significantly increased. Reduction of hair growth and improvement of acne were noted. Side effects were minimal. PMID:3454501

Negri, P; Agnello, G; Borghesani, F; Tomain, L; Minisci, N; D'Errico, G; Cavallini, A R

1987-01-01

190

Windfall vs. Earned Money in the Laboratory: Do They Affect the Behavior of Men and Women Differently?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally investigate, using a dictator game, if the effects of windfall and earned endowments on behavior differ between men and women genders. In line with previous studies, we find that windfall endowments significantly increase the amount donated. The impact of moving from earned to windfall endowment on behavior is larger for females, yet the gender difference is statistically insignificant.

Fredrik Carlsson; Haoran He; Peter Martinsson

2010-01-01

191

Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions.  

PubMed

In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes. PMID:23042121

Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I

2012-01-01

192

Disproportionation and nuclease activity of bis[2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutanoato(2-)]oxochromate(V) in neutral aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Complex 1, [Cr(V)O(ehba)2]- (ehba = 2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutanoate(2-)) is the most studied model compound of relevance to the biological activity of Cr(V) with regard to Cr-induced cancers. The first detailed kinetic study of disproportionation of 1 under neutral pH conditions (pH 6.0-8.0, [NaClO4] = 1.0 M, 37 degrees C) is reported. Kinetic data were collected by stopped-flow and conventional UV-vis spectroscopies and processed by the global analysis method. The disproportionation, which follows the stoichiometry 3Cr(V) --> 2Cr(VI) + Cr(III) (1), leads to release of 5 mol of H+/3 mol of Cr(V). Reaction 1 is accelerated by phosphate, but is not affected by acetate, HEPES, or Tris buffers. Initial rates of Cr(V) decay are directly proportional to [Cr(V)]0 (0.020-1.0 mM); they increase with an increase in the pH values and decrease in the presence of a large excess of ehba ligand. The first direct evidence for the formation of Cr(IV) intermediates in reaction 1 has been obtained; however, their UV-vis spectral properties were different from those of the well-characterized Cr(IV)-ehba complexes. The Cr(III) products of reaction I in phosphate buffers differ from those in the other buffers. A mechanism is proposed for reaction 1 on the basis of kinetic modeling. Influences of the reaction time and conditions on the extent of plasmid DNA cleavage induced by 1 have been studied under conditions corresponding to those of the kinetic studies. A comparison of the kinetic and DNA cleavage results has shown that direct interaction of 1 with the phosphate backbone of DNA is the most likely first step in the mechanism of DNA cleavage in neutral media. Small additions of Mn(II) ((0.01-0.1)[Cr(V)]0) did not affect the rate and stoichiometry of reaction 1, but suppressed the formation of Cr(IV) intermediates (presumably due to the catalysis of Cr(IV) disproportionation). However, much higher concentrations of Mn(II) ((0.1-1.0)[Cr(V)]0) were required to inhibit DNA cleavage induced by 1. Thus, contrary to previous reports (Sugden, K. D.; Wetterhahn, K. E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 10811-10818), inhibition by Mn(II) does not indicate a key role of Cr(IV) in Cr(V)-induced DNA cleavage. PMID:11229553

Levina, A; Lay, P A; Dixon, N E

2000-02-01

193

In situ spectroscopic investigation of oxidative dehydrogenation and disproportionation of benzyl alcohol.  

PubMed

In the solvent free oxidation of benzyl alcohol, using supported gold-palladium nanoalloys, toluene is often one of major by-products and it is formed by the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol. Gold-palladium catalysts on acidic supports promote both the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol and oxidative dehydrogenation to form benzaldehyde. Basic supports completely switch off disproportionation and the gold-palladium nanoparticles catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction exclusively. In an attempt to provide further details on the course of these reactions, we have utilized in situ ATR-IR, in situ DRIFT and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopic methods, and in this article we present the results of these in situ spectroscopic studies. PMID:23677173

Nowicka, Ewa; Hofmann, Jan P; Parker, Stewart F; Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Lari, Giacomo M; Kondrat, Simon A; Knight, David W; Bethell, Donald; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Hutchings, Graham J

2013-08-01

194

Salty taste acuity is affected by the joint action of ?ENaC A663T gene polymorphism and available zinc intake in young women.  

PubMed

Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the ?-epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The ?ENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p < 0.05). In women, the salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with ?ENaC AA homozygotes (? = -0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the ?ENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the ?ENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women. PMID:24317554

Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong

2013-12-01

195

Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.  

PubMed

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

2014-08-01

196

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.  

PubMed

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. PMID:20236611

Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

2010-06-01

197

Hormone replacement therapy affects body composition and leptin differently in obese and non-obese postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin and oestrogen are both involved in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and feeding behaviour. We investigated whether 5 years of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) aVected serum leptin and body compo- sition diVerently in 89 postmenopausal women treated with HRT compared with 178 controls. At baseline, leptin was significantly correlated with oestradiol (r=0·13, P<0·05) and in multiple backward regression

K Kristensen; S B Pedersen; P Vestergaard; L Mosekilde; B Richelsen

1999-01-01

198

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

199

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental–observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18–29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick B. van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

200

Age and estrogen-based hormone therapy affect systemic and local IL6 and IGF-1 pathways in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of the role of estrogens on aging-related muscle weakness is lacking. To clarify the molecular mechanisms\\u000a underlying the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on skeletal muscle, we analyzed systemic protein and local mRNA\\u000a levels of factors related to interleukin 6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways in 30- to 35-year-old\\u000a (n?=?14) women (without hormonal

Maarit Ahtiainen; Eija Pöllänen; Paula H. A. Ronkainen; Markku Alen; Jukka Puolakka; Jaakko Kaprio; Sarianna Sipilä; Vuokko Kovanen

201

Women and AIDS: the ethics of exaggerated harm.  

PubMed

This article examines the way in which some biomedical ethicists have constructed sexually transmitted AIDS as a significant threat to women's health. We demonstrate that the familiar claim that 'women are the fastest growing group' -- whether of HIV-infected or of AIDS patients -- is misleading because it obscures the distinction between proportional rate of growth and absolute increase. Feminist ethicists have suggested that misogyny of a male dominated health care system has led to underreporting of women AIDS cases in order to support these feminists' claim of AIDS being a real threat to women's health. Given the apparent rarity of tertiary transmissions of AIDS, the assertion that most or even many women are at significant risk for AIDS seems wrong. Particularly disturbing in this campaign is the fact that the theme of 'risky sex' has been extended all the way to lesbians, even though their risk to acquire AIDS sexually is non-existent to miniscule. We argue that actual harm is done to women by this exaggeration of their risk of contracting AIDS sexually. The scare has led to misappropriations of scarce health care funds. AIDS disproportionately affects women who inject drugs, and who suffer other diseases, poverty and malnutrition. It would have been better to concentrate health care efforts in this area instead of 'educating' women not at risk for AIDS how to prevent the acquisition of this disease. Unjustifiable AIDS anxiety has been created in women and has resulted in millions of unnecessary HIV-tests, and many broken relationships. This anxiety has inevitably reduced the pleasure of having sex for many women. We reject the kind of 'victim ideology' that lies at the heart of this strategy which has, unfortunately, been supported by a number of influential feminist ethicists. PMID:11653248

Mertz, David; Sushinsky, Mary Ann; Schüklenk, Udo

1996-04-01

202

((((((((((((((((((((((UNDERSTANDING THE) IMPACT) OF) THIN) MEDIA) MODELS) ON) WOMEN'S) BODY-FOCUSED) AFFECT:) THE) ROLES) OF) THIN-IDEAL) INTERNALIZATION) WEIGHT-RELATED) SELF-DISCREPANCY) ACTIVATION) IN) EXPERIMENTAL) EXPOSURE) EFFECTS.)  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for ((((((((((((((((((((((UNDERSTANDING THE) IMPACT) OF) THIN) MEDIA) MODELS) ON) WOMEN'S) BODY-FOCUSED) AFFECT:) THE) ROLES) OF) THIN-IDEAL) INTERNALIZATION) WEIGHT-RELATED) SELF-DISCREPANCY) ACTIVATION) IN) EXPERIMENTAL) EXPOSURE) EFFECTS.) ?

203

Do Women Prefer a Cooperative Work Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are women disproportionately attracted to work environments where cooperation rather than competition is rewarded? This paper reports the results of a real-effort experiment in which participants choose between an individual compensation scheme and a team-based payment scheme. We find that women are more likely than men to select team-based compensation in our baseline treatment, but women and men join teams

Peter J. Kuhn; Marie-Claire Villeval

2011-01-01

204

The prevalence of PALB2 germline mutations in BRCA1\\/BRCA2 negative Chinese women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

PALB2 has been recently identified as breast cancer susceptibility gene in western populations. To investigate the contribution\\u000a of PALB2 mutations to Chinese non-BRCA1\\/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer, we screened all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries\\u000a of PALB2 in 360 Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer or affected relatives from five breast disease clinical centers\\u000a in China by utilizing PCR-DHPLC and DNA

A-Yong Cao; Juan Huang; Zhen Hu; Wen-Feng Li; Zhong-Liang Ma; Li-Li Tang; Bin Zhang; Feng-Xi Su; Jie Zhou; Gen-Hong Di; Kun-Wei Shen; Jiong Wu; Jin-Song Lu; Jian-Min Luo; Wen-Tao Yuan; Zhen-Zhou Shen; Wei Huang; Zhi-Ming Shao

2009-01-01

205

African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.  

PubMed Central

African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:15719869

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

206

Affect and self-efficacy responses during moderate-intensity exercise among low-active women: the effect of cognitive appraisal.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program. PMID:20479476

Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie; Beauchamp, Mark

2010-04-01

207

Women and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and ... olearyk@mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women's Mental Health Bundling HIV Prevention with Prenatal Care ...

208

Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.  

PubMed

Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies. PMID:24796849

Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

2014-08-01

209

Age and estrogen-based hormone therapy affect systemic and local IL-6 and IGF-1 pathways in women.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the role of estrogens on aging-related muscle weakness is lacking. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on skeletal muscle, we analyzed systemic protein and local mRNA levels of factors related to interleukin 6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways in 30- to 35-year-old (n = 14) women (without hormonal contraceptives) and in 54- to 62-year-old monozygotic female twin pairs discordant for HRT (n = 11 pairs, mean duration of HRT 7.3 ± 3.7 years). Biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis muscle and from abdominal adipose tissue. We found, first, that the systemic levels of IL-6 receptors sIL-6R and sgp130 are sensitive to both age and HRT concomitant with the changes in body composition. The serum levels of sgp130 and sIL-6R were 16% and 52% (p ??0.001 for both variables) higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women, and 10% and 9% lower (p = 0.033 and p < 0.001, respectively) in the HRT using than in their non using co-twins. After adjustment for body fat amount, the differences were no more significant. Second, the transcript analyses emphasize the impact of adipose tissue on systemic levels of IL-6, sgp130 and sIL6R, both at pre- and postmenopausal age. In muscle, the most notable changes were 28% lower gene expression of IGF-1 splice variant Ea (IGF-1Ea) and 40% lower expression of splice variant Ec (IGF-1Ec) in the postmenopausal non-users than in premenopausal women (p = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 28% higher expression of IGF1-receptor in HRT users than in non-users (p = 0.060). The results tend to demonstrate that HRT has positive anti-catabolic effect on aging skeletal muscle. PMID:21845403

Ahtiainen, Maarit; Pöllänen, Eija; Ronkainen, Paula H A; Alen, Markku; Puolakka, Jukka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

2012-10-01

210

Disproportionate Classification of ESL Students in U.S. Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the possible causes behind the disproportionate percentages of English language learners (ELLs) classified into U.S. special education. Elementary school classroom teachers were examined, from school districts that exhibited growth in the percentage of English language learners with Individual Education Plans during 2007-2010.…

Fernandez, Nicole; Inserra, Albert

2013-01-01

211

A biferrocenium salt containing paramagnetic tetracyanoquinodimethane hexamers: charge disproportionation via donor-acceptor interactions.  

PubMed

[Dineopentyl-biferrocene]2[Cl1TCNQ]7, which has an unprecedented high donor-acceptor ratio of 2?:?7, contains a linear paramagnetic hexamer of Cl1TCNQ. Both the donor and acceptor molecules exhibit charge disproportionation in the crystal through mutual electrostatic interactions. PMID:25233286

Mochida, Tomoyuki; Funasako, Yusuke; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Inokuchi, Makoto; Sakurai, Takahiro; Ikeda, Shohei; Ohta, Hitoshi; Mori, Hatsumi; Uruichi, Mikio

2014-11-11

212

Predicting Secure Detention Placement for African-American Juvenile Offenders: Addressing the Disproportionate Minority Confinement Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionate minority contact and confinement (DMC) are significant problems within the juvenile justice system in the United States. Minority youth are more often arrested, court referred, placed in locked facilities, and transferred to adult criminal courts. In fact, African American youth are 6 times more likely than White youth to experience a secure facility placement. Standardized risk assessments have been

Christopher A. Mallett; Patricia Stoddard-Dare

2010-01-01

213

Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate

Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

214

The Song Remains the Same: Transposition and the Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has long been recognised as a problem in the United States. It is, however, only with the 2004 authorisation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) that Congress has tried to prescribe a remedy for this. Beginning with a deconstruction of…

Beratan, Gregg

2008-01-01

215

Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women’s HIV risks in addition to conventional HIV risk- taking behaviors are urgently needed. PMID:22697147

Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

2014-01-01

216

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite  

SciTech Connect

In bacterial cultures the authors measured sulfur isotope fractionation during transformations of thiosulfate and sulfite, pathways which may be of considerable importance in the cycling of sulfur in marine sediments and euxinic waters. They documented isotope fractionations during the reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite by bacterial enrichments and pure bacterial cultures from marine and freshwater environments. They also measured the isotope fractionation associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate by cyanobacteria. Except for sulfite reduction, isotope fractionations for these processes have not been previously reported. During the dissimilatory reduction of sulfite, H{sub 2}S was depleted in {sup 34}S by 6%, and during the reduction of thiosulfate to H{sub 2}S, depletions were between 7% and 11%. The largest observed isotope fractionation was associated with the bacterial disproportionation of sulfite which caused a {sup 34}S depletion in H{sub 2}S of 20--37% and a {sup 34}S enrichment in sulfate of 7--12%. During the bacterial disproportionation of thiosulfate, isotope fractionations between the outer sulfane sulfur and H{sub 2}S and between the inner sulfonate sulfur and sulfate were <4%. The authors observed isotope exchange between the two sulfur atoms of thiosulfate leading to a depletion of {sup 34}S in H{sub 2}S by up to 12% with a comparable enrichment of {sup 34}S in sulfate. No isotope fractionation was associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate. The depletion of {sup 34}S into H{sub 2}S during the bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite may, in addition to sulfate reduction and the bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur, contribute to the generation of {sup 34}S-depleted sedimentary sulfides.

Habicht, K.S.; Canfield, D.E. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany)] [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Rethmeier, J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)] [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

1998-08-01

217

Estradiol Modulates Anhedonia and Behavioral Despair in Rats and Negative Affect in a Subgroup of Women at High Risk for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

In an effort to address inconsistencies in the literature, we tested a cross-species estrogen withdrawal model of postpartum depression (PPD) with a series of rodent experiments and a prospective, naturalistic human study. All rats were ovariectomized prior to experimentation. The first rat experiment examined the effects of low- and high-dose estradiol administration and withdrawal on lateral-hypothalamic self-stimulation, a behavioral index of anhedonia, in experimental (n=7) and vehicle-only control animals (n=7). The second rat experiment examined the effects of high-dose estradiol withdrawal on activity and immobility during the forced swim test, an index of behavioral despair, in a separate group of experimental (n=8) and vehicle-only control animals (n=8). In the human study, women with (n=8) and without (n=12) a history of PPD completed mood ratings and collected saliva samples (to assess estradiol levels) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy through 10 days postpartum. The presence of PPD was assessed at one month postpartum. In the animal studies, rats in the estradiol withdrawal group demonstrated significantly greater immobility and less swimming than controls. Estradiol withdrawal resulted in reduced responding for electrical stimulation (multiple intensities) relative to estradiol administration. In the human study, there was no significant association between estradiol and negative affect among women with or without a history of PPD. However, there was a correlation between daily estradiol levels and negative affect in the women with incident PPD at one month postpartum. Despite important cross-species differences, both the rat and human studies provided evidence of the effects of estradiol on perinatal depressive symptoms. PMID:23770328

Schiller, Crystal Edler; O'Hara, Michael W.; Rubinow, David R.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2013-01-01

218

Relationship Status and Quality Moderate Daily Pain-Related Changes in Physical Disability, Affect, and Cognitions in Women with Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to examine whether 1) daily pain-related changes in physical functioning differed between happily partnered, unhappily partnered, and unpartnered female chronic pain patients, and 2) affect and pain cognitions mediated the partner status effect on pain-related changes in physical functioning. 251 women with chronic pain due to osteoarthritis and/or fibromyalgia completed 30 daily electronic diaries assessing pain, affect, pain-related cognitions, and physical functioning. Patients living with a romantic partner also completed a modified version of the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale [19] to assess relationship satisfaction. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients in satisfying unions showed more adaptive daily pain-related changes in physical functioning, pain coping difficulty, and catastrophizing compared to those in unsatisfying unions and those who were unpartnered. Both partnered groups also showed more adaptive pain-related changes in positive affect compared to the unpartnered group. The impact of relationship status on pain-related changes in physical functioning was partly mediated by the pain cognitions catastrophizing and coping difficulty. These results indicate that happily partnered pain patients show less pain-related physical disability and more adaptive affective and cognitive responses to daily pain changes than do unhappily partnered and unpartnered patients. Living in a happy union may bolster the capacity of patients to sustain a sense of pain coping efficacy during pain episodes, which in turn, minimizes pain-related physical activity limitations. PMID:23200258

Taylor, Shannon Stark; Davis, Mary C.; Zautra, Alex J.

2012-01-01

219

n3 PUFAs Do Not Affect Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Overweight to Moderately Obese Men and Women123  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m2 consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N.; Hagman, Derek K.; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Weigle, David S.

2013-01-01

220

Metformin and/or Clomiphene Do Not Adversely Affect Liver or Renal Function in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is common to insulin-resistant states such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin (MET) is often used to treat PCOS but information is limited as to its effects on liver function. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of MET on serum hepatic parameters in PCOS patients. Design: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, doubled-blind trial from 2002–2004. Setting: This multi-center clinical trial was conducted in academic centers. Patients: Six hundred twenty-six infertile women with PCOS with serum liver function parameters less than twice the upper limit of normal were included. Interventions: Clomiphene citrate (n = 209), MET (n = 208), or combined (n = 209) were given for up to 6 months. Main Outcome Measure: The percent change from baseline in renal and liver function between- and within-treatment arms was assessed. Results: Renal function improved in all treatment arms with significant decreases in serum blood urea nitrogen levels (range, ?14.7 to ?21.3%) as well as creatinine (?4.2 to ?6.9%). There were similar decreases in liver transaminase levels in the clomiphene citrate and combined arms (?10% in bilirubin, ?9 to ?11% in transaminases) without significant changes in the MET arm. When categorizing baseline bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase into tertiles, there were significant within-treatment arm differences between the tertiles with the highest tertile having the largest decrease from baseline regardless of treatment arm. Conclusion: Women with PCOS can safely use metformin and clomiphene even in the setting of mildly abnormal liver function parameters, and both result in improved renal function. PMID:21832111

Aubuchon, Mira; Kunselman, Allen R.; Schlaff, William D.; Diamond, Michael P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Carson, Sandra A.; Steinkampf, Michael P.; Carr, Bruce R.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cataldo, Nicholas A.; Gosman, Gabriella G.; Nestler, John E.; Myers, Evan R.

2011-01-01

221

Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the…

Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

2013-01-01

222

Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

2008-01-01

223

Women's Employment and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women's ability to affect their socioeconomic status (SES) has significant health consequences. Paid employment is an increasingly important factor in women's SES. This paper presents a historical overview of working women, challenges faced by women (including unique challenges for minority women), and strategies for rectifying these problems,…

Rienzo, Barbara A.; Button, James W.; Tynes, Shannon

2002-01-01

224

Women's Studies (undergraduate)  

E-print Network

of women. Ways in which cultural definitions of "femaleness" affect attitudes toward women348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program

Suzuki, Masatsugu

225

Women in pharmacy  

PubMed Central

Background: Women have historically been attracted to pharmacy because it is widely perceived as a profession that offers them an opportunity to combine a professional career with a family. Women now make up the majority of practising pharmacists in Canada, yet the literature demonstrates disparities such as gender segregation and underrepresentation of women in senior positions. This study was intended to identify the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacy students about women’s issues in pharmacy and raise awareness of these issues. Methods: First- and fourth-year University of Saskatchewan pharmacy students were invited to share their overall impressions of the status of female pharmacists and the impact of women on the pharmacy profession through an online questionnaire. Results: Of the 60 respondents, the majority disagreed that there is segregation of men and women in pharmacy. More fourth-year students than first-year students recognized the underrepresentation of women in pharmacy management. Many students believed the number of women in pharmacy would have no negative impact on the profession. Forty students (67.8%) agreed that it is important to maintain a significant proportion of men in pharmacy. Conclusion: Most pharmacy students in this study do not recognize gender disparities present in pharmacy or the impact the disproportionate number of women could have on the profession. Can Pharm J 2013;146:109-116. PMID:23795187

Janzen, Donica; Fitzpatrick, Kerry; Suveges, Linda

2013-01-01

226

Affective responses of inactive women to a maximal incremental exercise test: A test of the dual-mode model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe link between exercise intensity and affect has been a popular topic of investigation for many years but has drawn few universally accepted conclusions. Recently, Ekkekakis [(2003). Pleasure and displeasure from the body: Perspectives from exercise. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 213–239] proposed a ‘dual-mode model’ to explain the nature of this relationship by employing individual metabolic markers (such as the

Amy S. Welch; Angie Hulley; Carrie Ferguson; Mark R. Beauchamp

2007-01-01

227

Hannah Katch, Guest Editor Office of Research on Women's Health  

E-print Network

.D. degree recipients. However, there is a disproportionate attrition rate from women among senior facultyHannah Katch, Guest Editor Office of Research on Women's Health Office of the Director, National. ************ Contents of this Issue NIH Releases Meeting Proceedings of the National Leadership Workshop on Mentoring

Bandettini, Peter A.

228

A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in their own context that are described in this review. Further research on this population, including those who drop out of or never access health services, is needed to inform effective implementation. PMID:25372479

Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

2014-01-01

229

The production of 34S-depleted sulfide during bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur fractionate sulfur isotopes such that sulfate is enriched in sulfur-34 by 12.6 to 15.3 per mil and sulfide is depleted in sulfur-34 by 7.3 to 8.6 per mil. Through a repeated cycle of sulfide oxidation to S0 and subsequent disproportionation, these bacteria can deplete sedimentary sulfides in sulfur-34. A prediction, borne out by observation, is that more extensive sulfide oxidation will lead to sulfides that are more depleted in sulfur-34. Thus, the oxidative part of the sulfur cycle creates circumstances by which sulfides become more depleted in sulfur-34 than would be possible with sulfate-reducing bacteria alone.

Canfield, D. E.; Thamdrup, B.

1994-01-01

230

Identifying hospitals that may be at most financial risk from medicaid disproportionate-share hospital payment cuts.  

PubMed

Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments are expected to decline by $35.1 billion between fiscal years 2017 and 2024, a reduction brought about by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and recent congressional action. DSH payments have long been a feature of the Medicaid program, intended to partially offset uncompensated care costs incurred by hospitals that treat uninsured and Medicaid populations. The DSH payment cuts were predicated on the expectation that the ACA's expansion of health insurance to millions of Americans would bring about a decline in many hospitals' uncompensated care costs. However, the decision of twenty-five states not to expand their Medicaid programs, combined with residual coverage gaps, may leave as many as thirty million people uninsured, and hospitals will bear the burden of their uncompensated care costs. We sought to identify the hospitals that may be the most financially vulnerable to reductions in Medicaid DSH payments. We found that of the 529 acute care hospitals that will be particularly affected by the cuts, 225 (42.5 percent) are in weak financial condition. Policy makers should recognize that decreases in revenue may affect these hospitals' ability to give vulnerable populations access to care. PMID:25367999

Cole, Evan S; Walker, Daniel; Mora, Arthur; Diana, Mark L

2014-11-01

231

Reasons for initiation and cessation of eating in obese men and women and the affective consequences of eating in everyday situations.  

PubMed

Reasons for the initiation and termination of eating were investigated in 78 female and 36 male obese subjects following a weight control programme. Self-monitoring diaries were completed during a 24-h period, in which subjects selected the main reason for starting and stopping an eating episode. Additionally, subjects recorded mood before and after eating using visual analogue scales. Hunger was chosen as a reason to start eating in only 20% of cases. Environmental cues such as mealtime were selected as the main reason for the initiation of the majority of eating episodes. In contrast, self-assessments such as "I felt I had eaten enough" was the main reason for terminating eating (39.4%). Gender differences in the reasons for initiating eating revealed a greater tendency for men to initiate eating for environmental reasons than women, whereas the opposite was found for the termination of eating, with women more likely to stop eating for environmental reasons than men. Changes in affect during eating revealed a significant decline in negative emotions such as tension and tiredness, and in the heavier subjects a trend for increased happiness was observed following eating. As hunger was less commonly reported as a reason to start eating than external reasons, treatment strategies for the obese might benefit by targeting individual reasons for meal initiation. PMID:9573454

Tuomisto, T; Tuomisto, M T; Hetherington, M; Lappalainen, R

1998-04-01

232

Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during anaerobic bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur is an important process in the sulfur cycle of natural sediments and leads to the formation of hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. The oxygen atoms in sulfate during this anaerobic process are completely derived from water according to the overall reaction: 4H2O + 4S0 ? 3H2S + SO42? + 2H+In the present study, stable oxygen isotope

M. E. Böttcher; B. Thamdrup; T. W. Vennemann

2001-01-01

233

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In bacterial cultures we measured sulfur isotope fractionation during transformations of thiosulfate (S2O32?) and sulfite (SO32?), pathways which may be of considerable importance in the cycling of sulfur in marine sediments and euxinic waters. We documented isotope fractionations during the reduction and disproportionation of S2O32? and SO32? by bacterial enrichments and pure bacterial cultures from marine and freshwater environments. We

Kirsten S Habicht; Donald E Canfield

1998-01-01

234

The Disproportionate Impact of Antigay Family Policies on Black and Latino Same-sex Couple Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the racial dynamics of antigay activism, and the particular, disproportionate impact of antigay family\\u000a policies on Black and Latino same-sex couple families. Starting in the mid-1990s, antigay activists have passed dozens of\\u000a laws and constitutional amendments banning and repealing state recognition of gay and lesbian relationships. For two decades\\u000a the antigay movement has portrayed sexual orientation nondiscrimination

Sean Cahill

2009-01-01

235

Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur coupled to chemical reduction of iron or manganese.  

PubMed

A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (S) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide and pyrite was observed. The transformations were accompanied by growth of slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. The quantification of the products revealed that S was microbially disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, as follows: 4S + 4H(2)O --> SO(4) + 3H(2)S + 2H. Subsequent chemical reactions between the formed sulfide and the added FeOOH led to the observed precipitation of iron sulfides. Sulfate and iron sulfides were also produced when FeOOH was replaced by FeCO(3). Further enrichment with manganese oxide, MnO(2), instead of FeOOH yielded stable cultures which formed sulfate during concomitant reduction of MnO(2) to Mn. Growth of small rod-shaped bacteria was observed. When incubated without MnO(2), the culture did not grow but produced small amounts of SO(4) and H(2)S at a ratio of 1:3, indicating again a disproportionation of S. The observed microbial disproportionation of S only proceeds significantly in the presence of sulfide-scavenging agents such as iron and manganese compounds. The population density of bacteria capable of S disproportionation in the presence of FeOOH or MnO(2) was high, > 10 cm in coastal sediments. The metabolism offers an explanation for recent observations of anaerobic sulfide oxidation to sulfate in anoxic sediments. PMID:16348835

Thamdrup, B; Finster, K; Hansen, J W; Bak, F

1993-01-01

236

Single-wall nanotubes produced by metal-catalyzed disproportionation of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were grown by disproportionation of carbon monoxide at 1200°C, catalyzed by molybdenum particles a few nanometers in size. The tube diameters, ranging from 1 to 5 nm, closely correlated with the size of the catalytic particle found attached to the tube end. This result represents the first experimental evidence of SWNT produced by pre-formed catalytic

Hongjie Dai; Andrew G. Rinzler; Pasha Nikolaev; Andreas Thess; Daniel T. Colbert; Richard E. Smalley

1996-01-01

237

Evaluating Domestic Violence Interventions for Black Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although African American women are at disproportionate risk for domestic violence, review of the literature suggests that traditional law enforcement, criminal justice, and advocacy efforts may be ineffective with this population due to (a) Black female victims' experiences of systemic racism and oppression, which prevents disclosure of abuse and access to resources, and (b) utilization of culture-blind approaches in the

Robert L. Hampton; Jaslean J. LaTaillade; Alicia Dacey; J. R. Marghi

2008-01-01

238

Optimism and Subjective Well-Being: Affectivity Plays a Secondary Role in the Relationship Between Optimism and Global Life Satisfaction in the Middle-Aged Women. Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the present study lies on optimism and its relationships to the components of subjective well-being, i.e. global\\u000a life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. We investigated the direct and indirect (via affectivity) effects\\u000a of optimism on global life satisfaction in the Swedish middleaged women at two time points (age 43 and 49), and in the Lithuanian\\u000a middle-aged

Daiva Daukantait?; Rita Zukauskiene

2012-01-01

239

Male Mammies: A Social-Comparison Perspective on How Exaggeratedly Overweight Media Portrayals of Madea, Rasputia, and Big Momma Affect How Black Women Feel About Themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews with 36 Black women, ages 18 to 59, reveal that exaggeratedly overweight depictions of Black women portrayed by men dressed up as women had a strong effect on their identities. The women reported that portrayals, such as Madea in Tyler Perry's films, Rasputia in Eddie Murphy's Norbit, and Martin Lawrence's Big Momma, were “mammy-like” and the fact that

Gina Masullo Chen; Sherri Williams; Nicole Hendrickson; Li Chen

2012-01-01

240

The health disparities of uterine fibroid tumors for African American women: a public health issue.  

PubMed

Uterine fibroid tumors (leiomyomas) are the most common benign pelvic tumors in women and are the major indication for hysterectomy. Fibroid tumors are more common and more severe among African American women. Although this disease disproportionately affects the African American population, we understand little about what causes the disparity. Fibroid tumors should be considered a public health issue, given the magnitude of the problem and the costs of health care for this disease. In this review, we examine the burden of disease from fibroid tumors in the African American population and review the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine fibroid tumors, with emphasis on how these can differ, depending on race. We also focus on the socioeconomic burden caused by the disease and describe the anticipated influence of new health care reforms and funding mechanisms for fibroid tumor research. PMID:23942040

Eltoukhi, Heba M; Modi, Monica N; Weston, Meredith; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Stewart, Elizabeth A

2014-03-01

241

Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

2014-01-01

242

“Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand”: Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington

2011-01-01

243

Sculpting the Female Breast: How College Women Negotiate the Media's Ideal Breast Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through focus group interviews, this study examined how college women negotiate exposure to media images of disproportionately large-breasted women. The results showed that media images directly and indirectly influence women's breast satisfaction. Personal experiences; self-confidence; and interactions with men, family, and friends influenced their views of ideal breast size.

J. Robyn Goodman; Kim Walsh-Childers

2004-01-01

244

The Role of Students in the Experience of Women Faculty on the Tenure Track  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women faculty disproportionately leave academia by their second or third semester and experience slow rates of tenure and promotion. What then, may cause women faculty, both White and of color, to leave early or conversely, to stay through tenure? With a critical feminist framework, this article presents qualitative research into women's…

Kelly, Bridget Turner; Fetridge, Jessica S.

2012-01-01

245

Cation-cation complexes of pentavalent uranyl: from disproportionation intermediates to stable clusters.  

PubMed

Three new cation-cation complexes of pentavalent uranyl, stable with respect to the disproportionation reaction, have been prepared from the reaction of the precursor [(UO(2)py(5))(KI(2)py(2))](n) (1) with the Schiff base ligands salen(2-), acacen(2-), and salophen(2-) (H(2)salen = N,N'-ethylene-bis(salicylideneimine), H(2)acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetoneimine), H(2)salophen = N,N'-phenylene-bis(salicylideneimine)). The preparation of stable complexes requires a careful choice of counter ions and reaction conditions. Notably the reaction of 1 with salophen(2-) in pyridine leads to immediate disproportionation, but in the presence of [18]crown-6 ([18]C-6) a stable complex forms. The solid-state structure of the four tetranuclear complexes, {[UO(2)(acacen)](4)[?(8)-](2)[K([18]C-6)(py)](2)} (3) and {[UO(2)(acacen)](4)[?(8)-]}?2?[K([222])(py)] (4), {[UO(2)(salophen)](4)[?(8)-K](2)[?(5)-KI](2)[(K([18]C-6)]}?2?[K([18]C-6)(thf)(2)]?2?I (5), and {[UO(2)(salen)(4)][?(8)-Rb](2)[Rb([18]C-6)](2)} (9) ([222] = [222]cryptand, py = pyridine), presenting a T-shaped cation-cation interaction has been determined by X-ray crystallographic studies. NMR spectroscopic and UV/Vis studies show that the tetranuclear structure is maintained in pyridine solution for the salen and acacen complexes. Stable mononuclear complexes of pentavalent uranyl are also obtained by reduction of the hexavalent uranyl Schiff base complexes with cobaltocene in pyridine in the absence of coordinating cations. The reactivity of the complex [U(V)O(2)(salen)(py)][Cp*(2)Co] with different alkali ions demonstrates the crucial effect of coordinating cations on the stability of cation-cation complexes. The nature of the cation plays a key role in the preparation of stable cation-cation complexes. Stable tetranuclear complexes form in the presence of K(+) and Rb(+), whereas Li(+) leads to disproportionation. A new uranyl-oxo cluster was isolated from this reaction. The reaction of [U(V)O(2)(salen)(py)][Cp*(2)Co] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with its U(VI) analogue yields the oxo-functionalized dimer [UO(2)(salen)(py)](2)[Cp*(2)Co] (8). The reaction of the {[UO(2)(salen)(4)][?(8)-K](2)[K([18]C-6)](2)} tetramer with protons leads to disproportionation to U(IV) and U(VI) species and H(2)O confirming the crucial role of the proton in the U(V) disproportionation. PMID:21053213

Mougel, Victor; Horeglad, Pawel; Nocton, Grégory; Pécaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella

2010-12-27

246

[Administration of MICRONIZED PALMITOYLETHANOLAMIDE (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis. Methods: Twenty-four patients with suspected endometriosis affected by severe pelvic pain were enrolled. All patients received two tablets a day of PEA 400 mg and 40 mg polydatin for 90 days consecutively. A Visual Analogic Scale was used for the assessment of the severity of global pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dischezia. A second questionnaire was submitted to patients to assess the quality of life. The compilation of a diary lead us to evaluate the monthly assumption of any painkillers. Patients were evaluated at the begin of the treatment and then monthly until the end of the study (90 days). The statistical analysis was performed by using the ANOVA for the analysis of variance. Results: Statistically significant results were found in relation to pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia compared to the initial evaluation of patients. Results related to dysuria and dischezia were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decrease in pelvic pain leads to an improvement of the quality of life of patients. A decreased assumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was also observed. Conclusion: PEA could be considered an effective supplement to conventional analgesic therapies in the management of pelvic pain related to endometriosis. PMID:23486373

Lo Monte, G; Soave, I; Marci, R

2013-03-13

247

Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: contexts linking these two epidemics--challenges and implications for prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are two serious overlapping public health epidemics that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. This article reviews research that has identified a number of contexts that may explain the links between IPV and HIV transmission risks. These contexts include sexual coercion, fear of violence, negotiation of condom use, extradyadic relationships, disclosure of sexually transmitted infections or HIV seropositivity to intimate partners, drug involvement of women and their male partners, low social status of drug-involved women, relationship dependencies, and sex ratio imbalances. The article focuses on how the bidirectional relationship between IPV and HIV risks may be mediated by a history of childhood sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also addressed are the challenges that substance user treatment programs face in dealing with female clients who experience IPV and the implications for HIV prevention. PMID:21303249

El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Witte, Susan; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway

2011-01-01

248

Interleukin-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism affects muscle damage response to acute eccentric resistance exercise in elderly obese women.  

PubMed

The IL-6 gene polymorphism has been associated with disease prevalence and different physiological responses to exercise. Eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) is considered a nonpharmacological tool to prevent the chronic degenerative profile associated with aging and obesity. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism on acute interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) temporal response to ERE in elderly obese women. Ninety women completed seven sets of ten repetitions (eccentric only) of an acute ERE session at 110% of the ten repetitions maximum (10RM). IL-6 genotypes displayed no difference at baseline. ERE induced changes in CK concentration over time occurred only in the GG group, F(2.619, 136.173)=5.199, p=0.003, with CK activity increased from 106.8±6.9 U/l pre-intervention to 122.7±11.2 U/l at 24 h and 131.9±14.4 U/l at 48 h post-exercise. IL-6 concentration in the GG group was lower than the CC/CG group only at 0 h post-exercise (3.78±0.58 pg/ml versus 6.51±1.91 pg/ml, p=0.030). Only the GG genotype group had higher CK activity 24-48 h following ERE and greater CK integral values, while IL-6 activity over 48 h was higher in the CC/CG genotype group. In conclusion, IL-6 genotype affects CK and IL-6 in response to ERE. It is of interest that the ERE protocol induced an elevation in CK, indicating possible muscle damage without exacerbating IL-6 and CK for the GG genotype. PMID:23981903

Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Prestes, Jonato; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Farias, Darlan L; Teixeira, Tatiane G; Vieira, Denis Cesar Leite; Souza, Vinícius C; Sousa, Nuno M F; Navalta, James W; Melo, Gislane F; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

2013-11-01

249

Repression of both isoforms of disproportionating enzyme leads to higher malto-oligosaccharide content and reduced growth in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two glucanotransferases, disproportionating enzyme 1 (StDPE1) and disproportionating enzyme 2 (StDPE2), were repressed using\\u000a RNA interference technology in potato, leading to plants repressed in either isoform individually, or both simultaneously.\\u000a This is the first detailed report of their combined repression. Plants lacking StDPE1 accumulated slightly more starch in\\u000a their leaves than control plants and high levels of maltotriose, while those

Henrik Lütken; James R. Lloyd; Mikkel A. Glaring; Lone Baunsgaard; Kristian Holst Laursen; Anna Haldrup; Jens Kossmann; Andreas Blennow

2010-01-01

250

Disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes gen. nov., sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater lake after enrichment with\\u000a thiosulfate as the energy source. The strain, named Bra2 (DSM 7269), is able to grow by disproportionation of thiosulfate\\u000a or sulfite to sulfate plus sulfide. Elemental sulfur is also disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, but this only supports\\u000a growth if free sulfide

Peter H. Janssen; Alexandra Schuhmann; Friedhelm Bak; Werner Liesack

1996-01-01

251

Designing an Intervention for Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus from Medically Underserved Areas to Improve Care: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) disproportionately affects women, racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. We held focus groups for women from medically underserved communities to discuss interventions to improve care. Methods From our Lupus Registry, we invited 282 women, > 18 years, residing in urban, medically underserved areas. Hospital-based clinics and support groups also recruited participants. Women were randomly assigned to 3 focus groups. 75-minute sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded thematically using interpretative phenomenologic analysis and single counting methods. We categorized interventions by benefits, limitations, target populations and implementation questions. Results 29 women with lupus participated in 3 focus groups, (n=9, 9, 11). 80% were African American and 83% were from medically underserved zip codes. Themes included the desire for lupus education, isolation at the time of diagnosis, emotional and physical barriers to care, and the need for assistance navigating the healthcare system. 20 of 29 participants (69%) favored a peer support intervention; 17 (59%) also supported a lupus health passport. Newly diagnosed women were optimal intervention targets. Improvements in quality of life and mental health were proposed outcome measures. Conclusion Women with lupus from medically underserved areas have unique needs best addressed with an intervention designed through collaboration between community members and researchers. PMID:23087258

Feldman, Candace H; Bermas, Bonnie L; Zibit, Melanie; Fraser, Patricia; Todd, Derrick J; Fortin, Paul R; Massarotti, Elena; Costenbader, Karen H

2013-01-01

252

Women's Marijuana Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual, cultural, professional, and gender-related factors converge to increase the denial of women's marijuana problems. Recent epidemiological information on marijuana use shows that marijuana is a significant problem for women of various ethnic groups, pregnant women, young adults and workers. Women's marijuana-related problems affect their health, safety, domestic relations, motherhood, and work. Outdated addiction theories, diagnostic tools, and insufficient research

Susan Chacín

1996-01-01

253

Prevalence and Predictors of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Prospective, Controlled Study in 254 Affected Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resis- tant, have insulin secretory defects, and are at high risk for glucose intolerance. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of glucose intolerance and parameters associated with risk for this in PCOS women. Two-hundred and fifty-four PCOS women, aged 14 - 44 yr, were prospectively evaluated at 2 centers, 1

RICHARD S. LEGRO; ALLEN R. KUNSELMAN; WILLIAM C. DODSON; ANDREA DUNAIF

254

Internal structure and stability of carbon nanoclusters: arc discharge preparation versus CO disproportionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanoclusters prepared at high temperature by arc discharge, and at low temperature by CO disproportionation with and without hydrogen present, were compared in their morphology, internal structures, and stability. Electron microscopy shows similar external morphology in the three different sample types, with the internal structures different depending on the preparation conditions. These differences result in different stabilities. Nanotubes of cylindrical structure are stable to annealing at 1000°C in both helium and hydrogen atmosphere. Two-minute electron bombardment disordered tubes slightly. However, filaments of conical fishbon structure deposited in the presence of hydrogen, significantly deform under the same conditions.

Jiao, Jun; Seraphin, Supapan

1996-01-01

255

The disproportionation of gold(I) chloride complexes at 25 to 200°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disproportionation of aqueous Au(I) chloride complexes at elevated temperature has been investigated experimentally using the solubility method. At 300°C, the dominant gold species in aqueous HCl solutions is AuCl2?. Upon cooling, this aurous complex partially decomposes according to the following reaction: 3AuC12?=2Au(s)+AuC14?+2C1? (A1) Log KA1 values were obtained at 100°C (4.42 ± 0.22), 150°C (2.86 ± 0.12), and 200°C

Christopher H. Gammons; Yunmei Yu; A. E. Williams-Jones

1997-01-01

256

Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums  

PubMed Central

Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life.

Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

2014-01-01

257

HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women's Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women. PMID:23861602

Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

2013-01-01

258

Complete genome sequence of Desulfocapsa sulfexigens, a marine deltaproteobacterium specialized in disproportionating inorganic sulfur compounds  

PubMed Central

Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:23961312

Finster, Kai Waldemar; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Schreiber, Lars

2013-01-01

259

Hispanic/Latina Women and AIDS: A Critical Perspective. JSRI Working Paper No. 36. JSRI Research & Publications Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are a rapidly growing group of people with AIDS in the United States, and Hispanic/Latina and African American women are disproportionately represented. This paper reviews the literature on the epidemiology of AIDS/HIV infection among Latina women, children, and adolescents and discusses the needs of Latinas regarding AIDS prevention…

Blasini-Caceres, Lydia; Cook, Amy Beth

260

Few colonies of the host Bombus terrestris disproportionately affect the genetic diversity of its parasite, Crithidia bombi.  

PubMed

Sex and recombination have long been considered as necessary means for hosts to keep up with and resist to their faster reproducing parasites. On the other hand, comparatively little attention has been paid to potential benefits of recombination for the parasites. Using as model organisms the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its genetically highly variable trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi we analysed the infection dynamics as well as the relative frequency of parasite recombinants over time, in colonies that were either immune-challenged with heat-killed bacteria or sham-inoculated. In addition, we used infective cells from a given colony to infect workers from other, untreated colonies, to investigate whether recombinant parasite strains may have a competitive advantage over the parental strains to infect the surrounding host population. We show that in our experimental setup the host immune status does not influence the proportion of recombinant parasite cells in the infection. Neither do recombinant parasite strains have an advantage over the parental ones at infecting workers unrelated to the host colony the infection originally came from. However, we found that the prevalence of recombinants was highly variable among colonies, with one particular colony producing significantly more recombinant strains than others. As the successful infection of daughter queens--the only individuals surviving the winter to the next year--is proportional to the number of circulating parasite strains in the colony, we suggest that such "super-producing" colonies may be responsible for most of the infections happening in the next year. PMID:24263111

Cisarovsky, Gabriel; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2014-01-01

261

Exploring the Experiences of African American Women in an Undergraduate Summer Research Program Designed to Address the Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American women compose a critical proportion of the potential science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce of the future, yet are disproportionately represented and largely underutilized. While various programs and initiatives have been designed and implemented to target women and underrepresented minorities, the…

Reid, Ericka L.

2010-01-01

262

Substance use and partner violence among urban women seeking emergency care.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bidirectional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low-income urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for sociodemographics and potentially confounding multilevel risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior 6 months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as nonheroin-using women to indicate any physical, injurious, or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low-income urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita

2012-06-01

263

Examining Pregnant Women's Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

2013-01-01

264

Black Women Beating the Odds from One Generation to the Next: How the Changing Dynamics of Constraint and Opportunity Affect the Process of Educational Resilience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used life stories of 19 black women who were first-generation college graduates from three different age cohorts (pre civil rights era, post civil rights era, and post-Reagan era) to show how structural constraints shifted from one generation to another to place the women differentially at risk for limited educational attainment. (SLD)

O'Connor, Carla

2002-01-01

265

HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

266

The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

2011-01-01

267

Radioiodine therapy for women with thyroid cancer does not adversely affect subsequent pregnancies and those offspring over a 10-year follow-up period  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY BACKGROUND Ten years ago this group reported that radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy had no effects on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies and offspring in women treated for thyroid cancer, with the exception of miscarriages in a small number of women that occurred during the first year after 131 I therapy. The current study has twice the number of

Rubino C; Ceccarelli C; Schvartz C; Bardet S

2008-01-01

268

Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

2011-01-01

269

Disproportionation of (Mg,Fe)SiO? perovskite in Earth's deep lower mantle.  

PubMed

The mineralogical constitution of the Earth's mantle dictates the geophysical and geochemical properties of this region. Previous models of a perovskite-dominant lower mantle have been built on the assumption that the entire lower mantle down to the top of the D? layer contains ferromagnesian silicate [(Mg,Fe)SiO3] with nominally 10 mole percent Fe. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, at pressures of 95 to 101 gigapascals and temperatures of 2200 to 2400 kelvin, we found that such perovskite is unstable; it loses its Fe and disproportionates to a nearly Fe-free MgSiO3 perovskite phase and an Fe-rich phase with a hexagonal structure. This observation has implications for enigmatic seismic features beyond ~2000 kilometers depth and suggests that the lower mantle may contain previously unidentified major phases. PMID:24855264

Zhang, Li; Meng, Yue; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Mao, Wendy L; Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Jeong, Jong Seok; Wagner, Andrew J; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Liu, Wenjun; Xu, Ruqing; Mao, Ho-kwang

2014-05-23

270

Effect of carrier gas on stability and selectivity of large pore zeolites during disproportionation of monoalkylbenzenes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of carrier gas on catalytic activity, selectivity and coke formation of cumene disproportionation reaction over zeolite Beta is discussed. Catalytic performance was investigated by continuous flow reaction system. Characterisation of coke was carried out by {sup 13}CMAS and {sup 129}XeNMR and IR spectroscopy in association with thermogravimetric analysis. In the presence of different carrier gases, a notable decrease in the catalytic activity, in the order of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, He, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} was found in zeolite Beta. The catalytic stability was also found to increase in the same order. The ratio of m- and p-diisopropylbenzene isomers correlate well with the boiling points of the carrier gases, except for H{sub 2}. A transition complex salvation model is proposed.

Pradhan, A.R.; Chen, W.H.; Jong, S.J. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1995-12-31

271

Disproportionate Exposures in Environmental Justice and Other Populations: The Importance of Outliers  

PubMed Central

We examined traditional environmental justice populations and other groups whose exposure to contaminants is often disproportionately high. Risk assessment methods may not identify these populations, particularly if they are spatially dispersed. We suggest using a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey approach to oversample minority communities and develop methods for assessing exposure at different distances from pollution sources; publishing arithmetic and geometric means and full distributions for minority populations; and paying particular attention to high-end exposures. Means may sufficiently characterize populations as a whole but are inadequate in identifying vulnerable groups and subgroups. The number of individuals above the 95th percentile of any distribution may be small and unrepresentative, but these outliers are the ones who need to be protected. PMID:21551384

Gochfeld, Michael

2011-01-01

272

Perception, attention, and working memory are disproportionately impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To test the hypotheses that visuoperceptual and attentional ability are disproportionately impaired in patients having dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD).?METHODS—A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to assess working, episodic, and semantic memory, and visuoperceptual and attentional functions was given to groups of patients with DLB (n=10) and AD (n=9), matched for age, education, and mini mental state examination (MMSE), and to normal controls (n=17).?RESULTS—Both patient groups performed equally poorly on tests of episodic and semantic memory with the exception of immediate and delayed story recall, which was worse in the AD group. Digit span was by contrast spared in AD. The most striking differences were on tests of visuoperceptual/spatial ability and attention. Whereas patients with AD performed normally on several subtests of the visual object and space perception battery, the DLB group showed substantial impairments. In keeping with previous studies, the AD group showed deficits in selective attention and set shifting, but patients with DLB were more impaired on virtually every test of attention with deficits in sustained, selective, and divided attention.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with DLB have substantially greater impairment of attention, working memory, and visuoperceptual ability than patients with AD matched for overall dementia severity. Semantic memory seems to be equally affected in DLB and AD, unlike episodic memory, which is worse in AD. These findings may have relevance for our understanding of the genesis of visual hallucinations, and the differential diagnosis of AD and DLB.?? PMID:11160462

Calderon, J; Perry, R; Erzinclioglu, S; Berrios, G; Dening, T; Hodges, J

2001-01-01

273

Acid-catalyzed disproportionation of oxoiron(IV) porphyrins to give oxoiron(IV) porphyrin radical cations  

PubMed Central

Disproportionation of oxoiron(IV) porphyrin (Compound II) to oxoiron(IV) porphyrin radical cation (Compound I) was studied in three P450 model systems with different electronic structures. Direct conversion of Compound II to Compound I has been observed for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-dichlorophenyl)porphyrin (TDCPP) in acid-catalyzed reactions in a mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water (1:1, v/v) containing excess m-CPBA oxidant, with a second-order rate constant of (1.3 ± 0.2) × 102 M?1 s?1. The acid-catalyzed disproportionation heavily depends on the electron demand of the substituted aryl groups on the porphyrin macrocycle. The disproportionation equilibrium constants show drastic change for the three porphyrin systems. PMID:21572532

Pan, Zhengzheng; Newcomb, Martin

2011-01-01

274

Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Women's Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women’s health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women’s groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women’s and children’s health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory women’s groups focused on women’s and children’s health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

2014-01-01

275

Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

2010-01-01

276

Psychosocial Factors That Contribute to HIV\\/AIDS Risk Behaviors Among Young Black College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American women are disproportionately burdened by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though African Americans represent only 12% of the population in the United States, more than 54% of HIV-positive women in the United States are of African American descent (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003). The bulk of HIV\\/AIDS research focuses on prevention

Binta Alleyne; John Wodarski

2009-01-01

277

Jobs: women's double burden.  

PubMed

Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition. PMID:12157784

1995-01-01

278

Angina in Women without Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Angina in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, sometimes referred to as cardiac syndrome X (CSX), is a debilitating condition that disproportionately affects women. More than 50% of women evaluated for angina have non-obstructive disease by cardiac catheterization, although the total numbers of women affected by CSX are unknown. Varying clinical definitions and the lack of large scale epidemiologic studies focusing on this illness have resulted in limited knowledge about its risk factors, although there appears to be an association with black race, estrogen deficiency, and insulin resistance. Contrary to prior beliefs about the benign nature of this entity, these women suffer considerable morbidity with costly economic implications that approach the lifetime costs of healthcare utilization for those with obstructive coronary disease. Two prevailing hypotheses have emerged to explain CSX: the ischemic hypothesis detailing abnormal coronary microvascular function and the non-ischemic hypothesis describing altered pain perception and myocardial hypersensitivity. Treatment strategies have focused on both of these pathways with the main goal of improving symptoms. Beta blockers provide the most convincing evidence for benefit, with other antianginals having secondary roles. Other promising pharmacologic therapies include xanthine derivatives, estrogen replacement therapy, ACE inhibitors, and statin medications, among other emerging treatment options. Neurostimulation and lifestyle factors including exercise can also be beneficial in reducing symptoms. However, managing patients with CSX can be frustrating for both patients and physicians, as there is a lack of data regarding an optimal treatment algorithm including few large-scale randomized controlled trials to clarify effective therapies. PMID:21286281

Banks, Kamakki; Lo, Monica; Khera, Amit

2010-01-01

279

Plasma Fatty Acid Ratios Affect Blood Gene Expression Profiles - A Cross-Sectional Study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort  

PubMed Central

High blood concentrations of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) relative to n-3 FAs may lead to a “physiological switch” towards permanent low-grade inflammation, potentially influencing the onset of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancer. To explore the potential effects of FA ratios prior to disease onset, we measured blood gene expression profiles and plasma FA ratios (linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid, LA/ALA; arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, AA/EPA; and total n-6/n-3) in a cross-section of middle-aged Norwegian women (n?=?227). After arranging samples from the highest values to the lowest for all three FA ratios (LA/ALA, AA/EPA and total n-6/n-3), the highest and lowest deciles of samples were compared. Differences in gene expression profiles were assessed by single-gene and pathway-level analyses. The LA/ALA ratio had the largest impact on gene expression profiles, with 135 differentially expressed genes, followed by the total n-6/n-3 ratio (125 genes) and the AA/EPA ratio (72 genes). All FA ratios were associated with genes related to immune processes, with a tendency for increased pro-inflammatory signaling in the highest FA ratio deciles. Lipid metabolism related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) signaling was modified, with possible implications for foam cell formation and development of cardiovascular diseases. We identified higher expression levels of several autophagy marker genes, mainly in the lowest LA/ALA decile. This finding may point to the regulation of autophagy as a novel aspect of FA biology which warrants further study. Lastly, all FA ratios were associated with gene sets that included targets of specific microRNAs, and gene sets containing common promoter motifs that did not match any known transcription factors. We conclude that plasma FA ratios are associated with differences in blood gene expression profiles in this free-living population, and that affected genes and pathways may influence the onset and progression of disease. PMID:23825649

Olsen, Karina Standahl; Fenton, Christopher; Fr?yland, Livar; Waaseth, Marit; Paulssen, Ruth H.; Lund, Eiliv

2013-01-01

280

Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

2009-01-01

281

Nutritional issues for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the health concerns of women at different life stages are affected by nutrition. Diet is one lifestyle factor that is amenable to change. Health practitioners have a major role to play in helping women to adopt a healthier diet in order to gain the benefits that this offers. Women of all ages cite losing weight as one of

Orla Hugueniot

2004-01-01

282

Sundials in the shade: A study of women's persistence in the first year of a computer science program in a selective university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently women are underrepresented in departments of computer science, making up approximately 18% of the undergraduate enrollment in selective universities. Most attrition in computer science occurs early in this major, in the freshman and sophomore years, and women drop out in disproportionately greater numbers than their male counterparts. Taking an ethnographic approach to investigating women's experiences and progress in the

Rita Manco Powell

2005-01-01

283

Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health  

PubMed Central

US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

2001-01-01

284

Recent advances in R and D of commercial catalysts for acrylonitrile synthesis, styrene production and toluene disproportionation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the progresses in R and D and commercial application of the industrial catalysts, developed and produced by SRIPT for acrylonitrile, styrene and toluene disproportionation processes.The research works of developing a unique method of catalyst preparation, adding proper amount of sodium ions to the Mo–Bi oxides system to improve catalytic activity and attrition resistance, and adding bromine ions

Qingling Chen; Xin Chen; Liansheng Mao; Wencai Cheng

1999-01-01

285

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Students from Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in Special Education: A Resource Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to facilitate efforts to develop and implement equitable educational policies and procedures, and remedy discriminatory practices that lead to disproportionate representation of students from racial and ethnic minority groups in special education. It aims to enable technical assistance providers to provide more effective…

Markowitz, Joy; And Others

286

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur in Marine Sediments Amplified by a Seafloor Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide and to grow only in the presence of a sulfide scavenger have been enriched electrochemically in marine sediments. During a 7-month experiment designed to demonstrate sustained electrical energy harvesting by a seafloor fuel cell (Tender et al. 2002), a graphite anode embedded in sediment within Yaquina Bay, OR, developed a biofilm showing a 60% enrichment in ?-Proteobacteria belonging to the genera Desulfobulus/Desulfocapsa. Cytophagales showed a secondary enrichment in 36.7% of 16S rDNA sequences. These two groups of microorganisms made up 23.5% and 8.8%, respectively, of clones derived from graphite scrapings of a control cell with zero current. Sediment porewater profiles show millimolar increases in sulfate and iron concentrations, but also sulfide depletion approaching the active anode. Electron microprobe analyses reveal accumulations of sulfur and iron between the graphite surface of the anode and the overcoating biofilm with a Fe/S ratio below one. Extractions of iron mineral phases also indicate a small decrease in crystalline iron oxide near the anode. These chemical changes are consistent with four interactive processes. (1) Sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur directly at the anode. (2) The elemental sulfur promotes the microbial production of sulfate and FeS + FeS2. (3) Iron sulfide apparently dissolves to re-supply sulfide that is consumed by the anode. (4) Released Fe+2 accumulates and with organic ligands may catalyze the reduction and dissolution of crystalline iron oxide (Luther et al. 1992). Thus, we conclude the anodic half-cell reaction of the marine fuel cell provides a novel experimental approach for in situ enrichment of bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur while highlighting a biogeochemical cycle usually obscured by competing processes. Tender L. M., Reimers C. E., Stecher H. A. III, Holmes D. E., Bond D. R, Lowy, D. A., Pilobello K., Fertig S. J., Lovley D. R., Harnessing microbially generated power on the seafloor, Nature Biotechnology (2002) 20: 821-825. Luther G. W. III, Kostka J. E., Church T. M., Sulzberger B., Stumm W., Seasonal iron cycling in the salt-marsh sedimentary environment: the importance of ligand complexes with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and pyrite, respectively, Marine Chemistry (1992) 40: 81-103

Ryckelynck, N. B.; Reimers, C. E.; Stecher, H. A.; Holmes, D. E.; Bond, D. E.

2002-12-01

287

African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity  

PubMed Central

Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women. PMID:19271331

Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

288

Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.  

PubMed

Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

2012-02-01

289

Secondary Effects of Antipsychotics: Women at Greater Risk Than Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The health burden of antipsychotic medication is well known, but the disproportionate effect on women as compared with men is underappreciated. Objective: The goal of this article is preventive—to better inform clinicians so that the risks to women and to their offspring can be di- minished.Method:All PubMed sources in which the search term gender (or sex) was linked to

Mary V. Seeman; M. Parelman; B. Stoecker; A. Baker; D. Medeiros; D. Gaddy; D. S. Perrien; N. S. Akel; E. E. Dupont-Versteegden; R. A. Skinner; E. R. Siegel; A. Alberich-Bayarri; L. Marti-Bonmati; R. Sanz-Requena; E. Belloch; T MRI; Schizophr Bull

2008-01-01

290

Kinetics of toluene disproportionation over unmodified and modified ZSM-5 zeolites  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of toluene disproportionation has been studied over both unmodified and Si-Mg modified ZSM-5 catalysts using an integral reactor and taking into account the reversibility of the reaction. It has been found that xylene dealkylation is the major secondary reaction, whereas toluene dealkylation can be considered negligible. For the unmodified ZSM-5, heterogeneous models based in the alkyl-transfer mechanism allowed the experimental results to be fit better than first and second pseudohomogeneous models, the best concordance being obtained when toluene adsorption is assumed as the rate-limiting step. The corresponding kinetic equation has been further applied to the modified zeolite (SiMg/ZSM-5), leading to the development of a kinetic model which includes the effect of the toluene and p-xylene intracrystalline diffusion rate and the presence of nonselective acid sites on the external zeolite surface. This model describes adequately the selective formation of p-xylene over modified ZSM-5, reproducing the experimental product distribution with an average relative error of 2.8%.

Uguina, M.A.; Sotelo, J.L.; Serrano, D.P. (Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain))

1993-01-01

291

Disproportionation in Li-O2 batteries based on a large surface area carbon cathode.  

PubMed

In this paper we report on a kinetics study of the discharge process and its relationship to the charge overpotential in a Li-O2 cell for large surface area cathode material. The kinetics study reveals evidence for a first-order disproportionation reaction during discharge from an oxygen-rich Li2O2 component with superoxide-like character to a Li2O2 component. The oxygen-rich superoxide-like component has a much smaller potential during charge (3.2-3.5 V) than the Li2O2 component (?4.2 V). The formation of the superoxide-like component is likely due to the porosity of the activated carbon used in the Li-O2 cell cathode that provides a good environment for growth during discharge. The discharge product containing these two components is characterized by toroids, which are assemblies of nanoparticles. The morphologic growth and decomposition process of the toroids during the reversible discharge/charge process was observed by scanning electron microscopy and is consistent with the presence of the two components in the discharge product. The results of this study provide new insight into how growth conditions control the nature of discharge product, which can be used to achieve improved performance in Li-O2 cell. PMID:24053681

Zhai, Dengyun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Yang, Junbing; Lau, Kah Chun; Li, Kaixi; Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A

2013-10-16

292

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

293

Separation of Nd metal by using disproportionation reaction of Nd(II) in molten chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to separate neodymium (Nd) from lanthanides in chloride melts, the electrochemical characteristics Nd ions in molten LiCl-CaCl 2 eutectic were studied. The formal redox potentials of the Nd 3+|Nd 2+ and Nd 2+|Nd couples in molten LiCl-CaCl 2 eutectic at 823 K were determined to be -2.745 ± 0.005 and -3.081 ± 0.005 V vs. Cl 2|Cl -. Under the controlled potential electrolysis by applying negative potential to form Nd 2+, Nd 2+ was disproportionated to Nd 3+ and metallic Nd fog according to the reaction; 3Nd 2+ ? 2Nd 3+ + Nd. When a quartz glass was immersed in the melt during the electrolysis, Nd was coated on the quartz surface. The chemical composition of the recovered Nd was analyzed to be Nd metal and Nd 2O 3 by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron probe microanalysis. The same electrolytic method was carried out under the coexistence of Nd 3+ and lanthanum ion (La 3+). Nd 3+ was separated from La 3+ and recovered to be Nd 2O 3.

Uehara, A.; Fukasawa, K.; Nagai, T.; Fujii, T.; Yamana, H.

2011-07-01

294

Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates  

PubMed Central

The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share hospital (DSH) adjustments to Medicare's prospective payment rates for inpatient services are generally intended to compensate hospitals for patient care costs related to teaching activities and care of low income populations. These adjustments were originally established based on the statistical relationships between IME and DSH and hospital costs. Due to a variety of policy considerations, the legislated levels of these adjustments may have deviated over time from these “empirically justified levels,” or simply, “empirical levels.” In this paper, we estimate the empirical levels of IME and DSH using 2006 hospital data and 2009 Medicare final payment rules. Our analyses suggest that the empirical level for IME would be much smaller than under current law— about one-third to one-half. Our analyses also support the DSH adjustment prescribed by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA)—about one-quarter of the pre-ACA level. For IME, the estimates imply an increase in costs of 1.88% for each 10% increase in teaching intensity. For DSH, the estimates imply that costs would rise by 0.52% for each 10% increase in the low-income patient share for large urban hospitals. PMID:22340777

Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan; Sheingold, Steven H.

2011-01-01

295

A Theoretical Study of the Qualitative Reaction Mechanism for the Homogeneous Disproportionation of Pentavalent Uranyl Ions  

SciTech Connect

There is significant interest in understanding the oxidation and reduction of aqueous uranium ions. In the literature, there is considerable variation in the results of attempts to reduce uranium depending on very small differences in reducing species, pH, spectator ions, mineral substrates, and other factors. Of particular curiosity is the fact that U(V) can be stabilized in the lab but is almost never found in the environment. In order to better understand these two phenomena, a direct computational study of homogenous, aqueous U(V) disproportionation was undertaken. Using a combination of Marcus Theory with Hartree– Fock and MP2 calculations, the rate constant of the electron-transfer reaction was calculated. Under the conditions studied, the electron-transfer reaction is slow (k observed ~10 -1 M-1 s-1). This reduced rate is a result of a variety of factors: the +1 charge of the reactants, the large encounter complex distance, and the electronic reorganization energies associated with the proton transfers. Excluding the energy from the coupled proton transfers, all of the remaining factors could be eliminated by small alterations of the uranium’s environment.

Wander, Matthew C.; Shuford, Kevin L.

2012-02-12

296

Iodine-catalyzed disproportionation of aryl-substituted ethers under solvent-free reaction conditions.  

PubMed

Iodine was demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for disproportionation of aryl-substituted ethers under solvent-free reaction conditions. Variously substituted 1,1,1',1'-tetraaryldimethyl ethers were transformed into the corresponding diarylketone and diarylmethane derivatives. I2-catalyzed transformation of 4-methoxyphenyl substituted ethers yielded mono- and dialkylated Friedel-Crafts products as well. Treatment of trityl alkyl and trityl benzyl ethers with a catalytic amount of iodine produced triphenylmethane and the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The electron-donating substituents facilitated the reaction, while the electron-withdrawing groups retarded it; the difference in reactivity is not very high. Such an observation may be in favour of hydride transfer, predominantly from the less electron rich side of the ether with more stable carbocation formation. With the isotopic studies it was established that a substantial portion of the C-H bond scission took place in the rate-determining step, while the carbonyl oxygen atom originated from the starting ether, and not from the air. The transformation took place under air and under argon, and HI was not a functioning catalyst. PMID:23389585

Jereb, Marjan; Vraži?, Dejan

2013-03-28

297

Does urinary incontinence affect quality of life of Greek women less severely? A cross-sectional study in two Mediterranean settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Numerous studies have identified a reduced health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with urinary incontinence (UI).\\u000a The aim of this study was to assess and compare QoL in women with UI in the island of Crete, Greece, and in Turkey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Incontinent women from two community-based primary health care (PHC) groups (Greece and Turkey) and one outpatient clinic-based\\u000a group were

Stella AnifantakiTuncay; Tuncay Muge Filiz; Athanasios Alegakis; Pinar Topsever; Adelais Markaki; Nursan Dede Cinar; Frangiskos Sofras; Christos Lionis

2009-01-01

298

HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.  

PubMed

African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities. PMID:20574877

Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

2010-06-01

299

Talking from 9 to 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help individuals as well as companies thrive in a working world made up of increasingly diverse work forces and ever more competitive markets, this book addresses the differences in men's and women's speaking styles, without maintaining the superiority of any one style of speaking. Reinforced with extensive examples drawn from…

Tannen, Deborah

300

Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO{sub 2}/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

GeO disproportionation into GeO{sub 2} and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO {yields} GeO{sub 2} + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 {+-} 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO{sub 2}/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO{sub 2} is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

Wang Shengkai [Micorowave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Liu Honggang [Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2012-08-06

301

Factors affecting antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected women with virologic suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Although some studies show higher antiretroviral concentrations in women compared to men, data are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive women to determine if protease inhibitor (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) Cmin and Cmax values were significantly different than historical general population (predominantly male) averages and to evaluate correlates of higher concentrations. Methods HIV-positive women with virologic suppression (viral load < 50copies/mL) on their first antiretroviral regimen were enrolled. Timed blood samples for Cmin and Cmax were drawn weekly for 3 weeks. The ratio of each individual’s median Cmin and Cmax to the published population mean values for their PI or NNRTI was calculated and assessed using Wilcoxon sign-rank. Intra- and inter-patient variability of antiretroviral drug levels was assessed using coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation. Linear regression was used to identify correlates of the square root-transformed Cmin and Cmax ratios. Results Data from 82 women were analyzed. Their median age was 41 years (IQR=36-48) and duration of antiretrovirals was 20 months (IQR=9-45). Median antiretroviral Cmin and Cmax ratios were 1.21 (IQR=0.72-1.89, p=0.003) (highest ratios for nevirapine and lopinavir) and 0.82 (IQR=0.59-1.14, p=0.004), respectively. Nevirapine and efavirenz showed the least and unboosted atazanavir showed the most intra- and inter-patient variability. Higher CD4+ count correlated with higher Cmin. No significant correlates for Cmax were found. Conclusions Compared to historical control data, Cmin in the women enrolled was significantly higher whereas Cmax was significantly lower. Antiretroviral Cmin ratios were highly variable within and between participants. There were no clinically relevant correlates of drug concentrations. Trial registration NCT00433979 PMID:23732043

2013-01-01

302

Women's Attitudes and Educational Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If theories of career decision-making among women are to emerge, research needs to investigate how the need to balance work and family roles affects women's career decisions. A study was undertaken to learn more about college women's attitudes toward their mothers, sex roles, higher education, and careers. College women (N=109) completed the…

Bergquist, Diane K.; And Others

303

Idiopathic osteoporosis in premenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although osteoporosis predominantly affects older postmenopausal women, low bone mineral density also occurs in men and younger women. In men, it is often unexplained by recognized secondary causes. These men with idiopathic osteoporosis have reductions in serum IGF-I as well as indices of reduced bone formation. Younger women also experience bone loss of unknown etiology (IOP). Whether premenopausal women with

Mishaela R. Rubin; Debra H. Schussheim; Carolina A. M. Kulak; Etah S. Kurland; Clifford J. Rosen; John P. Bilezikian; Elizabeth Shane

2005-01-01

304

Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

2014-01-01

305

Influenza vaccine for pregnant women in resource-constrained countries: A review of the evidence to inform policy decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal influenza is responsible for three to five million severe cases of disease annually, and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Pregnant women and infants suffer disproportionately from severe outcomes of influenza. The excellent safety profile and reliable immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine support WHO recommendations that pregnant women be vaccinated to decrease complications of influenza disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, influenza

Justin R. Ortiz; Janet A. Englund; Kathleen M. Neuzil

2011-01-01

306

Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and\\/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking comprehensive and consistent data, it is estimated that women with IDD are 1.5 to

Bethany Stevens

2012-01-01

307

Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

308

Impact of a women's program for science, mathematics and engineering on undergraduate women: Activity systems on the periphery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National reports such as National Science Foundation's highlight women's disproportionate distribution and differential treatment in the science, mathematics, and engineering (SM&E) fields, in both education and the workforce in the US. Women are less likely than men to choose a career that involves SM&E, and are more likely than men to earn bachelor's degrees in non-science and non-engineering fields. The need for support and encouragement is obvious for women already in college intending to pursue a major in a SM&E field. Comprehensive support networks can be and are established through programs for women entering college and willing to pursue careers in SM&E fields. The context of this research was the Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Mathematics (PWISEM) established in 2001 by a Southern teaching and research university in the US. I constructed a thorough theoretical lens by interweaving the theory of situated learning/legitimate peripheral participation and the cultural-historical activity theory. I explored the interactions and contradictions that affected the science identity formation of the PWISEM students, how they identified themselves as future scientists, and the key factors PWISEM involved in motivating and supporting women students in their intended SM&E majors. The design of the research was dominant-less dominant, the dominant approach being qualitative and the less-dominant being quantitative. The Program was successful in fostering the participation and retention of undergraduate women in SM&E. However, the women in the Program were more likely to internalize the status quo in the SM&E realms without actively challenging it (liberal feminist approach). To change the masculine culture embedded in SM&E, engaging in activism is essential. This research suggests that in fact, programs like PWISEM provide promising contexts for reforming the SM&E culture to be more appealing and inclusive of all. I suggest that there can be both explicit and implicit ways of transformation within such contexts and argue that the implicit approach is more powerful. This research also informs the theory of situated learning in that newcomer interactions are a key aspect and their actions should be understood to involve much more than knowledge circulation.

Kahveci, Ajda

309

Does Metformin affect ER, PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 expression in women with diabetes mellitus and endometrial cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes mellitus, as a risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), causes an increase in insulin and IGF-1 concentrations in the blood serum. The increase in insulin and IGF-1 are considered mitogenic factors contributory to cancer development. Studies suggest that metformin has preventive activity, decreasing mortality and the risk of neoplasms. Since estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and IGF-1 (IGF-1R) receptor expression and ?-catenin and PAX-2 mutations are significant in the development of endometrial cancer, it was decided to study these factors in patients with endometrial cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to establish the effects of metformin on their expression. Methods The expression of ER, PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 have been immunohistochemically investigated in 86 type I endometrial cancer specimens. Patients were grouped according to the presence of DM2 and the type of hypoglycemic treatment administered. Results Comparing EC patients with DM2 and normal glycemic status, we found increased IGF-1R expression in women with DM2. A decrease in ER expression was noted in women with EC and DM2 receiving metformin as compared to women treated with insulin (p?=?0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 expression among women receiving metformin and other hypoglycemic treatment. Conclusion Although epidemiological studies suggest the beneficial role of metformin in many human cancers, there are still few studies confirming its favorable effect on endometrial cancer. Decreased ER expression in patients receiving metformin needs further research to allow evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:24308813

2013-01-01

310

Affective responses to physical activity in obese women: A high-intensity interval bout vs. a longer isocaloric moderate-intensity bout  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of obesity and inactivity continue to increase worldwide, the need for effective intervention strategies remains. Despite the well-known benefits of leading a physically active lifestyle, of those individuals classified as obese, only 3.0% of the women and 6.4% of the men trying to lose weight actually meet the 60 min\\/day physical activity guidelines for weight management

Emily Sue Decker

2009-01-01

311

Women in public life.  

PubMed

The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th world conference on women for 1995. PMID:12317888

1992-01-01

312

Application of high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry for the elucidation of the disproportionation reaction of iodobenzene diacetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disproportionation reactions take place in solution of (diacetoxyiodo)benzene (DIB) in acetonitrile in the presence of water, giving iodine(V) and iodine(I) species. This redox reaction is accelerated by the presence of water and by increasing the temperature. Several species of the solution of DIB were identified by high-resolution ESI-MS/MS, which allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms of disproportionation for DIB in gas phase and in solution. Key species in the process are the dimers [PhI(OH)OIPh]+ at m/z 440.8864, [PhI(OAc)OIPh]+ at m/z 482.8947, and [PhI(O)(OAc)OIPh]+ at m/z 498.8887.

Silva, Luiz F., Jr.; Vasconcelos, Ramon S.; Lopes, Norberto P.

2008-09-01

313

A critical role for disproportionating enzyme in starch breakdown is revealed by a knock-out mutation in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

† These authors contributed equally to this work. Summary Disproportionating enzyme (D-enzyme) is a plastidial a-1,4-glucanotransferase but its role in starch metabolism is unclear. Using a reverse genetics approach we have isolated a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana in which the gene encoding this enzyme (DPE1) is disrupted by a T-DNA insertion. While D- enzyme activity is eliminated in the homozygous

Joanna H. Critchley; Samuel C. Zeeman; Takeshi Takaha; Alison M. Smith; Steven M. Smith

2001-01-01

314

Catalytic properties of heteropoly acid\\/zeolite hybrid materials: toluene disproportionation and transalkylation with 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hybrid heteropoly acid (HPA)\\/zeolite catalysts has been prepared by supporting 12-tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O40) on a faujasitic matrix. It has been shown that the structure of a dealuminated zeolite Y is retained upon contact with a very strong solid acid. The catalytic properties of the hybrid catalysts were examined in the two gas-phase reactions: disproportionation of toluene and

B. Sulikowski; R. Rachwalik

2003-01-01

315

Ni–Pt\\/H–Y Zeolite Catalysts for Disproportionation of Toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni–Pt\\/H–Y zeolite catalysts with different Ni contents were prepared and applied to the disproportionation of toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene in the temperature range 250–400 °C. The line broadening XRD analysis indicates that the increasing Ni addition decreases the crystallinity of zeolites. ESCA studies show the complete reduction of Ni species up to 0.3 wt.% Ni addition over 0.1 wt.% Pt\\/H-Y and further

A. Geetha Bhavani; D. Karthekayen; A. Sreenivasa Rao; N. Lingappan

2005-01-01

316

Disproportionate accumulation of immunoreactive corticotropin, melanotropin, and lipotropin in the brain of the maturing rat.  

PubMed

The accumulation of immunoreactive ACTH (ACTHi), alpha MSH (alpha MSHi), and gamma-lipotropin (gamma LPHi) as a function of age (10-120 days) was determined in three regions of the brain of male rats: the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), the preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POA), and the thalamus. In each region of the brain, the concentrations of ACTHi, alpha MSHi, and gamma LPHi increased with age. In the MBH, the increase occurred in such a manner that the molar ratio of alpha MSHi to ACTHi remained constant regardless of the age of the animals. In contrast, in the POA and thalamus, the increase occurred disproportionately in favor of alpha MSHi, and thus the molar ratio of alpha MSHi to ACTHi was 3 times higher in the adult (120 days old) than in the young (10 or 21 days old) animals. Nevertheless, the ratio of (ACTHi plus alpha MSHi) to gamma LPHi was constant at a level of about 2 regardless of the age of the animal or the region of the brain. Extracts of the MBH or POA were fractionated on columns of Sephadex G-75 superfine. The gel filtration profiles of ACTHi were indicative of the presence of five molecular weight forms of ACTH: greater than 40K, 30-40K, 20-30K, 5.7K, and 4.5K. We tentatively identified greater than 40K ACTH as a large form of proopiocortin, 30-40K ACTH as proopiocortin, 20-30K ACTH as ACTH biosynthetic intermediate, 5.7K as glycosylated ACTH(1-39), and 4.5K ACTH as ACTH-(1-39). Regardless of the age of the animals, the fractional amount of 30-40K ACTH the age of the animals, the fractional amount of 30-40K ACTH was high in the MBH compared to that in the POA. Moreover, the small fractional amount of 30-40K ACTH in the POA was associated with a large fractional amount of small molecular weight forms of ACTHi. However, the predominant form of ACTHi in the POA changed with age: 20-30K ACTH was the major form in the young, whereas 4.5K ACTH was the major form in the adult. These results support the proposal that the production of proopiocortin increases with age, and there is enhanced processing of proopiocortin to ACTH-(1-39) and alpha MSH in the brain of the maturing rat. PMID:6273125

Barnea, A; Cho, G; Porter, J C

1981-12-01

317

Orbital disproportionation and spin crossover as a pseudo Jahn-Teller effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that in systems with electronic half-closed-shell configurations of degenerate orbitals, e2 and t3 (which have totally symmetric charge distribution), ground state distortions from high-symmetry geometries may occur due to a strong pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE) in the excited states, resulting also in a novel phenomenon of PJT-induced spin crossover. There is no JTE neither in the ground state term nor in the excited terms (including degenerate terms) of these configurations but a strong PJT mixing between two excited states [(E1+A1)?e and (T12+T22)?e in the e2 and t3 cases, respectively] pushes down the lower term to cross the ground state of the undistorted system and to form the global minimum with a distorted geometry. The analysis of the electronic structure of this distorted configuration shows that it is accompanied by orbital disproportionation: instead of proportional population of all degenerate orbitals by one electron each (as in the ground state of the undistorted system that follows Hund's rule), two electrons with opposite spins occupy one orbital, resulting in transformations of the type (e??;e??)?(e??;e??) for e2 and (tx?;ty?;tz?)?(tx?;tx?;tz?) for t3 systems. Since the two geometry configurations, undistorted and distorted, appertain to different electronic terms that have different spin states, the formation of the global minimum with the distorted configuration is accompanied by a spin crossover. Distinguished from the known spin-crossover phenomenon in some transition metal compounds, the two states with different spin in the PJT-induced spin crossover have also different nuclear configurations, undistorted and distorted, that coexist with a relatively small energy difference. The change of configuration reduces significantly the rate of relaxation between the two states; the relaxation is further reduced by the lower spin-orbital coupling in the light-atom systems as compared with transition metal compounds. This means that there may be systems for which the switch between the two states (in both directions) under perturbations may be observed as a single-molecule phenomenon. Systems with half-closed-shell electronic configurations e2 and t3 are available in a variety of molecules from different classes, organic and inorganic; the theory is illustrated here by ab initio calculations for a series of molecular systems, including Si3, Si3C, CuF3, Na3, Si4, Na4, Na4-, and C603-, which are in agreement with the experimental data available.

Garcia-Fernandez, P.; Bersuker, Isaac B.; Boggs, James E.

2006-09-01

318

Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.  

PubMed

Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare taxa in time series from a wide variety of ecosystems and discovered that not only were conditionally rare taxa present in all of the examples, but they also contributed disproportionately to temporal changes in diversity when they were most abundant. This result indicates an important and general role for rare microbial taxa within their communities. PMID:25028427

Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

2014-01-01

319

Evidence and characteristics of hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter during metasomatic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum-geochemical analyses of carbonaceous regionally metamorphosed rocks, carbonaceous rocks from ore deposits, and alkalic plutonic rocks from diverse settings, demonstrated the presence of very low to moderately low concentrations of solvent-extractable organic matter, this observation in spite of the fact that some of these rocks were exposed to extremely high metamorphic temperatures. Biomarker and ? 13C analyses established that the extractable organic matter originated as sedimentary-derived hydrocarbons. However, the chemistry of the extractable bitumen has been fundamentally transformed from that found in sediment bitumen and oils. Asphaltenes and resins, as defined in the normal petroleum-geochemical sense, are completely missing. The principal aromatic hydrocarbons present in oils and sediment bitumens (especially the methylated naphthalenes) are either in highly reduced concentrations or are missing altogether. Instead, aromatic hydrocarbons typical of sediment bitumens and oils are very minor, and a number of unidentified compounds and oxygen-bearing compounds are dominant. Relatively high concentrations of alkylated benzenes are typical. The polar "resin" fraction, eluted during column chromatography, is the principal compound group, by weight, being composed of six to eight dominant peaks present in all samples, despite the great geologic diversity of the samples. These, and other, observations suggest that a strong drive towards equilibrium exists in the "bitumen." Gas chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbons commonly have a pronounced hump in both the n-paraffins and naphthenes, centered near the C 19 to C 26 carbon numbers, and a ubiquitous minimum in the n-paraffin distribution near n-C 12 to n-C 14. Multiple considerations dictate that the bitumen in the samples is indigenous and did not originate from either surficial field contamination or from laboratory procedures. Our observations are consistent with the hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter (HDOM), in which water and organic matter, including hydrocarbons, easily exchange hydrogen or oxygen with one another under certain conditions (Helgeson et al., 1993). The process appears to take place via well-known organic-chemical redox reaction pathways and is most evident in open-fluid systems. The conclusion that HDOM took place in the analyzed samples, thus producing the chemistry of the extractable bitumen, is supported by numerous previously published organic-geochemical studies of metamorphic, volcanic, plutonic, and ore-deposit-related rocks by other investigators. HDOM is suggested as an unrecognized geologic agent of fundamental importance. The process appears to control major chemical reactions in diverse geologic environments including, but not limited to, petroleum geology and geochemistry, regional metamorphism, and base- and precious-metal ore deposition.

Price, Leigh C.; DeWitt, Ed

2001-11-01

320

The Disproportionate and Potentially Negative Influence of Research Universities on the Quality of Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and growing body of research indicating that post-secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is failing to prepare citizens for the 21st century economy. Introductory STEM courses are vital for preparing science majors for their fields of study and are the only exposure to science many college students will receive, but the quality of teaching in these courses is often not informed by research on teaching and learning. Research universities play an especially prominent role in the design of introductory courses. While research and doctoral universities account for only about 6% of all higher education institutions, they confer 32 per cent of the baccalaureate degrees, and 56 per cent of the baccalaureates earned by recent recipients of science and engineering doctorates. By assuming that larger introductory classes occur at research institutions one can estimate that a dominant number of students receiving introductory instruction in the geosciences are probably occurring at research institutions. Moreover, research universities produce the majority of tenure-track faculty who will later teach at four-year colleges, so the role of research institutions in the influence of introductory course design is expected to be disproportionately large. While introductory courses at research universities play a influential role in how such courses are designed, the teaching of introductory courses is too often viewed as an undesirable assignment for instructors at those institutions. The effort seems unrewarding with incentives for improving teaching at research institutions perceived as modest at best, if not negative. It is commonly perceived that teaching introductory courses will decrease opportunities for teaching higher-level courses to graduate students and/or to conduct research. Furthermore, even for those interested in improving their pedagogical methods, current approaches to professional development are generally difficult to scale and/or costly to institutions and outside instructors' normal workflow. This presentation reports on the results of surveys of research university instructors in an attempt to quantify the state of the introductory course. The surveys attempt to identify common barriers to improvement. Based on these surveys strategies for how to best implement systemic change in introductory courses at research universities are presented in the hope of stimulating discussion and a call to action.

Samson, P. J.

2010-12-01

321

Intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and factors affecting it among married women in Adigrat town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increase in contraceptive use worldwide over the last decade, there is still discrepancy in the need to limit birth and utilization of modern contraceptives specifically long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Intention to use long acting and permanent methods of contraception is an important indicator of the potential demand for family planning services. Objective To assess intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) and identifying associated factors among currently married women in Adigrat town. Methods A community based cross sectional study design complemented with a qualitative method was conducted in three selected Kebeles of Adigrat town. A total of 594 study subjects were interviewed. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study subjects. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Open code software version 3.6.2.0 was used to facilitate coding of the qualitative data. Factors associated with intention were identified using logistic regression model and content analysis was done on the qualitative data. Results Intention to use LAPMs was 48.4%. Intention to use LAPMs was higher among women who knew at least one of LAPMs (AOR?=?4.7, 95% CI?=?1.58, 14.01) and women who do not want to have birth within the next 2 years (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.22, 3.13). Intention to use LAMPs was less among women who perceive poor support from their husbands (AOR?=?0.2, 95% CI?=?0.09, 0.45) and those who perceive LAPMs are harmful for the womb (AOR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.14, 0.41). Similarly, participants in the focus group discussion have expressed their concern on the return of fertility after using implants or IUCD as well as insertion and removal procedures. Conclusions The magnitude of intention to use LAPMs in the study area was low. The main limiting factors were fear of side effect, infertility after LAPMs use, knowledge on LAPMs and perception on partner’s support of LAPMs use. To further promote the use of LAPMs addressing associated misconceptions through effective communication strategies and involving spouses in family planning programs is essential. PMID:24628764

2014-01-01

322

Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: A 19-year prospective study of 1003 women  

PubMed Central

The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty. Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p = 0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p = 0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p = 0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time. In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions. PMID:21782451

Nicholls, A.S.; Kiran, A.; Javaid, M.K.; Hart, D.J.; Spector, T.D.; Carr, A.J.; Arden, N.K.

2012-01-01

323

A qualitative analysis of South African women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and cervical cancer prevention, vaccine awareness and acceptance, and maternal-child communication about sexual health.  

PubMed

In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and beliefs around HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Therefore, this formative study sought to examine women's attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccine acceptance, maternal-child communication about sexuality, and healthcare decision-making and gender roles within an urban community in South Africa. Women ages 18-44 were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a Black township outside of Johannesburg during the fall of 2008. Twenty-four women participated in three focus groups. Findings indicated that the women talked to their children about a variety of sexual health issues; had limited knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Women were interested in learning more about the vaccine although they had reservations about the long-term affect; they reinforced that grandmothers played a key role in a mother's decisions' about her child's health, and supported the idea that government should provide the HPV vaccine as part of the country's immunization program. Our findings indicate the need to develop primary prevention strategies and materials that will provide women with basic cervical cancer prevention messages, including information about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, screening, and how to talk to their children about these topics. Prevention strategies should also consider the cultural context and the role that grandmothers play in the family unit. PMID:21855591

Francis, Shelley A; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Liverpool, Joan; Hipple, Lauren; Mosavel, Maghboehba; Soogun, Soji; Mofammere, Nokuthula

2011-11-01

324

Women and Sustainability: Creating Community based literacy for climate solutions Women are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns and the impacts of climate change may  

E-print Network

are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns and the impacts of climate change may increase that vulnerability. Water is the biggest limiting factor in Colorado and climate change is anticipated to reduce its Accord (2009) acknowledges disproportionate impacts of climate change on women in developing countries

Boone, Randall B.

325

Trade Liberalisation and Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

326

Intimate partner violence among African American and African Caribbean women: prevalence, risk factors, and the influence of cultural attitudes  

PubMed Central

Background Women of African descent are disproportionately affected by intimate partner abuse; yet, limited data exist on whether the prevalence varies for women of African descent in the United States and those in the US territories. Objective In this multisite study, we estimated lifetime and 2-year prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner abuse (IPA) among 1,545 women of African descent in the United States and US Virgin Islands (USVI). We also examined how cultural tolerance of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) influences abuse. Design Between 2009 and 2011, we recruited African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 from health clinics in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI, into a comparative case-control study. Screened and enrolled women completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Screening-based prevalence of IPA and IPV were stratified by study site and associations between tolerance of IPV and abuse experiences were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Most of the 1,545 screened women were young, of low-income, and in a current intimate relationship. Lifetime prevalence of IPA was 45% in St. Thomas, 38% in St. Croix, and 37% in Baltimore. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 38% in St. Thomas, 28% in St. Croix, and 30% in Baltimore. Past 2-year prevalence of IPV was 32% in St. Thomas, 22% in St. Croix, and 26% in Baltimore. Risk and protective factors for IPV varied by site. Community and personal acceptance of IPV were independently associated with lifetime IPA in Baltimore and St. Thomas. Conclusions Variance across sites for risk and protective factors emphasizes cultural considerations in sub-populations of women of African descent when addressing IPA and IPV in given settings. Individual-based interventions should be coupled with community/societal interventions to shape attitudes about use of violence in relationships and to promote healthy relationships. PMID:25226418

Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bolyard, Richelle; Bertand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2014-01-01

327

The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure.  

PubMed

It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53 km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero. PMID:18336856

Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

2008-07-01

328

The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure  

SciTech Connect

It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

Lindberg, Anna-Lena [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Rahman, Mahfuzar [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, (ICDDR.B), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Persson, Lars-Ake [International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se

2008-07-01

329

Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately. PMID:24103188

Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

2014-01-28

330

The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics of Texas school districts and the Texas Education Agency's indicators of disproportionate representation in special education programs  

E-print Network

Despite considerable efforts, the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in special education programs remains among the most persistent problems in the field of education. Using data from...

Ramirez, Eleazar

2008-10-10

331

The forgotten casualties: women, children, and environmental change.  

PubMed

The author posits that women and children bear a disproportionate burden of environmental degradation and are in the worst position to mitigate the consequences of deteriorating environmental conditions. This article discusses the concept of environmental equity or fairness and its sociospatial impacts and the different adjustments made by women and children. Environmental equity is both an outcome and a process. Process equity includes the underlying causes of uneven distributions of resources. The 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development defines 27 specific principles that broadly follow three forms of equity: social equity, generational equity, and procedural equity. Social equity is defined as the role of social, economic, and political forces in resource consumption and environmental degradation. Environmental risk is related to locational criteria such as cheap land and transportation access and by the social geography of places. Hazardous waste dumping is used to illustrate inequitable waste disposal in developing countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Lebanon, Syria, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, and South Korea. Generational equity is defined as fairness over time. The issue of permanent radioactive waste disposal is a current issue that has implications for future generations. Three strategies are important in assuring generational equity: the maintenance of natural and cultural diversity; a reduction in environmental degradation; and the provision of equal access to resources. Preservation of parkland is a positive strategy and lack of access to health services and reproductive health care is a negative strategy. Procedural equity is defined as the extent to which regulations are applied fairly. The example is given of higher fines for dumping waste in "nice White communities" compared to minority ones. Environmental law regulating hazardous waste exports has been minimally effective. Women and children are affected by particulate pollution and environmental toxins (lead and pesticides) in the air and water of urban areas and by a composite of poverty, development, and urbanization. PMID:12320249

Cutter, S L

1995-06-01

332

The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor…

Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

333

Charge-Order Melting in Charge-Disproportionated Perovskite CeCu3Fe4O12.  

PubMed

A novel quadruple perovskite oxide CeCu3Fe4O12 has been synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of 15 GPa and 1473 K. (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy displays a charge disproportionation transition of 4Fe(3.5+) ? 3Fe(3+) + Fe(5+) below ?270 K, whereas hard X-ray photoemission and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm that the Ce and Cu valences are retained at approximately +4 and +2, respectively, over the entire temperature range measured. Electron and X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the body-centered cubic symmetry (space group Im3?, No. 204) is retained at temperatures as low as 100 K, indicating the absence of any types of charge-ordering in the charge-disproportionated CeCu3Fe4O12 phase. The magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction data illustrate that the antiferromagnetic ordering of Fe ions is predominant in the charge-disproportionated CeCu3Fe4O12 phase. These findings suggest that CeCu3Fe4O12 undergoes a new type of electronic phase in the ACu3Fe4O12 series and that the melting of the charge-ordering in CeCu3Fe4O12 is caused by the substantial decrease in the Fe valence and the resulting large deviation from the ideal abundance ratio of Fe(3+):Fe(5+) = 1:1 for rock-salt-type charge-ordering. PMID:25334034

Yamada, Ikuya; Etani, Hidenobu; Murakami, Makoto; Hayashi, Naoaki; Kawakami, Takateru; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Ueda, Shigenori; Abe, Hideki; Liss, Klaus-Dieter; Studer, Andrew J; Ozaki, Tomoatsu; Mori, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ryoji; Irifune, Tetsuo

2014-11-01

334

Heart Disease in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? In the United States, 1 ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...

335

Women's health  

MedlinePLUS

Women’s health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women’s health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections, ...

336

Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

2007-01-01

337

Insecure Communities: How an Immigration Enforcement Program Encourages Battered Women to Stay Silent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence is a pervasive problem in American society. Undocumented immigrant women suffer disproportionately from spousal abuse due to language and cultural barriers. Undocumented domestic violence victims often do not know how or where to seek help and fear deportation. That fear is not unfounded because Secure Communities, an immigration enforcement program run by Immigration and Customs Enforcement, requires participating

Radha Vishnuvajjala

2012-01-01

338

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

339

A nutritional intervention promoting a Mediterranean food pattern does not affect total daily dietary cost in North American women in free-living conditions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of adopting a Mediterranean diet on dietary cost and energy density in free-living conditions. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 group courses and 7 individual sessions with a dietician in a sample of 73 healthy women. To evaluate the dietary response to the nutritional intervention, a registered dietician administered a FFQ at 0, 6, 12, and 24 wk. Total daily dietary cost was calculated using a price list including all items from the FFQ. Our findings indicated that daily energy cost evaluated at wk 12 vs. wk 0 [1046 +/- 217 vs. 967 +/- 192 kJ/Canadian dollars (CAN$), respectively, P = 0.18] and total daily dietary cost (8.61 +/- 2.13 vs. 8.75 +/- 2.50 CAN$/d per participant, respectively, P = 0.58) did not change. Total daily energy density at wk 12 decreased compared with wk 0 (2.56 +/- 0.76 vs. 2.20 +/- 0.67 kJ/g; P < 0.0001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet led to increased cost related to vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and seeds, canola/olive oil, whole grains, poultry, and fish (P < or = 0.01) and to reduced dietary cost for red meat, refined grains, desserts and sweets, and fast food (P < or = 0.008). In conclusion, these data suggest that adherence to a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean food pattern is not associated with increased daily dietary cost or energy cost but led to a reduction in energy density. Consequently, increased cost should not be considered a barrier to the promotion and adoption of a Mediterranean diet. PMID:18156404

Goulet, Julie; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

2008-01-01

340

Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14?g protein, 85?g carbohydrate and 50?g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3?mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2?h) for C-peptide in nmol.120?min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2?h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

2014-01-01

341

Maternal cortisol disproportionately impacts fetal growth in male offspring: Evidence from the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lower birth weight (BW) re-occurs across generations, but the intermediate mechanisms remain poorly understood. One potential pathway involves cortisol, which may be elevated in women born small and in turn could lead to fetal growth restriction in offspring. To test this possibility, we evaluated whether BW predicts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the non-pregnant state in a cohort of young Filipino women, and whether differences in HPA function predict offspring BW. Methods Multiple regression relating maternal BW, adult salivary cortisol profiles and recalled offspring BW (N = 488) among participants of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Results Maternal BW related inversely to evening cortisol in adulthood (p < 0.04). Maternal BW and evening cortisol were both stronger predictors of male than of female BW (maternal BW: p < 0.0001 for males; p = 0.07 for females; bedtime cortisol: p = 0.003 for males; p = 0.3 for females). Waking and thirty minute post-waking cortisol did not predict offspring BW. Controlling for evening cortisol did not diminish the relationship between maternal and offspring BW in males or females. Conclusions Being born small predicted higher evening cortisol in adulthood among these young mothers. Lower maternal BW and elevated evening cortisol independently predicted giving birth to lower BW offspring, with effects greatest and only significant among males. We speculate that sex differences in sensitivity to maternal stress hormones could help explain the stronger relationships between BW and CVD risk factors reported among the males in this and other populations. PMID:22121049

Thayer, Zaneta M.; Feranil, Alan B.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

2014-01-01

342

Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

2007-01-01

343

Reframing women's risk: social inequalities and HIV infection.  

PubMed

Social inequalities lie at the heart of risk of HIV infection among women in the United States. As of December, 1995, 71,818 US women had developed AIDS-defining diagnoses. These women have been disproportionately poor, African-American, and Latina. Their neighborhoods have been burdened by poverty, racism, crack cocaine, heroin, and violence. To explain which women are at risk and why, this article reviews the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among women in light of four conceptual frameworks linking health and social justice: feminism, social production of disease/political economy of health, ecosocial, and human rights. The article applies these alternative theories to describe sociopolitical contexts for AIDS' emergence and spread in the United States, and reviews evidence linking inequalities of class, race/ethnicity, gender, and sexuality, as well as strategies of resistance to these inequalities, to the distribution of HIV among women. PMID:9143725

Zierler, S; Krieger, N

1997-01-01

344

Women in the Olympics. Real Gains in the Lives of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws meaning from the achievements of elite women athletes related to opportunities and attitudes of women in general, examining how women's gains in the Olympics have affected the lives and everyday activities of other women. The paper focuses on changes in leisure time and recreational activities in women's lives. (SM)

Russell, Ruth V.

1996-01-01

345

Alcohol Abuse, Sexual Risk Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women in Moshi Urban District, Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779

Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

2012-01-01

346

Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with someone who had contracted HIV. Conclusion This study offers a foundation for further research that may be used to create culturally relevant HIV prevention programs for African-American women. PMID:15774003

Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO; Osemene, Nora I

2005-01-01

347

Maids of Academe: African American Women Faculty at Predominately White Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of African American women at predominantly white institutions is one of historical relevance and continues to\\u000a be one of first, near misses, and almosts. Individually and collectively, African American women at PWIs suffer from a form of race fatigue as a result of being over\\u000a extended and undervalued. The purpose of this article is to present the disproportionate

Debra A. Harley

2008-01-01

348

Epidemiology, Determinants, and Consequences of Cigarette Smoking in African American Women: An Integrative Review  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW. PMID:20061090

Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.

2010-01-01

349

Women's Health Insurance Coverage  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Nov 06, 2013 Health insurance ... for certain low-income uninsured women. 7 Uninsured Women: Approximately 19 million women are uninsured. Uninsured women ...

350

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Materials and Nanotechnology and Laboratory of Applied Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran P.O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-10-15

351

Inhibition of charge disproportionation of MnO2 electrocatalysts for efficient water oxidation under neutral conditions.  

PubMed

The development of Mn-oxide electrocatalysts for the oxidation of H(2)O to O(2) has been the subject of intensive researches not only for their importance as components of artificial photosynthetic systems, but also as O(2)-evolving centers in photosystem II. However, limited knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this oxidation reaction hampers the ability to rationally design effective catalysts. Herein, using in situ spectroelectrochemical techniques, we demonstrate that the stabilization of surface-associated intermediate Mn(3+) species relative to charge disproportionation is an effective strategy to lower the overpotential for water oxidation by MnO(2). The formation of N-Mn bonds via the coordination of amine groups of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) to the surface Mn sites of MnO(2) electrodes effectively stabilized the Mn(3+) species, resulting in an ~500-mV negative shift of the onset potential for the O(2) evolution reaction at neutral pH. PMID:23088413

Takashima, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

2012-11-01

352

Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

353

Charge disproportionation in La1-xCaxFeO3-? (x = 0.4 and 0.5) investigated by mechanical spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of charge disproportionation in orthorhombic lanthanum orthoferrites La1-xCaxFeO3-? (x = 0.4 and 0.5) has been investigated by kilohertz mechanical spectroscopy. Contrast to rhombohedral La1-xSrxFeO3-? (x = 0.5), no elastic softening was observed in La1-xCaxFeO3-? above charge disproportionation. This different behavior of elastic modulus in La1-xCaxFeO3-? and La1-xSrxFeO3-? unveils the implicit orbital effect. Below charge disproportionation, an internal friction peak around 140 K was observed in La1-xCaxFeO3-?, which is similar to that in La1-xSrxFeO3-?. This peak is ascribed to an elastic manifestation of charge freezing and can be used as an indirect indication of CD in doped LaFeO3.

Xu, Z. C.; Liu, M. F.; Chen, C. C.; Ying, X. N.

2014-03-01

354

Antiretroviral therapy adherence among transgender women living with HIV.  

PubMed

Despite disproportionate rates of HIV among transgender women and evidence that medication adherence is necessary for treatment success and increased likelihood of survival, there has been little investigation into antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence issues among transgender women. This study examined rates of self-reported ART adherence among transgender women on ART (n = 35) and well-established correlates of nonadherence, including depression, adherence self-efficacy, patient perceptions of interactions with their providers, and perceived adverse side effects of ART compared to other respondents (n = 2,770). Transgender women on ART were less likely to report 90% adherence rates or higher and reported less confidence in their abilities to integrate treatment regimens into their daily lives. When transgender women were compared to other respondents, regardless of the current medication regimen, they reported significantly fewer positive interactions with their health care providers. Training for providers and integration of hormone therapy into HIV care is recommended. PMID:20347342

Sevelius, Jae M; Carrico, Adam; Johnson, Mallory O

2010-01-01

355

Procedure-related miscarriages and down syndrome–affected births: implications for prenatal testing based on women’s preferences 1 1 We thank Virginia Gildengorin, PhD, for statistical support. We also thank Bryna Harwood, MD, James Lewis, MD, Ruth Schaber MD, and David Walton, MD, at Kaiser Permanente, and the following physicians for their participation in this study: Albert L. Brooks, MD, Carol Eades, MD, Chris Grover, MD, Susan Sykes, MD (La Clinica de la Raza); Curtis E. Montgomery, MD, Alex Moy, MD, Lawrence Newman, MD, Laura Norell, MD, M. Ming Quan, MD, Kimberly Sorem, MD, and Jonathan Wong, MD (North East Medical Services)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine how pregnant women of varying ages, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds value procedure-related miscarriage and Down–syndrome-affected birth.Methods: We studied cross-sectionally 534 sociodemographically diverse pregnant women who sought care at obstetric clinics and practices throughout the San Francisco Bay area. Preferences for procedure-related miscarriage and the birth of an infant affected by Down syndrome were assessed using the

Miriam Kuppermann; Robert F Nease; Lee A Learman; Elena Gates; Bruce Blumberg; A. Eugene Washington

2000-01-01

356

Women’s Employment after Childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the dynamics of female employment decisions around childbearing using longitudinal data from the 2002-2006 Chilean Social Protection Survey (Encuesta de Protección Social, EPS). The study evaluates how the birth of a child can affect the woman’s decision to work. The results indicate that the hazard of leaving employment is high for women during the first year of

Marcela Perticara; Claudia Sanhueza

2010-01-01

357

Women’s Employment Transitions and Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the dynamics of female employment decisions around childbearing using longitudinal data from the 2002 Chilean Social Protection Survey (Encuesta de Protección Social, EPS). The study evaluates how the birth of a child can affect the woman’s decision to work, in particular among women with strong attachment to the labor market. The results indicate that the hazard of

Marcela C. Perticara

2006-01-01

358

Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

2009-01-01

359

Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2011-01-01

360

Why do young women smoke? I. Direct and interactive effects of environment, psychological characteristics and nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the health hazards, cigarette smoking is disproportionately frequent among young women. A significant contribution of genetic factors to smoking phenotypes is well established. Efforts to identify susceptibility genes do not generally take into account possible interaction with environment, life experience and psychological characteristics. We recruited 501 female Israeli students aged 20–30 years, obtained comprehensive background data and details of

L Greenbaum; K Kanyas; O Karni; Y Merbl; T Olender; A Horowitz; A Yakir; D Lancet; E Ben-Asher; B Lerer

2006-01-01

361

Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

Stevens, Bethany

2012-01-01

362

Hepatitis C Virus Adversely Affects Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic liver disease secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common clinical problem. HCV is likely to adversely affect the quality of life (QoL) of the patient. This effect is said to be disproportionate to the severity of the disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate QoL in HCV-positive patients focusing both on health status

Umberto Cillo; Piero Amodio; Claudio Ronco; Sachin S. Soni; Giacomo Zanus; Lina Minazzato; Annalisa Salari; Daniele Neri; Giancarlo Bombonato; Sami Schiff; Tonino Bianco

2011-01-01

363

Women Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…

Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick

364

Networking women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of women's studies has not always been a happy one, particularly academic women's studies. Indeed, there are those who have argued that women's studies has no place in the academy. bell hooks, for instance, has stated that whilst it is in the academy, women's studies will find it hard to resist becoming part of the mainstream academic culture,

Sue Jackson

2000-01-01

365

The Haptic Creature Project: Social Human-Robot Interaction through Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication of emotion plays an important role in social interaction. Research in affective display both in the so- cial sciences and in social human-robot interaction has focused al- most exclusively on the modalities of vision and audition; however, touch has received disproportionate attention. This paper presents an overview of the Haptic Creature project, where we seek to develop a

Steve Yohanan; Karon E. MacLean

366

Skeletal alterations in women affected by obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity has always been considered a protective factor for the skeleton and for osteoporosis. However, new epidemiologic and clinical data have shown that high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Further, increasing evidences seem to indicate that the different components of metabolic syndrome (i.e. hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) are also potential risk factors for the development of low bone mineral density and osteoporosis. PMID:24061852

Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Donini, Lorenzo M; Di Luigi, Luigi; Lenzi, Andrea

2013-10-01

367

Digital Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Women strives to be a full-service portal for working women in all varieties of business. The site offers a huge collection of resources, including informative articles, manuals, free software, Web tools, and advice, as well as ten free newsletters and mailing lists. Digital Women also provides a place for business women to network, including information about the Digital Women 2000 Annual International Net-Together, which will take place on Vancouver Island September 29-October 1, 2000.

368

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes Among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors and socioeconomic status; (b) higher levels of

Cheryl L. Giscombé; Marci Lobel

2005-01-01

369

Study of the Effects of an Intervention to Reduce the Disproportionate Identification in the Category of Emotional Disturbance in the Los Angeles Unified School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of persistent disproportionate representation of minority students in special education is now entering its fourth decade. Disproportionality is well documented in the literature and has been the focus of attention from federal agencies, including the Office of Civil Rights and the Office of Special Education Programs. In an effort…

Hernandez, Jaime E.; Ramanathan, Arun K.; Harr, Jenifer; Socias, Miguel

2008-01-01

370

Low temperature NO disproportionation by Mn porphyrin. Spectroscopic characterization of the unstable nitrosyl nitrito complex MnIII(TPP)(NO)(ONO).  

PubMed

Reaction of NO gas with sublimed layers of the Mn(II)TPP (TPP =meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato2-) at low temperature leads to nitric oxide disproportionation. UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy with isotopically substituted nitrogen oxides revealed formation of the unstable species identified as trans-Mn(III)(TPP)(NO)(ONO). PMID:15216344

Martirosyan, Garik G; Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

2004-07-01

371

A novel single-site manganese(II) complex of a pyridine derivative as a catalase mimetic for disproportionation of H2O2 in water.  

PubMed

A novel single site Mn(II) complex was successfully synthesized and tested in the aqueous disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. The complex was found to be stable (HR-XAS) and exhibits catalase-like activity in neutral pH. Theoretical calculations suggested a reaction mechanism involving two complexes, changes in metal oxidation state and proton shuttling. PMID:23549197

Zienkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Szlachetko, Jakub; Lothschütz, Christian; Hodorowicz, Maciej; Jab?o?ska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Sá, Jacinto; Barszcz, Barbara

2013-06-01

372

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

2005-01-01

373

Spatial Attention and Response Control in Healthy Younger and Older Adults and Individuals With Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence for Disproportionate Selection Impairments in the Simon Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the degree to which aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) influence the ability to control attention when conflict is presented in terms of incongruent mapping between a stimulus and the appropriate response. In a variant of the Simon task, healthy older adults and older adults with mild or very mild AD showed disproportionately larger reaction time (RT) costs

Alan D. Castel; David A. Balota; Keith A. Hutchison; Jessica M. Logan; Melvin J. Yap

2007-01-01

374

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

375

Religious characteristics of US women physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians’ religious attributes are unknown, and may affect patient care. The Women Physicians’ Health Study (WPHS) is a random sample (n=4501 respondents, 59% response rate) of US women physicians aged 30–70; the first large, national study of US women physicians. In this study US women physicians were less likely to be Christian than were other Americans (61.2% of women physicians

Erica Frank; Mary Lynn Dell; Rebecca Chopp

1999-01-01

376

Living with sugar: Socioeconomic status and cultural beliefs about type 2 diabetes among Afro-Caribbean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., individuals of Afro-Caribbean and Latino descent are two to three times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Caribbean and Latin America migrants, particularly minority women bear a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate if Afro-Caribbean women share a cultural belief model

Chrystal A. S Smith

2009-01-01

377

Women in rural development.  

PubMed

The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented. PMID:12336530

Palmer, I

1980-01-01

378

Many steps ahead, a few steps back: U.S. women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, the decades-long slow but steady increase in participation in physics by undergraduate women has stalled. As the numbers of undergraduate majors in physics increase, the numbers of women are not keeping pace. Moreover, women of color represent a disproportionately small fraction of physicists. This means that women of color, and women in general, are an undertapped pool of talent. Significant variation in the participation of women from one institution to the next suggests that local factors, such as department culture, are important, rather than differences in aptitude, motivation, or preparation. Physicists in the U.S. must redouble their efforts to make physics departments and laboratories places where women and men of all backgrounds can thrive and produce exciting science.

Coble, K.; Cunningham, B.; Freeland, E.; Hodapp, T.; Hodari, A. K.; Ivie, R.; Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Ong, M.; Petty, S.; Seestrom, S.; Seidel, S.; Simmons, E.; Thoennessen, M.; Urry, M.; White, H.

2013-03-01

379

Cervical cancer screening among Michigan women: 'The Special Cancer Behavioral Risk Factor Survey', 2004-2008.  

PubMed

The burden of cervical cancer remains greater among minority women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate racial/ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening among minority women in Michigan. Data from 8,023 women (? 40 years) surveyed in the 2004-2008 Michigan Special Cancer Behavioral Risk Factor Survey were used to assess racial/ethnic differences in cervical cancer screening, knowledge and beliefs. Unexpectedly, African-American and Hispanic women reported being screened for cervical cancer at rates similar to, or higher than, Whites. Women demonstrated limited knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and its signs/symptoms. Most minority women were more likely than Whites to believe in the importance of cervical screening, with Hispanic women more likely to support HPV vaccination. Differential utilisation of screening does not explain the disproportionately high rates of cervical cancer among minorities. Future research should examine disparities in the follow-up of abnormal cervical results and receipt of treatment. PMID:23919863

Pierce Campbell, C M; Darwish-Yassine, M; Harlow, S D; Johnston, C M; Curado, M P; Cho, K R; Soliman, A S

2013-08-01

380

Origin of radical coercivity reduction in fine Nd-Fe-B-type hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, recombination particles and its recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coercivity variation of fine Nd-Fe-B-type particles prepared by ball milling of HDDR (hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, recombination)-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material was investigated using a HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 material, and it was compared with that of fine particles prepared by mechanical milling of sintered Nd10Pr2.5Fe80.4B6Ga1Cu0.1 magnet. Coercivity of the fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material was radically reduced as particle size decreased. In order to determine the major cause for the radical coercivity reduction, surface oxidation, structural damage (micro-strain), and crystallographic change (lattice shrinkage due to residual hydrogen desorption) in the milled fine particles were examined. The major contributory factor for the observed radical coercivity reduction was surface oxidation. Chemical etching proved an effective means for the recovery of the reduced coercivity in the milled fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material. In contrast to fine particles prepared from sintered Nd-Fe-B-type magnet, the fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated material could have reasonably high coercivity even as a very fine powder.

Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

2014-05-01

381

Disproportionate Minority Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to…

Piquero, Alex R.

2008-01-01

382

[Aortic disease in women].  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic disease in women is associated with atheromatous processes much more often than with inflammatory arterial diseases (such as Takayasu or Horton). Intramural hematomas and atheromatous ulcers of the aorta, albeit rare, affect as many women as men and have variable outcomes: some are resolved with heparin treatment, and others are fatal. Atherosclerotic stenoses and occlusions limited to the level of the aortoiliac bifurcation are increasingly prevalent and difficult to treat in young women, in part because of their addiction to smoking. After being more or less ignored for a long time, the particularity of atheromatous abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in women is now being recognized. AAA in women are less frequent than in men, but grow faster and have a higher risk of rupture; moreover, cardiovascular disease is generally detected and managed less often in women. Overall mortality from AAA in women is similar to that of breast cancer. The two major risk factors for AAA are, as in men, a direct family history of AAA and smoking. The diagnostic standards for AAA, the criteria for defining progression, and the indications for surgery are probably not the same as in men, and the smaller initial caliber of women's aortas must be taken into account. Most guidelines today recommend ultrasound screening for AAA for women older than 50 years with a family history (in a 1(st)degree relative), women aged 60-75 years who are hypertensive or smoke, and smokers older than 75 years without serious comorbidity and with a life expectancy essentially normal for their age. Monitoring patients with a small AAA (anteroposterior diameter < 40-45 mm) must not be limited only to the aneurysm, but must also include comprehensive management to eliminate modifiable risk factors and thus to reduce cardiovascular and surgical risk (by better preparing the patient for this possibility) as well as to slow the progression of the aneurysm and decrease the risk of its rupture. PMID:20015611

Becker, François

2010-02-01

383

Married Women  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: There's marital duplicity going on here in South Korea. Namely, secret bank accounts. Put together by women. Unbeknownst to their husbands. Apparently, more than 65% of married Korean women are salting away money that they save...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2008-03-26

384

Women's Cancers  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Women's Cancers Cancer Home Pages Information about treatment, prevention, ... and statistics for cancers that occur mainly in women, as well as other cancers Breast Cervical Endometrial ...

385

Fertility and Women with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Fertility and Women With Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Cancer and its treatment can sometimes affect a woman's ability to have ...

386

Distinct developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral and caudal isocortex in evolution  

PubMed Central

In adulthood, the isocortex of several species is characterized by a gradient in neurons per unit of cortical surface area with fewer neurons per unit of cortical surface area in the rostral pole relative to the caudal pole. A gradient in neurogenesis timing predicts differences in neurons across the isocortex: neurons per unit of cortical surface area are fewer rostrally, where neurogenesis duration is short, and higher caudally where neurogenesis duration is longer. How species differences in neurogenesis duration impact cortical progenitor cells across its axis is not known. I estimated progenitor cells per unit of ventricular area across the rostro-caudal axis of the isocortex in cats (Felis catus) and in dogs (Canis familiaris) mostly before layers VI-II neurons are generated. I also estimated the ventricular length across the rostro-caudal axis at various stages of development in both species. These two species were chosen because neurogenesis duration in dogs is extended compared with cats. Caudally, cortical progenitors expand more tangentially and in numbers in dogs compared with cats. Rostrally, the cortical proliferative zone expands more tangentially in dogs compared with cats. However, the tangential expansion in the rostral cortical proliferative zone occurs without a concomitant increase in progenitor cell numbers. The tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in the rostral cortex is mediated by a reduction in cell density. These different developmental growth patterns account for the disproportionate expansion of the rostral (i.e., frontal cortex) and caudal cortex (e.g., primary visual cortex) when neurogenesis duration lengthens in evolution. PMID:24782736

Charvet, Christine J.

2014-01-01

387

Endogenous Distal Airway Progenitor Cells, Lung Mechanics, and Disproportionate Lobar Growth following Long-Term Post-Pneumonectomy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Utilizing a model of post-pneumonectomy (PNY) compensatory lung growth in mice, we previously observed an increase in numbers of a putative endogenous distal airway progenitor cell population (CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells located at bronchoalveolar duct junctions (BADJ)), at 3, 7, and 14 days after pneumonectomy, returning to baseline at 28 days post-PNY. As the origin of these cells is poorly understood, we evaluated whether bone marrow cells contributed to the pool of these or other cells during prolonged post-PNY lung regrowth. Naïve and sex-mismatched chimeric mice underwent left PNY and were evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 months for numbers of BADJ CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells and presence of donor-derived marrow cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelium. Non-chimeric mice were also examined at 12 months after PNY for numbers of BADJ CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells. Notably, the right accessory lobe (RAL) continued to grow disproportionately over 12 months, a novel finding not previously described. Assessment of lung mechanics demonstrated an increase in lung stiffness following PNY, which significantly diminished over one year, but remained elevated relative to 1 year-old naïve controls. However, the number of CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos BADJ cells ?1 month following PNY was equivalent to that found in naïve controls even after 12 months of continued RAL growth. Notably, no donor bone marrow-derived cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelial cells, including those at the BADJ, up to 3 months after PNY. These studies suggest that lung epithelial cells, including CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells, are not replenished from marrow-derived cells during post-PNY lung growth in mice. PMID:23533195

Eisenhauer, Philip; Earle, Benjamin; Loi, Roberto; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Goodwin, Meagan; Allen, Gilman B.; Lundblad, Lennart; Mazan, Melissa R.; Hoffman, Andrew M.; Weiss, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

388

Gifted African American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes factors affecting the life-span achievement of 15 highly accomplished African-American women. Participants perceived that civil-rights and affirmative-action polices opened doors if they were already qualified. Findings suggest cultural strengths plus high ability enabled simultaneous acknowledgment of discrimination and application of…

Kitano, Margie K.

1998-01-01

389

An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

2011-01-01

390

MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome: A clinico-radiologic phenotype linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase gene mutation  

PubMed Central

MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) syndrome, a rare X-linked disorder, generally seen in girls, is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, and disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia. It is caused by inactivating calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene mutations. We report a 2-year-old girl with severe neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, minimal pontine hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and normal looking corpus callosum, with whom the conventional cytogenetic studies turned out to be normal, and an array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis showed CASK gene duplication at Xp11.4. Our case highlights the importance of using clinico-radiologic phenotype to guide genetic investigation and it also confirms the role of a-CGH analysis in establishing the genetic diagnosis of MICPCH syndrome, when conventional cytogenetic studies are inconclusive. PMID:23901204

Saleem, Rashid; Setty, Gururaj; Hussain, Nahin

2013-01-01

391

Libraries and Women's Participation in Nigerian Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of Nigeria, cultural factors have been a serious source of problems for the development of women politically and have continued to affect the development and prominence of Nigerian women in their roles in politics. The country has governments run by men at all levels, not because there are no women fit to fill the positions but because

Ghaji Badawi

2007-01-01

392

In situ FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the low-temperature NO disproportionation mediated by solid state manganese(II) porphyrinates.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous reaction between NO gas and sublimed layers of manganese(II) porphyrinato complexes Mn(Por) (Por = TPP (tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion), TMP (tetramesitylporphyrinato dianion), or TPP(d20) (perdeuterated tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion)) has been monitored by IR and optical spectroscopy over the temperature range of 77 K to room temperature. These manganese porphyrins promote NO disproportionation to NO2 species and N2O, and the reaction proceeds via several distinct stages. At 90 K, the principal species observed spectrally are the nitric oxide dimer, cis-ONNO, two manganese nitrosyls, the simple NO adduct Mn(Por)(NO), and another intermediate (1) that is apparently critical to the disproportionation mechanism. This key intermediate is formed prior to N2O evolution, and proposals regarding its likely structure are offered. When the system is warmed to 130 K, the disproportionation products, N2O and the O-coordinated nitrito complex Mn(Por)(NO)(ONO) (2), are formed. IR spectral changes show that, upon further warming to 200 K, 2 isomerizes into the N-bonded nitro linkage isomer Mn(Por)(NO)(NO2) (3). After it is warmed to room temperature, the latter species loses NO and converts to the known 5-coordinate nitrito complex Mn(Por)(ONO) (4). PMID:16676969

Martirosyan, Garik G; Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

2006-05-15

393

Kinetics of disproportionation of air bubbles beneath a planar air-water interface stabilized by food proteins.  

PubMed

The rate of shrinkage of air bubbles of initial radii, r, from 50 to 150 microm injected beneath a planar air-water interface has been measured. Bubbles were stabilized by 0.05 wt% protein in approximately 0.1 mol dm(-3) ionic strength buffer at pH 7.0 and at room temperature. Four proteins were studied: commercial whey protein isolate (WPI), sodium caseinate, gelatin, and pure beta-lactoglobulin. Bubbles in all systems showed shrinkage due to diffusion of gas from the bubbles, which accelerated as the bubbles got smaller. Within approximately 1 h all bubbles had disappeared, having shrunk to below approximately 1 microm, so that in no cases was there evidence of stabilization via a surface rheological mechanism. The rates of shrinkage with the different proteins were not significantly different except in the case of gelatin, which at any given bubble size appeared to give a slightly higher rate, probably because the surface tension is higher for this system. A new theoretical analysis of the dissolution kinetics for the case of a bubble close to a planar interface has been developed. For caseinate and WPI a simple model incorporating a constant surface tension and a constant bubble-interface separation appears to account for the kinetics. Interestingly, the model predicts a linear dependence of r(n) versus time when n is closest to 3, in contrast to n = 2 expected from previous work. For gelatin and pure beta-lactoglobulin, the introduction of modest dilatational elasticities of approximately 2.3 and 7 mN m(-1), respectively, gives good agreement between theory and experiment. This is particularly the case for beta-lactoglobulin, where there is a noticeable slowing, but not cessation, of the shrinkage as the bubbles get smaller. In the light of these findings the practical significance of surface rheology with respect to stability to disproportionation is discussed. Finally, we present experimental evidence that a bubble stabilized by beta-lactoglobulin shrinks to a nonspherical protein particle consisting of the completely collapsed protein film. PMID:16290780

Dickinson, Eric; Ettelaie, Rammile; Murray, Brent S; Du, Zhiping

2002-08-01

394

Women Veterans Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Care » Women Veterans Health Care Women Veterans Health Care Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care Home Program ... Breast Cancer Awareness Healthy Aging WVCC Women Veterans Health Care Did you know that women are the fastest ...

395

Issues Specific to Women  

MedlinePLUS

... here Enter ZIP code here Issues Specific to Women Issues Specific to Women We now know a great deal about women's ... treatment that is specific women. General Information for Women Women, Trauma, and PTSD Learn about trauma and ...

396

Center for Women Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... Affairs VA » Center for Women Veterans Center for Women Veterans 2014 Champions of Change On Tuesday, March ... Vets Women Veterans Outreach Center for Women Veterans Women Veterans Program Resources Home Center for Women Veterans ...

397

Feminist Perspectives in Development: Implications for Women and Microcredit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically explores how feminist theories continue to affect development paradigms and discourses by focusing on women’s experiences in microcredit programs. It locates the ideological roots of key concepts in development theories and feminist thinking about women’s role in development and improving women’s status. Over the past three decades, feminist theories and perspectives have influenced the debates on development

Julie Drolet

2010-01-01

398

Relations between negative affect, coping, and emotional eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to examine the relations between negative affect, coping, and emotional eating. It was tested whether emotion-oriented coping and avoidance distraction, alone or in interaction with negative affect, were related to increased levels of emotional eating. Participants were 125 eating-disordered women and 132 women representing a community population. Measures included the Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule (PANAS),

Sonja T. P. Spoor; Marrie H. J. Bekker; Tatjana Van Strien; Guus L. van Heck

2007-01-01

399

Empowering Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

Gomez, Aurelia

2012-01-01

400

AMERICAN WOMEN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

401

Sea Women  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Here on tiny Mara Island just south of Korea, women are the breadwinners and men take care of the children, do the shopping and, feed the pigs. The women are pretty successful, too: typically earning upwards of $30,000 a year...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-02-08

402

Women with Disabilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the National Women's Health Information Center offers a plethora of resources of interest to women with disabilities and those who work and live with them. Divided into topical areas such as abuse, parenting, and sexuality, the site has a range of information about different types of disabilities and how they may particularly affect women. Also provided is information on federal laws and regulations that protect those with disabilities as well as extensive lists of services and support resources. A section on statistics may prove especially useful to researchers and educators. This site has literally hundreds of helpful links and publications and will be useful to both the general public and professionals.

403

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

404

Gender Stereotyping Enhances Verbal Fluency Performance in Men (and Women)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have demonstrated that fear of confirming negative stereotypes (stereotype threat) can hamper women’s performance in certain mathematical and spatial tasks in which men usually excel. By contrast, very little is known about how men are affected by stereotype threat in tasks in which women excel. We therefore asked 36 men and 39 women, recruited at the Ruhr-University of

Marco Hirnstein; Nadja Freund; Markus Hausmann

2012-01-01

405

Integrating Equality: Globalization, Women's Rights, and Human Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates whether globalization can improve women's rights. Using panel data from 150 countries over the 1981-2008 period, I find that social globalization positively affects women's economic and social rights. When controlling for social globalization however, economic globalization does not have any effect on women's rights. Despite the positive effect of (social) globalization on women's standing in a

Seo-Young Cho

2012-01-01

406

On Campus with Women, Number 33, Winter 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News concerning developments affecting women at colleges and universities is presented. Among the issues are the following: the Graduate Women's Network at the University of Michigan; a portable campus that provides career help to rural women in Minnesota; reentry programs into the corporate world for women 35 to 45 years old; an increase in…

On Campus with Women, 1982

1982-01-01

407

Women and HIV Disease: An Emerging Social Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses major social issues faced by women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and explores gender differences in HIV transmission, disease progression, and diagnosis. Discusses how women's sexuality and reproductive rights are affected. Examines specific issues regarding HIV-infected women who use intravenous drugs, women of color,…

Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise

1991-01-01

408

Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

Strauss, Judy R.

2011-01-01

409

The Impact of Breast Cancer on Younger Women’s Relationships With Their Partner and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the impact of breast cancer on younger women’s relationships with their partner and children. The Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES) Marital and Relationship With Children subscales were completed by 204 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 50 or younger. Participants then responded to open-ended questions asking how breast cancer affected their relationships with their partner and

Stephanie R. Walsh; Janeen C. Manuel; Nancy E. Avis

2005-01-01

410

Poverty, Gender Inequities, and Women’s Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of women’s and girls’ circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in women’s disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance women’s access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce women’s poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways. PMID:17954681

Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Medlin, Carol A.; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Padian, Nancy S.

2008-01-01

411

The relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women.  

PubMed

In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. PMID:23061165

Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann

2012-07-01

412

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya.  

PubMed

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of young women's resources-including employment and material transfers from male partners-and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that young women's income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease young women's negotiating power. PMID:22180665

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E; Mberu, Blessing U; Zulu, Eliya M

2011-10-01

413

How men can excel as mentors of women.  

PubMed

Most male professionals have more experience mentoring men than they do mentoring women, and their male mentees progress further than their female mentees. Yet, in academic medicine, men have few forums in which to discuss the gender-related issues that they encounter. To address the gender-related questions that commonly arise, the author of this commentary offers perspectives and recommendations, consolidated from over 25 years of experience leading career and talent development programs, to assist men in successfully mentoring women. Her recommendations are organized around three questions: (1) How do women's and men's experiences in mentoring relationships tend to differ? (2) What interferes with the accurate evaluation of women's skills? and (3) Is the current generation of female trainees still at a gender-related disadvantage? She argues that men's ability to effectively mentor women depends to a great extent on their understanding of the challenges that women disproportionately face in developing their careers. Mentors who are skilled in adapting to the gender-related needs of mentees will contribute to women's retention and development in academic medicine, enhance the leadership capacity of their organizations and the profession, and extend their own legacies. PMID:24853197

Bickel, Janet

2014-08-01

414

Women's relationship with the environment.  

PubMed

In developing countries, all development activities as well as reclamation of degraded areas, pollution reduction, and preservation of biodiversity affect women's environment, especially in rural areas. Women produce most subsistence foods and cash crops, but control only about 1% of the world's land. Lack of land tenure and of access to it keep women from obtaining credit, training, and other supports, thereby preventing them from using their traditional, longterm conservation practices. In many developing countries, commercial producers force women off the most productive lands and onto marginal lands where they grow subsistence crops. They tend to overuse the marginal land and to allow little time for soil recovery. Soil degradation is exacerbated when women need to travel greater distances to collect fuelwood, water, fodder, and food. Almost complete desertification awaits Rajasthan, India, where such events and intensive cash cropping occur. Heavy pesticide use on large commercial farms increases pest resistance, thereby boosting infestation and reducing species diversity. Women are testing sustainable agricultural techniques, for instance, interplanting and crop rotation. Even though women supply water needs, they tend to be excluded from planning, implementing, and maintaining water supplies. Women depend on forests to provide food, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicines, and many materials for income-earning efforts. Commercial logging, migration and resettlement, agricultural development, and cutting for firewood and charcoal destroy these forests. Reforestation schemes do not consider women's needs. Deforestation and desertification increase women's work burdens. Poor women who have migrated to urban areas also experience environmental degradation, deteriorating health, and resource depletion; most live in squatter settlements. Deteriorating economic circumstances in developing countries, reduced flows of official development assistance to developing countries, rapid population growth, lack of women's support mechanisms, and civil conflict are underlying factors for environmental degradation. PMID:12287131

Davidson, J

1993-02-01

415

75 FR 27818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...engage men and youth in preventing crimes of violence against women with the goal...

2010-05-18

416

75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...engage men and youth in preventing crimes of violence against women with the goal...

2010-07-20

417

Winning the lottery? Organizational restructuring and women?s managerial career development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing amount of literature on women?s career life histories and individual career paths, analysis of the different and changing organizational contexts in which women pursue their careers is sparse. Uses an in-depth case study of Public Sector Utility to examine how the restructuring of a public sector bureaucracy over a five-year period affected the careers of women managers.

Jean Woodall; Christine Edwards; Rosemary Welchman

1995-01-01

418

Unraveling the mysteries of timing: women's perceptions about time to treatment for cardiac symptoms.  

PubMed

Women in the USA are at disproportionate risk of dying from a myocardial infarction (MI), of suffering disabilities following an MI, and of reinfarcting and dying within a year of their initial MI. Various explanations, including women's older age at clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease (CHD) and higher likelihood of co-morbidities, have been offered for women's heightened risk of poor outcomes. Less frequently, research has focused on examining women's prolonged time elapse between symptom onset and biomedical treatment, a phenomenon that renders women less likely to undergo lifesaving reperfusion strategies. [1] To explore factors and circumstances that may shape CHD time to treatment, 40 middle age and older women living in Kentucky, USA, half with diagnosed CHD and half with chronic conditions considered to be risk factors for CHD, participated in a series of in-depth interviews. While much of the existing CHD literature implicates individual responsibility as the determining feature in time to treatment, these women's narratives suggested that treatment decisions inextricably are linked to broader social and structural constraints. Such supra-individual forces that shape the CHD experiences of women include the social construction of "standard" cardiac symptoms based on male norms that ultimately confuse symptom detection, women's negative encounters with health care providers who discount their knowledge, the competing social demands women face when threatened by a serious illness, and structural barriers delimiting women's health care choices. PMID:12473313

Schoenberg, Nancy E; Peters, Jane C; Drew, Elaine M

2003-01-01

419

Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.  

PubMed

Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. PMID:22055674

Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook

2011-11-01

420

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999-2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR]?=?2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR?=?1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR?=?1.84 for regional stage and RR?=?1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (?25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

2014-01-01

421

Women & ageing.  

PubMed

Demographic changes have forced gerontologists to focus attention on the gender based character of population ageing. Ageing is likely to become a 'gender issue' with a large number of women surviving into very old age in almost all the countries of the world. Elderly women, especially in Third World countries like India, face several jeopardizes. They are likely to be illiterate or poorly educated, unlikely to be employed, most likely to be widowed and dependent on others, and they suffer from malnutrition and disabilitating symptoms as well as report higher psychological distress. The vulnerability of the ageing women, special types of problems they are likely to encounter over the life span, and factors that marginalise them need to be better understood. There is no clear awareness as yet, of the potential contribution of ageing women to the development process as ageing women are stereotypically perceived as burdens on the national economy. Strategies addressed to ensure health and well-being of older women need to be developed. PMID:9361474

Prakash, I J

1997-10-01

422

Globalisation and women in India.  

PubMed

Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general. PMID:12349429

Krishnaraj, M

1999-11-01

423

Sex differences in the neural correlates of affective experience  

E-print Network

of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115-5000, USA People believe that women are more in the intensity of neural activity, with women being more internally (interoceptively) focused and men being more-to-moment affective experiences when viewing evocative images, but instead, as predicted, women showed a greater

Dickerson, Brad

424

Shewanella oneidensis cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) does not disproportionate hydroxylamine to ammonia and nitrite, despite a strongly favorable driving force.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) from Shewanella oneidensis, which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia in vivo, was shown to oxidize hydroxylamine in the presence of large quantities of this substrate, yielding nitrite as the sole free nitrogenous product. UV-visible stopped-flow and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance data, along with product analysis, showed that the equilibrium between hydroxylamine and nitrite is fairly rapidly established in the presence of high initial concentrations of hydroxylamine, despite said equilibrium lying far to the left. By contrast, reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia did not occur, even though disproportionation of hydroxylamine to yield both nitrite and ammonia is strongly thermodynamically favored. This suggests a kinetic barrier to the ccNiR-catalyzed reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia. A mechanism for hydroxylamine reduction is proposed in which the hydroxide group is first protonated and released as water, leaving what is formally an NH2(+) moiety bound at the heme active site. This species could be a metastable intermediate or a transition state but in either case would exist only if it were stabilized by the donation of electrons from the ccNiR heme pool into the empty nitrogen p orbital. In this scenario, ccNiR does not catalyze disproportionation because the electron-donating hydroxylamine does not poise the enzyme at a sufficiently low potential to stabilize the putative dehydrated hydroxylamine; presumably, a stronger reductant is required for this. PMID:24645742

Youngblut, Matthew; Pauly, Daniel J; Stein, Natalia; Walters, Daniel; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R; Bennett, Brian; Pacheco, A Andrew

2014-04-01

425

Relationships Between Hostility, Affective Ratings of Pictures, and State Affects During Task-Induced Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relationship of hostility with (a) affective ratings of pictures and (b) state affects evoked by task-induced stress in 95 healthy men and women 22-37 years of age. Pictures were from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; P. J. Lang, M. M. Bradley, & B. N. Cuthbert, 1999). Stressors included a startle task, mental arithmetic task, and

Tarja Heponiemi; Niklas Ravaja; Marko Elovainio; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2007-01-01

426

Genital prolapse in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:22414610

2012-01-01

427

The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Background HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied. Methods We recruited women based on HIV status through a Toronto community health centre. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea molecular testing and vaginal secretions for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Differences in prevalence were assessed for statistical significance using chi-square. Results We recruited 126 HIV-positive and 291 HIV-negative women, with a median age of 40 and 31 years, respectively (p?women (4.8% vs. 0.34%, p?=?0.004; and 47.6% vs. 21.2%, p?women (p?women (50.8% vs. 22.6%, p?women in Toronto. However, HSV-2 prevalence was higher than that reported in previous studies in the general Canadian population and was strongly associated with HIV infection, as was infection with hepatitis B and HPV. PMID:24238493

2013-01-01

428

Women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana.  

PubMed

Pervasive gendered inequities and norms regarding the subordination of women give Ghanaian men disproportionately more power than women, particularly in relation to sex. We hypothesize that lack of sexual empowerment may pose an important barrier to reproductive health and adoption of family planning methods. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey, we examine the association between women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana among nonpregnant married and partnered women not desiring to conceive in the next three months. Increasing levels of sexual empowerment are found to be associated with use of contraceptives, even after adjusting for demographic predictors of contraceptive use. This association is moderated by wealth. Formal education, increasing wealth, and being in an unmarried partnership are associated with contraceptive use, whereas women who identify as being Muslim are less likely to use contraceptives than those who identify as being Christian. These findings suggest that to achieve universal access to reproductive health services, gendered disparities in sexual empowerment, particularly among economically disadvantaged women, need to be better addressed. PMID:23185863

Crissman, Halley P; Adanu, Richard M; Harlow, Siobán D

2012-09-01

429

Does Provision of Point-of-Care CD4 Technology and Early Knowledge of CD4 Levels Affect Early Initiation and Retention on Antiretroviral Treatment in HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in the Context of Option B+ for PMTCT?  

PubMed

: Evidence for Elimination (E4E) is a collaborative project established in 2012 as part of the INSPIRE (INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch) initiative. E4E is a cluster-randomized trial with 2 arms; Standard of care and "POC Plus" [in which point-of-care (POC) CD4 devices and related counseling support are provided]; aimed at improving retention-in-care of HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers. In November 2013, Zimbabwe adopted Option B+ for HIV-positive pregnant women under which antiretroviral treatment eligibility is no longer based on CD4 count. However, Ministry of Health and Child Care guidelines still require baseline and 6-monthly CD4 testing for treatment monitoring, until viral load testing becomes widely available. Considering the current limited capacity for viral-load testing, the significant investments in CD4 testing already made and the historical reliance on CD4 by health care workers for determining eligibility for antiretroviral treatment, E4E seeks to compare the impact of the provision of POC CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels on retention-in-care at 12 months, with the current standard of routine, laboratory-based CD4 testing. The study also compares rates of initiation and time-to-initiation between the 2 arms and according to level of maternal CD4 count, the cost of retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and the acceptability and feasibility of POC CD4 in the context of Option B+. Outcome measures are derived from routine health systems data. E4E will provide data on POC CD4 testing and retention-in-care associated with Option B+ and serve as an early learning platform to inform implementation of Option B+ in Zimbabwe. PMID:25310120

Mangwiro, Alexio-Zambezi; Makomva, Kudzai; Bhattacharya, Antoinette; Bhattacharya, Gaurav; Gotora, Tendai; Owen, Mila; Mushavi, Angela; Mangwanya, Douglas; Zinyowera, Sekesai; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mugurungi, Owen; Zizhou, Simukai; Busumani, William; Masuka, Nyasha

2014-11-01

430

CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking a Serious, Under-Recognized Problem Among Women and Girls  

MedlinePLUS

... Binge Drinking A Serious, Under-Recognized Problem Among Women and Girls January 2013 1 in 8 Nearly ... too much can seriously affect the health of women and girls. Drinking too much can seriously affect ...

431

Food insecurity: special considerations for women.  

PubMed

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is the converse state, is often associated with poverty and low income, and has important implications for the health and nutrition of individuals. Given their contribution to food production and preparation, their role in society as child bearers and caregivers, the increasing number of female-headed households worldwide, and their disproportionately poor economic status, women need special consideration in discussions of food insecurity and its effect on health, nutrition, and behavior. This article reviews the scientific literature on issues related to women and food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with obesity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms; risky sexual behavior; poor coping strategies; and negative pregnancy outcomes in women, although evidence about the direction and causality of associations is unclear. There is a lack of evidence and understanding of the effects of food insecurity in resource-poor settings, including its effect on weight, nutritional outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes, as well as its effect on progression of diseases such as HIV infection. More research is needed to guide efficient interventions that address food insecurity among women. However, practical experience suggests that both short-term assistance and longer-term strategies that improve livelihoods, address behavioral and coping strategies, acknowledge the mental health components of food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that women have the same economic opportunities, access to land, and economic power as men are important. PMID:22089447

Ivers, Louise C; Cullen, Kimberly A

2011-12-01

432

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

433

Women helping women in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Dr. Ouk Vong Vathiny is the first director of the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia (RHAC), the International Planned Parenthood's newest affiliate. Dr. Vathiny's interest in reproductive health began with her first position in a clinic serving women working in Phnom Penh's commercial sex district. Today, she works with RHAC staff to provide a full range of reproductive health services to a wide variety of rural and urban women. Under the direction of Dr. Ping Chutema, the RHAC clinic provides a standard package of safe motherhood services and highlights provision of birth spacing counseling and methods. Although it operates in only three of 22 provinces, the RHAC now distributes between a fourth and a third of all contraceptives dispensed by government services. Dr. Vathiny and Dr. Chutema note that the biggest problem they face is the fact that most women in Cambodia have very little education and that rumors spread faster than real information. Efforts to insure safe motherhood are challenged by high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and by a high prevalence and rate of increase of HIV infection, both of which are exacerbated by the popularity of commercial sex among married men. Domestic violence and women's low nutritional status are also problems. RHAC considers education and counseling essential elements of its safe motherhood package and even trains community-based contraceptive distributors to counsel women on ways to negotiate with their husbands. PMID:12293654

Huff-rousselle, M

1998-01-01

434

Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities for Women Engineers and Scientists (survey of Fiscal Year 1997 Powre Awardees)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of fiscal year 1997 POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees from the National Science Foundation revealed that women engineers and scientists face similar issues, challenges, and opportunities and think that the laboratory climate has similar impacts on their careers. Separating responses of women scientists from those of women engineers revealed that 70% of both groups listed balancing work with family responsibilities as the most difficult issue. Discrepancies in percentages of women, coupled with differences among disciplinary and subdisciplinary cultures within science, engineering, mathematics, and technology fields, complicate work climates and their impact on women's careers. More frequently than women scientists, women engineers listed issues such as (a) low numbers of women leading to isolation, (b) lack of camaraderie and mentoring, (c) gaining credibility/respect from peers and administrators, (d) time management, (e) prioritizing responsibilities due to disproportionate demands, and (f) learning the rules of the game to survive in a male-dominated environment. Women engineers also listed two positive issues more frequently than women scientists: active recruitment/more opportunities for women and impact of successful women in the profession. The small number of women engineers may explain these results and suggests that it may be inappropriate to group them with other women scientists for analysis, programs, and policies.

Rosser, Sue V.; Zieseniss, Mireille

435

International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

436

Little Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses trends in the latter half of the twentieth century in the heights of Indian women. On average, there was some growth in height at maturity for the cohorts of 1950 -1965 but the cohorts born in 1965 -1975 experienced no growth. Many of the states exhibit trends similar to the country-average, with the notable exceptio ns of

Sonia Bhalotra

2007-01-01

437

Little Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing trend of waiving youth to adult\\/criminal court, little is known about how convicted youth experience adult prison. To date, no research has been published about girls in adult prisons. In this study, intensive interviews were conducted with 22 girls serving time in a women's prison in the Midwest, as well as four staff working in the girls

Emily Gaarder; Joanne Belknap

2004-01-01

438

Laughing women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Language and Laughter forum included funny women: Deborah Mailman, an actor and innovative comedy writer from Queensland; Maryanne Fahey who has created some of Australia's funniest television characters in comedy and Lorae Parry, a writer and performer of outrageous comedy from New Zealand.

Deborah Mailman; Maryanne Fahey; Lome Parry

1995-01-01

439

Effective catalytic disproportionation of aqueous H2O2 with di- and mono-nuclear manganese(II) complexes containing pyridine alcohol ligands.  

PubMed

The two novel manganese(II) complexes with 2-hydroxymethylpyridine (2-CH2OHpy) {[Mn2(?-Cl)2(2-CH2OHpy)4]Cl2·2H2O (1)} and 2-hydroxyethylpyridine (2-(CH2)2OHpy) {[Mn(2-(CH2)2OHpy)2(NCS)2] (2)} were synthesized and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, IR, EPR, HF EPR spectroscopy, magnetic and TG/DTG data. The complexes show catalase-like activity in neutral aqueous solution since they were able to disproportionate H2O2 to harmless H2O and O2. Both complexes act as true catalysts since they reverted to their original form after depleting all the H2O2, as suggested by the operando resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy (RIXS) measurements. PMID:24406400

Zienkiewicz, M; Jab?o?ska-Wawrzycka, A; Szlachetko, J; Kayser, Y; Stadnicka, K; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W; Jezierska, J; Barszcz, B; Sá, J

2014-06-21