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1

Schizophrenia: Women Bear a Disproportionate Toll of Antipsychotic Side Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Men and women with schizophrenia suffer not only from their illness but also from the side effects of their medications. OBJECTIVE: To review the toll of antipsychotic side effects specifically on women. STUDY DESIGN: A review of the literature in the PubMed database since 1990 using search terms: sex difference, antipsychotics, schizophrenia, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics and retrieving additional

Mary V. Seeman

2010-01-01

2

[Harmful practices affecting women's health].  

PubMed

The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

1990-07-01

3

Disproportionation of olefins  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the disproportionation of olefinic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers ranging from C/sub 2/ to about C/sub 100/ which comprises contacting the olefins at a temperature in the range from about 10/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C with a catalyst having a surface area greater than about 300 m/sup 2//g and at least about 40% of its pore volume in pores having diameters less than about 50 A prepared by incorporating cobalt and a heavy metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten and mixtures thereof, into an alumina hydrogel and subsequently calcining to prepare the catalyst.

Kemp, R.A.; Hamilton, D.M. Jr.

1988-06-28

4

Lupus More Likely to Affect Young, Black Women, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus More Likely to Affect Young, Black Women, Study ... 29, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health Lupus Women's Health TUESDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Young, ...

5

Influences that affect Maori women breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aimed to identify the factors that influence Maori women's decision to breastfeed or not. During 2004- 2005, a diverse demographic of Maori women and family members was selectively recruited from within a major urban area, small towns, and rural areas. Thirty women who had cared for a newborn within the previous three years were interviewed, alone or together

Marewa Glover; Dip Psych

6

Reproductive Health Assessment Toolkit for Conflict-Affected Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Reproductive Health Assessment Toolkit for Conflict-Affected Women can be used to quantitatively assess reproductive health risks, services, and outcomes in conflict-affected women between 15 and 49 years of age. Survey data can be used to compare a p...

2007-01-01

7

Does Position Affect Uroflowmetry Parameters in Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the effect of position on voiding using uroflowmetric variables and postvoid residual urine volume assessment in healthy normal women. Materials and Methods: 67 healthy females volunteered to participate in this study. Their mean age was 32 years. Each female attended the urodynamic suite on 2 separate days. They performed 2 voids, 1 in a sitting and another

Narmada P. Gupta; Atul Kumar; Rajeev Kumar

2008-01-01

8

Does trade affect women and men differently?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary—This note reviews recent evidence on the gender effects of trade, identifies research gaps and suggests lessons for policy. Trade policies, like any other economic policy, are likely to have gender differentiated effects because of women's and men's different access to, and control over, resources, and because of their different roles in both the market economy and the household. It

Marzia Fontana

9

The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

2008-01-01

10

Multiple Egg Donations May Not Affect Women's Future Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple Egg Donations May Not Affect Women's Future Fertility: Study Additional research found frozen eggs are nearly as effective as fresh for IVF ...

11

The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease.  

PubMed

The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice.All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

2011-03-23

12

Reproductive Factors Affecting the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OZDEMIR, F., DEMIRBAG, D. and RODOPLU, M. Reproductive Factors Affecting the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2005, 205 (3), 277-285 ?? Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture.

Ferda Ozdemir; Derya Demirbag; Meliha Rodoplu

2005-01-01

13

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest. Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients. Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis. Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.

Morimoto, Libby; Coalson, Jenna; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia

2010-01-01

14

Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2–3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment

Carmen Hernández-Martínez; Victoria Arija; Albert Balaguer; Pere Cavallé; Josefa Canals

2008-01-01

15

Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

Mech, L.D.

1975-01-01

16

Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

2003-01-01

17

Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?  

PubMed

The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents. PMID:18571345

Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa

2008-06-20

18

Factors that Affect Perceived Susceptibility to Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify CVD risk factors that are related to perceived susceptibility for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in West Virginia women.Although risk factors for CVD in women have been identified, it is not clear to what extent that information has reached women in West Virginia, or whether women's beliefs about susceptibility to CVD are in accordance with that knowledge. As

D. Humphries; D. Krummel; S. Rye; K. Simon

1997-01-01

19

Affective Stories: Understanding the Lack of Progress of Women Faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that the problem of sex inequity in higher faculty ranks may result from women taking longer to advance past associate professor. While statistical reports can isolate trends, they cannot identify reasons why women advance more slowly or suggest solutions for the situation. In this study, we conducted focus groups to learn how women tenured associate professors

PATRICIA A. STOUT; JANET STAIGER; NANCY A

2007-01-01

20

Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women,

Darnell. L. S; H. H. Sandstead

1991-01-01

21

Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

1997-01-01

22

How does health insurance affect the retirement behavior of women?  

PubMed

The availability of health insurance is a crucial factor in the retirement decision. Women are substantially less likely to have health insurance from their own employment. Using the Health and Retirement Study, we examine the role of employer-provided retiree health insurance in the retirement decisions of single women, and women in single-earner and dual-earner couples. We compare the effect of health insurance on female and male retirement. Our results show that retiree health insurance increases retirement for all groups except single men. We find suggestive evidence that the role of health insurance for women hinges on their husbands' labor force status. PMID:21634262

Kapur, Kanika; Rogowski, Jeannette

2011-01-01

23

Smoking status affects men and women differently on schizotypal traits and cognitive failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men have a greater risk of schizophrenia than women, and are generally heavier smokers than women. Smoking has been viewed as a form of self-medication in both schizophrenia and schizotypy, to the degree that it helps control negative symptoms and enhance cognitive function. To identify how smoking affects men and women differently on schizotypal traits and cognitive failures, the effects

Li Wan; Bruce H. Friedman; Nash N. Boutros; Helen J. Crawford

2008-01-01

24

HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2006-01-01

25

The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have…

Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.

2011-01-01

26

A Recent Mississippi Court Decision Affects Education and Women's Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper the case of Andrews vs Drew, Mississippi School District et al. is discussed in terms of the decision that women may be employed as school teachers in spite of the fact that they are unwed mothers. Implications for women's rights in general are examined. (WI)|

Middleton, Richard T., III

1979-01-01

27

Interventions for Abused African-American Women and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects millions of women regardless of age, race, and income in the United States; however,\\u000a low income African-American women are disproportionately affected (Rennison & Planty, 2003). IPV is a major public health issue for African-American women because of the combination of institutional racism and the\\u000a fact that IPV is more common and violent in this community

Nadine J. Kaslow; Sheridan L. Thorn; Anuradha Paranjape

28

[Liability in Anaesthesiology: Theory of disproportionate damage].  

PubMed

An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. PMID:23528691

Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

2013-03-23

29

Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10–12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive

Alex J. Zautra; Lisa M. Johnson; Mary C. Davis

2005-01-01

30

Factors Affecting HIV Contraceptive Decision-Making Among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined contraceptive decision-making among African American, Latina, and European American women ages 18–50 years. Logistic regressions examined relationships between demographic and religious factors, unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reasons for sex, and contraceptive decision-making. Women who were older, single, African American, used pregnancy prevention, and had histories of STDs and unintended pregnancies made contraceptive decisions alone. Older and

Gail E. Wyatt; JenniferVargas Carmona; TamraBurns Loeb; Donald Guthrie; Dorothy Chin; Gwen Gordon

2000-01-01

31

Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. (Texas Univ. Medical Branch, Galveston (United States))

1991-03-15

32

A Website Content Analysis of Women’s Resources and Sexual Assault Literature on College Campuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to examine how higher education institutions have provided women with resources to handle issues that disproportionately\\u000a affect them, this study assessed the availability of women’s resource centers on college campuses within the United States,\\u000a with a particular focus on sexual assault-related resources. A website content analysis was conducted, through which we coded\\u000a to assess ease of use,

Rebecca Hayes-Smith; Justin Hayes-Smith

2009-01-01

33

Disproportionate Minority Confinement, 2002 Update. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although minority youth account for about one-third of the U.S. juvenile population, they comprise two-thirds of the juvenile detention/corrections population. Disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) has far-reaching consequences not only for these yo...

H. M. Hsia G. S. Bridges R. McHale

2004-01-01

34

Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.  

PubMed

Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress×sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders. PMID:23790683

Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2013-06-21

35

Women's Health in the U.S. Research on Health Issues Affecting Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive Summary; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Transmission of HIV to Women, Natural History and Epidemiological Research, Treatment Research in HIV-Infected Women, HIV Transmission From Mother to Infant); Immunology and Immune-Related D...

2002-01-01

36

The inclusion of women, girls and gender equality in National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global HIV and AIDS epidemics disproportionately affect women, particularly young women in southern and eastern Africa. UNAIDS, amongst other actors, has singled out National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) as a critical platform for ensuring that women and girls are meaningfully included in national HIV and AIDS responses. Despite this, there is little evidence as to how

Andrew Gibbs; Elizabeth Tyler Crone; Samantha Willan; Jenevieve Mannell

2012-01-01

37

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

2012-01-01

38

Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

2010-01-01

39

Factors Affecting Continuation of Smoking by Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test a framework based upon the value and the probability of outcomes related to smoking. Over a 2-week period, 80 women were asked to perform judgments of value and probability of the outcome for smoking-related consequences. Subgroups were formed by the two variables of pregnancy and intent to quit smoking. Judgments were performed

Monica Ortendahl; Per Näsman

2009-01-01

40

Social Networks: Do They Affect Role Change in Adult Women?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lives of adult women tend to be framed by emotional relationships created early in the life course that reflect the social roles of daughter, friend, wife, and mother. These bonds, often long-term, persist in later adult life and shape decisions made about job and career trajectories through their implementation or not in the social networks…

Cornwall, Katharine K.

41

Social Life Factors Affecting Suicide in Japanese Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…

Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

1986-01-01

42

What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... 2012, from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress/gender-stress.aspx [top] NIH. (2010). NIH study ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/pages/081110-stress-delay-women-getting-pregnant.aspx [top] National Stroke ...

43

Factors affecting university women's basketball coaches' timeout decisions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the criteria that coaches of university women's basketball teams used when calling a timeout. Thirty-five of Canada's university coaches of women's basketball responded to Likert scale questions rating the importance of six factors in calling a timeout. Differences due to sex, coaching experience, and team success indicated that some factors were perceived to influence timeout decisions more than others. Specifically, responses from female coaches, coaches with less than 5 years of experience, and coaches whose teams were ranked in the CIAU's top 10 within the last 3 years indicated that they used offensive game events more frequently than their counterparts did. Interactions were also found for Experience x Gender and Experience x Gender x Success in the way that offensive game events were perceived, and for gender and success for the factor attentional state of players. PMID:1330273

Duke, A; Corlett, J

1992-12-01

44

Overall and Central Obesity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in U.S. Black Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity has risen to epidemic proportions in the United States, leading to an emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes. African-American women are disproportionately affected by both conditions. While an association of overall obesity with increasing risk of diabetes has been documented in black women, the effect of fat distribution, specifically abdominal obesity, has not been studied. We examined the

Supriya Krishnan; Lynn Rosenberg; Luc Djoussé; L. Adrienne Cupples; Julie R. Palmer

2007-01-01

45

INTERACTION OF SOCIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES AFFECTING WOMEN'S SATISFACTION AT ABUJA AND NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of persons from rural to urban areas presents problem of adjustment for women as well as for men. This paper attempts to show how the satisfaction of women in a newly constructed urban center in Central Nigeria is affected by the sector of residence as well as by related socioeconomic and sociological variables.

PHILIP O' SIJUWADE

1998-01-01

46

Interaction between Objective and Subjective Occupational Conditions Affecting Physical Health of Women Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an investigation on the interaction between the subjective and objective occupational conditions in affecting the overall health of women workers in industries that have accommodated information technology. The sample consisted of 23 establishments and 630 women respondents. Results show that the most prevalent issues among workers in the electronics industry included the need to upgrade skills, repetitive and

Jinky Leilanie; D. Lu

47

Social-Spatial Conditions Affecting Women's Sport: The Case in the Ruhr Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the influence of social-spatial determinants on the involvement of women in sport. Using the framework of feminist urban sociology, the degree to which sports facilities address the needs and wants of women is analysed. Here, the central issues are how female participation in sports is affected by the location of sports facilities and opportunities for sport in

Marie-Luise Klein

1993-01-01

48

An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to

Giorgio A. Tasca; John Kowal; Louise Balfour; Kerri Ritchie; Barbara Virley; Hany Bissada

2006-01-01

49

Behavioral Factors Affecting the Integration of Women into Air Force Craft Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research analyzed data collected during February 1977 from 1730 Air Force women in traditionally all male AFSCs. The objective was to determine the behavioral factors which affected socialization into the job, and to define in detail the stereotypes ...

G. S. Caron L. W. Emmelhainz

1979-01-01

50

Plastic disproportionate collapse at lost corner columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deploys an existing method for the simple rigid-plastic hand calculation of slab yield- line mechanisms to address the wider problem of disproportionate collapse at lost columns in multi- storey buildings. Floor systems will be treated as grillages combining torsion-free (Hillerborg) slabs and torsion-free beams. The aim is to achieve an understanding that transcends reliance on non-linear finite element

Colin GURLEY

2009-01-01

51

HIV Prevention for Heterosexual African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early in the epidemic, HIV infection and AIDS were diagnosed among relatively few women and female adolescents. Currently,\\u000a women account for more than 25% of all new HIV\\/AIDS diagnoses. Historically, African-American women have been disproportionately\\u000a affected by the HIV epidemic. In 2002, the most recent year for which data are available, HIV infection was the leading cause\\u000a of death for

Gina M. Wingood; Ralph J. DiClemente

52

What do friends and the media tell us? How different information channels affect women’s risk perceptions of age?related female infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates through which channels women receive information about the general risk levels of age?related female infertility and how the different channels affect women’s perceptions of the risk. We find that the media reaches women of all ages, while only about one woman in four has received information from the health care system. We also find that friends and

Elina Lampi

2011-01-01

53

Disproportionate Representation in Special Education: A Synthesis and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionate representation of minority students in special education remains a very controversial, unresolved issue. This synthesis summarizes historical perspectives and current knowledge about disproportionate representation with respect to: (a) definitions of disproportionate representation and related issues of interpretation; (b) national and state-level estimates of disproportionality for four ethnic groups; (c) legal, policy, research and teacher education responses to disproportionality; and

Martha J. Coutinho; Donald P. Oswald

2000-01-01

54

Disproportionate Minority Contact Addressing disproportinate contact in juvenile justice: Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) refers to the disproportionate representation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system. DMC first cameto national attention in 1988, when the Coalition for Juvenile Justice (formerly the National Coalition o...

L. M. Garry M. Soler

2009-01-01

55

Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

2005-01-01

56

Is osteoarthritis in women affected by hormonal changes or smoking?  

PubMed

The influence of sex hormone related events and smoking on the development of OA in women was investigated in a case-controlled postal survey. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with nodal generalized osteoarthritis (NGOA) and 145 with non-nodal pauciarticular large joint osteoarthritis (LJOA) were identified from the database of a Nottingham OA clinic. For each patient, three age-matched controls were randomly selected from the same general practice. Sixty-three per cent of questionnaires (690/1096) were returned: NGOA, 95; NGOA controls, 226; LJOA, 113; LJOA controls, 256. There were no differences in age at menarche or menopause, rates of hysterectomy, oral contraceptive use, or hormone replacement use between cases and controls. Fewer OA patients had ever smoked [(Odds Ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.45-0.95)] and subset analysis demonstrated that this negative association occurred only in the LJOA group (OR 0.43, CI 0.25-0.72), particularly in those with knee OA (OR 0.29, CI 0.14-0.62). A previous successful pregnancy was negatively associated with NGOA (OR 0.47, CI 0.24-0.95). This study demonstrates no association between oestrogen-related hormonal events and OA, but a negative association between smoking and LJOA. Such data supports the concept that OA is a heterogeneous disease and underlines the need to differentiate OA subsets. PMID:8495255

Samanta, A; Jones, A; Regan, M; Wilson, S; Doherty, M

1993-05-01

57

Perceived linkages between urban decay and HIV risk behavior : a study of substance-using women in the South Bronx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in the Bronx have been disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 27% of New York City's AIDS cases, with African-American and Latina women becoming infected at startling rates. The South Bronx has also suffered from decades of urban decay (a term used to describe physical and social degeneration of parts of a city or town), having not yet recovered

Angela Jeffers

2006-01-01

58

Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition. PMID:23624642

Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

2013-04-28

59

An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women. PMID:16843228

Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany

2005-10-17

60

How Does Marriage Affect the Allocation of Assets in Women's Defined Contribution Plans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies that examine gender differences in investment decisions have treated married households as a single decision- making unit. This study improves upon traditional unitary bargaining models and estimates a series of unitary and collective-type models to investigate how a husband’s age and relative control over financial resources affects the allocation of assets in women’s defined contribution plans. Using data

Angela C. Lyons; Tansel Yilmazer

2004-01-01

61

Subtyping weight-preoccupied overweight\\/obese women along restraint and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous clustering analysis performed among samples of bulimic or binge eating women have consistently yielded two subtypes (Dietary and Dietary-Depressive). The present study verifies whether this clustering solution could be replicated among weight-preoccupied overweight\\/obese women and compares the different clusters on personality-, eating- and weight-related variables. Cluster analysis was performed along dietary restraint and negative affect among a sample of

Marie-Pierre Gagnon-Girouard; Catherine Bégin; Véronique Provencher; Angelo Tremblay; Sonia Boivin; Simone Lemieux

2010-01-01

62

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

63

Iron Status Indicators in Women with Prior Neural Tube Defect-Affected Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Objectives: Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in pregnant women and has been linked to negative impacts on the\\u000a fetus. We describe the association of various iron-deficiency indices with risk of neural tube defect (NTD) among a high-risk\\u000a Mexican-American population. Methods: The study included 158 case-women (NTD-affected pregnancies) and 189 control-women (normal births) who were residents of\\u000a the

Marilyn M. Felkner; Lucina Suarez; Jean Brender; Barbara Scaife; Kate Hendricks

2005-01-01

64

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS: We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992-2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS: Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80-84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation. PMID:22368726

Schonberg, Mara A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A; McCarthy, Ellen P

2012-01-01

65

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992–2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80–84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation

Schonberg, Mara A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

2011-01-01

66

Variations of Gender–math Stereotype Content Affect Women’s Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether variations in stereotype content salience moderates stereotype threat effects, 66 US female undergraduate\\u000a students were given a standardized math exam, and the salience of specific gender–math stereotype content was manipulated\\u000a before the exam. Women exerted more effort on each problem and performed better on a math exam when threatened with an effort-based\\u000a stereotype compared to when threatened

Dustin B. Thoman; Paul H. White; Niwako Yamawaki; Hirofumi Koishi

2008-01-01

67

Microvesicles of women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia affect human trophoblast fate and endothelial function.  

PubMed

Microvesicles shedding from cell membrane affect inflammation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. We hypothesize that microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications reflect pathophysiological state of the patients and affect their endothelial and trophoblast cell function. Microvesicles of healthy pregnant women, women with gestational hypertension, mild, or severe preeclampsia/toxemia, were characterized, and their effects on early-stage or term trophoblasts and endothelial cells were evaluated using apoptosis, migration, and tube formation assays. Patient subgroups differed significantly only in proteinuria levels, therefore their microvesicles were assessed as 1 group, demonstrating higher levels of inflammatory and angiogenic proteins compared with those of healthy pregnant women. In endothelial cells, microvesicles of healthy pregnant women reduced caspase 3/7 activity, increased migration, and induced tube formation. These processes were suppressed by microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications. In early-stage trophoblasts, microvesicles of healthy pregnant women decreased apoptosis compared with untreated cells (6±5% versus 13.8±5.8%; P<0.001) and caspase 3/7 activity and induced higher migration (39.7±10.1 versus 20.3±8.3 mm(2); P<0.001). This effect was mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Conversely, microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications increased term trophoblast apoptosis compared with cells exposed to microvesicles of healthy pregnant women (15.1±3.3% versus 6.5±2.1%; P<0.001) and inhibited early-stage trophoblasts migration (21.4±18.5 versus 39.7±10.1 mm(2); P<0.001). In conclusion, microvesicle content and effects on endothelial and trophoblast cells vary according to the physiological/pathological state of a pregnant woman. Microvesicles seem to play a pivotal role in the course of pregnancy, which could potentially result in gestational vascular complications. PMID:24082057

Shomer, Einat; Katzenell, Sarah; Zipori, Yaniv; Sammour, Rami N; Isermann, Berend; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat

2013-09-30

68

Atypical autonomic regulation, auditory processing, and affect recognition in women with HIV.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of HIV on visceromotor (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability) and somatomotor (i.e., auditory processing and affect recognition) components of a Social Engagement System defined by the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995) that links vagal regulation of the heart with brainstem regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head. Relative to at risk HIV-seronegative women, HIV-seropositive women had less heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and had poorer performance on auditory processing and affect recognition tasks. CD4 was negatively correlated with the accuracy to detect specific emotions. The observed indices of atypical autonomic and behavioral regulation may contribute to greater difficulties in social behavior and social communication between HIV-infected women and other individuals in their social network. PMID:23792136

Heilman, K J; Harden, E R; Weber, K M; Cohen, M; Porges, S W

2013-06-17

69

What do friends and media tell us? How different information channels affect women’s risk perceptions of age-related female infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a survey given to a random sample of Swedish 20-40 year old females, this paper investigates through which channels women receive information about the general risk levels of age-related female infertility and how the different channels affect women’s perceptions of the risk. We find that the media reach women of all ages, while only about one woman in

Elina Lampi

2007-01-01

70

The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke in young women (E. N. Lopez, D. J. Drobes, J. K. Thompson, & T. H. Brandon, 2008). This study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and

Elena N. Lopez Khoury; Erika B. Litvin; Thomas H. Brandon

2009-01-01

71

Calcium homeostasis in long-term lithium-treated women with bipolar affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the effect of long-term lithium administration on intracellular calcium mobilization. The subjects were 13 women with bipolar affective disorder stabilized on lithium and 12 matched healthy controls. Total and ionized serum calcium, intracellular calcium ion concentration, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and tyrotropin (TSH), serum electrolytes and cyclic AMP (cAMP) activity in platelets were measured. The serum electrolytes

Aram El Khoury; Ulla Petterson; Gunnar Kallner; Anna Åberg-Wistedt; Rigmor Stain-Malmgren

2002-01-01

72

Nursing interventions and factors affecting physical, psychological and social adaptation of women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer and the associated physical problems may cause people to experience different psychological and social adaptation processes. Nursing interventions can affect physical, psychological and social adaptation in such women and help to prevent and overcome depression and anxiety. It should be stressed that both physical and psychosocial well-being enhance health and quality of life. PMID:19469649

Malak, Arzu Tuna; Gumus, Aysun Babacan

73

In the Mood for Love or Vice Versa? Exploring the Relations Among Sexual Activity, Physical Affection, Affect, and Stress in the Daily Lives of Mid-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight\\u000a women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings\\u000a every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner\\u000a on one day significantly

Mary H. Burleson; Wenda R. Trevathan; Michael Todd

2007-01-01

74

Biological and Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with STDs\\/HIV in Women: Implications for Behavioral Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are disproportionately affected by the burden and consequences of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).\\u000a Of the estimated 19 million cases of STDs that occur annually in the United States (1), about two-thirds are in women (2).\\u000a Further, both bacterial and viral STDs are associated with negative sequelae in women. Untreated gonococcal and chlamydial\\u000a infections can produce significant and

Donna Hubbard McCree; Anne M. Rompalo

75

Women, psychosis and violence.  

PubMed

Psychosis confers a disproportionate risk of violence on women compared with men, but such women barely affect national crime statistics anywhere. Much research in the field does not include women at all. In our literature review, we found that information about women, psychosis and violence generally had to be extracted from studies including women but focussing on men; not uncommonly analyses 'controlled for gender' rather than treating it as interesting in itself. A tendency for women to be older than men at onset of psychosis may not apply to those who become violent, but women with psychosis do seem to start offending later and desist sooner. Rates of seriously adverse childhood experiences are similar between women and men with psychosis, except for sexual abuse-more frequently reported by the women. Some evidence of special patterns for women in the nature of psychosis and violence relationships requires more exploration, as do treatment questions. With so few women in any one service, multi-centre co-operation in research with them will be essential. PMID:19064288

Taylor, Pamela J; Bragado-Jimenez, Maria Dolores

2008-12-06

76

Normalizing Policies of Inaction—The Case of Health Care in Australia for Women Affected by Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence impacts on all aspects of affected women's lives and results in poor general, reproductive, and psychological health (World Health Organisation, 2010). Despite mounting evidence that current health care responses to women affected by domestic violence are problematic, policies have nevertheless been rolled out without addressing issues identified. Funding cuts, fragmentation of services, and failure to establish good practice

Marion Tower; Jennifer Rowe; Marianne Wallis

2011-01-01

77

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pregnant Women from a U.S.–Mexico Border Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic digestive diseases that disproportionately affect Hispanics and other immigrant groups in the United States. Information on the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in pregnant women who reside along the U.S.-Mexico border is critical to understanding the dynamics of current H. pylori transmission patterns within families along the border. We describe the epidemiology of H. pylori

Karen J. Goodman; Kathleen O'Rourke; R. Sue Day; Constance Wang; Thomas Redlinger; Armando Campos; Jose Manuel de la Rosa

2003-01-01

78

USC study identifies genetic basis for aggressive breast cancer in women of African ancestry:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, together with other scientists, have identified the location of a genetic risk factor for a type of breast cancer that disproportionately affects women of African descent and carries a worse prognosis than other forms of the disease.

79

Mental disorders associated with subpopulations of women affected by violence and abuse.  

PubMed

Violence against women is a major public health problem associated with mental disorders. Few studies have examined the heterogeneity of interpersonal violence and abuse (IVA) among women and associated mental health problems. Latent class analysis was used to identify subpopulations of women with similar lifetime histories of IVA victimization and to examine 10 associated past-year mental disorders. Participants were 19,816 adult women who participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The 3-class model was best supported by the data. Class 1 (6.7%) had a high probability of witnessing domestic violence as a child. Class 2 (21.8%) had a low probability of all events except lifetime sexual assault. Class 3 (71.5%) had a low probability for all events. Mental disorders were more common among members of Classes 1 and 2 than Class 3. For example, members in Class 1 were approximately 8 and 9 times more likely than members in Class 3 to have had posttraumatic stress disorder or a drug use disorder, respectively, during the past year. Of the 10 mental disorders, 5 were more common among members of Class 1 than of Class 2. Findings suggest the mental health consequences of IVA among women are extensive and interventions should be tailored for distinct subpopulations affected by IVA. PMID:23813596

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Martins, Silvia S; Petras, Hanno; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

2013-06-28

80

Work and family roles in relation to women's well-being: The role of negative affectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative affectivity (NA), a trait that emphasizes negative aspects of the environment, has been shown to have both direct and confound effects on the stressor—strain relationship. Lately, this confound role of NA has attracted much attention, and calls have been made for self-report studies to incorporate NA as a control. As previous studies of women's roles and well-being have not

Noraini M. Noor

1997-01-01

81

Tubal sterilization : Characteristics of women most affected by the option of reversibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the types of women whose sterilization decisions would be most affected by the option of reversibility, responses from 1074 randomly selected ob-gyn patients, concerning eventual intention to undergo permanent and hypothetically reversible procedures, were analyzed. Cross-tabulation of the dependent variables with a wide array of socio-demographic and attitudinal characteristics was followed by discriminant function analysis in

Rochelle N. Shain; Harold D. Dickson

1982-01-01

82

Factors affecting performance of prenatal genetic testing by Israeli Jewish women.  

PubMed

The number of prenatal genetic tests that are being offered to women is constantly increasing. However, there is little national data as to who is performing the tests and the reasons for doing or not doing so. This study evaluated the proportion of Jewish women in Israel who perform the various prenatal genetic tests and the factors affecting the performance of these tests. It was found that 60.9% of the women performed the triple test, 50.8% of women older than 35 years performed amniocentesis, while 63.3 and 24.3% of women performed Tay-Sachs and fragile-X carrier testing respectively. Ninety-six percent of the secular women compared to only 6.7% of the ultrareligious women performed the triple test. It was also found that94.4% of the secular women, 36.4% of the religious, and none of the ultrareligious women older than 35 years performed amniocentesis. In the stepwise regression analysis, being secular, having a higher income, fewer children, and being of Ashkenazi origin remained significant factors in determining performance of Tay-Sachs carrier testing. As regards fragile-X carrier testing, being secular, having fewer than four children, and having a higher income and a supplementary medical insurance remained significant factors. The main reason reported by the women for not performing amniocentesis or the triple test was for religious or moral grounds (53.3 and 67% respectively). The main reason given for not performing Tay-Sachs or fragile-X testing was that they were not referred for the tests (76 and 82% respectively). Consideration should be given to providing first trimester prenatal diagnosis to the ultrareligious group, including state subsidized fragile-X testing and educating the primary care givers about the importance of prenatal genetic testing. The information from the present study is vital for the planning of an equitable prenatal genetic service and provides guidelines for the implementation of such services in other countries. PMID:12838566

Sher, Carron; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Green, Manfred S; Shohat, Tamy

2003-07-30

83

Weight control self-efficacy types and transitions affect weight-loss outcomes in obese women.  

PubMed

Matching obesity treatments to heterogeneous clients is a recent evolution in the development of more effective weight-control programs, yet most interventions emphasize the external features of treatments rather than the internal belief structures of individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Q methodology would identify distinct types of weight-control self-efficacy beliefs in obese women that would be linked to outcomes of a weight-loss program. Fifty-four women (45 +/- 9 yrs, Mean +/- SD) 136 +/- 10% over ideal body weight participated in a 9-month nutritional/behavioral weight loss program. Two major self-efficacy categories emerged through factor analysis of Q sorts: assureds and disbelievers. The assureds (n = 28) had the strongest self-efficacy beliefs and at baseline reported significantly (p < .01) greater self-esteem and less depression than the disbelievers (n = 26). By posttreatment, the assureds had lost significantly more weight (10 +/- 6 vs. 7 +/- 7 kg). Regrouping the data for analysis by posttreatment self-efficacy types demonstrated transitions in the self-efficacy beliefs of the women during treatment. Those who were disbelievers at baseline but became assureds posttreatment (n = 7) lost twice as much weight as the women who started and finished as disbelievers (n = 19) (10 +/- 7 kg vs. 5 +/- 5 kg). The posttreatment assureds (n = 32) lost significantly more weight than the disbelievers (n = 22) (10 +/- 6 vs. 6 +/- 5 kg), and reported better self esteem, mood, and eating patterns. Thus, assessment of intrinsic belief systems, particularly weight-control self-efficacy, may provide new directions for designing interventions that target distinctly different needs of obese women to affect greater weight loss and more positive affective states. PMID:8729712

Dennis, K E; Goldberg, A P

84

Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial123  

PubMed Central

Background: Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged >60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets. Results: Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 80–90%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00668447.

Kenny, Anne M; Mangano, Kelsey M; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Anamani, Denise E; Kleppinger, Alison; Walsh, Stephen J; Prestwood, Karen M

2009-01-01

85

Intimate partner violence affects skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya.  

PubMed

Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:21688110

Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D

2012-07-01

86

Estradiol interacts with the cholinergic system to affect verbal memory in postmenopausal women: Evidence for the critical period hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estradiol has been shown to interact with the cholinergic system to affect cognition in postmenopausal women. This study further investigated the interaction of estradiol and cholinergic system functioning on verbal memory and attention in two groups of healthy younger (ages 50–62) and older (ages 70–81) postmenopausal women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were randomly and blindly placed on 1 mg of 17-beta estradiol

Julie Dumas; Catherine Hancur-Bucci; Magdalena Naylor; Cynthia Sites; Paul Newhouse

2008-01-01

87

Pharmacogenetic testing affects choice of therapy among women considering tamoxifen treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacogenetic testing holds major promise in allowing physicians to tailor therapy to patients based on genotype. However, there is little data on the impact of pharmacogenetic test results on patient and clinician choice of therapy. CYP2D6 testing among tamoxifen users offers a potential test case of the use of pharmacogenetic testing in the clinic. We evaluated the effect of CYP2D6 testing in clinical practice to determine whether genotype results affected choice of hormone therapy in a prospective cohort study. Methods Women planning to take or currently taking tamoxifen were considered eligible. Participants were enrolled in an informational session that reviewed the results of studies of CYP2D6 genotype on breast cancer recurrence. CYP2D6 genotyping was offered to participants using the AmpliChip CYP450 Test. Women were classified as either poor, intermediate, extensive or ultra-rapid metabolizers. Results were provided to clinicians without specific treatment recommendations. Follow-up was performed with a structured phone interview 3 to 6 months after testing to evaluate changes in medication. Results A total of 245 women were tested and 235 completed the follow-up survey. Six of 13 (46%) women classified as poor metabolizers reported changing treatment compared with 11 of 218 (5%) classified as intermediate, extensive or ultra-rapid metabolizers (P < 0.001). There was no difference in treatment choices between women classified as intermediate and extensive metabolizers. In multi-variate models that adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, educational status, method of referral into the study, prior knowledge of CYP2D6 testing, the patients' CYP2D6 genotype was the only significant factor that predicted a change in therapy (odds ratio 22.8; 95% confidence interval 5.2 to 98.8). Genetic testing did not affect use of co-medications that interact with CYP2D6. Conclusions CYP2D6 genotype testing led to changes in therapy among poor metabolizers, even in the absence of definitive data that an alternative medicine improved outcomes. Pharmacogenetic testing can affect choice of therapy, even in the absence of definitive data on clinical impact.

2011-01-01

88

refinement of an educational toolkit to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening among hispanic immigrant Women in rural Southern Georgia  

PubMed Central

Summary Cervical cancer incidence and mortality continue to affect Hispanic women in the U.S. disproportionately. Our project sought to refine a cervical cancer intervention designed for use by community health workers, or promotoras, in rural southern Georgia. We collaborated with Hispanic promotoras to refine a Spanish language educational flipchart featuring cervical cancer topic areas for use in screening promotion.

Watson-Johnson, Lisa C.; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Hinojosa, Andrea; Mason, Mondi; Meade, Cathy D.; Luque, John S.

2013-01-01

89

Refinement of an educational toolkit to promote cervical cancer screening among Hispanic immigrant women in rural southern Georgia.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality continue to affect Hispanic women in the U.S. disproportionately. Our project sought to refine a cervical cancer intervention designed for use by community health workers, or promotoras, in rural southern Georgia. We collaborated with Hispanic promotoras to refine a Spanish language educational flipchart featuring cervical cancer topic areas for use in screening promotion. PMID:23698684

Watson-Johnson, Lisa C; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Hinojosa, Andrea; Mason, Mondi; Meade, Cathy D; Luque, John S

2012-11-01

90

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY IMAGE DISPARITY AND CULTURALLY SPECIFIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT IN BLACK AND WHITE WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Sixty women participated in highly structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique. We asked, ''How does being a Black (White) woman affect your weight?'' Body image disparity (BID) was determined with the Stunkard Figure Rating scale by comparing the women's current body image perception to their ideal body image. Results: Food preparation and selection were major factors

Jamy D. Ard; Lori F. Greene; Christie Z. Malpede; Wendy K. Jefferson

2007-01-01

91

Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

Vahabi, Mandana

2010-01-01

92

Sex Differences in Affective Responses to Homoerotic Stimuli: Evidence for an Unconscious Bias Among Heterosexual Men, but not Heterosexual Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigay bias is a well-documented social problem among heterosexual men, though heterosexual women display a lesser tendency toward this bias. Startle eye blink has been established as a valid measure of the affective component of antigay bias in heterosexual men. In the current study, a sample of 91 heterosexual women and 87 heterosexual men were exposed to a variety of

Amanda L. Mahaffey; Angela Bryan; Kent E. Hutchison

2005-01-01

93

Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

Vahabi, Mandana

2010-01-01

94

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

95

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

96

Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. PMID:11562159

Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

2001-08-01

97

Peripubertal estrogen levels and physical activity affect femur geometry in young adult women  

PubMed Central

Purpose It is well established that physical activity contributes to bone strength in young females, but less is known about how peripubertal estrogen affects skeletal responses to exercise. Methods We used data from 84 participants in the Penn State Young Women’s Health Study to test the prediction that young women who 1) had higher E2 levels during the first year after menarche or 2) were more physically active in adolescence will have greater bone strength at the end of adolescence. Subjects were divided into tertiles of physical activity and of E2 level in the first, second, and third post-menarchal years, and femoral strength was calculated from DXA scans of the proximal femur using hip structure analysis. Results At age 17, subjects with the highest E2 levels in year 1 after menarche had 5–14% greater strength in the narrow neck and intertrochanteric region, and the most active subjects had 10–11% greater strength in the femoral narrow neck, vs. less active girls. Conclusions This study suggests that both physical activity and peripubertal estrogen have important influences on young adult bone strength and that hormone levels may be modulators of human osteogenic responses to exercise.

Devlin, Maureen J.; Stetter, Christy M.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Beck, Thomas J.; Legro, Richard S.; Petit, Moira A.; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Lloyd, Tom

2011-01-01

98

Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

Nicolas, Michel

2009-12-01

99

An externally oriented style of thinking as a moderator of responses to affective films in women.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in alexithymia would moderate coupling in physiological and subjective-experiential responses to two affective films, which were shown to induce a common negative (sad) feeling, but to provoke different hyper- or hypo-arousal physiological responses (e.g., heart rate acceleration or deceleration) associated with antipathic or empathic context, respectively (Davydov et al., 2011). Only women were studied as persons showing more reactivity to sad films than men. Reactivity was evaluated for facial behavior, physiological arousal, and subjective experience. Some other affective and cognitive disposition factors (e.g., depression and defensiveness) were considered for evaluating their probable mediation of the alexithymia's effects. While subjective experience was not affected by alexithymia, high scorers on the externally-oriented thinking factor showed reduced physiological reactivity in both film conditions. These effects were mediated through different disposition factors: either low affectivity (low depressed mood), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hyper-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate acceleration), or impression management (other-deception), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hypo-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate deceleration). PMID:23266659

Davydov, Dmitry M; Luminet, Olivier; Zech, Emmanuelle

2012-12-22

100

Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.  

PubMed

Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation. PMID:24030483

Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

2013-09-13

101

Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women  

PubMed Central

Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. Methodology A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. Principal Findings The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (–0.012, 95%CI: –.038?0.006, p?=?0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022?0.044, p<0.001) and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005?0.023, p<0.01), respectively. Conclusions Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

2012-01-01

102

Selective toluene disproportionation over pore size controlled MFI zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Selective disproportionate of toluene to p-xylene was studied over modified MFI aluminosilicate. The relationship between extent of silica deposition and para selectivity was established. The effect of reaction parameters such as temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on para selectivity was considered. Kinetics of reaction in the temperature range 723--773 K was carried out. The estimated activation energy value is lower than reported for toluene disproportionation in the literature. This has been explained on the basis of enhanced intracrystalline diffusion in the modified zeolite.

Das, J.; Bhat, Y.S.; Halgeri, A.B. (Indian Petrochemicals Corp. Ltd., Gujarat (India). Research Centre)

1994-02-01

103

Transition from School to Work: Issues Affecting Young Women. Discussion Paper by the National Advisory Committee on Women and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With a rising level of female school leaver unemployment, and recent cutbacks in traditional areas of women's employment, it has become a matter of urgency for positive, comprehensive action to be taken within the education system of New Zealand to encourage young women into a wider range of vocational opportunities. A coordinated policy from…

New Zealand National Advisory Committee on Women and Education, Wellington.

104

Neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors associated with positive affect in healthy men and women: the Whitehall II study.  

PubMed

Positive affective states are associated with favorable health outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The authors assessed associations between positive affect, cortisol sampled over the day, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) among 2,873 healthy members of the Whitehall II study. Data for this study were collected in 2002-2004 in London, United Kingdom. Saliva free cortisol was assessed on waking, 30 minutes later, and four times over the day and evening. Positive affect was indexed by aggregating ecological momentary assessments of positive mood over the day. Salivary cortisol averaged over the day was inversely associated with positive affect after controlling for age, gender, income, ethnicity, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, paid employment, time of waking in the morning, and depression (p = 0.003). There was no association with cortisol responses to waking. The adjusted odds of C-reactive protein >/=3.00 mg/liter was 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 3.31) in low- compared with high-positive-affect women, and plasma interleukin-6 was also inversely related to positive affect in women (p = 0.016). Neither inflammatory marker was related to positive affect in men. These results confirm findings from smaller studies relating cortisol with positive affect while suggesting that in women, positive affect is associated with reduced levels of inflammatory markers. PMID:17916595

Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Badrick, Ellena; Kumari, Meena; Marmot, Michael

2007-10-04

105

Capturing Women’s Voices: Socioeconomics and Gender-Roles in Pastoralist Households in the Ruaha Landscape, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pastoralists in East Africa face a multitude of challenges relating to land ownership, environmental concerns and access \\u000ato government services. These difficulties may disproportionately affect women due to traditional gender roles within \\u000apastoralist society. {HALI} project team members conducted an assessment of gender-roles in pastoralist households during a \\u000alongitudinal survey of study households and focus group meetings in an effort

Mariam Nguvava; Deana Clifford; Michel Masozera; Peter Coppolillo; Harrison Sadiki; Jonna Mazet

2009-01-01

106

In the mood for love or vice versa? Exploring the relations among sexual activity, physical affection, affect, and stress in the daily lives of mid-aged women.  

PubMed

How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner on one day significantly predicted lower negative mood and stress and higher positive mood on the following day. The relation did not hold for orgasm without a partner. Additionally, positive mood on one day predicted more physical affection and sexual activity with a partner, but fewer solo orgasms the following day. Negative mood was mostly unrelated to next-day sexual activity or physical affection. Sexual orientation, living with a partner, and duration of relationship moderated some of these effects. Results support a bidirectional causal model in which dyadic sexual interaction and physical affection improve mood and reduce stress, with improved mood and reduced stress in turn increasing the likelihood of future sex and physical affection. PMID:17109236

Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Todd, Michael

2007-06-01

107

Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b)…

Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.

2011-01-01

108

Disproportionate Impact? School Discipline in a Neo-Liberal State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reviews of the Safe Schools Act, Ontario's school disciplinary policy have raised concerns regarding the disproportionate impact on racialized students and students with disabilities. Critics claim that zero tolerance and the simultaneous provision of mitigating factors leaving room for the abuse of discretionary authority, calls into question the role of discipline in the education system. Reactions to the reports

Michelle Cho

2005-01-01

109

Are Two Parent Families Disproportionately Represented in Young Adult Literature?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evaluation of a cross-section of literature for young adults published in the United States. The books were selected from "Best Books for Young Adults" for the years 1970 to 1990 inclusive. This study shows that when compared to United States census data, there is a disproportionate number of nontraditional family settings in…

Collins, Patricia L.

110

Visual evoked potentials in disproportionately growth-retarded human neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study brain function in the neonatal period, disproportionately growth-retarded (n = 33) and appropriately grown (n = 21) infants were examined using Doppler flow velocities prenatally and visual evoked potentials postnatally. Visual evoked potentials recordings were made at gestation of 40 and 46 weeks. The group of growth-retarded infants had significantly prolonged latencies to both of the two major

C. Magnus Thordstein; Bo L Sultan; Margareta M Wennergren; Eva Törnqvist; Kaj G Lindecrantz; Ingemar Kjellmer

2004-01-01

111

Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support implementation through the Effective Behavior Support Survey completed by staff

Tary J. Tobin; Claudia G. Vincent

2011-01-01

112

Factors Affecting Adequate Prenatal Care and the Prenatal Care Visits of Immigrant Women to Taiwan.  

PubMed

This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

2012-10-12

113

Diurnal and seasonal variations of melatonin and serotonin in women with seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

In winters 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 women with and without seasonal affective disorder, winter type, were treated by light at 2500 lux either in the morning (0800h-1000h) or afternoon (1600h-1800h). In winter before light treatment, melatonin levels in serum in daytime (1200h and 1600h) were higher in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). This difference disappeared in the summer or after light treatment in the winter. Also, light treatment and change in season resulted in a phase advance shift of melatonin rhythm in patients. The decline in melatonin levels correlated with the decline in specific SAD symptoms of hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving. In winter, neither patients nor controls showed significant diurnal variations in levels of whole blood serotonin. In both patients and controls, levels of serotonin were higher in summer as compared with winter, especially at 2000h. Our data suggest that elevated daytime melatonin can be a state marker of winter depression, and that seasonal change of photoperiod may also affect the circadian amplitude and daytime levels of blood serotonin. PMID:7986318

Danilenko, K V; Putilov, A A; Russkikh, G S; Duffy, L K; Ebbesson, S O

1994-07-01

114

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

115

Low-pH cola beverages do not affect women's iron absorption from a vegetarian meal.  

PubMed

Preliminary data in the literature indicate that iron absorption from a meal may be increased when consumed with low-pH beverages such as cola, and it is also possible that sugar iron complexes may alter iron availability. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted to compare the bioavailability of nonheme iron from a vegetarian pizza meal when consumed with 3 different beverages (cola, diet cola, and mineral water). Sixteen women with serum ferritin concentrations of 11-54 µg/L were recruited and completed the study. The pizza meal contained native iron and added ferric chloride solution as a stable isotope extrinsic label; the total iron content of the meal was ~5.3 mg. Incorporation of iron from the meal into RBC was not affected by the type of drink (9.9% with cola, 9.4% with diet cola, and 9.6% with water). Serum ferritin and plasma hepcidin were correlated (r = 0.66; P<0.001) and both were significant predictors of iron bioavailability, but their combined effect explained only 30% of the inter-individual variation (P<0.001) and illustrates the current lack of understanding of mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iron absorption. Although there was no effect of low-pH drinks on iron bioavailability in healthy women, their effect on absorption of fortification iron that requires solubilization in dilute acid, such as reduced iron, and in individuals with low gastric acid production, such as older people and individuals with Helicobacter pylori infection, warrants further investigation. PMID:21389184

Collings, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Dainty, Jack R; Roe, Mark A

2011-03-09

116

Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD. Patients and methods 61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery. Results Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD. Interpretation Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women.

2012-01-01

117

Don’t take another bite: How sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance.

Erin J. Strahan; Steven J. Spencer; Mark P. Zanna

2007-01-01

118

Latin America: Analysis of the Social Problems Affecting Women in Various Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses the conceptual framework of a study, built around three central ideas: the type of social entity in which women predominantly carry out their activities, sexual stereotypes, and cultural norms. The report discusses the class situation of women, and updates the information regarding the situation of women in education,…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

119

Understanding the Process: How Mediated and Peer Norms Affect Young Women's Body Esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of interpersonal and mediated perceived norms to young women's body esteem among first-year college women. In addition, we examined the role of social comparison as a mediator for the relationship between norms and body esteem. Several findings were notable. First, interpersonal norms do have a significant relationship with esteem. Young women who perceived that their

Marina Krcmar; Steve Giles; Donald Helme

2008-01-01

120

FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION MAKING OF LOW-INCOME YOUNG WOMEN WITH UNPLANNED PREGNANCIES IN BANGKOK, THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's

Wanapa Naravage; Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan; Marc Van der Putten

121

Environmental and Occupational Exposures: Do They Affect Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Differently in Women and Men?  

Microsoft Academic Search

chronicobstructivepulmonarydiseasemortalityinrelationtotraffic among elderly women compared with men, the other finding no gender difference). Two other environmental studies suggested small gender differences with slightly greater effect of biomass or traffic-related pollution among women. Four of five occupational studiesalsofoundincreasedeffectsofworkplacepollutantexposure on measures of chronic airflow obstruction or bronchitis symptoms in women; again the differences were small. Preliminary findings from analysis of pooled data

Susan M. Kennedy; Reid Chambers; Weiwei Du; Helen Dimich-Ward

2007-01-01

122

Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State…

Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

123

Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

124

Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

Frisby, Cynthia M.

125

Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

Frisby, Cynthia M.

126

Factors Affecting Women's Health-Related Behaviors and Safe Motherhood: A Qualitative Study From a Refugee Camp in Eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to provide a deeper understanding of a broader range of potential factors affecting risk behaviors related to safe motherhood among refugee women in Eastern Sudan, thus creating a basis for further research in behavioral change. Risk behaviors chosen for this study follow (1) practice of female genital cutting, (2) adopting family planning (FP) practices, (3) usage of a

Marie Furuta; Rintaro Mori

2008-01-01

127

She Left, He Left: How Employment and Satisfaction Affect Men's and Women's Decisions to Leave Marriages  

PubMed Central

Most past studies examining determinants of divorce have ignored differences between the factors that elevate wives’ and husbands’ initiation of divorce. We use three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. We assess who left using each ex-spouse’s answer to a question that asked who had wanted the breakup more. We find that when men are not employed, either husbands or wives are more likely to leave. When wives report better than average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither their nor their husbands’ exits. However, when wives report below average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely that they will leave. We compare findings to predictions from two theories: an institutional perspective that sees divorce to result from a violation of gender-specific norms, and exchange/bargaining theory, which posits that resources allow a spouse to leave if exchange and bargaining fail to provide a satisfactory marriage. To amend the theories to better fit the data, we foreground the asymmetric nature of gender change in recent decades, with women changing more than men.

Sayer, Liana C.; England, Paula; Allison, Paul; Kangas, Nicole

2012-01-01

128

Pentacene disproportionation during sublimation for field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

At moderate temperatures in flowing gas, pentacene undergoes a disproportionation reaction to produce 6,13-dihydropentacene (DHP) and a series of polycondensed aromatic hydrocarbons, including the previously unknown peripentacene (PP). The process requires activation by heating to 320 degrees C and is possibly catalyzed by impurities such as DHP, 6,13-pentacenequinone (PQ), Al, or Fe found in the starting materials. These impurities also result in a decrease in the intrinsic field-effect mobility (FEM) of pentacene crystals. Subsequent purifications remove such impurities, thus inhibiting the formation of the disproportionation products and increasing the FEM of pentacene (2.2 cm(2)/Vs). These results clarify the importance of purification of semiconductive materials for measurements of intrinsic mobility and optimal device performance. PMID:15740146

Roberson, Luke B; Kowalik, Janusz; Tolbert, Laren M; Kloc, Christian; Zeis, Roswitha; Chi, Xiaoliu; Fleming, Richard; Wilkins, Charles

2005-03-01

129

Medicaid program; state disproportionate share hospital allotment reductions. Final rule.  

PubMed

The statute, as amended by the Affordable Care Act, requires aggregate reductions to state Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) allotments annually from fiscal year (FY) 2014 through FY 2020. This final rule delineates a methodology to implement the annual reductions for FY 2014 and FY 2015. The rule also includes additional DSH reporting requirements for use in implementing the DSH health reform methodology. PMID:24046881

2013-09-18

130

The prevalence and determinants of antepartum mental health problems among women in the USA: a nationally representative population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. We sought to estimate the\\u000a prevalence of antepartum mental health problems and determine potential risk factors in a representative USA population. We\\u000a examined data on 3,051 pregnant women from 11 panels of the 1996–2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Poor antepartum mental\\u000a health was defined by self report of mental health

Whitney P. Witt; Thomas DeLeire; Erika W. Hagen; Margarete A. Wichmann; Lauren E. Wisk; Hilary A. Spear; Erika R. Cheng; Torsheika Maddox; John Hampton

2010-01-01

131

Don't take another bite: how sociocultural norms for appearance affect women's eating behavior.  

PubMed

Four studies tested the impact of exposure to thin images on women's eating behavior. In Study 1, women who were exposed to commercials containing thin models ate less in a taste test than women exposed to neutral commercials. The next two studies revealed that the impact of the thin images could be reduced by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance. In Study 2, including images of relatively heavier women who have been successful in life (an indirect challenge to the norm) attenuated the impact of the thin images on women's eating behavior. Study 3 demonstrated that convincing women that their peers do not endorse the sociocultural norms also reduced the impact of the thin images. In Study 4, we found that exposure to thin images led to activation of an association between heaviness and rejection and that the more this association was activated, the less participants ate. PMID:18089279

Strahan, Erin J; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

2007-09-20

132

Factors affecting access to prenatal care for U.S.\\/Mexico border-dwelling hispanic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about prenatal care was conducted among Hispanic women who resided on the U.S.-Mexico border. As part of a larger study that included chart reviews of 752 mothers and postpartum interviews of 587 of these women, the 118 women who elected to deliver in the university-affiliated teaching hospital, rather than any of four participating

Angelica Zaid; Judith T. Fullerton; Thomas Moore

1996-01-01

133

Self-Referential Processing in Women With PTSD: Affective and Neural Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative self-referential processing and identity disturbance are not uncommon clinical outcomes in adults who were significantly maltreated as children. In this study a novel cognitive paradigm, akin to mirror viewing while experiencing negative versus positive thoughts, was developed to investigate verbal and visual self-referential processing disturbances in women with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Relative to women without PTSD, women

Paul A. Frewen; David J. A. Dozois; Richard W. J. Neufeld; Maria Densmore; Todd K. Stevens; Ruth A. Lanius

2011-01-01

134

Glucocorticoid Excess Affects Cortical Bone Geometry in Premenopausal, but not Postmenopausal, Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid (GC) excess causes a great increase in fracture risk, but the effects of GC excess on cortical bone geometry\\u000a are unknown. The present study was performed to examine the effects of GC excess on cortical bone geometry in both premenopausal\\u000a and postmenopausal women. Ninety-six women receiving oral GC treatments and 10 women with Cushing syndrome (CS) were each\\u000a compared

Hiroshi Kaji; Mika Yamauchi; Kazuo Chihara; Toshitsugu Sugimoto

2008-01-01

135

Work in progress -a study of how real-world engineering experience can affect women’s academic career  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence has suggested that industry-sponsored project experience, where the student is paid, can provide students with a real-world perspective that enhances the studentpsilas academic experience. This experience is particularly valuable for female students because women may have less real-world exposure to applications in their chosen career path compared to their male counterparts. Sometimes internship experiences can be a negative

Deborah Walter; Xiaoyan Mu; Carlotta Berry

2008-01-01

136

Negative Affect and Vasomotor Symptoms in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are common during the menopausal transition. Negative affect is consistently associated with self-reported VMS, but interpretation of this relationship is limited by infrequent measurement and retrospective recall of VMS. Using prospective data from daily diaries, we examined the daily association between negative affect and reported VMS, as well as temporal associations between negative affect and next day VMS, and VMS and next day negative affect. Methods Data were derived from the third wave of the Daily Hormone Study (DHS) (n=625). DHS is a substudy of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants reported VMS and affect in daily diaries for 12–50 days. Multilevel mixed models were used to determine the associations between reported VMS and negative affect, adjusted by antidepressant use, age, education, menopausal status, self-reported health, and race/ethnicity drawn from annual SWAN visits. Results VMS were reported by 327 women (52.3%). Negative affect was positively associated with VMS (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.43–2.17, p<.001) in cross-sectional analyses. Negative affect, adjusted by same day VMS, was not predictive of next day VMS (OR 1.11, 95% CI .85–1.35, p=.55), whereas VMS, adjusted by same day negative affect, was predictive of negative affect the next day (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03–1.58, p=.01). Conclusions Negative affect was more likely to be reported on the same day and the day after VMS. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship include negative cognitive appraisal, sleep disruption, and unmeasured third factors.

Gibson, Carolyn J.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kamarck, Thomas; Matthews, Karen A.

2011-01-01

137

Influences Affecting the Treatment of Women Prisoners in Toronto, 1880 to 1890  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of women prisoners in the 1880’s was largely dependent on the general attitudes towards the importance of their roles in society. In late nineteenth century Toronto the expected roles of women of all classes were those of wife and mother within the home and, to a very limited extent, of worker within the community. The responses and behaviour of

M. Jennifer Brown

1975-01-01

138

Does magnesium sulfate affect the length of labor induction in women with pregnancy-associated hypertension?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether seizure prophylaxis with magnesium sulfate prolongs induction of labor in women with pregnancy-associated hypertension.STUDY DESIGN: Women with a singleton pregnancy in vertex presentation between 32 and 42 weeks' gestation who required induction of labor for either preeclampsia, preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, or transient hypertension were randomized to receive either magnesium sulfate or

M. Wendy Atkinson; Debra Guinn; John Owen; John C. Hauth

1995-01-01

139

Caffeine does not affect the rate of gain in spine bone in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nutrition and dietary caffeine consumption and physical activity on bone gain in women during the third decade of life was determined in a longitudinal, descriptive study of 145 healthy college-aged women. Estimates of caffeine and other dietary intakes were determined by repeated 7-day diet diaries. Measurements of bone mineral in the spine and total body mineral content

P. T. Packard; R. R. Recker

1996-01-01

140

Selected Factors Affecting the Performance of Women's Self-Help Groups in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women frequently encounter greater limitations and fewer opportunities than men, especially in regards to income-generating activities. They may face social and economic constraints that perpetuates poverty and spans generations. However, significant opportunities exist in the informal, small-scale enterprise sector for which women may be advantaged. Community groups are popular institutions in Kenya's rural areas; groups help provide services that the

Billy A. Jivetti; M. Craig Edwards

2009-01-01

141

The Effect of Varied Physician Affect on Recall, Anxiety, and Perceptions in Women at Risk for Breast Cancer: An Analogue Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated the effect of varied physician affect on subject recall, anxiety, and perceptions in a simulated tense and ambiguous medical situation. Forty women at risk for breast cancer viewed videotapes of an oncologist presenting—with either worried or nonworried affect—mammogram results. Although the mammogram results and the oncologist were the same in both presentations, analyses indicated that, compared to the women

Daniel E. Shapiro; Stephen R. Boggs; Barbara G. Melamed; John Graham-Pole

1992-01-01

142

Emotion Processing in Women with Schizophrenia Is Menstrual Cycle Phase and Affective Valence Dependent: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Despite a large number of functional neuroimaging investigations of emotion processing in schizophrenia, very few have included women. In the present study 21 schizophrenia and 23 healthy women underwent functional MRI (3T) on two occasions (during the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycle) while viewing blocks of emotionally negative, positive and neutral images. During exposure to negatively charged images patients showed relatively less activations than controls during the luteal phase, but no between-group differences were observed during the follicular phase. In contrast, the exposure to positively valenced material produced no significant interaction, but the main effect of group; schizophrenia patients exhibited less activation than healthy controls during both phases of the menstrual cycle. This is the first study demonstrating that atypical neural activations associated with emotion processing in women diagnosed with schizophrenia depend on the menstrual cycle phase and on the affective valence of presented stimuli.

Mendrek, Adrianna; Bourque, Josiane; Dube, Annie; Lakis, Nadia; Champagne, Julie

2012-01-01

143

Does Group Prenatal Care Affect Satisfaction And Prenatal Care Utilization in Iranian Pregnant Women?  

PubMed Central

Background: The need to provide high quality prenatal care services, which take account of women’s views and specifically address their need for information, support and communication, has been advocated and group prenatal care, had been suggested as one of the ways to achieve this objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on satisfaction and prenatal care use. Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with the health center as the randomization unit that conducted in 2007. Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire, and the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to measure prenatal care utilization. Results: We recruited 678 women (group prenatal care, (N= 344) and individual prenatal care, (N=334) in the study. Women in group prenatal care model were more satisfied than women in individual prenatal care model in all areas evaluated, including information, communication, co-ordination and quality of care. Group care women were significantly more likely to have adequate prenatal care than individual care women were (OR=1.35 95% CI=1.26–1.44). Conclusions: Group prenatal care was associated with a significant improvement in client satisfaction and prenatal care utilization. This model of care has implications for the planning and provision of prenatal services within public health system, which is moving toward a better quality health care, and increasing use of services.

Jafari, F; Eftekhar, H; Mohammad, K; Fotouhi, A

2010-01-01

144

Recognizing health with pregnant Cambodian American women by finding meaning in relationship.  

PubMed

Late entry to prenatal care is a complex problem disproportionately affecting immigrant and refugee women living in Western-style countries. Improving the health and well-being of these women and their children is a critical need. Utilizing Newman's praxis research approach, this study explored engaging 6 Cambodian American women living with pregnancy in the process of finding meaning. Dialoguing on important events and relationship from childhood to present day, patterns of health emerged. Considering data across participants, 3 preliminary themes were illuminated. Study provides new knowledge about environmental disruptions and promoting health. PMID:19934838

Rosa, Katherine Cowen; Suong, Malida

145

Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little\\u000a is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVES  (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from\\u000a the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral

Ann Smith Barnes; G. Kenneth Goodrick; Valory Pavlik; Jennifer Markesino; Donna Y. Laws; Wendell C. Taylor

2007-01-01

146

Addressing the Unique Needs of African American Women in HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet there are few effective HIV prevention interventions that are exclusively tailored to their lives and that address their risk factors. Using an ecological framework, we offer a comprehensive overview of the risk factors that are driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African American women and explicate the consequences of ignoring these factors in HIV prevention strategies. We also recommend ways to improve HIV prevention programs by taking into consideration the unique life experiences of adult African American women.

Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Gilbert, Louisa

2009-01-01

147

Explaining Racial Differences in Prenatal Care Initiation and Syphilis Screening Among Medicaid-covered Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted diseases and their outcomes disproportionately affect non-Hispanic Blacks who also receive later prenatal care. We used a sample of low-income pregnant women insured by Medicaid to assess racial disparities in the receipt of first trimester prenatal care and any as well as early (by 2nd trimester) syphilis screening. We used an older but unique file of linked 1995

Norma I. Gavin; Guoyu Tao

2009-01-01

148

[Study on health services needs and affecting factors of childbearing-age women of Jingsong Community in Beijing].  

PubMed

A household health interview survey was conducted in 1991 to study the special health problems, health care needs and affecting factors of child bearing-age women. 624 women were randomly sampled in Jingsong Community, Beijing. The results showed that two-week prevalence rate was 20.2 percent, the morbidity rate of chronic diseases was 25.3 percent. These two indexes were higher than the average level of Beijing's population. The medical care needs were great, but utilization of available services was inadequate. The common diseases and woman's diseases were still the major diseases. Preventive health service needs, such as premarriage counseling, postnatal care, women suffer, regular check-up and treatment of woman's diseases, family planning services etc., were not satisfactorily met. The results of the single and multiple variable analysis indicated that the health care needs were mainly affected by age, marital status, education, occupation, system of medical care insurance and position in family. Incidence of gynecopathy was associated with age of the first marriage, number of times of induced abortion etc.. Proposals on improving women's health care in urban community were also put forward in the paper. PMID:8325172

Zhang, Q

1993-01-01

149

Women and computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that many women opting for careers in computing either drop out of the academic pipeline or choose not to get advanced degrees and enter industry instead. Consequently, there are disproportionately low numbers of women in academic computer science and the computer industry. The situation may be perpetuated for several generations since studies show that girls from

Karen A. Frenkel

1990-01-01

150

Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers  

PubMed Central

Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues.

Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

2012-01-01

151

Do therapists' beliefs about sexual offending affect counseling practices with women?  

PubMed

This study explored whether counseling practices with women survivors of child sexual abuse reflect the belief that women do not sexually abuse children. Canadian therapists (n = 164) who work with women survivors of child sexual abuse were surveyed about their beliefs about what constitutes child sexual abuse, who commits child sexual abuse, and their practices regarding inquiries about abusive behavior. A majority self-reported that they ask women and think it is important to ask but most believe that clients will not spontaneously self-disclose inappropriate sexual thoughts or behaviors. How broadly or narrowly therapists defined child sexual abuse was not related to self-reported therapeutic discussion. Therapists demonstrated differential gender beliefs about child sexual abuse perpetration, but this did not relate to self-reported counseling practices. Implications for therapist education are discussed. PMID:23829833

Hovey, Angela; Rye, B J; Stalker, Carol A

2013-01-01

152

Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by health care practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to treat better those women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

Hunter, Eric J; Tanner, Kristine; Smith, Marshall E

2011-07-04

153

Automatic and Deliberate Affective Associations with Sexual Stimuli in Women with Superficial Dyspareunia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile–vaginal intercourse automatically\\u000a activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development\\u000a of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further aggravate the dyspareunia-related complaints. To assess whether automatic negative\\u000a associations are involved in this sexual pain disorder, women with superficial dyspareunia

Marieke Brauer; Peter J. de Jong; Jorg Huijding; Ellen Laan; Moniek M. ter Kuile

2009-01-01

154

Diurnal and seasonal variations in cortisol, prolactin, TSH and thyroid hormones in women with and without seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with and without seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were studied on two winter days separated by a week of light treatment (LT) at 2500 lux either in the morning (0800–1000h; 8 patients and 4 controls) or afternoon (1600–1800 h; 5 patients and 3 controls), and on a summer day (7 patients of the morning subgroup and 7 controls). Blood samples

Konstantin V. Danilenko; Arcady A. Putilov

1993-01-01

155

Melatonin reduces arousal and startle responsiveness without influencing startle habituation or affective startle modulation in young women.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been suggested to affect human emotion, but conflicting evidence exists. Therefore, we tested the effect of a single dose of a 4 mg prolonged release formulation of melatonin on a biologically based model of emotional processing. Affective modulation of acoustic white noise startle (103 dB) by emotional slides selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was assessed in 16 healthy young women twice, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced cross-over design. Melatonin significantly reduced startle responsiveness, but did not impact affective startle modulation, nor startle habituation. Melatonin significantly reduced arousal ratings and induced a parasympathetically dominated heart rate variability pattern indicative of a non-aroused state. We conclude that melatonin reduces arousal and startle responsiveness. However, no evidence for a direct emotion-modulating effect of melatonin was found in this healthy cohort. PMID:18499110

Schachinger, Hartmut; Blumenthal, Terry D; Richter, Steffen; Savaskan, Egemen; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Kräuchi, Kurt

2008-04-10

156

A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism  

PubMed Central

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drogemuller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

157

A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.  

PubMed

African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

2013-04-01

158

An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.  

PubMed

Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns. PMID:23930875

Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

2013-08-01

159

Medial prefrontal cortex damage affects physiological and psychological stress responses differently in men and women  

PubMed Central

The ability to produce appropriate physiological and psychological responses to stressful situations depends on accurate recognition and appraisal of such situations. Such ability is also important for proper emotion regulation. A number of studies have suggested that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a significant role in emotion regulation, as well as in the control of physiological endpoints of emotion regulation such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). Further, recent work has suggested that men and women may differ in these mechanisms of neural control of emotion regulation. Here, we examined the role of the human mPFC in self-report, ANS, and HPA stress reactivity by testing a group of participants with damage to this region (9 women and 9 men), a brain damaged comparison group (6 women and 6 men), and healthy comparison participants (27 women and 27 men) on an orthostatic challenge and the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The mPFC participants showed heightened self-reported stress in response to the TSST. In women, mPFC damage led to an increased cortisol response to the TSST. By contrast, in men, greater volume of mPFC damage was correlated with a decreased cortisol response. Finally, men with mPFC damage showed altered autonomic control of the heart (higher heart rate and lower high frequency heart rate variability) during an orthostatic challenge. These findings support the idea that the mPFC is involved in the regulation of physiological and psychological responses to stress and that this regulation may differ between men and women.

Buchanan, Tony W.; Driscoll, David; Mowrer, Samantha M.; Sollers, John J.; Thayer, Julian F.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Tranel, Daniel

2009-01-01

160

Does Anastrozole Affect Bone Resorption Similarly in Early and Late Postmenopausal Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether the bone-resorption response to anastrozole differed according to initial patient\\u000a age in postmenopausal women with breast cancer in a cross-sectional study. Second-morning void urines were collected for measurement\\u000a of urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTx, corrected for creatinine and log-transformed) from postmenopausal\\u000a women, 99 with breast cancer on anastrozole

Diane E. PowellRichard; Richard A. Cochrane; Michael W. J. Davie

2011-01-01

161

Interactive Effects of Estrogen and Serotonin On Brain Activation During Working Memory and Affective Processing in Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

While cognitive changes and mood instability are frequent symptoms reported by menopausal women, the degree to which the decline in estrogen production is responsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogen may produce its effects on cognition and mood through modulation of serotonergic function. To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan depletion (TD) paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically manipulated estrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the individual and combined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory, emotion processing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy predominantly early postmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion followed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after short-term transdermal estradiol 75-150 ug/d administration. There was an estradiol treatment by TD interaction for brain activation during performance on both the N-back Task (working memory) and Emotion Identification Task (affective processing). During the 2-back condition, TD attenuated activation prior to, but not after, estradiol treatment in the right and left dorsal lateral prefrontal and middle frontal/cingulate gyrus. During emotion identification, TD heightened activation in the orbital frontal cortex and bilateral amygdala, and this effect was attenuated by estradiol treatment. These results provide preliminary evidence that serotonergic effects directly mediate the impact of estrogen on brain activation during working memory and affective processing.

Epperson, C. Neill; Amin, Zenab; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Ruben; Loughead, James

2011-01-01

162

Factors affecting the choice of nonpermanent contraceptive methods among married women.  

PubMed

Data from the 1976 US National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine the effect of sociodemographic factors on choice of nonpermanent contraceptive methods among white, fecund, married women aged 15-44 who intend no additional births. A multivariate analysis revealed that age of the respondent had a strong negative relationship to the effectiveness of contraceptive chosen. Being Catholic had a negative effect on the effectiveness of contraceptive chosen, but significant interaction occurred between age and parity and between age and education. 1 explanation may be that increased age may result in reduced perception of risk that an unwanted birth will occur. Another explanation is that concerns about health risks associated with the pill or IUD use may lead to use of other methods among older women. The most probable explanation of the observed relationship is a cohort effect. Older women who began marital contraception at an earlier point in time have continued to use the same methods as were initially available early in their marriage. The lack of a significant association between parity and the effectiveness of contraceptive method chosen based on multivariate analysis is most likely due to the high correlation between parity and age. The lack of a significant effect of education on choice of method may be explained by the nearly universal access to all methods of contraception for married women. Further research on the same lines is strongly urged to shed light on current behavior patterns. PMID:6545472

MacDowell, M; Lee, E S

163

More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition…

Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

2009-01-01

164

Prevalence of infections affecting the child among pregnant women in Yaounde, Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infections which have deleterious effects to either the mother or the fetus during pregnancy are unknown in Cameroon. To formulate appropriate antenatal screening policies for the Central Mother and Child Clinic in Yaounde, we tested random sera obtained from 1,014 stored samples previously obtained from pregnant women. One hundred and fifty sera were tested for the presence

Peter M. Ndumbe; A. Andela; John Nkemnkeng-Asong; Emilienne Watonsi; Phillippe Nyambi

1992-01-01

165

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage.

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

166

Cognitive Strategies Affecting Recall of Sexual Behavior Among High-Risk Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Most sexual health research depends on self-reported information, but little is known about the ways in which individuals arrive at their responses to sexual behavior questions. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the cognitive strategies and contextual cues used to recall sexual behaviors among men and women at high risk for HIV. Design: 102 men and

Laura M. Bogart; Lisa C. Walt; Jelena D. Pavlovic; Allison J. Ober; Norman Brown; Seth C. Kalichman

2007-01-01

167

Dietary Magnesium Depletion Affects Metabolic Responses during Submaximal Exercise in Postmenopausal Women1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium is an essential mineral that is required for optimal biological function including energy metabolism. Although national nutritional surveys indicate that usual magnesium intakes do not meet recommen- dations, particularly among older women, diet-induced magnesium depletion is considered rare among humans without concurrent illness. We examined the effects of dietary magnesium restriction on biochemical measures of magnesium nutriture and physiologic

Henry C. Lukaski; Forrest H. Nielsen

168

Intimate Practices, Conjugal Ideals: Affective Ties and Relationship Strategies Among Lala (Lesbian) Women in Contemporary Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a range of marital ideologies and relationship strategies in the lives of lala (lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing. Although new discourses on same-sex marriage rights and sexual equality are becoming popular in parts of Chinese lala communities, the traditional mar- riage ideal continues to appear desirable, and it structures same-sex life aspirations as well as social, romantic,

Elisabeth Lund Engebretsen

2009-01-01

169

Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

2010-01-01

170

Affect Regulation and the Cycle of Violence Against Women: New Directions for Understanding the Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of the intergenerational transmission of violence is not well understood. A risk and resilience model of criminal violence against women was investigated using secondary data. The sample was composed of adolescent male juvenile delinquents who had been physically abused by their parents, and who were followed up at ages 25 and 31. A series of structural equation models

Mary E. Dankoski; Margaret K. Keiley; Volker Thomas; Pamela Choice; Sally A. Lloyd; Brenda L. Seery

2006-01-01

171

Cognitive-Affective Predictors of Women's Readiness to End Domestic Violence Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style)…

Shurman, Lauren A.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

2006-01-01

172

Women with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy demonstrate worse health and are adversely affected by odours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objectives of this study were (1) to determine aversive stimuli that are related to nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP); (2) to determine food and fluid intake in early pregnancy; and (3) to explore relationships between aversive stimuli and health measures. A total of 273 women in an antenatal setting completed a questionnaire survey, incorporating the Nausea and

B. L. SWALLOW; S. W. LINDOW; E. A. MASSON; D. M. HAY

2005-01-01

173

Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

2010-01-01

174

Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

2008-01-01

175

Feminism, postmodernism, and affect: An unlikely love triangle in women's media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative media project explores gender as a socially constructed concept and historical category constantly in flux. Throughout I utilize diverse women-orientated artifacts, focusing primarily on those residing in the popular culture realm, to track the production and consumption of gendered myths through cultural products. I argue that these female-directed texts act as both antagonist and aid for feminist work

Melissa Ames

2007-01-01

176

Self-disproportionation of Enantiomers of Enantiomerically Enriched Compounds.  

PubMed

This review describes self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) of non-racemic mixtures, subjected to distillation, sublimation, or chromatography on achiral stationary phase using achiral eluent, which leads to the substantial enantiomeric enrichment and corresponding depletion in different fractions, as compared to the enantiomeric composition of the starting material. This phenomenon is of a very general nature as SDE has been reported for different classes of chiral organic compounds bearing various functional groups and possessing diverse elements of chirality. The literature data discussed in this review clearly suggests that SDE is typical for enantiomerically enriched chiral organic compounds and special care should always be taken in evaluation of the stereochemical outcome of enantioselective reactions as well as determination of enantiomeric ratios of non-racemic mixtures of natural products after any purification process. The role of molecular association of enantiomers on the magnitude and preparative efficiency of SDE, as a new, nonconventional method for enantiomerc purifications, is emphasized and discussed. PMID:23605252

Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim A

2013-04-19

177

Realistic losses of rare species disproportionately impact higher trophic levels.  

PubMed

Predicting the consequences of changes in biodiversity requires understanding both species' susceptibility to extirpation and their functional roles in ecosystems. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of realistic, non-random biodiversity losses, severely limiting the applicability of biodiversity research to conservation. Here, we removed sessile species from a rocky shore community in a way that deliberately mimicked natural patterns of species loss. We found that the rarest species in the system act from the bottom up to disproportionately impact the diversity and abundance of consumers. Realistic losses of rare species in a diverse assemblage of seaweeds and sessile invertebrates, collectively comprising <10% of sessile biomass, resulted in a 42-47% decline in consumer biomass. In contrast, removal of an equivalent biomass of dominant sessile species had no effect on consumers. Our results highlight the 'cornerstone' role that rare species can play in shaping the structure of the community they support. PMID:22381064

Bracken, Matthew E S; Low, Natalie H N

2012-03-02

178

Specific matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) haplotype affect the circulating MMP-9 levels in women with migraine.  

PubMed

We investigated whether three relevant polymorphisms (C-1562T, microsatellite -90(CA)(14-24), and Q279R) in the MMP-9 gene, or MMP-9 haplotypes, are associated with migraine and affect MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 levels in patients with migraine. We studied 102 healthy women (controls) and 187 women with migraine (141 without aura - MWA, and 46 with aura - MA). Patients with MWA had higher plasma MMP-9 concentrations than patients with MA. Patients with MA had the highest TIMP-1 and lowest MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios. The MMP-9 "C L Q" haplotype was associated with higher plasma MMP-9 concentrations in migraine patients. PMID:22907074

Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Speciali, Jose G; Fontana, Vanessa; Izidoro-Toledo, Tatiane C; Belo, Vanessa A; Dach, Fabiola; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

2012-08-17

179

The use of group therapy to help women with eating disorders differentiate and articulate affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this discussion of eating disorders, symptoms are viewed as responses to unprocessed and unprocessable affect—what Stolorow and Atwood, Krystal, and Sifneos have called “alexithymia.” The article explores ways in which a group experience can help to provide an arena for the articulation and exploration of this affect. The group can provide its members with the responsive milieu necessary for

F. Diane Barth

1994-01-01

180

Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect

David M. Williams; Shira Dunsiger; Jessica A. Whiteley; Michael H. Ussher; Joseph T. Ciccolo; Ernestine G. Jennings

2011-01-01

181

Pregnancy and lactation affect markers of calcium and bone metabolism differently in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intakes.  

PubMed

Physiologic adaptation to the high calcium demand during pregnancy and lactation may be different in adolescents than in adults, particularly at low calcium intake. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism between adolescent (14-19 y) and adult (21-35 y) women with calcium intake approximately 500 mg/d, in three different physiologic states, i.e., control (nonpregnant, nonlactating; NPNL), pregnant and lactating. Markers of calcium metabolism [serum Ca, P and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); urinary Ca and P] and of bone turnover [urinary deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr) and plasma bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] were measured in NPNL (adolescents, n = 12 and adults, n = 25), pregnant (adolescents, n = 30 and adults, n = 36) and lactating (adolescents, n = 19 and adults, n = 26) women. In the NPNL women, iPTH, D-Pyr and BAP were higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.001) in adolescents than in adults. Serum iPTH was higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.01) in adolescents than in adults also in pregnancy and lactation. Compared with NPNL women, serum Ca decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents but not in adults. The increase in D-Pyr with pregnancy and lactation was very pronounced in adults ( approximately 130%, P < 0.001) but less in adolescents (<25%, P < 0.01). BAP increased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy and lactation in adults ( approximately 60%) but decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents ( approximately 13%). Pregnancy and lactation appear to affect bone turnover in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intake differently. PMID:12163659

Bezerra, Flávia F; Laboissière, Fabrícia P; King, Janet C; Donangelo, Carmen M

2002-08-01

182

Estrogen affects post-menopausal women differently than estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial (WHI RCT), estrogen-only treatment compared with combined estrogen-progestin treatment resulted in less coronary artery disease, no increase in breast cancer and no reduction in colorectal cancer. Since we previously reasonably replicated the combined estrogen-progestin WHI RCT using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD), estrogen- only treatment was investigated using a

Richard L. Tannen; Mark G. Weiner; Dawei Xie; Kurt Barnhart

2007-01-01

183

Factors Noted to Affect Breast Cancer Treatment Decisions of Women Aged 80 and Older  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To identify factors that influence the breast cancer treatment decisions of women aged 80 and older. DESIGN Medical record review. SETTING One academic primary care clinic and two community health centers in Boston. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-five women aged 80 and older diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2004 and followed through June 30, 2010. MEASUREMENTS Data were abstracted on breast cancer characteristics, comorbidities, treatments received, and outcomes. Notes from primary care physicians, oncologists, and breast surgeons were reviewed to determine factors involved in treatment decision-making. RESULTS Median age at diagnosis was 84.0 (interquartile range 82.0–86.3), 55 (84.6%) were non-Hispanic white, and 40 (61.5%) had at least one comorbidity. Nine women were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ, 42 with a new primary invasive breast cancer, eight with a second primary, and six with a breast cancer recurrence. Sixty-three (96.9%) received some type of treatment. Fifty-six (86.2%) had at least one detailed physician note on treatment decision-making in their charts. The main categories found to influence participant, family, and physician treatment decision-making were tumor characteristics, ratio of treatment benefits to risks, logistics (e.g., transportation, finances), and participant age, health (including a concurrent diagnosis), and psychosocial characteristics. Family was involved in treatment discussions for 46 (70.8%) participants. CONCLUSION The quality of physician documentation about decision-making in these women was high. A great deal of thoughtful and complex decision-making involving patients, family, and physicians occurs after a woman aged 80 and older is diagnosed with breast cancer.

Schonberg, Mara A.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

2013-01-01

184

Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women's use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women’s early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. Methods This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18–25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Results Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Conclusions Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize program success. This study highlights the importance of tailoring voucher programs to specific community needs, a strategy that can lead to better program uptake.

2013-01-01

185

Does Religiosity Affect Health Risk Behaviors in Pregnant and Postpartum Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We examined the association between religious involvement and health risk behaviors such as smoking, drinking, marijuana\\u000a use, and having multiple sex partners among a multiethnic sample of pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Using data from the National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated multivariate logistic regression models to determine the\\u000a association between various aspects of religious involvement (e.g., attendance,

Robin L. Page; Christopher G. Ellison; Jinwoo Lee

2009-01-01

186

Family cancer history affecting risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elevated risk of colorectal cancer has been associated with sporadic colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives, mostly\\u000a in Western populations. Limited data exist from traditionally low-risk areas, such as Asia, where the prevalence of risk factors\\u000a may differ. We examined the association of family history of cancer and subsequent colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of traditionally\\u000a low-risk Chinese women.

Gwen Murphy; Xiao-Ou Shu; Yu-Tang Gao; Bu-Tian Ji; Michael Blaise Cook; Gong Yang; Hong Lan Li; Nathaniel Rothman; Wei Zheng; Wong-Ho Chow

2009-01-01

187

Does Labeling Prenatal Screening Test Results as Negative or Positive Affect Women's Responses?  

PubMed Central

Objective We tested whether adding interpretive labels (e.g., “negative test”) to prenatal genetic screening test results changes perceived risk and preferences for amniocentesis. Study Design Women (N=1,688) completed a hypothetical pregnancy scenario via the Internet. We randomized participants into two groups: high (12.5/1000) risk of fetal chromosomal problems or low (2/1000) risk. After prenatal screening, estimated risk was identical (5/1000) for all participants, but results were provided either alone or with interpretive labels. Results When receiving test results without labels, all participants react similarly. With labels, participants receiving “positive” or “abnormal” results reported higher perceived risk (p<0.001), greater worry (p<0.001), and greater interest in amniocentesis (57% vs. 37%, p<0.001) than those receiving “negative” or “normal” results. Conclusions Interpretive labels for test results can induce larger changes to women’s risk perceptions and behavioral intentions than numerical results alone do, creating decision momentum. This finding has broad clinical implications for patient-provider communication.

ZIKMUND-FISHER, Brian J.; FAGERLIN, Angela; KEETON, Kristie; UBEL, Peter A.

2007-01-01

188

The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

2011-06-11

189

Does Gestational Weight Gain Affect the Risk of Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Overweight Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between gestational weight gain and adverse maternal and infant outcomes among overweight women\\u000a [body mass index (BMI) 26.0–29.0 kg\\/m2]. Methods A population-based cohort study using birth certificate data (1990–2004) from 34,143 singleton, full-term deliveries to nulliparous,\\u000a Missouri residents ages 18–35. Gestational weight gain was divided into three categories: below Institute of Medicine (IOM)\\u000a recommendations (25 lbs). Categories

Aisha Langford; Corinne Joshu; Jen Jen Chang; Thomas Myles; Terry Leet

190

ESR spectra and kinetics of the disproportionation of substituted phenoxyl radicals. III. Cross-disproportionation in a system containing two phenols  

SciTech Connect

An ESR method was used to study the kinetics of radical reactions in systems of an initiator with two phenolic antioxidants. A theoretical analysis yielded formulas for calculating the equilibrium constant of reversible phenol-phenoxyl exchange reactions and the rate constant for the cross-disproportionation of phenoxyl radicals. Equilibrium and cross-disproportionation constants were measured for five different binary systems. From the results it was concluded that a connection exists between the cross-disproportionation rate constant and the structure of the phenol (in this case steric factors are most important than the O-H bond strength in the phenol). It is shown that the cross-disproportionation of phenoxyl radicals may lead to the generation of a more active antioxidant, as in the case of ionol + a synthetic analog of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, leading to synergistic effects.

Roginskii, V.A.; Krasheninnikova, G.A.

1987-09-01

191

Breast cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide.  

PubMed

Recent progress with declines in mortality in some high-income countries has obscured the fact that for the majority of women worldwide who are newly diagnosed, breast cancer is a neglected disease in the context of other numerically more frequent health problems. For this growing majority, it is also an orphan disease, in that detailed knowledge about tumor characteristics and relevant host biology necessary to provide even basic care is absent. With the possible exception of nutritional recommendations, current international cancer policy and planning initiatives are irrelevant to breast cancer. The progress that has occurred in high-income countries has come at extraordinary fiscal expense and patient toxicity, which of themselves suggest nonrelevance to women and healthcare practitioners in middle- and low-income countries. The implications of these circumstances appear clear: if the promise of the now 60-year-old Declaration of Human Rights that the fruits of medical science accrue to all mankind is to be realized with respect to breast cancer, a basic and translational global research initiative should be launched. PMID:21410589

Ginsburg, Ophira M; Love, Richard R

2011-03-16

192

The laws that affect abortion in the United States and their impact on women's health.  

PubMed

Abortion has been a hotly contested political issue since the mid 1960s, when states began liberalizing their abortion laws. Recent Supreme Court rulings, such as Rust vs. Sullivan, the retirement of two liberal Supreme Court justices and the battle over Louisiana's abortion legislation have created new fervor on both fronts of the battle. All health care providers who care for women need to be cognizant of the current abortion laws and the factors that influence the abortion decision. These factors include the different levels of health risk and financial implications posed by continued pregnancy or abortion. Historically, numerous court cases have influenced women's health care, and reviews of several significant cases are provided. The Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services decision was the first case that directly challenged the Roe vs. Wade decision. The Webster decision enables states to have greater authority in writing their own abortion laws. Individual state laws can vary greatly, so it is vitally important for providers to know and understand the laws of their state. PMID:1798604

Harrison, L K; Naylor, K L

1991-12-01

193

Physics for Women: The Last Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents issues discussed at the International Conference of Women in Physics held at UNESCO in Paris. Points out the disproportionate attrition of females going into graduate studies in physics and differences between developed and developing countries. (Author/YDS)|

Tobias, Sheila; Urry, Meg; Venkatesan, Aparna

2002-01-01

194

Physics for Women: The Last Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents issues discussed at the International Conference of Women in Physics held at UNESCO in Paris. Points out the disproportionate attrition of females going into graduate studies in physics and differences between developed and developing countries. (Author/YDS)

Tobias, Sheila; Urry, Meg; Venkatesan, Aparna

2002-01-01

195

Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.  

PubMed

Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. PMID:20138896

de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

2010-02-06

196

Efficacy of risedronate administration in osteoporotic postmenopausal women affected by inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have frequently a bone mineral density (BMD) significantly lower than age-matched healthy subjects. The low BMD observed in IBD patients is related also to a higher incidence of bone fractures. In this prospective randomized study we evaluated the effect of 1-year risedronate administration on bone mass and turnover, and on vertebral fractures in osteoporotic postmenopausal women with IBD in remission. Ninety osteoporotic postmenopausal women were randomized to receive oral risedronate 35 mg/week (risedronate group) or placebo tablets (placebo group; one tab/week). The duration of treatment was 12 months. At entry and after treatment, lumbar spine and hip BMD, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio (DPD-Cr) levels were evaluated. Vertebral fractures were assessed from thoracic and lumbar lateral and anterior-posterior spinal radiographs taken at baseline, and from lateral spinal radiographs taken at the end of the study. At study entry, no difference between groups was also detected in BMD and in bone turnover markers. At the end of the study, lumbar spine, trochanter and femoral neck BMD was significantly ( p <0.05) higher in comparison with baseline in the risedronate group, whereas a significant ( p <0.05) decrease was observed in the placebo group. For the same visit, a significant ( p <0.05) difference in lumbar spine, trochanter and femoral neck BMD was detected between groups. After 12-month follow-up, serum OC and urinary DPD-Cr levels were significantly ( p <0.05) lower and higher in comparison with basal values in risedronate and placebo group, respectively. At the same time, a significant ( p <0.05) difference in serum OC and urinary DPD-Cr levels was observed between groups. Throughout the study, the incidence of vertebral fractures was significantly ( p <0.05) lower in the risedronate group than in the placebo group (12.5% vs 34.1%). The relative risk (RR) to develop a new vertebral fracture after 1 year of risedronate administration was of 0.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.85). In conclusion, risedronate administration is an effective anti-osteoporotic treatment in osteoporotic postmenopausal women with IBD in remission. PMID:15928801

Palomba, Stefano; Orio, Francesco; Manguso, Francesco; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; Tolino, Achille; Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Colao, Annamaria; Doldo, Patrizia; Mastrantonio, Pasquale; Zullo, Fulvio

2005-06-01

197

Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa Along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

PubMed Central

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, a more protracted clinical course, and a worse treatment response. This report describes two prospective studies which found that young women with threshold (n = 48) and subthreshold (n = 83) bulimic pathology can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes, that two subtyping approaches produced similar results (M ? = .94), that the subtyping distinction showed 4-week test-retest reliability (? = .61), and that the dietary-negative affect subtype showed greater eating pathology, emotional distress, functional impairment, treatment seeking, and lower likelihood of recovery over 6-month and 3-year follow-ups than the dietary subtype. The dieting-negative affect subtyping distinction evidenced greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity than did the purging-nonpurging subtyping distinction. The additional evidence for the reliability and validity of this subytping scheme, particularly the prognostic utility, suggests it is worth additional inquiry.

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Nathan Marti, C.; Fischer, Kathryn

2010-01-01

198

Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

De War, Joshua J.

2009-01-01

199

Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

2010-01-01

200

Acute effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on affective withdrawal symptoms and cravings among women smokers.  

PubMed

A growing number of laboratory studies have shown that acute bouts of aerobic exercise favorably impact affect and cravings among smokers. However, randomized trials have generally shown exercise to have no favorable effect on smoking cessation or withdrawal symptoms during quit attempts. The purpose of the present study was to explore this apparent contradiction by assessing acute changes in affect and cravings immediately prior to and following each exercise and contact control session during an eight-week smoking cessation trial. Sixty previously low-active, healthy, female smokers were randomized to an eight-week program consisting of brief baseline smoking cessation counseling and the nicotine patch plus either three sessions/week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or contact control. Findings revealed a favorable impact of exercise on acute changes in positive activated affect (i.e., energy), negative deactivated affect (i.e., tiredness), and cigarette cravings relative to contact control. However, effects dissipated from session to session. Results suggest that aerobic exercise has potential as a smoking cessation treatment, but that it must be engaged in frequently and consistently over time in order to derive benefits. Thus, it is not surprising that previous randomized controlled trials-in which adherence to exercise programs has generally been poor-have been unsuccessful in showing effects of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:21543158

Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Whiteley, Jessica A; Ussher, Michael H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Jennings, Ernestine G

2011-04-15

201

Winter depression with spring exacerbation: A frequent occurrence in women with seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Winter depression (WD) usually starts in October/November and remits in February/March, but some experience a relatively short depressive exacerbation in spring. To further characterize this spring exacerbation (SE), 84 previously diagnosed WD patients rated in retrospect whether they had experienced SE after their otherwise typical WD in the years before receiving active treatment. Thirty-nine percent of the women and 12% of the men reported to have experienced SE many times or practically every year; another 28 and 29%, respectively, had experienced SE a few times. In general, the symptomatology during SE was about the same as during WD. Female patients who had experienced SE many times or practically every year were marginally older (p = 0.05) and had suffered many more previous WD episodes (p = 0.0005) than female patients having experienced SE only a few times or never. PMID:10575328

Lingjaerde, O; Føreland, A R

202

The Disproportionate Cost of Smoking for African Americans in California  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We estimated the economic impact of smoking on African Americans in California in 2002, including smoking-attributable health care expenditures and productivity losses from smoking-caused mortality. Methods. We estimated econometric models of smoking-attributable ambulatory care, prescription drugs, inpatient care, and home health care using national and state survey data. We assessed smoking-attributable mortality using epidemiological models. Results. Adult smoking prevalence for African Americans was 19.3% compared with 15.4% for all Californians. The health care cost of smoking was $626 million for the African American community. A total of 3013 African American Californians died of smoking-attributable illness in 2002, representing a loss of over 49 000 years of life and $784 million in productivity. The total cost of smoking for this community amounted to $1.4 billion, or $1.8 billion expressed in 2008 dollars. Conclusions. Although African Americans account for 6% of the California adult population, they account for over 8% of smoking-attributable expenditures and fully 13% of smoking-attributable mortality costs. Our findings confirm the need to tailor tobacco control programs to African Americans to mitigate the disproportionate burden of smoking for this community.

Sung, Hai-Yen; Tucker, Lue-Yen; Stark, Brad

2010-01-01

203

[Disproportionately large communicating fourth ventricle--report of 2 cases].  

PubMed

A term of 'disproportionately large, communicating fourth ventricle' (DLCFV) was first proposed by in Harwood-Nash in 1980. It is somewhat different from the well known clinical entity of 'isolated or trapped fourth ventricle', because of apparent patency of aqueductal canal. Two cases of typical DLCFV encountered in our clinic were described. First patient was a 24 year old man in whom this condition developed following operations for lumber disc and second patient was 22 year old woman in whom the disease developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage. In both cases, main symptoms were attributable to hydrocephalus but three posterior fossa symptoms, nystagmus, Parinaud' sign and truncal ataxia were also characteristic. On the CT scan, the fourth ventricle was extraordinarily enlarged. Patency of the aqueductal canal was demonstrated by air study or Conray and Metrizamide ventriculography. On the other hand, occlusion was demonstrated or highly suspected in or near the foramina Magendie and Luschka. After a routine ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation, the fourth ventricle decreased in size and the symptoms were immediately relieved. Plausible explanation for mechanism involved in occurrence of DLCFV were (1) occlusion process in or near the fourth ventricle outlets seems to be crucial in this pathologic condition. Collision of CSF pulse waves against the obstruction may yield a water hammer effect on the fourth ventricle. (2) abnormal weakness of the brain stem parenchyma around the fourth ventricle to CSF pressure may be another contributory factor. PMID:6607422

Matsumoto, M; Kushida, Y; Shibata, I; Seiki, Y; Terao, H

1983-11-01

204

Photochemical Control of DNA Structure through Radical Disproportionation.  

PubMed

Photolysis of an aryl sulfide-containing 5,6-dihydropyrimidine (1) at 350 nm produces high yields of thymidine and products resulting from trapping of a 5,6-dihydrothymidin-5-yl radical by O2 or thiols. Thymidine is believed to result from disproportionation of the radical pair originally generated from C?S bond homolysis of 1 on the microsecond timescale, which is significantly shorter than other photochemical transformations of modified nucleotides into their native forms. Duplex DNA containing 1 is destabilized, presumably due to disruption of ?-stacking. Incorporation of 1 within the binding site of the restriction endonuclease EcoRV provides a photochemical switch for turning on the enzyme's activity. In contrast, 1 is a substrate for endonuclease VIII and serves as a photochemical off switch for this base excision repair enzyme. Modification 1 also modulates the activity of the 10-23 DNAzyme, despite its incorporation into a nonduplex region. Overall, dihydropyrimidine 1 shows promise as a tool to provide spatiotemporal control over DNA structure on the miscrosecond timescale. PMID:23940105

San Pedro, Joanna Maria N; Greenberg, Marc M

2013-08-12

205

Barriers to Psychosocial Services Among Homeless Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington

2012-01-01

206

English Writing Placement Recommendations at College of the Canyons: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken at California's College of the Canyons (CoC) to determine whether evidence existed of disproportionate impact in English course placement based on student ethnicity, gender, or age. Data were compiled for all 4,309 students tested between spring 1993 and fall 1995, while the standard for disproportionate impact was taken…

Gerda, Joseph

207

Reducing Disproportionate Representation of Culturally Diverse Students in Special and Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the disproportionate representation of students from minority backgrounds in special education and gifted classes, and presents strategies that practitioners can use to better address the educational needs of all students. Chapter 1, "Disproportionate Representation: A Contentious and Unresolved Predicament" (Alfredo J. Artiles…

Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Zamora-Duran, Grace, Ed.

208

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist practitioners, researchers, and policy makers in coalescing

Sherman Dorn; Janette K. Klingner; Alfredo J. Artiles; Elizabeth Kozleski; Beth Harry; Shelley Zion; Grace Zamora Durán; David Riley

209

Reducing Disproportionate Representation of Culturally Diverse Students in Special and Gifted Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book discusses the disproportionate representation of students from minority backgrounds in special education and gifted classes, and presents strategies that practitioners can use to better address the educational needs of all students. Chapter 1, "Disproportionate Representation: A Contentious and Unresolved Predicament" (Alfredo J.…

Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Zamora-Duran, Grace, Ed.

210

A distinctive autosomal recessive syndrome of severe disproportionate short stature with short long bones, brachydactyly, and hypotrichosis in two consanguineous Arab families.  

PubMed

Disproportionate short stature is a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders, which are classified according to their mode of inheritance, their clinical skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations, and their radiological characteristics. Herein, we inform on eight individuals with severe disproportionate short stature from two unrelated consanguineous families of Arab-Muslim ancestry. The adult height of the affected individuals is between 112 cm and 127 cm, and is due to pre- and post-natal growth retardation, which probably manifests as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. At a young age, the phenotype is characterized by a short stature, a relatively large head, and a long triangular face, and this phenotype later evolves to one with in which the head is relatively small, the mandible is large and pointy. The affected individuals have normal cognitive abilities and lack any neurological deficits. Other typical features include a prominent nose, a voice with an unusual high-pitched sound, relatively small ears, clinodactyly, brachydactyly, small hands, hypoplastic fingernails, a waddling gait, and sparse hair post-pubertally. Typical skeletal changes include short long bones, especially the femurs and humeri, with mild metaphyseal changes and very short femoral necks. After due consideration of the other hereditary causes of disproportionate short stature and close examination of the pedigrees of the two families, we concluded that these eight individuals have the same hitherto unreported form of severe disproportionate short stature that is inherited in the autosomal recessive mode. PMID:22440536

Shalev, Stavit A; Spiegel, Ronen; Borochowitz, Zvi U

2012-03-03

211

Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.  

PubMed

Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending <5 min preparing breakfast and lunch, and <20 min preparing dinner. Less time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (p<0.0001), while less time spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (p<0.0001). There were no apparent differences in the association between time spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. PMID:22200413

Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

2011-12-16

212

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

2008-12-01

213

Evidence that treatment with risedronate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis affects bone mineralization and bone volume.  

PubMed

Risedronate is used in osteoporosis treatment. Postmenopausal women enrolled in the Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy trial received either risedronate (5 mg/day) or placebo for 3 years. Subjects received calcium and vitamin D supplementation if deficient at baseline. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at 3 years. Quantitative back-scattered electron imaging (qBEI) was performed on paired iliac crest biopsies (risedronate, n = 18; placebo, n = 13) before and after treatment, and the mineral volume fraction in the trabecular bone was calculated. Combining dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric values with the mineral volume fraction for the same patients allowed us to calculate the relative change in trabecular bone volume with treatment. This showed that the effect on BMD was likely to be due partly to changes in matrix mineralization and partly due to changes in bone volume. After treatment, trabecular bone volume in the lumbar spine tended to increase in the risedronate group (+2.4%, nonsignificant) but there was a significant decrease (-3.7%, P < 0.05) in the placebo group. Calcium supplementation with adequate levels of vitamin D led to an approximately 3.3% increase in mineral content in the bone material independently of risedronate treatment. This increase was larger in patients with lower matrix mineralization at baseline and likely resulted from correction of calcium/vitamin D deficiency as well as from reduced bone remodeling. Combining BMD and bone mineralization density distribution data show that in postmenopausal osteoporosis 3-year treatment with risedronate preserves or may increase trabecular bone volume, unlike placebo. This analysis also allows, for the first time, separation of the contributions of bone volume and matrix mineralization to the increase in BMD. PMID:17612779

Fratzl, Peter; Roschger, Paul; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Phipps, Roger; Klaushofer, Klaus

2007-08-01

214

Working memory is differentially affected by stress in men and women.  

PubMed

Stress has been shown to influence working memory. However, sex differences and the potential impact of stimulus emotionality have not received much attention. In a first experiment the effects of stress on a neutral working memory (WM) paradigm were tested in male and female participants (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 employed the same paradigm but used emotional stimuli. For this purpose, healthy participants were exposed either to a stressful (Trierer Social Stress Test (TSST)) or to a non-stressful control condition. Subsequently, WM performance in an n-back task was assessed. In Experiment 1, single digits were used as stimuli, while in Experiment 2 neutral and negative pictures were additionally employed. Salivary cortisol and Alpha-Amylase (sAA) were measured before and three times after the treatment as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis- and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In both experiments, stress caused a substantial cortisol and sAA increase. For WM performance (response time) a stress by sex interaction was apparent. Stress enhanced performance in men, while impairing it in women. In both experiments stress had no effect on response accuracy. No modulating effect of the emotional quality of stimuli on n-back performance was observed (study 2). The results indicate that the effect of acute stress on n-back performance differs between the sexes. In contrast to long-term memory, the influence of stress on WM appears not to be modulated by the emotionality of the employed stimuli if stimuli are potential targets as it is the case in the n-back task. PMID:23238042

Schoofs, Daniela; Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T

2012-12-10

215

The Effect of Pre-Existing Affect on the Sexual Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives.\\u000a Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties\\u000a in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on

Alessandra H. Rellini; Samantha Elinson; Erick Janssen; Cindy M. Meston

216

Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

Brubaker, P. A.

1985-06-01

217

Cytogenetics of premature ovarian failure: an investigation on 269 affected women.  

PubMed

The importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF) is well-known but in many cases POF still remains idiopathic. Chromosome aneuploidy increase is a physiological phenomenon related to aging, but the role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian function is still undiscovered. Standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 269 patients affected by POF: 27 chromosomal abnormalities were identified, including X chromosome and autosomal structural and numerical abnormalities. In 47 patients with 46,XX karyotype we performed interphase FISH using X alpha-satellite probe in order to identify X chromosome mosaicism rate. Aneuploidy rate in the patient group was significantly higher than the general population group. These findings underline the importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of POF and highlight the potential role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian aging that may lead to a premature onset of menopause. PMID:21318170

Baronchelli, Simona; Conconi, Donatella; Panzeri, Elena; Bentivegna, Angela; Redaelli, Serena; Lissoni, Sara; Saccheri, Fabiana; Villa, Nicoletta; Crosti, Francesca; Sala, Elena; Martinoli, Emanuela; Volontè, Marinella; Marozzi, Anna; Dalprà, Leda

2011-01-17

218

Maternal interaction style in affective disordered, physically ill, and normal women.  

PubMed

Affective style (AS) and communication deviance (CD) have been suggested as markers of dysfunctional family environments that may be associated with psychiatric illness. Studies have focused mainly on parental responses during family interactions when an offspring is the identified patient. The present study is unique in examining AS and CD in mothers with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, or chronic physical illness, and in normal controls. The sample consisted of 64 mothers with children ages 8 to 16. Unipolar mothers were more likely to show negative AS than were any other maternal group. There were no group differences for CD. Chronic stress, few positive life events, and single parenting were associated with AS. CD was associated solely with lower socioeconomic status. Results suggest that dysfunctional interactions are determined not only by maternal psychopathology, but also by an array of contextual factors that are related to the quality of the family environment. PMID:8243622

Hamilton, E B; Jones, M; Hammen, C

1993-09-01

219

Survival of women with ovarian carcinomas and borderline tumors is not affected by estrogen and progesterone receptor status  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the patterns of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and ovarian carcinomas. We also assessed the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in women with ovarian carcinoma, in relation to ER and/or PR expression. Methods We examined ER/PR expression in 38 BOTs and 172 ovarian carcinomas removed from patients treated at the State University of Campinas-UNICAMP (Brazil), from 1993 to 2008 and followed for up to 60 months using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. Results Twenty-eight (73.7%) mucinous and 10 (26.3%) serous BOTs were included. Ovarian carcinomas consisted mainly of 79 (46.0%) serous, 44 (25.5%) mucinous, 17 (9.8%) endometrioid, 10 (5.8%) clear-cell types. There was no significant difference of the ER/PR expression between BOT and ovarian carcinoma (p=0.55 for ER alone, 0.90 for PR alone, and 0.12 for combined expression). The level of ER/PR expression in BOTs was significantly higher in serous than in mucinous tumors (p<0.01). In carcinomas, ER/PR was higher in serous tumors than in mucinous (p<0.01) and clear cell tumors (p=0.02), and higher in endometrioid tumors than in mucinous tumors (p<0.01). DFS was affected neither by the clinical characteristics nor by combined steroid receptor status. OS was found to be significantly worse (p<0.01) only in women with stages II-IV tumors and those with residual disease after surgery (p<0.01). Conclusion Overall, serous and endometrioid tumors were predominantly ER/PR positive, whereas mucinous and clear-cell tumors were preponderantly ER/PR negative. DFS and OS were not affected by ER/PR expression.

Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Lucci De Angelo Andrade, Liliana; Vassallo, Jose; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Pinto, Glauce Aparecida; Ferreira, Patricia Andreia

2013-01-01

220

Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations Among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments.  

PubMed

Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

2013-10-01

221

African American women's perspectives on "Down Low/DL" men: Implications for HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) contribute to women’s HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as “Down Low” or “DL”. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D.C. to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours regarding “Down Low/DL” men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV positive women and three groups were composed of HIV negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women’s perspectives on the “DL”: awareness; suspicion; coping with partner infidelity: male vs. female; sexual health communication; empathy; and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV positive and HIV negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women’s perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women’s exposure to HIV risk.

Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari

2012-01-01

222

??Mortality among African American women with sarcoidosis: data from the Black Women's Health Study.  

PubMed

Background: Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that disproportionately affects black females.  Few studies have specifically addressed causes of death in this population. Objectives: To assess rates and causes of death among women with sarcoidosis in a prospective cohort study of U.S. black women. Design: The Black Women's Health Study is a follow-up study of 59,000 U.S. black women aged 21-69 (median age 38) at entry in 1995.  Data on demographic and lifestyle factors and medical conditions, including sarcoidosis, were obtained through biennial questionnaires.  Deaths and causes of death from 1995 through 2009 among study subjects were identified from National Death Index data. We assessed mortality rates among women with and without a history of sarcoidosis.  Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted mortality rates. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality and 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 121 deaths occurred among 1,192 women with a history of sarcoidosis and 2813 deaths among women without sarcoidosis.  Mortality was greater at every age among women with sarcoidosis and the overall multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93, p<0.0001). Of the deaths among women with sarcoidosis, 24.7% were directly attributable to sarcoidosis. Conclusions: In the Black Women's Health Study, women with sarcoidosis were more than twice as likely to die as women without the disease, with many of the deaths directly attributable to sarcoidosis.  Sarcoidosis is an important cause of premature death among black women with the disease. PMID:24071884

Tukey, M H; Berman, J S; Boggs Et Al, D A

2013-08-01

223

Structural characteristics and mechanism of hydrogen-induced disproportionation of the ZrCo alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intermetallic compound ZrCo was prepared, and its hydrogen-induced disproportionation in hydrogen desorption processes was investigated. The hydrogenation-dehydrogenation thermodynamics of the ZrCo alloy was evaluated by pressure-composition isotherm measurements at different temperatures. The kinetic processes of hydrogen-induced disproportionation at different temperatures under certain pressures were detailedly studied. The disproportionation rate of the ZrCo alloy increased with the increases of temperature and initial hydrogen pressure under experimental conditions. However, the maximum attainable extent of disproportionation did not change much with an increase in temperature or initial hydrogen pressure. The crystallographic structure analysis of the ZrCo alloy combining with its corresponding dehydrogenation kinetic curves under the conditions of an initial hydrogen pressure of 0.2 MPa and a temperature of 723 K indicated that the basic process of disproportionation reactions was composed of four stages: rapid dehydrogenation of ZrCoH3, equilibrium of dehydrogenation, simultaneity of dehydrogenation and disproportionation, and completion of disproportionation.

Guo, Xiu-mei; Wang, Shu-mao; Liu, Xiao-peng; Li, Zhi-nian; Ye, Jian-hua; Yuan, Hui-ping; Jiang, Li-jun

2012-11-01

224

Uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: evidence for lower uptake in women affected by breast cancer and older women  

PubMed Central

Background: Bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (BRRSO) is the only effective way of reducing mortality from ovarian cancer. This study investigates uptake of BRRSO in 700 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers from Greater Manchester. Methods: Dates of last follow-up and BRRSO were obtained, and the following variables were investigated: ovarian cancer risk/gene, age and breast cancer history. The date of the genetic mutation report was the initiation for Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: The uptake of BRRSO in BRCA1 mutation carriers was 54.5% (standard error 3.6%) at 5 years post testing compared with 45.5% (standard error 3.2%) in BRCA2 mutation carriers (P=0.045). The 40–59 years category showed the greatest uptake for BRRSO and uptake was significantly lower in the over 60?s (P<0.0001). Of the unaffected BRCA1 mutation carriers, 65% (standard error 5.1%) opted for surgery at 5 years post-testing compared with 41.1% (standard error 5.1%) in affected BRCA1 mutation carriers (P=0.045). Conclusion: The uptake of BRRSO is lower in women previously affected by breast cancer and in older women. As there is no efficient method for early detection of ovarian cancer, uptake should ideally be greater. Counselling should be offered to ensure BRCA1/2 mutation carriers make an informed decision about managing their ovarian cancer risk.

Sidon, L; Ingham, S; Clancy, T; Clayton, R; Clarke, A; Jones, E A; Lalloo, F; Evans, D G R

2012-01-01

225

Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be administered as a dietary supplement in breast cancer primary prevention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN74096908.

2013-01-01

226

The Role of Reaction of Disproportionation in the Redox Behavior of Iron During Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction of iron in a hot and dense impact-induced plume can proceed under control of reaction of disproportionation of oxygen and provide simultaneous formation of such strange assemblage as native iron, wustite, and magnetite.

Gerasimov, M. V.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Dikov, Yu. P.

2007-03-01

227

Evaluation of the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) Initiative: Iowa Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act requires states to develop and implement strategies to address and reduce the overrepresentation of minority youth in secure facilities. ...

1996-01-01

228

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

229

Health and development in the first 4 years of life in offspring of women with schizophrenia and affective psychoses: Well-Baby Clinic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of genetic high-risk (HR) groups provides the opportunity to study diathesis characteristics associated with schizophrenia (Sc) and affective psychoses. High-risk offspring of women with a history of schizophrenia, affective and other psychoses (n=84), as well as normal-risk control (NC) offspring (n=100), were studied from 0 to 4 years of age, using prospectively recorded information from Well-Baby Clinic (WBC)

Karin M Henriksson; Thomas F McNeil

2004-01-01

230

Disproportionate body composition and neonatal outcome in offspring of mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE High birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal complications. It is not known if the risk differs with body proportionality. The primary aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to body proportionality in large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants stratified by maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based study of all LGA (birth weight [BW] >90th percentile) infants born to women with GDM (n = 1,547) in 1998-2007. The reference group comprised LGA infants (n = 83,493) born to mothers without diabetes. Data were obtained from the Swedish Birth Registry. Infants were categorized as proportionate (P-LGA) if ponderal index (PI) (BW in grams/length in cm(3)) was ?90th percentile and as disproportionate (D-LGA) if PI >90th percentile. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity: Apgar score 0-3 at 5 min, birth trauma, respiratory disorders, hypoglycemia, or hyperbilirubinemia. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for adverse outcomes. RESULTS The risk of composite neonatal morbidity was increased in GDM pregnancies versus control subjects but comparable between P- and D-LGA in both groups. D-LGA infants born to mothers without diabetes had significantly increased risk of birth trauma (OR 1.19 [95% CI 1.09-1.30]) and hypoglycemia (1.23 [1.11-1.37]). D-LGA infants in both groups had significantly increased odds of Cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS The risk of composite neonatal morbidity is significantly increased in GDM offspring. In pregnancies both with and without GDM, the risk of composite neonatal morbidity is comparable between P- and D-LGA. PMID:24159180

Persson, Martina; Fadl, Helena; Hanson, Ulf; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

2013-11-01

231

Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada

2008-01-01

232

Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: Disproportionate prevalence of women among Kevorkian's patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-of-life decisions are among the most difficult to make or study. When we examined these decisions made under the auspices and protection of stringent state laws, we found no gender bias among patients who chose to end their lives in the face of documented debilitating and terminal diseases. However, in the case of euthanasia as practiced by Jack Kevorkian, we

Louis M. Solomon; Rebekka C. Noll

2008-01-01

233

Why Did Poverty Feminize When Women Have Always Been Poor?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contends that women have always been disproportionately represented among those in poverty and that recent attempts to promote the view of a feminization of poverty masks and promotes sexist and racist public policy agendas. (JDH)|

Marciano, Teresa D.

1986-01-01

234

Advice from the obstetrician and other sources: do they affect women's breast feeding practices? A study among different Jewish groups in Jerusalem.  

PubMed

Breast feeding practices and the sources of advice that influenced them were studied in a sample of 276 women from North East Jerusalem. They were followed-up for 4 1/2 months and interviewed on 4 occasions during that period. It was found that 89.7% started breast feeding after parturition, 62.4% were breast feeding by 6 weeks, 40.3% were breast feeding after 3 months and 27.3% were still breast feeding by 4 1/2 months postpartum. Obstetrician's advice given at the 6 weeks postpartum examination was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding (P = 0.001). Other sources of guidance were not significantly related to duration of breast feeding when controlling for social class. Analysis of variance indicated that women of higher social classes breast fed more and for a longer period of time. There was no difference in the pattern of attendance at the obstetrician's examination by social class, although a very small proportion of women belonging to the lower social classes reported getting advice on breast feeding during that visit. There was a strong relation between advice of the obstetrician and percentage of women breast feeding 4 1/2 months postpartum. Country of origin of the women also affected breast feeding practices. Women of Western origin breast fed more and longer than women of Asian or North African origin. This might be explained by social movements that attempt a return to more natural life styles which are prominent in Western societies. The differential relationship between advice of obstetrician and women belonging to different social classes is discussed and key elements in the relation between obstetrician's advice and women's breast feeding practices are considered. PMID:6474231

Mansbach, I K; Palti, H; Pevsner, B; Pridan, H; Palti, Z

1984-01-01

235

Shame, guilt, and identity in men and women: the role of identity orientation and processing style in moral affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, 200 women and 106 men (M age = 19.6 years old) completed measures of shame, guilt, identity-orientation, and identity-processing styles. Women reported greater shame and guilt than men. Zero-order and partial correlates indicated that for both women and men shame was related positively to a social identity (one’s public image as presented through roles and relationships)

Nita Lutwak; Joseph R. Ferrari; Jonathan M. Cheek

1998-01-01

236

Tetanus immunization in pregnant women: evaluation of maternal tetanus vaccination status and factors affecting rate of vaccination coverage.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the tetanus vaccination status for pregnant women, and to examine the effects of various factors on tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination coverage during pregnancy in reproductive-age women. Four-hundred and ninety-three postpartum women who had live births at a hospital in Ankara were interviewed and information was collected on the mothers' sociodemographic characteristics, TT vaccination history, and prenatal care during the pregnancy studied. The rates for no vaccination, one-dose vaccination, and two-dose vaccination were 53.3%, 18.9%, and 27.8%, respectively. The vaccinated women (with at least one dose) were significantly younger, of lower parity, and had attended more prenatal care visits than the unvaccinated women. Of the women who attended at least one prenatal care check-up, only about half were vaccinated. Significantly more rural women were vaccinated against tetanus than urban women. Current vaccination rates with TT during pregnancy were found to be well below universal levels. Turkey needs to launch effective mass media campaigns that target urban and suburban populations, and inform and motivate women to request vaccination against tetanus. PMID:11593447

Maral, I; Baykan, Z; Aksakal, F N; Kayikcioglu, F; Bumin, M A

2001-09-01

237

Factors affecting nurses' attitudes towards the screening and care of battered women in Dublin A&E departments: a literature review.  

PubMed

The concept of one human being inflicting unnecessary pain and suffering upon another, on a daily basis, is a disturbing and incredulous thought at the very least. This concept also known as domestic violence is all too real for the many victims presently suffering at the hands of their abusive partners. In Ireland, almost one in five women have experienced some form of domestic violence. This phenomenon can also be identified and further clarified as 'woman battering' Due to the confidential and accessible service offered to the client the Accident and Emergency department is a vital source of assistance to women who have been beaten by their partners. Battered women frequently present with injuries both visible and non-visible. More often than not however, many women are treated solely for their injuries and pass through the healthcare system unnoticed. Lydon (1996) estimates that of all presenting cases of domestic violence in the A&E department, only 5% are actually detected. Some literature estimates 3% detection rates (Thompson et al. 1998, Hadley, 1992). The following literature review explores the history behind the phenomenon of violence against women and its extent in Ireland. The literature affirming the important role of the nurse in A&E is reviewed and several themes are explored that affect nurses' attitudes in the screening and care of battered women. PMID:11760262

Corbally, M A

2001-01-01

238

Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces hunger and desire to snack but does not affect energy intake in women.  

PubMed

The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) supplementation in soup or broth on satiety is not well understood. In the present study, the relative effects of four chicken broths with or without added MSG on motivational ratings and energy intakes at the next meal were compared using a double-blinded, within-subject design. A total of thirty-five normal-weight women, aged 20-40 years, took part in four study sessions. The four broths were base chicken broth (63 kJ), broth with added MSG (1.19 g) and nucleotides (0.03 g), broth with added MSG (1.22 g), and broth with added fat (BAF; 681 kJ). The preloads were presented twice at 09.00 and 11.15 hours for a maximum cumulative dose of 2.44 g MSG. Motivational ratings were collected before and at 15 min intervals post-ingestion for a total of 210 min. A test lunch meal was served at 12.00 hours, and plate waste was measured. The addition of MSG to chicken broth did not increase energy intakes at lunch or affect motivational ratings over the entire testing session. Both hunger and desire to snack between the second preload exposure and the test meal were significantly reduced in the MSG condition relative to the base broth condition (both, P = 0.03). However, only the BAF significantly suppressed energy intakes at lunch compared with the base broth control condition. Supplementing chicken broth with MSG can increase subjective ratings for satiety but does not alter energy intake at the next meal relative to an equal energy broth without added MSG. PMID:21736801

Carter, Brett E; Monsivais, Pablo; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

2011-06-01

239

Intersection of Canadian Policy Parameters Affecting Women with Precarious Immigration Status: A Baseline for Understanding Barriers to Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian federal policy provides a framework for the immigration and health experiences of immigrant women. The official immigration category under which a migrant is admitted determines to what degree her right to remain in the country (immigration status) is precarious. Women immigrants fall primarily into the more dependent categories and they experience barriers to access to health services arising from

Jacqueline Oxman-Martinez; Jill Hanley; Lucyna Lach; Nazilla Khanlou; Swarna Weerasinghe; Vijay Agnew

2005-01-01

240

The Influence of Music on Depression, Affect, and Benefit Finding Among Women at the Completion of Treatment for Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women at the completion of treatment for breast cancer experience relief along with continued physical and psychological distress. This study explored the effectiveness of two forms of a Relaxation Intervention in providing psychosocial support to women at the completion of treatment for breast cancer. The two conditions included (1) Music-Assisted Relaxation (MAR), in which contemporary, sedative music was paired with

Julie J. Stordahl

2009-01-01

241

Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.  

PubMed

Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

Beckerleg, S

1984-10-01

242

Women and Children: Alone and in Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph looks at the increasing number of poor women and discusses anti poverty programs in regard to this group. Figures are presented which indicate an increase in the number of poor women in the 1970s, and show that Blacks and Hispanics are disproportionately represented among the poor. The paper suggests that the child-bearing role of…

Pearce, Diana; McAdoo, Harriette

243

A super Asian dust storm over the East and South China Seas: Disproportionate dust deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

super Asian dust (SAD) storm that originated from North China has affected East Asia since 20 March 2010. The tempo-spatial and size distributions of aerosol Al, a tracer of wind-blown dust, were measured on a regional aerosol network in March 2010. Two dust events were recorded: the SAD and a relatively moderate AD event. The SAD clouds raised Al concentrations to ~50 µg/m3 on 21 and 22 March over the East China Sea (ECS) and occupied there for ~5 days. The SAD plume also stretched toward the South China Sea (SCS) on 21 March however, it caused a maximum Al concentration of ~8.5 µg/m3 only, much lower than that observed in the ECS. In comparison, a weaker dust plume on 16 March caused Al maximum of ~4 µg/m3 over the ECS, and comparably, ~3 µg/m3 in the SCS. Dry dust deposition was measured during the peak phase of the SAD at 178 mg/m2/d, which corresponded to dry deposition velocities of 0.2-0.6 cm/s only, much lower than the commonly adopted one (1-2 cm/s). The corresponding increase in dust deposition by the SAD was up to a factor of ~12, which was, however, considerably disproportionate to the increase in dust concentration (i.e., the factor of over 100). In certain cases, synoptic atmospheric conditions appear to be more important in regulating dust contribution to the SCS than the strength of AD storms.

Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Tsai, Fujung; Lin, Fei-Jan; Chen, Wei-Nai; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Huang-Chuan, Jr.; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chung-Chi; Liu, Tsun-Hsien; Chen, Hung-Yu; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Hung, Gwo-Wei; Huang, Chao-Hao; Lin, Shuen-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Tang

2013-07-01

244

In situ spectroscopic investigation of oxidative dehydrogenation and disproportionation of benzyl alcohol.  

PubMed

In the solvent free oxidation of benzyl alcohol, using supported gold-palladium nanoalloys, toluene is often one of major by-products and it is formed by the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol. Gold-palladium catalysts on acidic supports promote both the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol and oxidative dehydrogenation to form benzaldehyde. Basic supports completely switch off disproportionation and the gold-palladium nanoparticles catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction exclusively. In an attempt to provide further details on the course of these reactions, we have utilized in situ ATR-IR, in situ DRIFT and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopic methods, and in this article we present the results of these in situ spectroscopic studies. PMID:23677173

Nowicka, Ewa; Hofmann, Jan P; Parker, Stewart F; Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Lari, Giacomo M; Kondrat, Simon A; Knight, David W; Bethell, Donald; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Hutchings, Graham J

2013-05-15

245

Eating Disorders and College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coping skills are a subject that college students face everyday. These coping skills may be healthy or unhealthy. Eating disorders may be classified as both a coping skill and a disease. The prevalence of eating disorders is disproportionate among men and women attending college, and there is a wide continuum that includes the commonly recognized disorders, such as anorexia and

Jamie A. Zioncheck

2000-01-01

246

Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.  

PubMed

To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

2013-05-01

247

Structure of an alloy based on SmCo 5 after disproportionation-recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the X-ray phase diffraction, metallographic, and micro-X-ray spectral analyses, we study the procedure of solid hydrogenation,\\u000a disproportionation, desorption, and recombination in KS37 alloy formed by the SmCo5 and SmCo3 phases for \\u000a $$P_{H_2 } $$\\u000a ? 4 MPa at 1158K. The alloy disproportionates in hydrogen into a mixture of samarium hydride and cobalt with grain sizes\\u000a ? 1 m.

I. I. Bulyk; A. M. Trostyanchyn

2006-01-01

248

Magnetic isotope effect in the reaction of disproportionation of radical pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photolysis of methyldeoxybenzoin was carried out in aqueous SDS solution inthe earth's field and in a field of 1500 G. Benzaldehyde and styrene are produced by disproportionation of benzoyl—sec-phenethyl geminate radical pair. Both benzaldehyde and the recovered methyldeoxybenzoin are enriched in 13C. These results represent the first direct evidence that both disproportionation and recombination of a radical pair are identically selective to the magnetic isotope effect, a results consistent with the conclusions that the reaction pathways which involve a triplet geminate radical pair are selected after the completion of intersystem crossing.

Step, Eugene N.; Buchachenko, Anatolii; Turro, Nicholas J.

1991-11-01

249

Immediate reconstruction with implants in women with invasive breast cancer does not affect oncological safety in a matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians are still concerned about the oncological safety regarding immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) in breast cancer\\u000a patients. This study aimed to evaluate possible differences between local, regional, and distant recurrences between women\\u000a having implant-based reconstruction versus women operated with mastectomy alone. Secondary aims were to evaluate time to oncological\\u000a treatment as well as disease-free and breast-cancer-specific survival. In a retrospective

C. Eriksen; J. Frisell; M. Wickman; E. Lidbrink; K. Krawiec; K. Sandelin

2011-01-01

250

Portrayal of Women and Elderly Patients in Psychotropic Drug Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs for men and women have been well documented, especially in antidepressants and anxiolitics. One explanation offered is that physicians are influenced by gender stereotyping in pharmaceutical drug advertisements. It is argued that if drug ads display disproportionately more women than men, or if they portray women only as helpless, depressed, and incompetent, cultural

Finy Josephine Hansen; Dawn Osborne

1995-01-01

251

Management Progression and Ambition: Women and Men in Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations for the disproportionate under-representation of women managers in social services focus either on discrimination in appointment practices and\\/or career development, or emphasise the disadvantages faced by women because of family and caring responsibilities. It has also been suggested that women are less committed to career progression than men. Using data from the 1994 National Institute for Social Work (NISW)

Barbara Davey

2002-01-01

252

Your Sexism Predicts My Sexism: Perceptions of Men’s (but not Women’s) Sexism Affects One’s Own Sexism Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of perceived normative (societal) levels of benevolent (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) on one’s own sexist attitudes\\u000a were examined over a four-month period in an undergraduate New Zealand sample (76 women, 26 men). Perceptions of normative\\u000a levels of men’s BS produced longitudinal change in one’s own BS, and this effect was invariant across gender. However, contrary\\u000a to previous

Chris G. Sibley; Nickola C. Overall; John Duckitt; Ryan Perry; Taciano L. Milfont; Sammyh S. Khan; Ronald Fischer; Andrew Robertson

2009-01-01

253

Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

2010-01-01

254

The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

2013-03-01

255

Sexual concurrency among young African American women.  

PubMed

Young African-American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) sexually transmitted infections (STI), and engage in greater sexual concurrency than other race/ethnicities. It is important to evaluate behaviors and characteristics associated with the risk of sexual concurrency, so that interventions can target factors most likely to affect positive change. An emphasis on correlates of concurrency beyond individual-level factors has been suggested. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify individual- and partner-level characteristics associated with sexual concurrency among high-risk, young African-American women. Data were collected from 570 African-American adolescent women (aged 15-21) recruited from a STI clinic, a family planning clinic, and a teen clinic located in Atlanta, GA from March 2002 through August 2004. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2012 to evaluate correlates of sexual concurrency. Results show that almost one-quarter of participants reported sexually concurrent partnerships and 28.4% suspected male partner concurrency. Logistic regression results indicated the number of lifetime sexual partners and relationship factors were the primary contributors to engaging in concurrency in this sample. These findings suggest relationship factors may be important contributors to the prevalence of sexual concurrency among young African-American women. Interventions targeted toward sexual health among young African-American women may need to specifically address partner/relationship factors. Through these findings, we hope to better understand sexual risk taking and develop strategies that would overcome barriers to existing interventions aimed at improving the sexual health outcomes of young African-American women. PMID:23363034

Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna G; Davis, Teaniese L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

2013-01-31

256

The Song Remains the Same: Transposition and the Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has long been recognised as a problem in the United States. It is, however, only with the 2004 authorisation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) that Congress has tried to prescribe a remedy for this. Beginning with a deconstruction of…

Beratan, Gregg

2008-01-01

257

Connecting Iowa's Disproportionate Minority Confinement Efforts to the Iowa Justice Data Warehouse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Like many states, Iowa has struggled with the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) issue. DMC is a concern with the number of minority youth that are involved with the court systems and confined in secure settings, and that these minority youth are...

S. Musel L. Roeder-Grubb R. Moore

2002-01-01

258

Perspectives of disproportionation driven superconductivity in strongly correlated 3d compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disproportionation in 3d compounds can give rise to an unconventional electron-hole Bose liquid with a very rich phase diagram, from a Bose metal, to a charge ordering insulator and an inhomogeneous Bose-superfluid. Optimal conditions for disproportionation driven high-Tc superconductivity are shown to be realized only for several Jahn-Teller dn configurations that permit the formation of well defined local composite bosons. These are the high-spin d4, low-spin d7, and d9 configurations given the octahedral crystal field, and the d1, high-spin d6 configurations given the tetrahedral crystal field. The disproportionation reaction has a peculiar ‘anti-Jahn-Teller’ character lifting the bare orbital degeneracy. Superconductivity in the d4 and d6 systems at variance with d1, d7, and d9 systems implies unavoidable coexistence of the spin-triplet composite bosons and the magnetic lattice. We argue that unconventional high-Tc superconductivity, observed in quasi-2d cuprates with tetragonally distorted CuO6 octahedra and iron-based layered pnictides/chalcogenides with tetrahedrally coordinated Fe2+ ions presents a key argument to support the fact that the disproportionation scenario is at work in these compounds.

Moskvin, A. S.

2013-02-01

259

The State of Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) in Mississippi's Juvenile Detention Facilities1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) has become a national issue due to several amendments to the JJDP Act of 1974 requiring compliance of all states' participating in the formula grants program. All participating states, including the State of Mississippi, have thus introduced several programs to tackle the DMC problems in their various states for six years running. Giving these programmatic interventions,

Saliba D. Mukoro

260

Disproportionate Over-Representation of Indigenous Students in New South Wales Government Special Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A significant gap exists in the Australian research literature on the disproportionate over-representation of minority groups in special education. The aim of this paper is to make a contribution to the research evidence-base by sketching an outline of the issue as it presents in Australia's largest education system in the state of New South…

Graham, Linda J.

2012-01-01

261

Self-consciousness of disproportionate breast size: a primary psychological reaction to abnormal appearance.  

PubMed

An hypothesis is proposed to answer two questions: "How do the symptoms that are the experience of subjects who are self-conscious of abnormal appearance develop?" and "Why do they develop in some people and not others?" The hypothesis is explained using the typical experiences of patients with disproportionate breast size as examples. PMID:6831099

Harris, D L

1983-04-01

262

Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate

Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

263

Long-Term Retention Deficits in Two Cases of Disproportionate Retrograde Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of very long-term retention, together with detailed brain imaging correlates, is presented in two patients with disproportionately dense retrograde amnesia. The first patient suffered a severe closed head injury and was left with dense autobiographical amnesia for events that she had experienced prior to her injury. She showed relatively mild, patchy memory impairment on standard anterograde memory tests.

Narinder Kapur; Keith Scholey; Elizabeth Moore; Simon Barker; Jason Brice; Simon Thompson; Agnes Shiel; Roland Carn; Patricia Abbott; John Fleming

1996-01-01

264

Pathways of Risk: Race, Social Class, Stress, and Coping as Factors Predicting Heterosexual Risk Behaviors for HIV Among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women and Latinas as well as women of lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately represented among women with AIDS; therefore, understanding the factors associated with HIV risk behavior for these women is of particular concern. With a diverse sample of women, the current study examined the validity of a theoretical model that proposed that stress and coping mediated the relationships

Jeannette R. Ickovics; Susan E. Beren; Elena L. Grigorenko; Allison C. Morrill; Jennifer A. Druley; Judith Rodin

2002-01-01

265

Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n?=?1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n?=?77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n?=?184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2) ?=?12.93 p?=?0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor-Leste, impacting on their health, child-rearing and ability to participate fully in socio-economic development.

Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

2013-01-01

266

Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions.  

PubMed

In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes. PMID:23042121

Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I

2012-10-04

267

Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

Heilbronner, Nancy N.

2009-01-01

268

Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

Heilbronner, Nancy N.

2009-01-01

269

Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and\\/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that

Nancy N. Heilbronner

2009-01-01

270

Factors Affecting Success for Women Entrepreneurs in West Africa: The Case of Kosai, a Value Added Cowpea Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kosai, a deep-fat fried fritter made from cowpea, is an important product for economic development and poverty alleviation. Kosai is sold as street food almost exclusively by women entrepreneurs who use the money they earn from selling kosai on savings and daily expenditures for their family. In addition, cowpea is the more important indigenous African legume and kosai production uses

Germaine Ibro; Joan R. Fulton; James Lowenberg-DeBoer

2006-01-01

271

High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Affects Early Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number and Endothelial Function in Obese Women.  

PubMed

Objective: In order to improve our understanding of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) cardiovascular (CV) impact in obesity, the association of HDL-C plasma level with circulating early endothelial progenitor cell (early-EPC) number and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in obese women with normal or high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma levels was evaluated. Design and Methods: One hundred thirteen obese female subjects and a control group of 78 healthy female subjects were recruited. Circulating early-EPC were assessed by single- and two-color flow cytometric analyses with a fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACScan) flow cytometer. EDV was evaluated as response to ischemia by strain gauge plethysmography. Results: Both early-EPC number and EDV were significantly decreased in obese women compared with the control group. Obese women with low HDL-C showed a further decrease of early-EPC and EDV in the presence of both high or normal LDL-C plasmatic levels. In the normal HDL-C level subgroup, hypercholesterolemic and nonhypercholesterolemic subjects showed no difference in early-EPC number, whereas slight EDV impairment was present in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Conclusion: In obese women, low HDL-C is associated to decreased early-EPC number and impaired EDV, suggesting the need to assess whether evaluation of early-EPC and EDV may increase HDL-C prognostic value in the stratification of CV risk. PMID:23512890

Rossi, F; Bertone, C; Michelon, E; Bianco, M J; Santiemma, V

2013-03-20

272

Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of

Lynne C Giles; Gary FV Glonek; Vivienne M Moore; Michael J Davies; Mary A Luszcz

2010-01-01

273

Hope and coping in HIV-infected African American women of reproductive age  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women of reproductive age, particularly those living in the southern United States, represent a disproportionate number of women with HIV\\/AIDS. Often women who become infected with HIV in the South must cope not only with the disease, but with economic stresses and racial stigma, as well. Faced with these changes, these women experience increased distress and loss of hope.

Kenneth D. Phillips; R. L. Sowell

2000-01-01

274

Barriers to career progress for women in education: the perceptions of female headteachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of women who achieve senior posts in educational management is disproportionate to the number of women employed. This is particularly true for women in secondary education, where only about 20 per cent of headships are held by women. All the female headteachers of one English shire county were interviewed about their own experiences and views on barriers to

Marianne Coleman

1996-01-01

275

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist…

Klingner, Janette K.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth; Harry, Beth; Zion, Shelley; Tate, William; Duran, Grace Zamora; Riley, David

2005-01-01

276

Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for attrition was interest in another (non-STEM) field. Participants placed little importance on other reasons for leaving STEM that were identified in previous research, such as competition, social isolation, or financial considerations.

Heilbronner, Nancy N.

277

Women and AIDS: the ethics of exaggerated harm.  

PubMed

This article examines the way in which some biomedical ethicists have constructed sexually transmitted AIDS as a significant threat to women's health. We demonstrate that the familiar claim that 'women are the fastest growing group' -- whether of HIV-infected or of AIDS patients -- is misleading because it obscures the distinction between proportional rate of growth and absolute increase. Feminist ethicists have suggested that misogyny of a male dominated health care system has led to underreporting of women AIDS cases in order to support these feminists' claim of AIDS being a real threat to women's health. Given the apparent rarity of tertiary transmissions of AIDS, the assertion that most or even many women are at significant risk for AIDS seems wrong. Particularly disturbing in this campaign is the fact that the theme of 'risky sex' has been extended all the way to lesbians, even though their risk to acquire AIDS sexually is non-existent to miniscule. We argue that actual harm is done to women by this exaggeration of their risk of contracting AIDS sexually. The scare has led to misappropriations of scarce health care funds. AIDS disproportionately affects women who inject drugs, and who suffer other diseases, poverty and malnutrition. It would have been better to concentrate health care efforts in this area instead of 'educating' women not at risk for AIDS how to prevent the acquisition of this disease. Unjustifiable AIDS anxiety has been created in women and has resulted in millions of unnecessary HIV-tests, and many broken relationships. This anxiety has inevitably reduced the pleasure of having sex for many women. We reject the kind of 'victim ideology' that lies at the heart of this strategy which has, unfortunately, been supported by a number of influential feminist ethicists. PMID:11653248

Mertz, David; Sushinsky, Mary Ann; Schüklenk, Udo

1996-04-01

278

DIETARY MANGANESE INTAKE AND TYPE OF LIPID DO NOT AFFECT CLINICAL OR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES IN HEALTHY YOUNG WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because manganese (Mn) is potentially toxic, and because dietary fat type may affect Mn absorption, the objectives of the current study were to determine whether diets containing very low or very high amounts of Mn and enriched in either saturated or unsaturated fats affected measures of neuropsycho...

279

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.  

PubMed

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. PMID:20236611

Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

2010-03-15

280

Plant Stanol Esters Affect Serum Cholesterol Concentrations of Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women in a Dose-dependent Manner1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant stanol ester on serum cholesterol is dose-dependent. However, it is not clear what the dose is beyond which no additional benefit can be obtained. Therefore, we determined the dose-response relationship for serum cholesterol with different doses of plant stanol ester in hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a single-blind design each of 22 men or women consumed five different

Maarit A. Hallikainen; Essi S. Sarkkinen; Matti I. J. Uusitupa

281

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental–observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18–29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick B. van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

282

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

283

Hormone replacement therapy affects body composition and leptin differently in obese and non-obese postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin and oestrogen are both involved in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and feeding behaviour. We investigated whether 5 years of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) aVected serum leptin and body compo- sition diVerently in 89 postmenopausal women treated with HRT compared with 178 controls. At baseline, leptin was significantly correlated with oestradiol (r=0·13, P<0·05) and in multiple backward regression

K Kristensen; S B Pedersen; P Vestergaard; L Mosekilde; B Richelsen

1999-01-01

284

Cosmopolitan Whiteness: The Effects and Affects of Skin-Whitening Advertisements in a Transnational Women's Magazine in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Previous scholarship on the immense popularity of skin-whitening frames this practice as revealing women's desire to emulate whiteness and upper class white populations (Burke 1996; Peiss 1998; Hall 2005). Others have focused on whitening practices to highlight the working of racialized color hierarchy and European\\/Euro-American hegemony in local and global contexts (Hunter 2005; Pierre 2008; Glenn 2009;). This article breaks

L. Ayu Saraswati

2010-01-01

285

Cosmopolitan Whiteness: The Effects and Affects of Skin-Whitening Advertisements in a Transnational Women's Magazine in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous scholarship on the immense popularity of skin-whitening frames this practice as revealing women's desire to emulate whiteness and upper class white populations (Burke 1996; Peiss 1998; Hall 2005). Others have focused on whitening practices to highlight the working of racialized color hierarchy and European\\/Euro-American hegemony in local and global contexts (Hunter 2005; Pierre 2008; Glenn 2009;). This article breaks

L. Ayu Saraswati

2010-01-01

286

The benefits of being self-determined in promoting physical activity and affective well-being among women recently treated for breast cancer.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: In this study, changes in motivational regulations in women following treatment for breast cancer were described. Changes in motivational regulations as predictors of subsequent change in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and affect were also examined. METHODS: Women [n?=?150; Mage ?=?54.41 (SD?=?10.87) years] completed self-report questionnaires and wore an accelerometer for 7?days at Time 1 [M?=?3.94 (SD?=?3.08) months following primary treatment], as well as 3 (Time 2) and 6 (Time 3) months later. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and path analysis using residual change scores. RESULTS: Identified regulation and self-determined motivation (i.e., combined intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) scores decreased over time (p?affect (??=?-0.16), ?Time1-2 in introjected (??=?0.25) and amotivation (??=?0.19) were related to ?Time2-3 in negative affect, and ?Time1-2 in self-determined motivation was related to ?Time2-3 in positive affect (??=?0.40) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (??=?0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in motivational regulations were related to changes in PA and affect in the aftermath of breast cancer. Given the benefits of self-determined motivation, additional research is needed to develop and test interventions aimed at enhancing this type of motivation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23596106

Brunet, Jennifer; Burke, Shaunna M; Sabiston, Catherine M

2013-04-18

287

African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.  

PubMed Central

African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

288

The prevalence of PALB2 germline mutations in BRCA1\\/BRCA2 negative Chinese women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

PALB2 has been recently identified as breast cancer susceptibility gene in western populations. To investigate the contribution\\u000a of PALB2 mutations to Chinese non-BRCA1\\/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer, we screened all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries\\u000a of PALB2 in 360 Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer or affected relatives from five breast disease clinical centers\\u000a in China by utilizing PCR-DHPLC and DNA

A-Yong Cao; Juan Huang; Zhen Hu; Wen-Feng Li; Zhong-Liang Ma; Li-Li Tang; Bin Zhang; Feng-Xi Su; Jie Zhou; Gen-Hong Di; Kun-Wei Shen; Jiong Wu; Jin-Song Lu; Jian-Min Luo; Wen-Tao Yuan; Zhen-Zhou Shen; Wei Huang; Zhi-Ming Shao

2009-01-01

289

Effects of musically evoked affect on women's interpersonal attraction toward and perceptual judgments of physical attractiveness of men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a between-subjects design, female subjects evaluated photographs of attractive and unattractive stimulus males while listening to positive affect-evoking rock music, negative affect-evoking avant-garde music, or no music at all. Consistent with previous research, subjects evaluated attractive stimulus males more positively than unattractive males on a variety of interpersonal judgment dimensions. Furthermore, subjects responded with more positive evaluations of personal

James L. May; Phyllis Ann Hamilton

1980-01-01

290

Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during anaerobic bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur is an important process in the sulfur cycle of natural sediments and leads to the formation of hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. The oxygen atoms in sulfate during this anaerobic process are completely derived from water according to the overall reaction: 4H2O + 4S0 ? 3H2S + SO42? + 2H+In the present study, stable oxygen isotope

M. E. Böttcher; B. Thamdrup; T. W. Vennemann

2001-01-01

291

Modeling complex plastic deformation and fracture of metals under disproportionate loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is developed to describe fatigue-damage accumulation in structural materials (metals and their alloys) on multiaxial paths of disproportionate combined heat and power loading. The effect of the shape of the strain path on the fatigue life of metals was studied to obtain qualitative and quantitative estimates of the obtained constitutive relations. It is shown that the proposed constitutive relations adequately describe the main elastoplastic deformation effects and damage accumulation in structural materials for arbitrary strain paths.

Volkov, I. A.; Korotkikh, Yu. G.; Tarasov, I. S.

2009-09-01

292

The Disproportionate Impact of Antigay Family Policies on Black and Latino Same-sex Couple Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the racial dynamics of antigay activism, and the particular, disproportionate impact of antigay family\\u000a policies on Black and Latino same-sex couple families. Starting in the mid-1990s, antigay activists have passed dozens of\\u000a laws and constitutional amendments banning and repealing state recognition of gay and lesbian relationships. For two decades\\u000a the antigay movement has portrayed sexual orientation nondiscrimination

Sean Cahill

2009-01-01

293

Disproportionate over-representation of Indigenous students in New South Wales government special schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant gap exists in the Australian research literature on the disproportionate over-representation of minority groups in special education. The aim of this paper is to make a contribution to the research evidence-base by sketching an outline of the issue as it presents in Australia’s largest education system in the state of New South Wales. Findings from this research show

Linda J. Graham

2012-01-01

294

Shape-selective reactions with zeolite catalysts. VII. Alkylation and disproportionation of cumene to produce diisopropylbenzene  

SciTech Connect

Cumene disproportionates to diisopropylbenzenes (DIPB) and benzene over Mobil ZSM-12 zeolite catalyst. In addition, cumene is alkylated with propylene to give DIPB with high selectivity. With cumene alkylation, para-DIPB is favored (65-80%), with 20-30% meta and 0-5% ortho isomers also being produced. This is in direct contrast to thermodynamic considerations, where meta-DIPB is the favored isomer.

Kaeding, W.W. (Mobil Chemical Co., Princeton, NJ (USA))

1989-12-01

295

Disproportionation of SO/sub 2/ in bubbles within soda-containing glasses  

SciTech Connect

Deposits of S/sup 0/ and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ together in bubbles within production float glass are generated by disproportionation of SO/sub 2/, derived from dissolved SO/sub 3/, in company with Na/sub 2/O from the interior bubble surfaces. This reaction proceeds rapidly in molten glass and also at temperatures well below T /SUB g/ .

Golob, H.R.; Swarts, E.L.

1984-08-01

296

The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 ?L of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume. PMID:21325473

Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

2011-02-16

297

Self-reduction of dioxoplutonium VI: Characterization and modeling of radiolytic and disproportionation pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic modeling shows that self-reduction of dioxoplutonium VI is consistent with disproportionation of Pu(VI) and reaction of the Pu(VII) product with water, as well as with alpha-particle radiolysis of water and reaction of products with Pu(VI). Comparison of predicted and observed [Pu(VI)] time data confirms that self-reduction of 238Pu(VI) at pH 0 is induced by radiolysis, but that self-reduction reactions of 239Pu(VI) at pH 1.5 and 242Pu(VI) at pH 6 are driven by disproportionation. Modeling of [Pu(VI)] time behavior of solutions containing 210Po as an alpha source shows that control of the reduction path changes from disproportionation to radiolytic over time at pH 0.7. Self-reduction of Pu(VI) consistently follows the most rapid path as determined by pH, Pu(VI) concentration, and the isotopic state of Pu. Chemistry and kinetics of the processes by which Pu(VI) self-reduction drives the decrease in average oxidation number of plutonium-containing solutions over time are discussed.

Haschke, John M.

2005-04-01

298

Assessing disproportionate costs to achieve good ecological status of water bodies in a Mediterranean river basin.  

PubMed

Water management is becoming increasingly important as the demand for water grows, diversifies, and includes more complex environmental concerns. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) seeks to achieve a good ecological status for all European Community water bodies by 2015. To achieve this objective, economic consideration of water management must be given to all decision-making processes. Exemption (time or level of stringency) from the objectives of the EU Directive can be justified by proving that the cost of implementing measures is disproportionate to the benefits. This paper addresses the issue of disproportionate costs through a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). To predict the costs, the function costs method is used. The quantification of environmental benefits is more complex, because they are not determined by the market. As an alternative to stated preference methods, we use the distance function approach to estimate the environmental benefits of improving water quality. We then apply this methodological approach to a Mediterranean River Basin in Spain. The results show that the achievement of good status could not be rejected based on the criterion of disproportionate costs in this river basin. This paper illustrates that CBA is a useful tool to inform policy and decision making. Furthermore, it is shown that economics, particularly the valuation of environmental benefits, plays a crucial role in fulfilling the environmental objectives of the WFD. PMID:21738943

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

2011-07-08

299

The prevalence of PALB2 germline mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative Chinese women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives.  

PubMed

PALB2 has been recently identified as breast cancer susceptibility gene in western populations. To investigate the contribution of PALB2 mutations to Chinese non-BRCA1/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer, we screened all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2 in 360 Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer or affected relatives from five breast disease clinical centers in China by utilizing PCR-DHPLC and DNA sequencing analysis. Some genetic variants identified in the cases were then studied in 864 normal controls with no personal or family history of breast cancer. Two protein-truncating PALB2 mutations, 751C>T and 1050_1051delAAinsTCT, were identified in three separate families, and 751C>T was a recurrent mutation. Neither of them, however, were present in the controls (P=0.025). All the truncating mutations occurred in exon 4 of PALB2, and there were still three unclassified variants were detected in the same fragment. We found that exon 4 accounted for 44.1% (15/34) of the person-times carrying with any variant in our study. PALB2 mutations were responsible for approximately 1% of Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer and affected relatives. Our results suggested that a detection of exon 4 before the assay of the whole PALB2 gene might be a cost-effective approach to the screening of Chinese population. PMID:18446436

Cao, A-Yong; Huang, Juan; Hu, Zhen; Li, Wen-Feng; Ma, Zhong-Liang; Tang, Li-Li; Zhang, Bin; Su, Feng-Xi; Zhou, Jie; Di, Gen-Hong; Shen, Kun-Wei; Wu, Jiong; Lu, Jin-Song; Luo, Jian-Min; Yuan, Wen-Tao; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Wei; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2008-04-30

300

Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical vitamin B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker.  

PubMed

A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 ?g/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (<35 pmol/L) in 23% and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). Elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 ?mol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P < 0.0007 and r = -0.20, P < 0.01, respectively). Supplementation increased serum vitamin B-12 and holoTC and lowered MMA and tHcy, normalizing all values except for elevated tHcy in 21% of the women. Supplementation did not affect hematology or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured. PMID:22915298

Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H

2012-08-22

301

Estradiol modulates anhedonia and behavioral despair in rats and negative affect in a subgroup of women at high risk for postpartum depression.  

PubMed

In an effort to address inconsistencies in the literature, we tested a cross-species estrogen withdrawal model of postpartum depression (PPD) with a series of rodent experiments and a prospective, naturalistic human study. All rats were ovariectomized prior to experimentation. The first rat experiment examined the effects of low- and high-dose estradiol administration and withdrawal on lateral-hypothalamic self-stimulation, a behavioral index of anhedonia, in experimental (n=7) and vehicle-only control animals (n=7). The second rat experiment examined the effects of high-dose estradiol withdrawal on activity and immobility during the forced swim test, an index of behavioral despair, in a separate group of experimental (n=8) and vehicle-only control animals (n=8). In the human study, women with (n=8) and without (n=12) a history of PPD completed mood ratings and collected saliva samples (to assess estradiol levels) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy through 10 days postpartum. The presence of PPD was assessed at one month postpartum. In the animal studies, rats in the estradiol withdrawal group demonstrated significantly greater immobility and less swimming than controls. Estradiol withdrawal resulted in reduced responding for electrical stimulation (multiple intensities) relative to estradiol administration. In the human study, there was no significant association between estradiol and negative affect among women with or without a history of PPD. However, there was a correlation between daily estradiol levels and negative affect in the women with incident PPD at one month postpartum. Despite important cross-species differences, both the rat and human studies provided evidence of the effects of estradiol on perinatal depressive symptoms. PMID:23770328

Schiller, Crystal Edler; O'Hara, Michael W; Rubinow, David R; Johnson, Alan Kim

2013-06-13

302

Cation-cation complexes of pentavalent uranyl: from disproportionation intermediates to stable clusters.  

PubMed

Three new cation-cation complexes of pentavalent uranyl, stable with respect to the disproportionation reaction, have been prepared from the reaction of the precursor [(UO(2)py(5))(KI(2)py(2))](n) (1) with the Schiff base ligands salen(2-), acacen(2-), and salophen(2-) (H(2)salen = N,N'-ethylene-bis(salicylideneimine), H(2)acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetoneimine), H(2)salophen = N,N'-phenylene-bis(salicylideneimine)). The preparation of stable complexes requires a careful choice of counter ions and reaction conditions. Notably the reaction of 1 with salophen(2-) in pyridine leads to immediate disproportionation, but in the presence of [18]crown-6 ([18]C-6) a stable complex forms. The solid-state structure of the four tetranuclear complexes, {[UO(2)(acacen)](4)[?(8)-](2)[K([18]C-6)(py)](2)} (3) and {[UO(2)(acacen)](4)[?(8)-]}?2?[K([222])(py)] (4), {[UO(2)(salophen)](4)[?(8)-K](2)[?(5)-KI](2)[(K([18]C-6)]}?2?[K([18]C-6)(thf)(2)]?2?I (5), and {[UO(2)(salen)(4)][?(8)-Rb](2)[Rb([18]C-6)](2)} (9) ([222] = [222]cryptand, py = pyridine), presenting a T-shaped cation-cation interaction has been determined by X-ray crystallographic studies. NMR spectroscopic and UV/Vis studies show that the tetranuclear structure is maintained in pyridine solution for the salen and acacen complexes. Stable mononuclear complexes of pentavalent uranyl are also obtained by reduction of the hexavalent uranyl Schiff base complexes with cobaltocene in pyridine in the absence of coordinating cations. The reactivity of the complex [U(V)O(2)(salen)(py)][Cp*(2)Co] with different alkali ions demonstrates the crucial effect of coordinating cations on the stability of cation-cation complexes. The nature of the cation plays a key role in the preparation of stable cation-cation complexes. Stable tetranuclear complexes form in the presence of K(+) and Rb(+), whereas Li(+) leads to disproportionation. A new uranyl-oxo cluster was isolated from this reaction. The reaction of [U(V)O(2)(salen)(py)][Cp*(2)Co] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with its U(VI) analogue yields the oxo-functionalized dimer [UO(2)(salen)(py)](2)[Cp*(2)Co] (8). The reaction of the {[UO(2)(salen)(4)][?(8)-K](2)[K([18]C-6)](2)} tetramer with protons leads to disproportionation to U(IV) and U(VI) species and H(2)O confirming the crucial role of the proton in the U(V) disproportionation. PMID:21053213

Mougel, Victor; Horeglad, Pawel; Nocton, Grégory; Pécaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella

2010-12-27

303

Hereditary angio-oedema with normal C1 inhibitor in a family with affected women and men.  

PubMed

Recurrent angio-oedema is a sign of various acquired and inherited disease entities, including hereditary angio-oedema types I and II that result from a genetic deficiency of C1 inhibitor, and a recently described type of dominantly inherited angio-oedema, which does not show a deficiency of C1 inhibitor. Until now, this new type of hereditary angio-oedema, designated as hereditary angio-oedema type III, has been assumed to be a disorder specific to females. We now describe a four-generation family with dominantly inherited angio-oedema and normal C1 inhibitor in which, in contrast to all previous observations, not only five female but also three male family members were clinically affected. One male patient was mainly affected following the intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Our current observation leads to new considerations about the classification of hereditary angio-oedema with normal C1 inhibitor. Either hereditary angio-oedema with normal C1 inhibitor can be an entity affecting females predominantly, but not exclusively; in that case, men appear to have a much reduced chance of clinical manifestations. Alternatively, our present observation of hereditary angio-oedema with normal C1 inhibitor affecting both sexes may represent a new disease entity, presumably with a different underlying defect. PMID:16445789

Bork, K; Gül, D; Dewald, G

2006-03-01

304

Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

2008-01-01

305

n3 PUFAs do not affect adipose tissue inflammation in overweight to moderately obese men and women.  

PubMed

Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m(2) consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N; Hagman, Derek K; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S

2013-06-12

306

Attracting women: adopting a psychological approach in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much written on gender in the academic world and its impact on society. Women suffer disproportionately from inequality (Haralambos & Holborn, 2000) and substance use treatment is no different. The workplace and affluence are key areas where this problem has been tackled, though with limiting results. Here Jeff Fernandez asks why women are less likely to seek

Jeff Fernandez

2006-01-01

307

12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. 221.111 Section 221...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered...disproportionate to the right of participation in profits or losses, constitutes an âextension...

2013-01-01

308

Lead exposure among young urban women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority resi- dents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead lev- els. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also de- scribe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material

Jacqueline M. Moline; Anne L. Golden; Andrew C. Todd; James H. Godbold; Gertrud S. Berkowitz

1999-01-01

309

Evaluating Domestic Violence Interventions for Black Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although African American women are at disproportionate risk for domestic violence, review of the literature suggests that traditional law enforcement, criminal justice, and advocacy efforts may be ineffective with this population due to (a) Black female victims' experiences of systemic racism and oppression, which prevents disclosure of abuse and access to resources, and (b) utilization of culture-blind approaches in the

Robert L. Hampton; Jaslean J. LaTaillade; Alicia Dacey; J. R. Marghi

2008-01-01

310

First- and second-shell metal binding residues in human proteins are disproportionately associated with disease-related SNPs.  

PubMed

Protein structure serves as a key determinant for revealing the molecular basis of human disease. Metal ions are among the most frequently bound heterogroups in proteins affecting structure and function. We analyzed the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human disease and metal binding sites in proteins on a database scale, using structural models and predictive tools. A match was identified for 586 disease-associated SNPs (dSNPs) located at 135 predicted metal binding sites and associated with 126 diverse diseases. For 104 diseases, a metal is known to bind at the predicted site in the homologue; for 22, the analysis gives a first indication for metal involvement in the disease. As second-shell residues play an important part in metal ion binding, our analysis included protein space up to 4.5 Å from metal binding sites. The ratio of disease-associated versus nondisease-associated SNPs (dSNP/ndSNP) for first-shell residues is 7.4 and for second-shell residues, 3.1. In addition, over 13% of all dSNPs were found to be associated with first- and second-shell residues, although these residues occupy only about 3% of protein space. These results show a disproportionate association of dSNPs and metal binding sites over a wide variety of diseases. PMID:21898656

Levy, Ronen; Sobolev, Vladimir; Edelman, Marvin

2011-09-14

311

Facets of negative affect prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events in women with bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data suggest that global negative affect (NA) increases prior to and decreases following episodes of binge eating and purging, providing support for the affect regulation model of BN. The current study examined whether facets of NA are differentially related to bulimic behaviors. Women with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 133) completed a 2-week EMA protocol. Momentary assessments of 4 facets of NA (Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness) were derived from the PANAS subscales. Trajectories of the NA facets were modeled prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events. Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness increased prior to and decreased following binge-only and binge/purge events. The same results were found for purge-only events, with the exception that Hostility did not increase significantly prior to purging. Notably, ratings of Guilt were higher than those of Fear, Hostility, and Sadness at the time of binge-only and binge/purge events. Furthermore, post hoc analyses demonstrate that Guilt increased prior to and decreased following the 3 behavior types, even after controlling for Fear, Hostility, and Sadness. These results provide further support for the affect regulation model of BN and also suggest that guilt may be particularly important to the pathology of BN. PMID:22985015

Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A

2012-09-17

312

Facets of Negative Affect Prior to and Following Binge-Only, Purge-Only, and Binge/Purge Events in Women With Bulimia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data suggest that global negative affect (NA) increases prior to and decreases following episodes of binge eating and purging, providing support for the affect regulation model of BN. The current study examined whether facets of NA are differentially related to bulimic behaviors. Women with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 133) completed a 2-week EMA protocol. Momentary assessments of 4 facets of NA (Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness) were derived from the PANAS subscales. Trajectories of the NA facets were modeled prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events. Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness increased prior to and decreased following binge-only and binge/purge events. The same results were found for purge-only events, with the exception that Hostility did not increase significantly prior to purging. Notably, ratings of Guilt were higher than those of Fear, Hostility, and Sadness at the time of binge-only and binge/purge events. Furthermore, post hoc analyses demonstrate that Guilt increased prior to and decreased following the 3 behavior types, even after controlling for Fear, Hostility, and Sadness. These results provide further support for the affect regulation model of BN and also suggest that guilt may be particularly important to the pathology of BN.

Berg, Kelly C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

313

Prefrontal white matter volume is disproportionately larger in humans than in other primates.  

PubMed

Determining how the human brain differs from nonhuman primate brains is central to understanding human behavioral evolution. There is currently dispute over whether the prefrontal cortex, which mediates evolutionarily interesting behaviors, has increased disproportionately. Using magnetic resonance imaging brain scans from 11 primate species, we measured gray, white and total volumes for both prefrontal and the entire cerebrum on each specimen (n = 46). In relative terms, prefrontal white matter shows the largest difference between human and nonhuman, whereas gray matter shows no significant difference. This suggests that connectional elaboration (as gauged by white matter volume) played a key role in human brain evolution. PMID:15665874

Schoenemann, P Thomas; Sheehan, Michael J; Glotzer, L Daniel

2005-01-23

314

Disproportionate Organizational Injustice: A Close Look at Facilities Exempted from Indoor Smoking Laws in Canada  

PubMed Central

Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans.

Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

2012-01-01

315

Disproportionate organizational injustice: a close look at facilities exempted from indoor smoking laws in Canada.  

PubMed

Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans. PMID:23968612

Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

2012-11-01

316

Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles derived from wüstite disproportionation reactions at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Mössbauer studies of hybrid iron-oxide nanoparticles obtained by the disproportionation of oleic acid stabilized wüstite (FexO) nanoparticles produced by selective oxidation of iron pentacarbonyl in high boiling temperature organic solvents. The results support X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscope studies of the presence of mixed FexO and Fe3O4 phases within the nanoparticles whose relative content can be altered through heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere. Furthermore, the Mössbauer study gives evidence of the presence of an amorphous, spin-glass like phase due to spin frustration at the FexO/Fe3O4 interface.

Papaefthymiou, G. C.; Redl, F. X.; Black, C. T.; Sandstrom, R. L.; Yin, M.; Murray, C. B.; O'Brien, S. P.

2005-09-01

317

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of disproportionating enzyme from potato.  

PubMed

Disproportionating enzyme (D-enzyme; EC 2.4.1.25) is a 59 kDa protein that belongs to the alpha-amylase family. D-enzyme catalyses intramolecular and intermolecular transglycosylation reactions of alpha-1,4 glucan. A crystal of the D-enzyme from potato was obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray data showed that the crystal diffracts to 2.0 A resolution and belongs to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 69.7, b = 120.3, c = 174.2 A. PMID:16508106

Imamura, Kayo; Matsuura, Takanori; Ye, Zhengmao; Takaha, Takeshi; Fujii, Kazutoshi; Kusunoki, Masami; Nitta, Yasunori

2004-12-24

318

The Impact of Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment on Provision of Hospital Uncompensated Care  

PubMed Central

This study examines the association between hospital uncompensated care (UC) and reductions in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments resulting from the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Data on California hospitals from 1996 to 2003 were examined using two-stage least squares with a first-differencing model to control for potential feedback effects. Our findings suggest that not-for-profit hospitals did reduce UC provision in response to reductions in Medicaid DSH, but the response was inelastic in value. Policy makers need to continue to monitor how UC changes as sources of support for indigent care change with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).

Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.

2012-01-01

319

Young Women, Local Authority Care and Selling Sex: Findings from Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have noted the disproportionate number of young women with backgrounds of local authority care who are involved in commercial sex. However, the lack of knowledge about why this occurs means that there is little evidence with which to develop interventions. This article describes research that explored young women’s routes into the sex industry from local

Maddy Coy

2008-01-01

320

“Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand”: Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington

2011-01-01

321

Young African women must have empowering and receptive social environments for HIV prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 young women aged

Cath Conn

2012-01-01

322

The Role of Students in the Experience of Women Faculty on the Tenure Track  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Women faculty disproportionately leave academia by their second or third semester and experience slow rates of tenure and promotion. What then, may cause women faculty, both White and of color, to leave early or conversely, to stay through tenure? With a critical feminist framework, this article presents qualitative research into women's…

Kelly, Bridget Turner; Fetridge, Jessica S.

2012-01-01

323

A Constructive Conflict Resolution Training Protocol for Older African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the evaluation of a pilot videotape training program for older African American women in constructive conflict resolution. The program was developed because research shows: (a) older African American women suffer disproportionately from hypertension, (b) hypertension is linked to anger inhibition, and (c) older African American women tend to inhibit their anger in interpersonal conflict. Community-dwelling and institutionalized older

Patricia Flynn Weitzman; Catherine Hardaway; Paula Smakowski; Eben Weitzman; Sue E. Levkoff

2003-01-01

324

Sculpting the Female Breast: How College Women Negotiate the Media's Ideal Breast Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through focus group interviews, this study examined how college women negotiate exposure to media images of disproportionately large-breasted women. The results showed that media images directly and indirectly influence women's breast satisfaction. Personal experiences; self-confidence; and interactions with men, family, and friends influenced their views of ideal breast size.

J. Robyn Goodman; Kim Walsh-Childers

2004-01-01

325

Male Mammies: A Social-Comparison Perspective on How Exaggeratedly Overweight Media Portrayals of Madea, Rasputia, and Big Momma Affect How Black Women Feel About Themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews with 36 Black women, ages 18 to 59, reveal that exaggeratedly overweight depictions of Black women portrayed by men dressed up as women had a strong effect on their identities. The women reported that portrayals, such as Madea in Tyler Perry's films, Rasputia in Eddie Murphy's Norbit, and Martin Lawrence's Big Momma, were “mammy-like” and the fact that

Gina Masullo Chen; Sherri Williams; Nicole Hendrickson; Li Chen

2012-01-01

326

Sleep electroencephalogram in seasonal affective disorder and in control women: effects of midday light treatment and sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

The role of sleep regulation in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was studied in 11 female SAD patients and eight controls in winter before and after light treatment (LT, 6000 lux, 10-14h, 5 days). The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded at baseline and after the total sleep deprivation (TSD) of a 40-h constant routine. The well-known effects of TSD on sleep parameters and on EEG power spectra were replicated, indicating normal homeostatic sleep regulation in SAD. Sleep improved after LT in both groups. Since the condition following LT was the second session, these improvements may be an order effect and/or an effect of LT itself. After LT, sleep EEG spectra of SAD patients, but not of controls, showed modifications resembling those of recovery sleep. Since only SAD patients curtailed their sleep while remitting during the LT period, these EEG modifications can be explained by normal sleep regulation alone. We conclude that the robust antidepressant effect of LT in SAD is unlikely to be mediated by changes in sleep, and that sleep regulatory mechanisms are not a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of winter depression. PMID:8879468

Brunner, D P; Kräuchi, K; Dijk, D J; Leonhardt, G; Haug, H J; Wirz-Justice, A

1996-09-15

327

Suppression of intersite charge transfer in charge-disproportionated perovskite YCu3Fe4O12.  

PubMed

A novel iron perovskite YCu3Fe4O12 was synthesized under high pressure and high temperature of 15 GPa and 1273 K. Synchrotron X-ray and electron diffraction measurements have demonstrated that this compound crystallizes in the cubic AA'3B4O12-type perovskite structure (space group Im3, No. 204) with a lattice constant of a = 7.30764(10) Å at room temperature. YCu3Fe4O12 exhibits a charge disproportionation of 8Fe(3.75+) ? 3Fe(5+) + 5Fe(3+), a ferrimagnetic ordering, and a metal-semiconductor-like transition simultaneously at 250 K, unlike the known isoelectronic compound LaCu3Fe4O12 that currently shows an intersite charge transfer of 3Cu(2+) + 4Fe(3.75+) ? 3Cu(3+) + 4Fe(3+), an antiferromagnetic ordering, and a metal-insulator transition at 393 K. This finding suggests that intersite charge transfer is not the only way of relieving the instability of the Fe(3.75+) state in the A(3+)Cu(2+)3Fe(3.75+)4O12 perovskites. Crystal structure analysis reveals that bond strain, rather than the charge account of the A-site alone, which is enhanced by large A(3+) ions, play an important role in determining which of intersite charge transfer or charge disproportionation is practical. PMID:23560478

Etani, Hidenobu; Yamada, Ikuya; Ohgushi, Kenya; Hayashi, Naoaki; Kusano, Yoshihiro; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kim, Jungeun; Tsuji, Naruki; Takahashi, Ryoji; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Inoue, Toru; Irifune, Tetsuo; Takano, Mikio

2013-04-15

328

Disulfide disproportionation and CdS formation upon cadmium sorption on FeS{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption reactions are important for understanding the distribution of ions between aqueous and solid phases; they govern solution concentrations, bioavailability, and mobility of ions in the environment. Iron disulfide is a sorbent of cadmium in reduced systems but sorption on sulfides is not well understood. The purpose of this research is to determine the surface structures and products of cadmium sorbed on amorphous FeS{sub 2}. Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy were used to study the disulfide surface. The FeS{sub 2} undergoes surface reconstruction and disproportionation during cadmium sorption, which leads to discrete zones of elemental sulfur, cadmium sulfide, and iron hydroxide. Therefore, simple surface complexation is not the predominant mechanism of sorption. Disproportionation may provide a mechanism for the surface to reorganize and for isolated crystalline cadmium sulfide domains to develop. Cadmium surface precipitates are very stable and their formation may be a significant means of attenuating this hazardous element. Thus, it appears that FeS{sub 2} may be an important sorbent of cadmium in natural environments.

Bostick, B.C.; Fendorf, S.; Fendorf, M.

2000-01-01

329

Complete genome sequence of Desulfocapsa sulfexigens, a marine deltaproteobacterium specialized in disproportionating inorganic sulfur compounds  

PubMed Central

Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons.

Finster, Kai Waldemar; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Schreiber, Lars

2013-01-01

330

Charge Density Wave Disproportionation in Pd(III)-containing PdTeI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exotic electronic properties in strongly correlated materials often emerge from the interplay of structure and charge. In most Pd^3+-containing materials, Pd^3+ statically disproportionates into Pd^2+ (d^8) and Pd^4+ (d^6) with square planar and octahedral geometries, respectively. However, high-resolution diffraction data acquired for PdTeI indicate exclusively octahedral coordination of the Pd species within this compound. Temperature-dependent electrical resistivity measurements of this material performed in our lab show a hysteresis between TCDW1 ˜ 120 K and TCDW2 ˜ 50 K, indicative of a first-order phase transition. The most likely origin of this anomaly is the formation of a CDW involving partial, dynamic charge disproportionation of Pd^3+. In addition, low-temperature diffraction data show a broadening of Bragg peaks on cooling which is indicative of strain or of disorder concomitant with disproportion. In this presentation the temperature dependencies of the magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electronic properties of PdTeI will be discussed in the context of CDW formation.

Cottingham, Patrick; Sheckelton, John; Miller, David; Neilson, James; McQueen, Tyrel

2013-03-01

331

Complete genome sequence of Desulfocapsa sulfexigens, a marine deltaproteobacterium specialized in disproportionating inorganic sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:23961312

Finster, Kai Waldemar; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Schreiber, Lars

2013-04-15

332

Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of mood disorders in pregnant and postpartum women.  

PubMed

Mood disorders disproportionately affect women across the lifespan. Mood disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period are common and have profound implications for women and their children. These include obstetric and neonatal complications, impaired mother-infant interactions, and, at the extreme, maternal suicide and infanticide. Because obstetrician-gynecologists are often the first (and sometimes the only) point of contact for young women in the health care system, familiarity with the presentation and treatment of depressive illness in the perinatal period is imperative. The goal of this review is to synthesize essential information on depressive illness in the perinatal period with a focus on its most common and severe presentations, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Accurate diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder from bipolar disorder can facilitate the selection of the best possible treatment alternatives. Counseling may be sufficient for perinatal women who have mild to moderate depression, but women who are severely depressed are likely to require antidepressant treatment. Women with bipolar disorder are at high risk for relapse if mood stabilizer medication is discontinued, and they are vulnerable to relapse near the time of delivery. Comanagement of their care with psychiatrists will increase their chances of avoiding a recurrence of illness. PMID:21422871

Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Vigod, Simone; Ross, Lori E

2011-04-01

333

Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature  

PubMed Central

Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ?18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity.

Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

2011-01-01

334

Identification of common variants in the SHBG gene affecting sex hormone binding globulin levels and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are inversely associated with breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women. Three polymorphisms within the SHBG gene have been reported to affect SHBG levels, but there has been no systematic attempt to identify other such variants. Methods We looked for associations between SHBG levels in 1134 healthy, postmenopausal women and 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or around the SHBG gene. Associations between SHBG SNPs and breast cancer were tested in up to 6622 post-menopausal breast cancer cases and 6784 controls. Results Ten SNPs within or close to the SHBG gene were significantly associated with SHBG levels, as was the (TAAAA)n polymorphism. The best-fitting combination of rs6259, rs858521, rs727428 and body mass index, waist, hip, age and smoking status accounted for 24% of the variance in SHBG levels (natural logarithm transformed). Haplotype analysis suggested that rs858518, rs727428 or a variant in linkage disequilibrium with them, acts to decrease SHBG levels, but that this effect is neutralised by rs6259 (D356N). rs1799941 increases SHBG levels, but the previously reported association with (TAAAA)n repeat length appears to be a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with these SNPs. One further SHBG SNP was significantly associated with breast cancer (rs6257, per-allele odds ratio 0.88, 95% CI=0.82-0.95, p=0.002). Conclusion At least three SNPs showed associations with SHBG levels that were highly significant but relatively small in magnitude. rs6257 is a potential breast cancer susceptibility variant, but relationships between the genetic determinants of SHBG levels and breast cancer are complex.

Thompson, Deborah J; Healey, Catherine S; Baynes, Caroline; Kalmyrzaev, Bolot; Ahmed, Shahana; Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Luben, Robert N; Cox, David; Ballinger, Dennis; Pharoah, Paul DP; Ponder, Bruce AJ; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F

2009-01-01

335

Interleukin-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism affects muscle damage response to acute eccentric resistance exercise in elderly obese women.  

PubMed

The IL-6 gene polymorphism has been associated with disease prevalence and different physiological responses to exercise. Eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) is considered a nonpharmacological tool to prevent the chronic degenerative profile associated with aging and obesity. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism on acute interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) temporal response to ERE in elderly obese women. Ninety women completed seven sets of ten repetitions (eccentric only) of an acute ERE session at 110% of the ten repetitions maximum (10RM). IL-6 genotypes displayed no difference at baseline. ERE induced changes in CK concentration over time occurred only in the GG group, F(2.619, 136.173)=5.199, p=0.003, with CK activity increased from 106.8±6.9U/l pre-intervention to 122.7±11.2U/l at 24h and 131.9±14.4U/l at 48h post-exercise. IL-6 concentration in the GG group was lower than the CC/CG group only at 0h post-exercise (3.78±0.58pg/ml versus 6.51±1.91pg/ml, p=0.030). Only the GG genotype group had higher CK activity 24-48h following ERE and greater CK integral values, while IL-6 activity over 48h was higher in the CC/CG genotype group. In conclusion, IL-6 genotype affects CK and IL-6 in response to ERE. It is of interest that the ERE protocol induced an elevation in CK, indicating possible muscle damage without exacerbating IL-6 and CK for the GG genotype. PMID:23981903

Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Prestes, Jonato; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Farias, Darlan L; Teixeira, Tatiane G; Vieira, Denis Cesar Leite; Souza, Vinícius C; Sousa, Nuno M F; Navalta, James W; Melo, Gislane F; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

2013-08-24

336

Amniotic fluid and serum biomarkers from women with neural tube defect-affected pregnancies: a case study for myelomeningocele and anencephaly.  

PubMed

Object The authors sought to identify novel biomarkers for early detection of neural tube defects (NTDs) in human fetuses. Methods Amniotic fluid and serum were drawn from women in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study group included 2 women pregnant with normal fetuses and 4 with fetuses displaying myelomeningocele (n = 1), anencephaly (n = 1), holoprosencephaly (n = 1), or encephalocele (n = 1). Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) were isolated and cultured. The cells were immunostained for the stem cell markers Oct4, CD133, and Sox2; the epigenetic biomarkers H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K27me2, H3K27me3, H3K9Ac, and H3K18Ac; and the histone modifiers KDM6B (a histone H3K27 demethylase) and Gcn5 (a histone acetyltransferase). The levels of 2 markers for neural tube development, bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and sonic hedgehog (Shh), were measured in amniotic fluid and serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The AFSCs from the woman pregnant with a fetus affected by myelomeningocele had higher levels of H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K27me2, and H3K27me3 and lower levels of KDM6B than the AFSCs from the women with healthy fetuses. The levels of H3K9ac, H3K18ac, and Gcn5 were also decreased in the woman with the fetus exhibiting myelomeningocele. In AFSCs from the woman carrying an anencephalic fetus, levels of H3K27me3, along with those of H3K9Ac, H3K18ac, and Gcn5, were increased, while that of KDM6B was decreased. Compared with the normal controls, the levels of BMP4 in amniotic fluid and serum from the woman with a fetus with myelomeningocele were increased, whereas levels of Shh were increased in the woman pregnant with a fetus displaying anencephaly. Conclusions The levels of epigenetic marks, such as H3K4me, H3K27me3, H3K9Ac, and H3K18A, in cultured AFSCs in combination with levels of key developmental proteins, such as BMP4 and Shh, are potential biomarkers for early detection and identification of NTDs in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. PMID:23971635

Tsurubuchi, Takao; Ichi, Shunsuke; Shim, Kyu-Won; Norkett, William; Allender, Elise; Mania-Farnell, Barbara; Tomita, Tadanori; McLone, David G; Ginsberg, Norman; Mayanil, C Shekhar

2013-08-23

337

CDC Recommendations Regarding Selected Conditions Affecting Women's Health. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 49, Number RR-2, March 31, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the nation's prevention agency, CDC strives to accomplish its vision of 'Healthy People in a Healthy World...Through Prevention.' For women, this involves working to better understand the health issues that have an adverse impact on women, disproportio...

S. M. Hewitt

2000-01-01

338

Dietary composition affects regional body fat distribution and levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare effects of a high carbohydrate (high-CHO) and a monounsaturated fat diet (high-MUFA) on body fat distribution and sex hormones in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes.Design: Randomised cross-over with no washout.Setting: Geelong Hospital outpatient.Subjects: Thirty four women were recruited, 30 completed the study, and data are presented for 21 women compliant to the high-CHO diet.Interventions: Women followed

KZ Walker; K O’Dea; GC Nicholson; K O’ Dea

1999-01-01

339

Prevalence and Predictors of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Prospective, Controlled Study in 254 Affected Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resis- tant, have insulin secretory defects, and are at high risk for glucose intolerance. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of glucose intolerance and parameters associated with risk for this in PCOS women. Two-hundred and fifty-four PCOS women, aged 14 - 44 yr, were prospectively evaluated at 2 centers, 1

RICHARD S. LEGRO; ALLEN R. KUNSELMAN; WILLIAM C. DODSON; ANDREA DUNAIF

340

Disproportionately high rates of sulfide oxidation from mountainous river basins of Taiwan orogeny: Sulfur isotope evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotopic tracing of river sulfate (SO42-) suggests that sulfide oxidation accounts for 85 ± 7% of the dissolved SO42- in one of the largest river systems (the Kaoping) of the Taiwan orogeny in the high-discharge season. This corresponds to a basin-wide contribution of ˜1.2-1.6% of pyrite-derived SO42- exported by rivers globally, from a river basin, which is only ˜0.003% of the global drainage area. Intense rainfall, high relief and active tectonics all favor intense physical weathering of the Kaoping basin, which promotes continuous exposure of fresh (sulfide) mineral surfaces for oxidative weathering. This coupling between physical and chemical weathering sustains disproportionately high sulfide oxidation, ˜400 times relative to surface area, in the Kaoping basin.

Das, Anirban; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; You, Chen-Feng

2012-06-01

341

Recognition memory measures yield disproportionate effects of aging on learning face-name associations.  

PubMed

No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: More face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies. PMID:18808254

James, Lori E; Fogler, Kethera A; Tauber, Sarah K

2008-09-01

342

Organic reactions catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide: Dehydration, amination, and disproportionation of alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Methylrhenium trioxide (MTO) is the first transition metal complex in trace quantity to catalyze the direct formation of ethers from alcohols. The reactions are independent of the solvents used: benzene, toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, acetone, and in the alcohols themselves. Aromatic alcohols gave better yields than aliphatic. Reactions between two different alcohols could also be used to prepare unsymmetric ethers, the best yields being obtained when one of the alcohols is aromatic alcohols proceeding in better yield. When primary (secondary) amines were used as the limiting reagent, direct amination of alcohols catalyzed by MTO gave good yields of the expected secondary (tertiary) amines at room temperature. Disproportionation of alcohols to alkanes and carbonyl compounds was also observed for aromatic alcohols in the presence of MTO. On the basis of the results of this investigation and a comparison with the interaction between MTO and water, a concerted process and a mechanism involving carbocation intermediates have been suggested. 5 tabs.

Zhu, Zuolin; Espenson, J.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-01-12

343

Trends in Medicare disproportionate share (DSH) distribution in US hospitals: 1996-2003.  

PubMed

Implemented in 1986, Medicare's disproportionate share (DSH) adjustment is intended to recognize hospitals' additional resource investment in caring for low-income patients. This project analyzed changes in the DSH percentage between 1996 and 2003 and examined the association between selected hospital characteristics and such changes. Results obtained revealed some interesting findings. First, minimal changes in DSH percentage occurred during the period 1996-1999 with a hike in that ratio in 2000-2001. However, even with the absence of any legislative or executive changes to the DSH threshold or formula during 2002 and 2003, significant increases occurred during 2001-2003 (11 percent increase between 2001 and 2003). Such an increase may be caused by the nation's economic situation during that timeframe (i.e., more people depending on public programs for coverage). PMID:19175241

Saleh, Shadi S; Callan, Mark

2006-01-01

344

Women’s fashions in transition: Ottoman borderlands and the Anglo-Ottoman exchange of costumes.  

PubMed

Following the considerable increase in the interactions between Ottomans and Europeans, Ottoman port cities, referred to here as “borderlands,” became meeting places of distinct worlds. Ottoman and British people met, clashed, and grappled with each other in the borderlands of the Ottoman Empire. There was unbalanced, disparate, and disproportionate, but also mutual and constant interchange between the two societies. This article discusses one facet of this interchange: the Anglo-Ottoman exchange of women’s costumes. PMID:22073435

Inal, Onur

2011-01-01

345

Gonorrhea infection in women: prevalence, effects, screening, and management  

PubMed Central

Gonorrhea is a set of clinical conditions resulting from infection with the sexually-acquired bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Acquisition may involve multiple mucosal sites in the lower female genital tract, including the urethra, cervix, Bartholin’s and Skene’s glands, as well as the anorectal canal, pharynx, and conjunctivae. It may spread to the upper genital tract, uterine tubes, abdominal cavity, and other systemic sites. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported sexually-transmitted infection in the US and rates are higher among women than men. Women and infants are affected disproportionately by gonorrhea, because early infection may be asymptomatic and also because extension of infection is often associated with serious sequelae. Screening is critical for infection identification and the prevention or limitation of upper genital tract spread, and horizontal and vertical transmission. Routine genital screening is recommended annually for all sexually active women at risk for infection, including women aged < 25 years and older women with one or more of the following risks: a previous gonorrhea infection, the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, new or multiple sex partners, inconsistent condom use, commercial sex work, drug use, or human immunodeficiency virus infection with sexual activity or pregnancy. Pharyngeal gonococcal infections are common in adolescents, and direct culture screening is necessary to identify affected individuals. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are considered the standard for screening and diagnosis. Although urine NAAT testing is most commonly used, there is growing support for vaginal swabs collected by providers or patients themselves. Resistance to all antibiotics currently recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea has been documented and complicates therapeutic strategies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend treatment of gonorrhea with a single class of drugs, ie, the cephalosporins.

Walker, Cheryl K; Sweet, Richard L

2011-01-01

346

Hydrogenation-Disproportionation in Samarium–Cobalt Ferromagnetic Alloys Based on Sm 2 (Co, Fe, Cu, Zr) 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

By methods of differential thermal analysis and X-ray phase analysis, we investigate the processes of hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, and recombination and solid hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, and recombination in Sm18.6Co46.1Fe27.1Cu5.9Zr2.3 commercial ferromagnetic alloy in the temperature range 293–1175 K and in the pressure interval from 5 to 4 MPa. By the method of differential thermal analysis, in the interval 293–1175 K, we recorded phase

I. I. Bulyk; A. M. Trostyanchyn

2003-01-01

347

Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Key Populations Affected by HIV in Asia: An Unfinished Agenda  

PubMed Central

Like all women, women living with and at risk of acquiring HIV have the right to determine the number and timing of their pregnancies and to safely achieve their reproductive intentions. Yet, many women in Asia affected by HIV lack access to family planning services and experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Programs that have succeeded in promoting condom use and providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this region have largely missed the opportunity to address the contraceptive needs of the key populations they serve. The importance of better linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs is now widely recognized by global health policymakers and donors. However, to date, most of the efforts to improve these linkages have been conducted in Africa. Greater attention is needed to the developing, implementing, and evaluating of integrated family planning/HIV approaches that are tailored to the political, cultural, and public health context in Asia. In this paper, we describe the use of and need for family planning among key populations affected by HIV in Asia, discuss the challenges to effectively addressing of these needs, and offer recommendations for strengthening the linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs in the region.

Petruney, Tricia; Minichiello, Shanthi Noriega; McDowell, Misti; Wilcher, Rose

2012-01-01

348

Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Key Populations Affected by HIV in Asia: An Unfinished Agenda.  

PubMed

Like all women, women living with and at risk of acquiring HIV have the right to determine the number and timing of their pregnancies and to safely achieve their reproductive intentions. Yet, many women in Asia affected by HIV lack access to family planning services and experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Programs that have succeeded in promoting condom use and providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this region have largely missed the opportunity to address the contraceptive needs of the key populations they serve. The importance of better linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs is now widely recognized by global health policymakers and donors. However, to date, most of the efforts to improve these linkages have been conducted in Africa. Greater attention is needed to the developing, implementing, and evaluating of integrated family planning/HIV approaches that are tailored to the political, cultural, and public health context in Asia. In this paper, we describe the use of and need for family planning among key populations affected by HIV in Asia, discuss the challenges to effectively addressing of these needs, and offer recommendations for strengthening the linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs in the region. PMID:22991656

Petruney, Tricia; Minichiello, Shanthi Noriega; McDowell, Misti; Wilcher, Rose

2012-09-08

349

Vietnamese women in struggle for national independence.  

PubMed

The 30-year struggle for independence in Viet Nam took a huge toll on women, but even in the hardest times, Vietnamese women received support from the world-wide women's movement. As the world prepares to enter the new millennium, it is important to determine what policies can be created to prevent war and guarantee peace. These policies must grow out of international agreement on basic principles such as respect for independence and sovereignty and must not resort to the embargoes and sanctions that have placed a disproportionate burden on women and children. Another challenge of the new millennium is to encourage implementation of national programs, policies, and measures to help women realize their rights while preserving traditional family values. Despite the heightened visibility of the international women's movement, women still suffer from widespread inequalities. In accordance with the goals of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, the 8th Congress of Vietnamese Women in 1997 created a national plan for women that is a blueprint for the women's movement for the years 1997-2000. Among the goals are creating jobs for women, upgrading their standard of living, eliminating hunger, decreasing poverty, and ensuring that women have educational opportunities. Vietnamese women also seek to strengthen their relationship with other women in the international community, and the Vietnamese Women's Union has actively forwarded the objectives of the Federation of International Democratic Women. PMID:12294604

1998-01-01

350

Impact of Instructional Consultation Teams on the Disproportionate Referral and Placement of Minority Students in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the impact of implementing Instructional Consultation Teams (IC Teams) on the disproportionate referral and placement of minority students into special education. Data were collected on referral and placement patterns of minority students in 13 IC Teams schools and 9 comparison schools. Three accepted indices of…

Gravois, Todda; Rosenfield, Sylvia A.

2006-01-01

351

The impact of racially disproportionate outcomes on public policy: The U.S. Senate and the death penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of particular public policies may infringe upon important civil rights of citizens. This article explores the relationship between the racially disproportionate effects of the death penalty and a subsequent attempt in the U.S. Senate to provide racial justice protection. While the most important explanatory factors of a senator's behavior are their political philosophy and the state homicide rate

Michelle N. Gagnier; MARSHALL H. MEDOFF; MICHELE N. CAGNIER

1998-01-01

352

Women, Ethnicity, and AIDS: What's Love Got to Do with It?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the usefulness of relationships as the critical factor in preventing AIDS for women of color. An analysis is offered of the conceptualization of issues, as well as the prevention measures and safe-sex strategies developed for gay men versus women's HIV\\/AIDS incidence rates. The discussion of similarities demonstrates that gender and culture play a role in the disproportionate

PamelaTrotman Reid

2000-01-01

353

Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

2010-01-01

354

Contextual Factors Influencing the Eating Behaviours of African American Women: A Focus Group Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: African American women suffer disproportionately from many chronic diseases, and it is well acknowledged that eating patterns and habits are important contributory factors. Our goal was to describe and understand how personal and contextual factors among African American women contribute to food choices that increase the risk for chronic disease. Design: Focus groups were conducted with 40 African American

Margaret K. Hargreaves; David G. Schlundt; Maciej S. Buchowski

2002-01-01

355

New perspectives on an old problem: the position of women academics in British higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women academics in Britain are an elite group among women. Nevertheless, there is abundant evidence that they are disproportionately in lower grades and less secure posts than their male counterparts. These are longstanding inequities which appear to have been met with complacency rather than commitments to bring about change. This paper draws upon feminist theory to outline a range of

Sandra Acker

1992-01-01

356

Alcohol and other drug disorders, comorbidity, and violence: comparison of rural African American and Caucasian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous health disparities exist across various segments of the United States population with rural women particularly at risk. African Americans have higher rates of death, disease, and disability than Caucasians. Although prevalence rates for alcohol and other drug use vary across studies, African American women generally report less use than Caucasians. However, African Americans disproportionately experience negative health and social

Mary R Boyd; Kenneth Phillips; Coretta J Dorsey

2003-01-01

357

Impact of Breast Cancer on African American Women: Priority Areas for Research in the Next Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite all the gains that have been made in the area of breast cancer research, African American women suffer disproportionately from the effects of the disease. Breast cancer is the second lead- ing cause of cancer death among African American women, exceeded only by lung cancer. Improvements in cancer inci- dence, mortality, and survival rates among populations are undoubtedly the

Lovell A. Jones; Janice A. Chilton

358

Psychosocial Factors That Contribute to HIV\\/AIDS Risk Behaviors Among Young Black College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American women are disproportionately burdened by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though African Americans represent only 12% of the population in the United States, more than 54% of HIV-positive women in the United States are of African American descent (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003). The bulk of HIV\\/AIDS research focuses on prevention

Binta Alleyne; John Wodarski

2009-01-01

359

Locus of Control and HIV Risk Among a Sample of Mexican and Puerto Rican Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disproportionate impact of HIV\\/AIDS on Hispanic women in the United States has been variously attributed to a failure to utilize protective measures due to low levels of HIV knowledge, a denial or minimization of risk, and conflicts with cultural norms. It has been hypothesized that women's relative lack of power in relationships may be associated with higher risk sexual

Sana Loue; Marlene Cooper; Fatoumata Traore; Jay Fiedler

2004-01-01

360

Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women

Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

361

HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

362

Soy isoflavones do not affect bone resorption in postmenopausal women: A dose-response study using a novel approach with Ca41  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of this 3-way crossover study was to identify the effective dose of soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones for suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women using a novel, rapid assessment of antibone resorbing treatments. Methods: Thirteen postmenopausal women (>= 6 yr since menopause) were predosed with Ca-41 iv. After a 200-d baseline period, subjects were given 43

J. M. K. Cheong; B. R. Martin; G. S. Jackson; D. Elmore; G. P. McCabe; J. R. Nolan; S. Barnes; M. Peacock; C. M. Weaver

2007-01-01

363

The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

2011-01-01

364

Spin state disproportionation and ferromagnetism in strained LaCoO3: Ab-initio study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain engineering of artificial oxide heterostructures opens up routes for the creation of novel electronic phases that do not exist in the bulk. To fully exploit the functionalities of the oxide, understanding its electronic and structural response to epitaxial strain is crucial. One example is the recent demonstration of biaxial tensile strain stabilizing an insulating ferromagnetic ground state in normally non-magnetic LaCoO3. However, theoretical understanding is incomplete. In this talk, using the LSDA+U method we discuss the origin of strain induced transition to insulating ferromagnetic ground state in LaCoO3. We show that beyond biaxial tensile strain of 2.5% local magnetic moments, originating from high spin state of Co3+, emerge in low spin Co3+ matrix. We further show that these local moments are ferromagnetically coupled via superexchange interaction. In contrast, we find that compressive strain by itself is not able to stabilize a magnetic state, that agrees with recent experiment. Ferromagnetism found in tensile-strained LaCoO3 is tightly coupled to the material's orbital and structural response to applied strain. We discuss how LaCoO3 accommodates tensile strain via spin state disproportionation, resulting in an unusual sublattice structure.

Hosung, Seo; Demkov, Alexander

2012-02-01

365

Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation.  

PubMed

Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(?(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX(3) (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX(2) to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X(2)U(µ-?(6):?(6)-arene)UX(2)] and a UX(4) by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a 'cooperative small-molecule activation' mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX(3) are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds. PMID:22824900

Arnold, Polly L; Mansell, Stephen M; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

2012-07-15

366

Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(?6-C6H6)2 are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX3 (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX2 to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X2U(µ-?6:?6-arene)UX2] and a UX4 by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a ‘cooperative small-molecule activation’ mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX3 are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds.

Arnold, Polly L.; Mansell, Stephen M.; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

2012-08-01

367

Disproportionation of marokite at high pressures and temperatures with geophysical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural marokite (CaMn 2O 4) has been studied at high pressures and temperatures using a diamond-anvil press coupled with laser heating in the pressure range 100-250 kbar. A mixture of marokite, CaMnO 3 (perovskite) and MnO (rocksalt) has been observed in all runs in the above pressure range by X-ray diffraction study of the quenched samples. It was interpreted that marokite disproportionates into the mixture CaMnO 3 (perovskite) + MnO (rocksalt) at pressures below 100 kbar. A general comparison of the molar volume for all known compounds having the marokite-related structures (including CaFe 2O 4 and CaTi 2O 4) with those for a mixture of perovskite plus rocksalt structures suggested that the mixture is more stable than the marokite-related structures at high pressures, as confirmed by the present experimental result. The CaFe 2O 4-modification of common nepheline (NaAlSiO 4) is also suggested to be unstable relative to the component oxides of ?-NaAlO 2 + SiO 2 (stishovite) at high pressures.

Liu, Lin-gun

1983-07-01

368

Electron-doped organics: Charge-disproportionate insulators and Hubbard-Fröhlich metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several examples of metallic electron-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecular crystals have recently been experimentally proposed. Some of them have superconducting components, but most other details are still unknown beginning with structure and the nature of metallicity. We carried out ab initio density functional calculations for La-Phenanthrene (La-PA), here meant to represent a generic case of three-electron doping, to investigate structure and properties of a conceptually simple case. To our surprise we found first of all that the lowest energy state is not metallic but band insulating, with a disproportionation of two inequivalent PA molecular ions and a low P1 symmetry, questioning the common assumption that three electrons will automatically metallize a PAH crystal. Our best metallic structure is metastable and slightly higher in energy, and retains equivalent PA ions and a higher P21 symmetry—the same generally claimed for metallic PAHs. We show that a “dimerizing” periodic distortion opens very effectively a gap in place of a symmetry related degeneracy of all P21 structures near the Fermi level, foreshadowing a possible role of that special intermolecular phonon in superconductivity of metallic PAHs. A Hubbard-Fröhlich model describing that situation is formulated for future studies.

Naghavi, S. Shahab; Fabrizio, Michele; Qin, Tao; Tosatti, Erio

2013-09-01

369

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

370

Generation of singlet oxygen from hydrogen peroxide disproportionation catalyzed by molybdate ions  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the infrared phosphorescence of singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) at 1,270 nm have been used to demonstrate that {sup 1}O{sub 2} is formed during the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by molybdate ions. The results of measurements at hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range 0.10 {le} (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) {le} 0.30 are consistent with the assumption that MoO{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} and MoO{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}} are formed. However, the decomposition of MoO{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}} does not significantly contribute to {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation. For the reaction MoO{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} {yields} MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} + {sup 1}O{sub 2}, the activation parameters E{sub a} = 15.6 {plus minus} 1.2 kcal {center dot} mol{sup {minus}1} and log A = 9.1 {plus minus} 0.9 have been evaluated.

Boehme, K.; Brauer, H.D. (Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Frankfurt/Main (Germany))

1992-08-05

371

Kinetics of toluene disproportionation over unmodified and modified ZSM-5 zeolites  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of toluene disproportionation has been studied over both unmodified and Si-Mg modified ZSM-5 catalysts using an integral reactor and taking into account the reversibility of the reaction. It has been found that xylene dealkylation is the major secondary reaction, whereas toluene dealkylation can be considered negligible. For the unmodified ZSM-5, heterogeneous models based in the alkyl-transfer mechanism allowed the experimental results to be fit better than first and second pseudohomogeneous models, the best concordance being obtained when toluene adsorption is assumed as the rate-limiting step. The corresponding kinetic equation has been further applied to the modified zeolite (SiMg/ZSM-5), leading to the development of a kinetic model which includes the effect of the toluene and p-xylene intracrystalline diffusion rate and the presence of nonselective acid sites on the external zeolite surface. This model describes adequately the selective formation of p-xylene over modified ZSM-5, reproducing the experimental product distribution with an average relative error of 2.8%.

Uguina, M.A.; Sotelo, J.L.; Serrano, D.P. (Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain))

1993-01-01

372

Disproportionation of thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires as a result of the annealing process.  

PubMed

P-type thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires were fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. Subsequently, the nanowires were annealed at 423, 523 and 673 K in an inert atmosphere for 4 h. With increasing temperature, it was observed that the Te compound incongruently sublimates due to its high vapor pressure, leading to disproportionation (from Bi(2)Te(3) to Bi(4)Te(3)via Bi(4)Te(5)). The crystalline structure of the nanowires was then investigated using XRD and SAED, with nanowire compositions investigated using an EDX attached to a TEM. The crystallinity of the nanowires was found to be enhanced with increased annealing temperature, and nanowires annealed at 673 K were stably maintained in the Bi(4)Te(3) phase. Additionally, the Seebeck coefficient was determined and the thermopower of nanowires annealed at a temperature of 423 K was shown to be slightly enhanced. Significantly suppressed Seebeck values for annealing temperatures of 523 K and 673 K were also observed. PMID:21046022

Lee, Jongmin; Berger, Andreas; Cagnon, Laurent; Gösele, Ulrich; Nielsch, Kornelius; Lee, Jaeyoung

2010-11-02

373

A Theoretical Study of the Qualitative Reaction Mechanism for the Homogeneous Disproportionation of Pentavalent Uranyl Ions  

SciTech Connect

There is significant interest in understanding the oxidation and reduction of aqueous uranium ions. In the literature, there is considerable variation in the results of attempts to reduce uranium depending on very small differences in reducing species, pH, spectator ions, mineral substrates, and other factors. Of particular curiosity is the fact that U(V) can be stabilized in the lab but is almost never found in the environment. In order to better understand these two phenomena, a direct computational study of homogenous, aqueous U(V) disproportionation was undertaken. Using a combination of Marcus Theory with Hartree– Fock and MP2 calculations, the rate constant of the electron-transfer reaction was calculated. Under the conditions studied, the electron-transfer reaction is slow (k observed ~10 -1 M-1 s-1). This reduced rate is a result of a variety of factors: the +1 charge of the reactants, the large encounter complex distance, and the electronic reorganization energies associated with the proton transfers. Excluding the energy from the coupled proton transfers, all of the remaining factors could be eliminated by small alterations of the uranium’s environment.

Wander, Matthew C.; Shuford, Kevin L.

2012-02-12

374

A theoretical study of the qualitative reaction mechanism for the homogeneous disproportionation of pentavalent uranyl ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is significant interest in understanding the oxidation and reduction of aqueous uranium ions. In the literature, there is considerable variation in the results of attempts to reduce uranium depending on very small differences in reducing species, pH, spectator ions, mineral substrates, and other factors. Of particular curiosity is the fact that U(V) can be stabilized in the lab but is almost never found in the environment. In order to better understand these two phenomena, a direct computational study of homogenous, aqueous U(V) disproportionation was undertaken. Using a combination of Marcus Theory with Hartree-Fock and MP2 calculations, the rate constant of the electron-transfer reaction was calculated. Under the conditions studied, the electron-transfer reaction is slow (kobserved ˜ 10-1 M-1 s-1). This reduced rate is a result of a variety of factors: the +1 charge of the reactants, the large encounter complex distance, and the electronic reorganization energies associated with the proton transfers. Excluding the energy from the coupled proton transfers, all of the remaining factors could be eliminated by small alterations of the uranium's environment.

Wander, Matthew C. F.; Shuford, Kevin L.

2012-05-01

375

Paraffin isomerization, paraffin disproportionation, and benzene alkylation catalyzed by aluminum chloride/sulfonic acid resins  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic isomerization of n-butane at 298/sup 0/-413/sup 0/K and n-pentane at 343/sup 0/-413/sup 0/K in a packed-bed flow reactor at 1 atm in the presence of aluminum chloride/sulfonic acid resin was accompanied by disproportionation and cracking. The selectivity to isomerization products was approx. 40% for n-pentane and > 99% for n-butane. Kinetics of n-butane isomerization at 308/sup 0/-338/sup 0/K were determined by using a partially deactivated catalyst batch, and the dependence of the isomerization rate on the partial pressure of n-butane was fitted using a power-law or a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation. Alkylations of benzene with propylene catalyzed by sulfonic acid resin at 328/sup 0/K and aluminum chloride/sulfonic acid resin at 295/sup 0/K gave isopropylbenzene and mono- to tetra-isopropylbenzenes, respectively. A catalyst deactivation model was developed and used to correlate the time-dependent behavior of n-butane isomerization and benzene propylation. The data indicated that Broensted acid sites are responsible for the activity of the supported aluminum chloride catalyst.

Fuentes-Zurita, G.A.

1980-01-01

376

Paraffin isomerization and disproportionation catalyzed by Pd-loaded fluorided mordenites  

SciTech Connect

Fluorided, Pd-loaded ({approximately}1.1 wt% Pd) mordenites, with 8, 12, 28, and 100% replacement of {minus}OH groups, were synthesized from H-mordenite. These materials were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, the adsorption of N{sub 2} and 2-methylpentane, and their activity for paraffin reactions. Except in the case of 100% nominal fluoridation, the fluorided mordenites retained their crystallinity, displayed enhanced acid strengths and adsorption capacities for paraffinic hydrocarbons, and were catalytically active (at 533-573 K and {approximately}0.1 bar hydrocarbon partial pressure) for the transformation of n-butane to isobutane and products of both higher and lower molecular weights. The presence of a small amount of isobutene in the feed greatly accelerated these transformations and increase yields to the pentane isomers. The primary reactions were apparently acid-catalyzed, with the role of Pd confined to activity maintenance. The mildly fluorided zeolites in some cases proved more active overall than the parent zeolites H-mordenite and Pd-mordenite and were especially selective for the formation of the pentane isomers, apparently through a combination of disproportionation reactions and secondary alkylation reactions involving light hydrocarbon primary products.

Maness, J.A. Jr.; Dooley, K.M. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

1989-06-01

377

Hemoptysis in patients of celiac disease with disproportionately severe anemia: tip of the iceberg?  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH) is characterized by the triad of iron deficiency anemia, pulmonary infiltrates and haemoptysis with no recognizable cause. Since the first description of its association with Celiac Disease (CD) by Lane and Hamilton in 1971, only a few isolated cases have been reported in literature. Although it has been considered an uncommon association of two disease entities, recent reports indicate that prevalence of celiac disease is as high as one percent. Further, individually both celiac disease and IPH are known to present as refractory anemia only. We are reporting a young adult with Lane Hamilton Syndrome, who realized that he was having significant gastrointestinal complaints only when they disappeared on gluten free diet (GFD). This case report reiterates the fact that celiac disease should be considered in all patients of IPH because of the therapeutic implications. Further on review of literature, we believe that covert hemoptysis may be responsible for disproportionately severe anemia in patients of celiac disease. Thus, prevalence of this association may be more than currently believed. Further research in this regard may improve our understanding of pathogenesis of celiac disease.

2013-01-01

378

Afro-American Women, Poverty and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of poverty can be a risk factor for mental illness. Afro-American women are disproportionately represented among the poor, the majority of whom are single mothers and heads of households who are concentrated in the secondary labor market and the secondary welfare system. These economic and social factors can engender stress and can limit opportunities for its resolution or

Maisha B. H. Bennett

1988-01-01

379

Some Underemphasized Issues about Men, Women and Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The disproportionate focus of sociologists on professional and managerial occupations distorts many generalizations about gender, employment, and family. Concentration on this occupational minority has led to such assumptions as the following: paid employment is the major life priority for men, and family is the major life priority for women;…

Hesselbart, Susan

380

Women's Involvement in Multiple Roles and Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's involvement in multiple roles was examined in relation to three stress indices: role overload, role conflict, and anxiety. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses, effects of number of roles occupied; occupancy of the particular roles of paid worker, wife, and mother; and the quality of a woman's experience in her roles were analyzed. Data were from a disproportionate stratified random

Rosalind C. Barnett; Grace K. Baruch

1985-01-01

381

Explaining racial differences in prenatal care initiation and syphilis screening among Medicaid-covered pregnant women.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases and their outcomes disproportionately affect non-Hispanic Blacks who also receive later prenatal care. We used a sample of low-income pregnant women insured by Medicaid to assess racial disparities in the receipt of first trimester prenatal care and any as well as early (by 2nd trimester) syphilis screening. We used an older but unique file of linked 1995 Georgia Medicaid claims and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) births (n=1,096) to test the relative explanatory power of factors contained in administrative versus survey data. Using administrative data, we found non-Hispanic Blacks were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive first trimester care but more likely to be screened. Adding in PRAMS survey data eliminated these differences. Having an outpatient department as usual source of care was a key factor. This may reflect unmeasured characteristics of minorities and their neighborhoods or differences in screening practices across provider settings. PMID:19202256

Adams, E Kathleen; Gavin, Norma I; Raskind-Hood, Cheryl; Tao, Guoyu

2009-02-01

382

Jobs: women's double burden.  

PubMed

Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition. PMID:12157784

1995-01-01

383

Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO{sub 2}/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

GeO disproportionation into GeO{sub 2} and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO {yields} GeO{sub 2} + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 {+-} 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO{sub 2}/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO{sub 2} is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

Wang Shengkai [Micorowave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Liu Honggang [Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2012-08-06

384

Sundials in the shade: A study of women's persistence in the first year of a computer science program in a selective university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently women are underrepresented in departments of computer science, making up approximately 18% of the undergraduate enrollment in selective universities. Most attrition in computer science occurs early in this major, in the freshman and sophomore years, and women drop out in disproportionately greater numbers than their male counterparts. Taking an ethnographic approach to investigating women's experiences and progress in the

Rita Manco Powell

2005-01-01

385

Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

2009-01-01

386

Is the perimenopause a time of increased risk of recurrence in women with a history of bipolar affective postpartum psychosis? A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  There is increasing awareness of the influence of female reproductive life events on the course of bipolar disorder. Here,\\u000a we describe the case histories of 5 women diagnosed with postpartum psychosis who subsequently experienced major mood disorders\\u000a in relation to the perimenopause. This case series suggests that (a) the perimenopause may be a time of increased risk for\\u000a women who

E. Robertson Blackmore; N. Craddock; J. Walters; I. Jones

2008-01-01

387

African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity  

PubMed Central

Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women.

Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

388

Roles of carrier gases on deactivation and coking in zeolite beta during cumene disproportionation  

SciTech Connect

The influence of carrier gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, He, and CO{sub 2}) on the catalytic activity, stability, and coke formation in zeolite beta during cumene disproportionation reaction is discussed. The reaction intermediates as well as the carbonaceous residues were characterized by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy under proton cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning and by thermogravimetric method. The effects of carrier gas dilution on coke formation, catalyst deactivation, and product shape selectivity have also been examined by varying carrier gas (N{sub 2}) to reactant molar ratios (0.2-20). The amount of total coke decreases linearly with increasing N{sub 2}/cumene ratios above a value near 2. It is also found that the coke induced shape selectivity is notable only at extreme dilution. In the presence of various carrier gases, a notable decrease in catalytic activity has been found to obey the order N{sub 2} > H{sub 2} > He > CO{sub 2}, whereas a reverse order was observed for the catalytic stability. Moreover, the amount of coke deposit is found to decrease linearly with the kinetic diameter of the carrier gases. Hence, the incorporation of carrier gases resulted in a decrease in the amount of coke deposition which is mainly due to the transport of coke precursors and less bulky carbonaceous compounds (soft coke). Similarly, as proposed by the transition complex solvation model, the carrier gas molecules stabilize the biphenyl alkane reaction intermediates by van de Walls interactions and prevent them from further dissociation into product molecules. With the exception of H{sub 2}, the combination of the carrier gas transport effect and transition complex solvation model is used to describe the observed trends in the activity and stability of the catalyst. 61 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Chen, Wen-Hua; Pradhan, Ajit; Jong, Sung-Jeng [Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1996-10-01

389

Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

Agosto, William N.

1993-03-01

390

Thermal decomposition of O-benzyl ketoximes; role of reverse radical disproportionation.  

PubMed

Thermolyses of seven dialkyl, two alkyl-aryl and two diaryl O-benzyl ketoxime ethers, R(1)R(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NOCH(2)Ph, have been examined in three hydrogen donor solvents: tetralin, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, and 9,10-dihydroanthracene. All the oxime ethers gave the products expected from homolytic scission of both the O-C bond (viz., R(1)R(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NOH and PhCH(3)) and N-O bond (viz., R(1)R(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NH and PhCH(2)OH). The yields of these products depended on which solvent was used and the rates of decomposition of the O-benzyl oxime ethers were greater in 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and 9,10-dihydroanthracene than in tetralin. These results indicated that a reverse radical disproportionation reaction in which a hydrogen atom was transferred from the solvent to the oxime ether, followed by [small beta]-scission of the resultant aminoalkyl radical, must be important in the latter two solvents. Benzaldehyde was found to be an additional product from thermolyses conducted in tetralin. This, and other evidence, indicated that another induced decomposition mode involving abstraction of a benzylic hydrogen atom, followed by [small beta]-scission of the resulting benzyl radical, became important for some substrates. Participation by minor amounts of enamine tautomers of the oxime ethers was shown to be negligible by comparison of thermolysis data for the O-benzyloxime of bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one, which cannot give an enamine tautomer, with that of the O-benzyloxime of cyclohexanone. PMID:14747871

Blake, Jessie A; Ingold, Keith U; Lin, Shuqiong; Mulder, Peter; Pratt, Derek A; Sheeller, Brad; Walton, John C

2004-01-12

391

A disproportionate role for mtDNA in Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities?  

PubMed

Evolution in allopatric populations can lead to incompatibilities that result in reduced hybrid fitness and ultimately reproductive isolation upon secondary contact. The Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) model nicely accounts for the evolution of such incompatibilities. Although DM incompatibilities were originally conceived as resulting of interactions between nuclear genes, recent studies have documented cases where incompatibilities have arisen between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Although mtDNA comprises only a tiny component (typically <0.01%) of an organism's genetic material, several features of mtDNA may lead to a disproportionate contribution to the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities: (i) essentially all functions of mtDNA require interaction with nuclear gene products. All mtDNA-encoded proteins are components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and all mtDNA-encoded RNAs are part of the mitochondrial protein synthetic machinery; both processes require interaction with nuclear-encoded proteins for function. (ii) Transcription and replication of mtDNA also involve mitonuclear interactions as nuclear-encoded proteins must bind to regulatory motifs in the mtDNA to initiate these processes. (iii) Although features of mtDNA vary amongst taxa, metazoan mtDNA is typically characterized by high nucleotide substitution rates, lack of recombination and reduced effective population sizes that collectively lead to increased chance fixation of mildly deleterious mutations. Combined, these features create an evolutionary dynamic where rapid mtDNA evolution favours compensatory nuclear gene evolution, ultimately leading to co-adaptation of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. When previously isolated lineages hybridize in nature or in the lab, intergenomic co-adaptation is disrupted and hybrid breakdown is observed; the role of intergenomic co-adaptation in hybrid breakdown and speciation will generally be most pronounced when rates of mtDNA evolution are high or when restricted gene flow results in significant population differentiation. PMID:22994153

Burton, Ronald S; Barreto, Felipe S

2012-09-21

392

Kinetic modeling of the SWNT growth by CO disproportionation on CoMo catalysts.  

PubMed

A kinetic model has been developed to describe the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in the CoMoCAT method, which is based on the disproportionation of CO on supported CoMo catalysts. The model attempts to capture mathematically the different stages involved in this method: (i) catalyst activation or in-situ creation of active sites, i.e., reduced Co clusters by transformation of CoMoOx precursor species, or oxidized sites; (ii) CO decomposition over active sites, which increases the surface fugacity of carbon until reaching a certain threshold; (iii) nucleation of ordered forms of carbon; (iv) C diffusion (both across the surface and into the metal particle); (v) SWNT growth; (vi) termination, by either deactivation of the catalyst active sites or by increase in the carbon concentration at the metal/SWNT interface, approaching that of the metal/gas interface and eliminating the driving force for diffusion. Previous investigations have only explained the growth termination by the former. Here, we emphasize the possible contribution of the later and propose a novel "hindrance factor" to quantify the effect of nanotube interaction with its surroundings on the growth termination. To test the kinetic model and obtain typical values of the physical parameters, experiments have been conducted on a CoMo/SiO2 catalyst in a laboratory flow reactor, in which the rate of carbon deposition was continuously evaluated by the direct measurement of the CO2 evolution as a function of time. The experimental data are fitted very well with model. PMID:19198356

Monzon, A; Lolli, G; Cosma, S; Mohamed, S B; Resasco, D E

2008-11-01

393

Inter-ethnic and intra-cultural differences on somatic and psychological\\/affective expressions of emotional distress: A case study of Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women in the South Bronx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research suggests that cultural differences in expressions of emotional distress complicate cross-cultural evaluation of emotional disorder. Using survey data on women in the South Bronx, this study compares inter-ethnic groups (Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White) and, among Puerto Ricans, acculturation groups in somatic and psychological\\/affective expressions. The mental health items are from the often cited Dohrenwend Short

Ariane Sylva

1997-01-01

394

The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups. PMID:14636799

Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

2003-12-01

395

Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.  

PubMed

Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

2012-02-01

396

Genetic risk score does not correlate with body mass index of Latina women in a clinical trial.  

PubMed

Obesity disproportionately affects Latina women. Common genetic variants are convincingly associated with body mass index (BMI) and may be used to create genetic risk scores (GRS) for obesity that could define genetically influenced forms of obesity and alter response to clinical trial interventions. The objective of this study was (1) to identify the frequency and effect size of common obesity genetic variants in Latina women; (2) to determine the clinical utility of a GRS for obesity with Latina women participating in a community-based clinical trial. DNA from 85 Latina women was genotyped for eight genetic variants previously associated with BMI in Caucasians, but not yet assessed in Latina populations. The main outcome measure was the correlation of GRS (sum of eight risk alleles) with BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. A majority (83%) of participants had a BMI ?25. Frequency of loci near FTO, MC4R, and GNPDA2 were lower in Latinas than Caucasians. Association of each locus with BMI was lower in Latinas compared to Caucasians with no significant correlations with BMI. We conclude that an eight locus GRS has no clinical utility for explaining obesity or predicting response to intervention in Latina women participating in a clinical trial. PMID:22029802

Coenen, Kimberly R; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B; Dietrich, Mary S; Morgan, Thomas M; Barkin, Shari L

2011-10-01

397

Genetic Risk Score Does Not Correlate with Body Mass Index of Latina Women in a Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Obesity disproportionately affects Latina women. Common genetic variants are convincingly associated with BMI and may be used to create genetic risk scores (GRS) for obesity that could define genetically influenced forms of obesity and alter response to clinical trial interventions. The objective of this study was: 1) to identify the frequency and effect size of common obesity genetic variants in Latina women; 2) to determine the clinical utility of a GRS for obesity with Latina women participating in a community-based clinical trial. DNA from 85 Latina women was genotyped for 8 genetic variants previously associated with BMI in Caucasians, but not yet assessed in Latina populations. The main outcome measure was the correlation of GRS (sum of 8 risk alleles) with BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. A majority (83%) of participants had a BMI ? 25. Frequency of loci near FTO, MC4R, and GNPDA2 were lower in Latinas than Caucasians. Association of each locus with BMI was lower in Latinas compared to Caucasians with no significant correlations with BMI. We conclude that an 8 locus GRS has no clinical utility for explaining obesity or predicting response to intervention in Latina women participating in a clinical trial.

Coenen, Kimberly R.; Karp, Sharon M.; Gesell, Sabina B.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Morgan, Thomas M.; Barkin, Shari L.

2011-01-01

398

Rates of femicide in women of different races, ethnicities, and places of birth: Massachusetts, 1993-2007.  

PubMed

To describe the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) homicide in Massachusetts, an IPV mortality data set developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health was analyzed. The rates of death were estimated by dividing the number of decedents over the aged-matched population and Poisson regression was used to estimate the contribution of race, ethnicity, and foreign-born status to the risk of dying from IPV. Out of the total 270 women whose deaths were associated with IPV, 239 (89%) were killed by a male partner. Black women had a risk of dying from IPV of 16.2 per 1,000,000 person-years. Hispanic women also had a higher risk of dying from IPV than non-Hispanic women; incidence risk ratio of 9.7 (Poisson regression 95% confidence interval 6.8-13.8). IPV femicide disproportionately affected Black and Hispanic women. Agencies must consider the importance of providing culturally appropriate services to IPV survivors and their community. PMID:20522891

Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; McKeown, Loreta; Melvin, Patrice; Dang, Quynh; Reed, Joan

2010-06-03

399

Secondary Effects of Antipsychotics: Women at Greater Risk Than Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The health burden of antipsychotic medication is well known, but the disproportionate effect on women as compared with men is underappreciated. Objective: The goal of this article is preventive—to better inform clinicians so that the risks to women and to their offspring can be di- minished.Method:All PubMed sources in which the search term gender (or sex) was linked to

Mary V. Seeman; M. Parelman; B. Stoecker; A. Baker; D. Medeiros; D. Gaddy; D. S. Perrien; N. S. Akel; E. E. Dupont-Versteegden; R. A. Skinner; E. R. Siegel; A. Alberich-Bayarri; L. Marti-Bonmati; R. Sanz-Requena; E. Belloch; T MRI; Schizophr Bull

2008-01-01

400

BMC Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Issue: Contraception choices affect the long-term sexual health and fertility of women and men. Data from the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study and the 2000\\/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey were assessed for measures of contraceptive use and familiarity with various methods among Canadian women. Key Findings: The oral contraceptive (OC) pill is the dominant method of contraception for Canadian women.

Sharon McMahon; Lisa Hansen; Janice Mann; Cathy Sevigny; Thomas Wong; Marlene Roache

401

Women Dwelling with Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the Heideggerian concept of dwelling as revealed in the lives of women who have experienced sexual violence. Sexual violence against women by men known to them is a significant health problem, yet little is known about how such violence affects women's everyday experience. Methods: Phenomenologic, integrating (a) data collected in 7 996 and 1997 from 7 0

Claire Burke Draucker; Christian Madsen

1999-01-01

402

Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests? Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality Between Arrest and Incarceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do large racial and ethnic disparities in prison populations reflect systematic racial and policy discrimination in the criminal\\u000a justice system, or do they reflect disproportionate involvement of blacks and Hispanics in “serious” or street crime? Our\\u000a investigation of this question keys off the approach initiated by Alfred Blumstein is his pioneering studies on the topic.\\u000a While yielding important findings, there

Casey T. Harris; Darrell Steffensmeier; Jeffrey T. Ulmer; Noah Painter-Davis

2009-01-01

403

Catalytic reactions of chlorite with a polypyridylruthenium(II) complex: disproportionation, chlorine dioxide formation and alcohol oxidation.  

PubMed

cis-[Ru(2,9-Me(2)phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](2+) reacts readily with chlorite at room temperature at pH 4.9 and 6.8. The ruthenium(II) complex can catalyze the disproportionation of chlorite to chlorate and chloride, the oxidation of chlorite to chlorine dioxide, as well as the oxidation of alcohols by chlorite. PMID:22064846

Hu, Zongmin; Du, Hongxia; Man, Wai-Lun; Leung, Chi-Fai; Liang, Haojun; Lau, Tai-Chu

2011-11-07

404

Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health  

PubMed Central

US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

2001-01-01

405

The prevalence and determinants of antepartum mental health problems among women in the USA: a nationally representative population-based study  

PubMed Central

Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. We sought to estimate the prevalence of antepartum mental health problems and determine potential risk factors in a representative USA population. We examined data on 3,051 pregnant women from 11 panels of the 1996–2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Poor antepartum mental health was defined by self report of mental health conditions or symptoms or a mental health rating of “fair” or “poor.” Multivariate regression analyses modeled the odds of poor antepartum mental health; 7.8% of women reported poor antepartum mental health. A history of mental health problems increased the odds of poor antepartum mental health by a factor of 8.45 (95% CI, 6.01–11.88). Multivariate analyses were stratified by history of mental health problems. Significant factors among both groups included never being married and self-reported fair/poor health status. This study identifies key risk factors associated with antepartum mental health problems in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women. Women with low social support, in poor health, or with a history of poor mental health are at an increased risk of having antepartum mental health problems. Understanding these risk factors is critical to improve the long-term health of women and their children.

DeLeire, Thomas; Hagen, Erika W.; Wichmann, Margarete A.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Spear, Hilary A.; Cheng, Erika R.; Maddox, Torsheika; Hampton, John

2011-01-01

406

The Disproportionate and Potentially Negative Influence of Research Universities on the Quality of Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and growing body of research indicating that post-secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is failing to prepare citizens for the 21st century economy. Introductory STEM courses are vital for preparing science majors for their fields of study and are the only exposure to science many college students will receive, but the quality of teaching in these courses is often not informed by research on teaching and learning. Research universities play an especially prominent role in the design of introductory courses. While research and doctoral universities account for only about 6% of all higher education institutions, they confer 32 per cent of the baccalaureate degrees, and 56 per cent of the baccalaureates earned by recent recipients of science and engineering doctorates. By assuming that larger introductory classes occur at research institutions one can estimate that a dominant number of students receiving introductory instruction in the geosciences are probably occurring at research institutions. Moreover, research universities produce the majority of tenure-track faculty who will later teach at four-year colleges, so the role of research institutions in the influence of introductory course design is expected to be disproportionately large. While introductory courses at research universities play a influential role in how such courses are designed, the teaching of introductory courses is too often viewed as an undesirable assignment for instructors at those institutions. The effort seems unrewarding with incentives for improving teaching at research institutions perceived as modest at best, if not negative. It is commonly perceived that teaching introductory courses will decrease opportunities for teaching higher-level courses to graduate students and/or to conduct research. Furthermore, even for those interested in improving their pedagogical methods, current approaches to professional development are generally difficult to scale and/or costly to institutions and outside instructors' normal workflow. This presentation reports on the results of surveys of research university instructors in an attempt to quantify the state of the introductory course. The surveys attempt to identify common barriers to improvement. Based on these surveys strategies for how to best implement systemic change in introductory courses at research universities are presented in the hope of stimulating discussion and a call to action.

Samson, P. J.

2010-12-01

407

Evidence and characteristics of hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter during metasomatic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum-geochemical analyses of carbonaceous regionally metamorphosed rocks, carbonaceous rocks from ore deposits, and alkalic plutonic rocks from diverse settings, demonstrated the presence of very low to moderately low concentrations of solvent-extractable organic matter, this observation in spite of the fact that some of these rocks were exposed to extremely high metamorphic temperatures. Biomarker and ? 13C analyses established that the extractable organic matter originated as sedimentary-derived hydrocarbons. However, the chemistry of the extractable bitumen has been fundamentally transformed from that found in sediment bitumen and oils. Asphaltenes and resins, as defined in the normal petroleum-geochemical sense, are completely missing. The principal aromatic hydrocarbons present in oils and sediment bitumens (especially the methylated naphthalenes) are either in highly reduced concentrations or are missing altogether. Instead, aromatic hydrocarbons typical of sediment bitumens and oils are very minor, and a number of unidentified compounds and oxygen-bearing compounds are dominant. Relatively high concentrations of alkylated benzenes are typical. The polar "resin" fraction, eluted during column chromatography, is the principal compound group, by weight, being composed of six to eight dominant peaks present in all samples, despite the great geologic diversity of the samples. These, and other, observations suggest that a strong drive towards equilibrium exists in the "bitumen." Gas chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbons commonly have a pronounced hump in both the n-paraffins and naphthenes, centered near the C 19 to C 26 carbon numbers, and a ubiquitous minimum in the n-paraffin distribution near n-C 12 to n-C 14. Multiple considerations dictate that the bitumen in the samples is indigenous and did not originate from either surficial field contamination or from laboratory procedures. Our observations are consistent with the hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter (HDOM), in which water and organic matter, including hydrocarbons, easily exchange hydrogen or oxygen with one another under certain conditions (Helgeson et al., 1993). The process appears to take place via well-known organic-chemical redox reaction pathways and is most evident in open-fluid systems. The conclusion that HDOM took place in the analyzed samples, thus producing the chemistry of the extractable bitumen, is supported by numerous previously published organic-geochemical studies of metamorphic, volcanic, plutonic, and ore-deposit-related rocks by other investigators. HDOM is suggested as an unrecognized geologic agent of fundamental importance. The process appears to control major chemical reactions in diverse geologic environments including, but not limited to, petroleum geology and geochemistry, regional metamorphism, and base- and precious-metal ore deposition.

Price, Leigh C.; DeWitt, Ed

2001-11-01

408

Disproportionation of pentaammineruthenium(III)-nucleoside complexes leads to two-electron oxidation of nucleosides without involving oxygen molecules.  

PubMed

Pentaammineruthenium(III) complexes of deoxyinosine (dIno) and xanthosine (Xao) ([Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(L)], L is dIno, Xao) in basic solution were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both Ru(III) complexes disproportionate to Ru(II) and Ru(IV). Disproportionation followed the rate law d[Ru(II)]/dt = (k (o) + k (1)[OH(-)])[Ru(III)]. k (o) and k (1) of disproportionation at 25 °C were 2.1 (±0.1) × 10(-3) s(-1) and 21.4 ± 3.2 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, for [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dIno)], and 3.5 (±0.7) × 10(-4) s(-1) and 59.7 ± 3.6 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, for [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(Xao)]. The [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(Xao)] complex disproportionates at a faster rate than [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dIno)] owing to the stronger electron-withdrawing effect of exocyclic oxygen in Xao. The activation parameters ?H (‡) and ?S (‡) for k (1) of [Ru(III)(NH(3))(5)(dIno)] were 80.2 ± 15.2 kJ mol(-1) and 47.6 ± 9.8 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively, indicating that the disproportionation of Ru(III) to Ru(II) and Ru(IV) is favored owing to the positive entropy of activation. The final products of both complexes in basic solution under Ar were compared with those under O(2). Under both conditions [Ru(NH(3))(5)(8-oxo-L)] was produced, but via different mechanisms. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the deprotonation of highly positively polarized C8-H of Ru-L by OH(-) initiates a two-electron redox reaction. For the next step, we propose a one-step two-electron redox reaction between L and Ru(IV) under anaerobic conditions, which differentiates from Clarke's mechanism of two consecutive one-electron redox reactions between L, Ru(III), and O(2). PMID:23053532

Wolf, Matthew W; Choi, Sunhee

2012-10-07

409

Linking Beauty and Health Among African American Women: Using Focus Group Data to Build Culturally and Contextually Appropriate Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality compared to Caucasian women. Addressing racial\\/ethnic disparities in health requires the engagement of African-American women in the development of interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate. Three age groups of African-American women who attend beauty salons (18-29; 30-49; 50+) were recruited into six focus groups. Participants reviewed a series of

Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Laura Linnan; Noel Kulik; Veronica Carlisle; Zoe Enga; Margaret Bentley

2007-01-01

410

Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and\\/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking comprehensive and consistent data, it is estimated that women with IDD are 1.5 to

Bethany Stevens

2012-01-01

411

Talking from 9 to 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to help individuals as well as companies thrive in a working world made up of increasingly diverse work forces and ever more competitive markets, this book addresses the differences in men's and women's speaking styles, without maintaining the superiority of any one style of speaking. Reinforced with extensive examples drawn from…

Tannen, Deborah

412

"They have already thrown away their chicken": barriers affecting participation by HIV-infected women in care and treatment programs for their infants in Blantyre, Malawi.  

PubMed

HIV-infected infants and young children are at high risk of serious illness and death. Morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced through early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite global efforts to scale-up of EID and infant ART, uptake of these services in resource poor, high HIV burden countries remain low. We conducted a qualitative study of 59 HIV-infected women to identify and explore barriers women face in accessing HIV testing and care for their infants. To capture different perspectives, we included mothers whose infants were known positive (n=9) or known negative (n=14), mothers of infants with unknown HIV status (n=13), and pregnant HIV-infected women (n=20). Five important themes emerged: lack of knowledge regarding EID and infant ART, the perception of health care workers as authority figures, fear of disclosure of own and/or child's HIV status, lack of psychosocial support, and intent to shorten the life of the child. A complex array of cultural, economic, and psychosocial factors creates barriers for HIV-infected women to participate in early infant HIV testing and care programs. For optimal impact of EID and infant ART, reasons for poor uptake should be better understood and addressed in a culturally sensitive manner. PMID:22348314

Donahue, Marie Collins; Dube, Queen; Dow, Anna; Umar, Eric; Van Rie, Annelies

2012-02-21

413

Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

Josephine Lutz

414

DOES LOW CALCIUM AFFECT HOW BONE LOSS IS RELATED TO DIETARY PROTEIN AND RATIO OF ANIMAL TO VEGETABLE PROTEIN IN ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior work in this area showed a dose-response effect between dietary protein and bone loss in elderly men and women in the Framingham Study. Higher protein intake resulted in reduced bone loss suggesting that protein intake is important in maintaining bone or minimizing bone loss. It is unclear i...

415

Factors affecting antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected women with virologic suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Although some studies show higher antiretroviral concentrations in women compared to men, data are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive women to determine if protease inhibitor (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) Cmin and Cmax values were significantly different than historical general population (predominantly male) averages and to evaluate correlates of higher concentrations. Methods HIV-positive women with virologic suppression (viral load < 50copies/mL) on their first antiretroviral regimen were enrolled. Timed blood samples for Cmin and Cmax were drawn weekly for 3 weeks. The ratio of each individual’s median Cmin and Cmax to the published population mean values for their PI or NNRTI was calculated and assessed using Wilcoxon sign-rank. Intra- and inter-patient variability of antiretroviral drug levels was assessed using coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation. Linear regression was used to identify correlates of the square root-transformed Cmin and Cmax ratios. Results Data from 82 women were analyzed. Their median age was 41 years (IQR=36-48) and duration of antiretrovirals was 20 months (IQR=9-45). Median antiretroviral Cmin and Cmax ratios were 1.21 (IQR=0.72-1.89, p=0.003) (highest ratios for nevirapine and lopinavir) and 0.82 (IQR=0.59-1.14, p=0.004), respectively. Nevirapine and efavirenz showed the least and unboosted atazanavir showed the most intra- and inter-patient variability. Higher CD4+ count correlated with higher Cmin. No significant correlates for Cmax were found. Conclusions Compared to historical control data, Cmin in the women enrolled was significantly higher whereas Cmax was significantly lower. Antiretroviral Cmin ratios were highly variable within and between participants. There were no clinically relevant correlates of drug concentrations. Trial registration NCT00433979

2013-01-01

416

Committee Opinion No. 570: Breastfeeding in underserved women: increasing initiation and continuation of breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Maternal and infant benefits from breastfeeding are well documented and are especially important to underserved women. Underserved women are disproportionately likely to experience adverse health outcomes that may improve with breastfeeding. They face unique barriers and have low rates of initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Through a multidisciplinary approach that involves practitioners, family members, and child care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists can help underserved women overcome obstacles and obtain the benefits of breastfeeding for themselves and their infants. PMID:23969829

2013-08-01

417

The New Health Care Law: How Will Women Near Retirement Fare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn 2009, more than 17 million women lacked health insurance coverage in the United States. A disproportionate number of these women were African American or Latino. In addition, many women aged 55 to 64 lack coverage through either their own employment or access to a spouse’s plan at a time when they face an elevated risk of long-term and life-threatening

Kate C. Prickett; Jacqueline L. Angel

2011-01-01

418

Impact of a women's program for science, mathematics and engineering on undergraduate women: Activity systems on the periphery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National reports such as National Science Foundation's highlight women's disproportionate distribution and differential treatment in the science, mathematics, and engineering (SM&E) fields, in both education and the workforce in the US. Women are less likely than men to choose a career that involves SM&E, and are more likely than men to earn bachelor's degrees in non-science and non-engineering fields. The need for support and encouragement is obvious for women already in college intending to pursue a major in a SM&E field. Comprehensive support networks can be and are established through programs for women entering college and willing to pursue careers in SM&E fields. The context of this research was the Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Mathematics (PWISEM) established in 2001 by a Southern teaching and research university in the US. I constructed a thorough theoretical lens by interweaving the theory of situated learning/legitimate peripheral participation and the cultural-historical activity theory. I explored the interactions and contradictions that affected the science identity formation of the PWISEM students, how they identified themselves as future scientists, and the key factors PWISEM involved in motivating and supporting women students in their intended SM&E majors. The design of the research was dominant-less dominant, the dominant approach being qualitative and the less-dominant being quantitative. The Program was successful in fostering the participation and retention of undergraduate women in SM&E. However, the women in the Program were more likely to internalize the status quo in the SM&E realms without actively challenging it (liberal feminist approach). To change the masculine culture embedded in SM&E, engaging in activism is essential. This research suggests that in fact, programs like PWISEM provide promising contexts for reforming the SM&E culture to be more appealing and inclusive of all. I suggest that there can be both explicit and implicit ways of transformation within such contexts and argue that the implicit approach is more powerful. This research also informs the theory of situated learning in that newcomer interactions are a key aspect and their actions should be understood to involve much more than knowledge circulation.

Kahveci, Ajda

419

Health Inequality Among Estonian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Eastern Europe, in post-Communist countries, transformations during the past 10 years have considerably affected the life of women. Our aims were to (a) examine health status and socioeconomic inequalities among Estonian women, and (b) study the relationships between women's social roles and health. A group of 659 women, aged 18-45, completed the Health Questionnaire for Adults (HQA) and the

Merike Kull

2006-01-01

420

Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis (VP-EA) [brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial compliance (CAC)] in women with minor cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Twenty-five young women with PCOS and 23 eumenorrheic women matched for body mass index (BMI) were studied. The women were subdivided according to BMI and PCOS status, and comparisons were done between PCOS and Control group, regardless of BMI, and between Obese and Lean group, regardless of the presence of PCOS. Insulin resistance was higher in PCOS-group than in control-group and in obese-group than in lean-group. The median of all VP-EA evaluated were similar between PCOS-group and Control-group [FMD: 6.6 versus 8.4% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 6.2 versus 5.6N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)] and between obese-group and lean-group [FMD: 7.8 versus 6.6% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 5.7 versus 6.3N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)]. These results suggest that PCOS and obesity do not affect VP-EA in women with minor CVRFs. PMID:23327607

Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelás; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Baracat, Edmund Chade; Romano, Angela; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel

2013-01-18

421

Effect of hydrogen on the orientation of carbon layers in deposits from the carbon monoxide disproportionation reaction over Co\\/Al 2O 3 catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid product of CO disproportionation over well-calibrated Co\\/Al2O3 catalysts was studied by HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the case of pure Co or of a mixture of CO and CO2, the disproportionation reaction leads to the formation of carbon nanotubes where graphene layers are coaxial cylinders. When H2 is added to CO or to the CO\\/CO2 mixture,

P. Pinheiro; M. C. Schouler; P. Gadelle; M. Mermoux; E. Dooryhée

2000-01-01

422

Hitting Two Birds with One Stone: Crystal Containing Both Disproportionation Products of the Mixed-Valence Ruthenium(II, III) Carboxylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disproportionation of the mixed-valence diruthenium(II, III) trifluoroacetate, [Ru2(O2CCF3)5] (1), is reported. The overall conversion leads to the triruthenium(II, III, III) and diruthenium(II, II) species according to the scheme: 4 Ru25+? 2 Ru38+ + Ru24+. Both disproportionation products have been isolated and structurally characterized as they cocrystallize in a 2:1 ratio in the form of the acetone adducts to give

Evgeny V. Dikarev; Bo Li

2004-01-01

423

Affective responses to physical activity in obese women: A high-intensity interval bout vs. a longer isocaloric moderate-intensity bout  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of obesity and inactivity continue to increase worldwide, the need for effective intervention strategies remains. Despite the well-known benefits of leading a physically active lifestyle, of those individuals classified as obese, only 3.0% of the women and 6.4% of the men trying to lose weight actually meet the 60 min\\/day physical activity guidelines for weight management

Emily Sue Decker

2009-01-01

424

One Year of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Treatment Does Not Affect Bone Density, Body Composition, or Psychological Measures in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the hypothalamic-GH-insulin-like growth factor I (hypothalamic-GH-IGF-I) axis declines with age, and some of the catabolic changes of aging have been attributed to the somato- pause. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of 1 yr of IGF-I hormone replacement therapy on body composition, bone density, and psychological parameters in healthy, nonobese, postmenopausal women over

ANNE L. FRIEDLANDER; GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD; SHARON MOYNIHAN; JEANINE GRILLO; MARGARET POLLACK; LEAH HOLLOWAY; LEAH FRIEDMAN; JEROME YESAVAGE; DWIGHT MATTHIAS; SCOTT LEE; ROBERT MARCUS; ANDREW R. HOFFMAN

2010-01-01

425

Advice from the obstetrician and other sources: Do they affect women's breast feeding practices? a study among different Jewish groups in Jerusalem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast feeding practices and the sources of advice that influenced them were studied in a sample of 276 women from North East Jerusalem. They were followed-up for 4 months and interviewed on 4 occasions during that period. It was found that 89.7% started breast feeding after parturition, 62.4% were breast feeding by 6 weeks, 40.3% were breast feeding after 3

Ivonne K. Mansbach; Hava Palti; Bella Pevsner; Helen Pridan; Zvi Palti

1984-01-01

426

Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects\\/setting: 2038 females aged 12-17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design\\/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1

C A Edwards; W C Harris; D R Cook; K F Bedford; Y Zuo

2004-01-01

427

Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1) and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2) were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52 ± 0.18?ng/mL and 0.78 ± 0.13, resp., P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (r = ?0.645, P < 0.001). The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (r = ?0.683, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

Balin, Mehmet; Celik, Ahmet; Kobat, M. Ali; Baydas, Adil

2012-01-01

428

Soy Isoflavones Do Not Affect Bone Resorption in Postmenopausal Women: A Dose-Response Study Using a Novel Approach with 41Ca  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this 3-way crossover study was to identify the effective dose of soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones for suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women using a novel, rapid assessment of antibone resorbing treatments. Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women (?6 yr since menopause) were predosed with 41Ca iv. After a 200-d baseline period, subjects were given 43 g soy protein/d that contained 0, 97.5, or 135.5 mg total isoflavones in randomized order. The soy protein isolate powder was incorporated into baked products and beverages. Each 50-d intervention phase was preceded by a 50-d pretreatment phase for comparison. Serum isoflavone levels and biochemical markers were measured at the end of each phase. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected approximately every 10 d during each phase for 41Ca/Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. Results Serum isoflavone levels reflected the amount of isoflavones consumed in a dose-dependent manner. None of the isoflavone levels had a significant effect on biochemical markers of bone turnover, urinary cross-linked N teleopeptides of type I collagen and serum osteocalcin, or bone turnover as assessed by urinary 41Ca/Ca ratios. Conclusions Soy protein with isoflavone doses of up to 135.5 mg/d did not suppress bone resorption in postmenopausal women. This is the first efficacy trial using the novel technique of urinary 41Ca excretion from prelabeled bone.

Cheong, J. M. K.; Martin, B. R.; Jackson, G. S.; Elmore, D.; McCabe, G. P.; Nolan, J. R.; Barnes, S.; Peacock, M.; Weaver, C. M.

2009-01-01

429

College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women.

Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

2012-01-01

430

Women’s Empowering Carework In Post-Soviet Azerbaijan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Azerbaijan has undergone major social, political, and economic transition since declaring independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. In this article, the author examines how this transition and the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia have affected women’s caregiving roles and how women’s advocacy associations have emerged and function both as caregivers to Azeri women and as a mechanism

Mehrangiz Najafizadeh

2003-01-01

431

Women Helping Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes effort of mental health center staff to implement non-traditional programming for women in situational life crises. Successes in the work have helped overcome some objections to special approaches to women. Projects have community interest and support, have answered many unmet needs of women, and have enhanced service delivery.…

Habib, Miriam; Landgraf, Barbara Joslin

1977-01-01

432

Charge disproportionation and ordering in La1/3Sr2/3FeO3-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perovskite La1/3Sr2/3FeO3-delta was investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. La1/3Sr2/3FeO3-delta undergoes magnetic ordering at T = 190-200 K accompanied by charge disproportionation. Magnetic peaks due to charge ordering are observed below 200 K. The charge ordering is gradually developed below 200 K along with a charge disproportionation, 2Fe4+ Rightarrow Fe3+ + Fe5+. La1/3Sr2/3FeO3-delta shows an antiferromagnetic structure at low temperature. Magnetic moments of about 3 and 1.3 muB were obtained from the neutron diffraction data refinement for Fe3+ and Fe5+ at 15 K, respectively, which suggest that both Fe ions are in a low spin state. These values are significantly lower than those reported by Battle et al for La1/3Sr2/3FeO2.98. Mössbauer spectra indicate that full charge ordering might be reached below 20 K with no Fe4+.

Yang, J. B.; Zhou, X. D.; Chu, Z.; Hikal, W. M.; Cai, Q.; Ho, J. C.; Kundaliya, D. C.; Yelon, W. B.; James, W. J.; Anderson, H. U.; Hamdeh, H. H.; Malik, S. K.

2003-07-01

433

Endometrial Polyps in Women Affected by Levothyroxine-Treated Hypothyroidism--Histological Features, Immunohistochemical Findings, and Possible Explanation of Etiopathogenic Mechanism: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate the possible overexpression of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone (PRs) receptors both in EPs glandular and stromal cells in postmenopausal women with levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism in comparison to EPs detected in women with physiological thyroid hormone levels. During the study period (January-February 2013) 22 patients were eligible (12 treated, 10 controls). The two groups were homogenous for general, EPs sonographic and hysteroscopic features. None of the cases of atypia was found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the two groups were similar for ERs and PRs intensity rates in EPs glandular cells despite a trend of ERs percentage expression more than 60% in 2/3 of treated patients versus 1/3 of controls. In stromal EPs components, ERs intensity was high positive in 10 (83,3%) treated cases while it was high positive in 1 control (10%). Percentage of ERs stromal expression showed a different trend between the two groups despite a borderline statistical significance. Our hypothesis is based on a possible double action of hypothyroidism and thyroxine intake: the subclinical TSH increased levels and its possible circadian oscillation could stimulate the endometrial TSHRs (increasing type 2 DIO activity); the circulating levels of exogenous thyroxine could be locally metabolized in active form by type 2 DIO stimulating ERs.

Saccardi, Carlo; Gizzo, Salvatore; Ludwig, Kathrin; Guido, Maria; Scarton, Mara; Gangemi, Michele; Tinelli, Raffaele; Litta, Pietro Salvatore

2013-01-01

434

Endometrial polyps in women affected by levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism-histological features, immunohistochemical findings, and possible explanation of etiopathogenic mechanism: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the possible overexpression of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone (PRs) receptors both in EPs glandular and stromal cells in postmenopausal women with levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism in comparison to EPs detected in women with physiological thyroid hormone levels. During the study period (January-February 2013) 22 patients were eligible (12 treated, 10 controls). The two groups were homogenous for general, EPs sonographic and hysteroscopic features. None of the cases of atypia was found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the two groups were similar for ERs and PRs intensity rates in EPs glandular cells despite a trend of ERs percentage expression more than 60% in 2/3 of treated patients versus 1/3 of controls. In stromal EPs components, ERs intensity was high positive in 10 (83,3%) treated cases while it was high positive in 1 control (10%). Percentage of ERs stromal expression showed a different trend between the two groups despite a borderline statistical significance. Our hypothesis is based on a possible double action of hypothyroidism and thyroxine intake: the subclinical TSH increased levels and its possible circadian oscillation could stimulate the endometrial TSHRs (increasing type 2 DIO activity); the circulating levels of exogenous thyroxine could be locally metabolized in active form by type 2 DIO stimulating ERs. PMID:24058909

Saccardi, Carlo; Gizzo, Salvatore; Ludwig, Kathrin; Guido, Maria; Scarton, Mara; Gangemi, Michele; Tinelli, Raffaele; Litta, Pietro Salvatore

2013-08-22

435

Change in body mass index during middle age affects risk of total knee arthoplasty due to osteoarthritis: A 19-year prospective study of 1003 women  

PubMed Central

The evidence linking body mass index (BMI) to severe OA shows a strong association in the knee. There are limited data exploring the effect of BMI on the risk of joint arthroplasty in a healthy population with long periods of follow up. We compared the self-reported BMI at age 20, measured BMI at baseline, year 5 and year 10 with the year 19 risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a well-described, population based cohort of healthy women. A total of 733 women attended the 19th year visit, of whom 31 underwent TKA and 676 were used as a control group after 26 were removed for having hip arthoplasty. Using logistic regression, an increase in 1 unit of BMI at baseline was associated with a 10.5% increased risk of TKA (p = 0.017) and at year 5 the increased risk is 8.6% (p = 0.042). When adjusted for baseline age and smoking, baseline BMI was the only significant predictor of TKA at 10.0% with p = 0.024. There was no significant association at 10 years or for change in BMI over time. In this prospective, population based study, BMI predicted the risk of TKA for OA. The risk was greatest at baseline when the patients were in middle age suggesting that this is the most important time to target weight reduction interventions.

Nicholls, A.S.; Kiran, A.; Javaid, M.K.; Hart, D.J.; Spector, T.D.; Carr, A.J.; Arden, N.K.

2012-01-01

436

Binge alcohol consumption by non-alcohol – dependent women during pregnancy affects child behaviour, but not general intellectual functioning; a prospective controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effects of binge ethanol consumption during early gestation on child neurodevelopment have not been elucidated. To study whether binge drinking affects cognitive abilities and behavior of exposed children, a prospective observational study comparing 51 children exposed to binge drinking during the first trimester of pregnancy to 51 children not exposed to any teratogens was conducted. The children’s physical development,

I. Nulman; J. Rovet; D. Kennedy; C. Wasson; J. Gladstone; S. Fried; G. Koren

2004-01-01

437

Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects/setting: 2038 females aged 12–17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Outcomes: Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Results: Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference among smokers in the intervention (26.4%) and control (16.9%) groups (p = 0.28). A higher percentage of current smokers in the intervention group indicated they were unlikely to smoke in 12 months time (47.8%) than smokers in the control condition (31.9%) (p = 0.03). For non-smokers, there was no difference in smoking intentions between conditions, with 95% saying they would be unlikely to be smoking in 12 months time. Conclusions: This "real world" study suggests that placing an anti-smoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking.

Edwards, C; Harris, W; Cook, D; Bedford, K; Zuo, Y

2004-01-01

438

Participation of Women in AID's Training Programs for Asia and the Near East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Women make up a disproportionately low percentage of Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) participants from Asia and the Near East region in U.S. and third-country training programs, accounting for only 14.8% (Asia) and 17.6% (Near East) in 1989....

J. Cotter A. Held

1990-01-01

439

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

440

Alcohol and other drug disorders, comorbidity and violence: Comparison of rural African-American and Caucasian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women report less alcohol and drug (AOD) use than Caucasian women. However, African-Americans disproportionately experience negative health and social consequences of AOD use. This is especially true for rural women, many of whom live in poverty and have debilitating co-morbid psychiatric disorders that go undiagnosed and treated. It is imperative that health professionals be knowledgeable about AOD use, co-morbid

M. R. Boyd; Kenneth D. Phillips; C. J. Dorsey

2006-01-01

441

Childhood Inattention and Dysphoria and Adult Obesity Associated with the Dopamine D4 receptor Gene in Overeating Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention

R D Levitan; M Masellis; R W Lam; P Muglia; V S Basile; U Jain; A S Kaplan; S Tharmalingam; S H Kennedy; J L Kennedy

2004-01-01

442

Sex-specific association between bipolar affective disorder in women and GPR50, an X-linked orphan G protein-coupled receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPR50 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located on Xq28, a region previously implicated in multiple genetic studies of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). Allele frequencies of three polymorphisms in GPR50 were compared in case–control studies between subjects with BPAD (264), major depressive disorder (MDD) (226), or schizophrenia (SCZ) (263) and ethnically matched controls (562). Significant associations were found between

P A Thomson; N R Wray; A M Thomson; D R Dunbar; M A Grassie; A Condie; M T Walker; D J Smith; D J Pulford; W Muir; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous

2005-01-01

443

The frequency of ovulation from the affected ovary decreases following laparoscopic cystectomy in infertile women with unilateral endometrioma during a natural cycle  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the cystectomy-induced damage on the follicular growth and ovulation of an affected ovary during natural cycles. Methods Twenty-eight infertile patients with unilateral ovarian endometriomas who underwent laparoscopic cystectomy were retrospectively evaluated. The ovulation rate of an affected ovary during natural cycles was compared before and after cystectomy in each patient, and it was also determined if ovulation from the affected ovaries resulted in pregnancy. Results After surgery, the ovulation rate was significantly lower than that before cystectomy (16.9?±?4.5% vs. 34.4?±?6.6%, P?=?0.013). After surgery, 14 pregnancies were achieved without IVF treatment, and only 2 of them (14.3%) were achieved from an operated-side ovary. However, the pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle of the operated-side ovary was not different from that of the intact ovary (8.8% vs. 5.8%, P?=?0.750). Conclusions Laparoscopic cystectomy is an invasive treatment in that it reduces the frequency of ovulation; however the pregnancy rate per ovulation did not deteriorate.

Nakagawa, Koji; Ohgi, Shirei; Kojima, Rieko; Nakashima, Akira; Ito, Megumu; Takahashi, Yuji; Saito, Hidekazu

2008-01-01

444

Gifted Latina Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined, as part of a national retrospective study of high achieving women, factors affecting the life-span achievement of 15 Latina women identified as gifted. More than half did not evidence their potential through high grades in school. Participants cited racial or gender bias as a major obstacle but also reported a strong…

Kitano, Margie K.

1998-01-01

445

Planning, Women, and Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report details changes in female labor force participation and cites major trends affecting women today. Based on a workshop, administered by the project staff, the report explores planning concepts of community design, transportation, housing, child ...

K. E. Hapgood J. N. Getzels

1974-01-01

446

Women in Islam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore basic beliefs and practices of Islam and examine the different views of women's roles in Islam and modern American society in this lesson. They look closely at two issues that affect American Muslims: hijab and prayer.

Wnet

2008-08-21

447

Women’s Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The “feminine” question, that is to say the place and role of women in society is increasingly becoming a part of debates.\\u000a Every political leader, company manager, journalist, etc. is gradually becoming aware of the fact that the current situation\\u000a cannot go on because women represent over half of the world’s population. The economic media have recently headlined on women,

Pascale Joannin

448

Chemical-Vapor (cvd) Aluminium Film on Steel Surface with the Disproportionation Reaction of Al2S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The filming on steel using the disproportionation reaction of sub-sulphide of Al was studied. The chemical vaporization depositions were realized using (2Al2O3+6C+Al2S3) or (4Al+Al2S3) as reaction mixture at 1100°C and the pressure of 5 Pa. It is indicated that the coating formed by evaporation of (2Al2O3+6C+Al2S3) consists of ?-Fe and Al13Fe4, possesses thin diffusion layer and dark rough surface, and is resistant to solution of nitric acid with alcohol; But the coating formed by evaporation of (4Al+Al2S3) consists of Fe3Al and AlFe, and possesses thick diffusion layer and bright smooth surface.

Wu, Guoyuan; Dai, Yongnian

2011-06-01

449

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B.

2009-10-01

450

Modeling of the kinetics of deactivation of a commercial hydrocracking catalyst in the reaction of cumene disproportionation  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of coke formation on a commercial hydrocracking catalyst is studied. The data by R.P.L. Absil, J.B. Butt, and J.B. Dranoff (J. Catal. 85, 415, 1984) for cumene disproportionation have been analyzed using the theory and developments of J. Corella and J.M. Asua (Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 21, 55, 1982). Several coke formation mechanisms are presented and their Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic equations are deduced. Only the mechanisms with two active sites in the controlling step or with deactivation order 1.5 fit the data. The chemical mechanism of coke formation in this process is presented and a reasonable mechanistic explanation for the empirical deactivation kinetic equations given previously is presented.

Corella, J.; Monzon, A.; Butt, J.B.; Absil, R.P.

1986-07-01

451

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Materials and Nanotechnology and Laboratory of Applied Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran P.O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-10-15

452

Charge disproportionation induced exchange bias in La0.5Ca0.5FeO3-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed an exchange bias effect in La0.5Ca0.5FeO3-? perovskite compound. The exchange bias is associated with the charge disproportionation transition from Fe4+ ions to Fe3+ and Fe5+ ions below 175 K. The competition between the ferromagnetic interaction of Fe3+ and Fe5+ ions and the antiferromagnetic one of Fe3+ and Fe3+ ions results in a unidirectional anisotropy in the cluster-glass system. An antiferromagnetically interfacial exchange coupling constant J i?-1.95 meV at the cluster-glass region was yielded by fitting the cooling field-dependence of the exchange bias field.

Liang, YaQiong; Zhang, XiangQun; Jin, JinLing; Zhan, QingFeng; Cheng, ZhaoHua

2013-08-01

453

Women and AIDS caregiving: women's work?  

PubMed

In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fiftee