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1

75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected...Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected...Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately...

2010-08-19

2

Coronary heart disease in women: Why the disproportionate risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with diabetes experience much greater relative risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with the nondiabetic population\\u000a than do men with diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, much of the greater elevation in risk in women is explained by a more adverse\\u000a pattern of known CHD risk factors. In type 1 diabetes the picture is less clear, but current evidence

Helen Colhoun

2006-01-01

3

Intimate partner violence and its health impact on disproportionately affected populations, including minorities and impoverished groups.  

PubMed

In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

2015-01-01

4

Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

5

Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... and Publications How many women are affected/at risk? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... trichomoniasis. Who gets vaginitis and who is at risk? Vaginitis affects women of all ages, races, and ...

6

Sex affects health: women are different I. Body composition & metabolism  

E-print Network

1 Sex affects health: women are different than men I. Body composition & metabolism II Sex affects health Overview: n Males & females have different patterns of illness & health q Longevity serotonin q Smoking has a more negative effect on cardiovascular health in women than men. q Women are 2x

Dever, Jennifer A.

7

Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (?34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed ?34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

2013-07-01

8

Sex affects health: women are different than men  

E-print Network

in relieving pain in women than in men Diseases other than those of the reproductive system affect both sexes1 Sex affects health: women are different than men I. Different patterns of Melanoma occurrence II. Autoimmune conditions Sex affects health Males & females have different patterns of illness & health Cancer

Dever, Jennifer A.

9

Social Policy Issues Affecting Women's Political Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews social science literature and trends indicated by poll data to examine the political status of women and the extent of their political participation. It is presented in four major sections. Section I summarizes research and presents statistics concerning women's (1) participation in political activities such as voting, lobbying,…

Amundsen, Kirsten

10

Active Microbial Sulfur Disproportionation in  

E-print Network

Active Microbial Sulfur Disproportionation in the Mesoproterozoic David T. Johnston,1 *. Boswell A E. Canfield5 The environmental expression of sulfur compound disproportionation has been placed sulfur isotope 33S. These measurements imply that sulfur compound disproportionation was an active part

Long, Bernard

11

Using Disproportionation Reaction  

E-print Network

Abstract: In this study, copper (II) oxide and copper/copper (I) oxide mixture nanoparticles have been prepared via copper disproportionation reaction in non-aqueous solution. The performance of disproportionation reaction in dimethyl solfoxide (DMSO) was used to synthesis a Nano metallic element without any modification for the first time. Copper (I) Iodide (CuI), DMSO and ethylene diamine (en) have been used as copper (I) ion source, solvent and ligand, respectively. In this investigation the experiments were performed at two conditions. The products were characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis of the solids produced at ambient atmosphere depicts the formation of pure copper (II) oxide (CuO) phase. The results also indicate that the achievement of the process after removal of oxygen and at N2 0 atmosphere yields a mixture of metallic copper (Cu) and copper (I) oxide (Cu2O). The SEM images of both products showed that the particle sizes are less than 100 nm and are spherical in shape.

Preparation Of Nanosized Cu O; Cu Cu; O Mixture; Yousef Zeraatkish; Ezat Keshavarzi; Yousef Ghaeb; Kazem Karami; Saman Mousavian

12

The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

2008-01-01

13

Microvascular angina: angina that predominantly affects women  

PubMed Central

In women receiving evaluation for suspected ischemic symptoms, a "normal" diagnosis is five times more common than it is in men. These women are often labeled as having cardiac syndrome X, also known as microvascular angina (MVA). MVA is defined as angina pectoris caused by abnormalities of the small coronary arteries, and is characterized by effort chest pain and evidence of myocardial ischemia with a non-invasive stress test, although the coronary arteries can appear normal or near normal by angiography. MVA patients are often neglected due to the assumption of a good prognosis. However, MVA has important prognostic implications and a proper diagnosis is necessary in order to relieve the patients' symptoms and improve clinical outcomes. The coronary microvasculature cannot be directly imaged using coronary angiography, due to the small diameter of the vessels; therefore, the coronary microvascular must be assessed functionally. Treatment of MVA initially includes standard anti-ischemic drugs (?-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates), although control of symptoms is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MVA.

Park, Jin Joo; Choi, Dong-Ju

2015-01-01

14

Charge disproportionation, everywhere!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge disproportionation (CD) recently observed in many organic conductors is reviewed. CD is closely related to the charge ordering (CO) but is observed even when no long range CO is established. In a ? -phase BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF){2}RbZn(SCN){4}, an extremely slow dynamics of CD has been observed above T_MI. A similar phenomenon is also observed in the Cs-analog, (BEDT-TTF){2}CsZn(SCN){4}. However, a spin-singlet ground state without CD is suggested in this salt at low temperatures. It is shown that ? -(BETS){2}I{3} exhibits CD at low temperatures, as in ? -(BET-TTF){2}I{3}. Recently, an abnormal line broadening has been observed in 13C-NMR of (TMTSF){2}FSO{3} under pressure as well as in 77Se-NMR of ?-(BETS){2}FeCl{4} in a high field. We expect that both are very likely caused by a large CD among the organic molecular sites. The current investigation is a part of a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas of Molecular Conductors (No. 15073221) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and the “Japan-Korea Joint Research Project” from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (03-01-8) and Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (F01-2003-000-20023-0).

Takahashi, T.; Hiraki, K.; Moroto, S.; Tajima, N.; Takano, Y.; Kubo, Y.; Satsukawa, H.; Chiba, R.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Kato, R.; Naito, T.

2005-12-01

15

The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease  

PubMed Central

The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

2011-01-01

16

Affective decision making in women with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The affective decision making of 41 recently treated outpatient women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared to 41 healthy controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Non-affective executive functions (EF) of working memory, interference control, and motor inhibition were also compared. Associations among affective and non-affective EF were examined. Despite normal range intelligence, Stroop interference, motor inhibition, and working memory, women with BPD made significantly more disadvantageous IGT decisions than controls (Cohen's d = .72) that were unrelated to substance abuse history, education, psychotropic use, or attentional deficits. Correlates of EF and IGT performance varied by group. Intellect, BPD, and intact behavioral control explained 35% of the adjusted variance in net IGT performance. Disadvantageous IGT decision making was the only EF to predict BPD. IGT deficits in BPD may be separable from IQ and other EF as supported by the somatic marker hypothesis and suggest a stable, trait-like vulnerability favoring immediate reward over long-term gain in women with the disorder. PMID:24845226

LeGris, Jeannette; Toplak, Maggie; Links, Paul S

2014-10-01

17

Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.  

PubMed

Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status. PMID:24841741

Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

2014-08-01

18

Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explain factors that encouraged and discouraged the participation of Black women in RN completion programs. A qualitative design and a Black feminist theoretical framework guided the study. Ten Black women were interviewed: 7 attended RN completion programs, and 3 were recent graduates. Factors that encouraged the participation of Black women can be grouped

Lolita Chappel Aiken; Ronald M. Cervero; Juanita Johnson-Bailey

2001-01-01

19

Kinetics of Hypobromous Acid Disproportionation.  

PubMed

The kinetics of aqueous hypobromous acid disproportionation are measured at 25.0 degrees C from p[H(+)] 0.2 to 10.2. The reactions are second order in HOBr with a maximum rate at pH 3-8. The rate of disproportionation decreases significantly above pH 8 as OBr(-) forms. Another suppression observed below pH 3 is attributed to the reversibility of initial steps in the decomposition. The rate expression is given by -d[Br(I)]/dt = n{(c/(c + [H(+)])k(1a) + k(B)[B])[HOBr](2) + k(1b)[OBr(-)](2)}, where k(1a) = 2 x 10(-)(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1), k(B)[B] is a general-base-assisted pathway, k(1b) = 6 x 10(-)(7) M(-)(1) s(-)(1), n is a stoichiometric factor that ranges from 2 to 5, and c is a ratio of rate constants that is equal to 0.03 M. Decomposition is catalyzed by HPO(4)(2)(-) (k(B) = 0.05 M(-)(2) s(-)(1)) and by CO(3)(2)(-) (k(B) = 0.33 M(-)(2) s(-)(1)). Above pH 8, the first observable product is BrO(2)(-) (initially n = 2). Below pH 4, n = 5 due to Br(2) and BrO(3)(-) formation. From pH 4 to 7, n varies from 5 to 3. A detailed mechanism is presented. PMID:11670070

Beckwith, Richard C.; Margerum, Dale W.

1997-08-13

20

Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

Rosser, Sue

2015-01-01

21

Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

22

The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have…

Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.

2011-01-01

23

Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

1997-01-01

24

Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the duration of Islamic dressing (P < .05, r = -0.334). We concluded that the vitamin D levels of young women are associated with clothing style, and the age at which a female begins wearing Muslim style clothing is related. PMID:25156789

Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

2014-08-01

25

Factors Affecting Young Women's Direction Toward Science-Technology-Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study involved selecting a group of young women at the beginning of the last year of senior high school with the potential to succeed in careers in science, and then explored whether or not they are science-bound and why. Young women who scored well on the Mathematics Section of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test could be assumed to have…

Kirk, Barbara A.

26

Factors Affecting Women's Perceptions of Folate-Containing Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women of childbearing age are not consuming the recommended intake of folate to prevent neural tube defects. To promote healthy dietary change, it is important to understand factors that influence food choices Seven focus group discussions were conducted with 57 women of childbearing age to determine their attitudes about foods containing folate and their perceptions of influences on their

M. C. Russell; S. P. Parker; G. E. Gates

1999-01-01

27

Norms Affecting Self-Disclosure in Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was predicted that attributions of mental illness would be based on the extent to which self-disclosure deviates from appropriate sex role behavior for men and women with self-disclosure perceived as appropriate for women and inappropriate for men. The findings supported the hypotheses. (Author/NG)

Derlega, Valerian J.; Chaikin, Alan L.

1976-01-01

28

Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

Mech, L.D.

1975-01-01

29

Risk Factors for Alcoholism Among Women Religious: Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for addiction have received extensive empirical attention. Specific risk factors for women Religious (nuns),\\u000a however, are not well known. This report examines risk factors for alcoholism in a retrospective study of 148 chemically dependent\\u000a women Religious in treatment. Negative emotionality, a personality measure, was the only significant predictor of alcoholism\\u000a severity in a joint multiple regression with childhood

Elizabeth M. Hill

30

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

31

Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

2001-01-01

32

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

2012-01-01

33

Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

2010-01-01

34

42 CFR 447.298 - State disproportionate share hospital allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false State disproportionate share hospital allotments. 447.298 Section 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...298 State disproportionate share hospital allotments. (a) Calculation...

2010-10-01

35

Migraine and women's health.  

PubMed

Migraine is a significant women's health concern. Epidemiological research has demonstrated that migraine is one of the most common pain conditions and that women are disproportionately affected. Recent advances in pathophysiology highlight the hormonal antecedents of these sex differences in migraine and the potential influence of hormones on migraine pain pathways. Migraine spawns substantial suffering and disability and gives rise to great economic and personal burden. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments, only a fraction of migraine sufferers receive state-of-the-art treatment. Access to effective treatment is limited by economic and social barriers to care, including the long-standing social stigma that trivializes headache. Although doubtless a women's health issue, migraine has been largely overlooked in the women's health initiatives. This paper argues that migraine is an important women's health concern and that greater attention to migraine promises to make a demonstrable improvement in the quality of life of many women. PMID:11991424

Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B; Martin, Vincent T

2002-01-01

36

Low Socioeconomic Status Negatively Affects Sleep in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (? = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (?= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761

Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica

2014-01-01

37

Does experiencing homelessness affect women’s motivation to change alcohol or drug use??  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Homeless women are at high risk of drug and alcohol dependence and may receive less opportunity for treatment. Our objective was to examine the association between experiencing homelessness and motivation to change drug or alcohol use. Methods Women (n=154) participants in a study of substance dependence at an urban medical center (69 with some homeless days in the last 90 days; 85 continuously housed at baseline) completed 6 items rating motivation to change alcohol or drug use (i.e., importance, readiness, and confidence) at baseline and in 3, 6, and 12-month follow up interviews. Unadjusted, and longitudinal analyses controlling for covariates (e.g., demographics, insurance status, substance use consequences, mental health status, and participation in treatment), were conducted. Results There were no significant differences between women experiencing homeless days versus continuously housed women in the odds of reporting high motivation to change alcohol or drug use, either in unadjusted baseline analyses or longitudinal analyses adjusted for covariates. Covariates that were significantly associated with high importance, readiness or confidence to change behavior were higher life time consequences of substance use, and participation in 12-step programs. Discussion and Conclusions The findings suggest that clinicians should not make assumptions that homeless women have low motivation to change their substance use. Scientific Significance and Future Directions The same opportunities for addiction treatment should be offered to homeless as to housed women. PMID:24313245

Upshur, Carole C.; Weinreb, Linda; Cheng, Debbie M.; Kim, Theresa W.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

2013-01-01

38

Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

2005-01-01

39

Genetic and environmental factors affecting menarcheal age in Spanish women.  

PubMed

Genetic and environmental contributions to menarcheal age were studied in 267 Spanish girls and women born between 1948 and 1981, and their mothers born between 1922 and 1959 (n = 200). Recalled age at menarche, as well as family environment characteristics (family size, birth order, father's occupation and father's educational level) were obtained from each woman. Mean age at menarche in mothers (13.45 years; SD = 1.51) was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than in daughters (13.03 +/- 1.28 years). Year of birth and family size accounted for a significant amount of the variation in age at menarche in both mothers and daughters, whereas occupation of the father only appeared related to menarcheal age in the mothers subsample. Birth order and father's educational level did not contribute significantly to the age at menarche. The mother-daughter and sister-sister correlations (maximum likelihood estimates) for age at menarche were 0.30 and 0.35, respectively (both significant at p < 0.001). This supports the genetic and environmental contribution to the age at menarche, even though the influence of environmental variables may change over time. PMID:9161683

Sánchez-Andrés, A

1997-03-01

40

Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or fibromyalgia (FMS) completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10 to 12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive affect on average resulted in lower negative affect both directly and in interaction with pain and stress. Finally, increases in weekly negative affect and higher average negative affect related to greater levels of pain in subsequent weeks. In contrast, higher levels of overall positive affect predicted lower levels of pain in subsequent weeks. PMID:15796628

Zautra, Alez J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

2008-01-01

41

Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

2012-08-01

42

Realistic Species Losses Disproportionately Reduce Grassland  

E-print Network

of the declines of individual species (7, 8) Ebut see (9)^. These studies focus on keystone species or on speciesRealistic Species Losses Disproportionately Reduce Grassland Resistance to Biological Invaders on the functional roles of individual species and the order in which species are lost. Most studies

Zavaleta, Erika

43

Interpersonal dysfunction and affect-regulation difficulties in disordered eating among men and women.  

PubMed

Although several studies suggest that negative affect and interpersonal problems serve as important contributors for eating-related problems, much of this research has been conducted among women and less is known about their roles in precipitating and maintaining eating problems among men. Previous studies with undergraduate men suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating even after controlling for differences in body mass index (BMI) and negative affect. The present study sought to replicate these findings and extend them to assess any unique variance explained by problems in interpersonal functioning among both men and women. Participants were men (n=213) and women (n=521) undergraduates at a large Midwestern university who completed a demographic information form, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex Form (IIP-SC). A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DERS and IIP-SC significantly predicted EDE-Q global scores after controlling for variability in BMI and negative affect and that the results were similar for men and women. Our findings offer preliminary support for models that highlight emotional vulnerability and interpersonal problems for disordered eating for young adult men. Future research extending these findings among treatment-seeking samples and employing multi-method assessment would serve to further clarify the tenability of these theoretical models for both men and women. PMID:25194562

Ambwani, Suman; Slane, Jennifer D; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Grilo, Carlos M

2014-12-01

44

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992–2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80–84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation PMID:22368726

Schonberg, Mara A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

2011-01-01

45

Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women’s use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women’s early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. Methods This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18–25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Results Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Conclusions Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize program success. This study highlights the importance of tailoring voucher programs to specific community needs, a strategy that can lead to better program uptake. PMID:23442446

2013-01-01

46

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in women affected by Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

X-chromosome instability has been a long established feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Premature centromere division and aneuploidy of the X-chromosome has been found in peripheral blood lymphocytes and neuronal tissue in female AD patients. Interestingly, only one chromosome of the X pair has been affected. These results raised a question, "Is the X-chromosome inactivation pattern altered in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women affected by AD?" To address this question, we analyzed the methylation status of androgen receptor promoter which may show us any deviation from the 50 : 50% X inactivation status in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women with AD. Our results showed skewed inactivation patterns (>90%). These findings suggest that an epigenetic alteration on the inactivation centers of the X-chromosome (or skewing) relates not only to aging, by might be a novel property that could account for the higher incidence of AD in women. PMID:25159673

Bajic, Vladan; Mandusic, Vesna; Stefanova, Elka; Bozovic, Ana; Davidovic, Radoslav; Zivkovic, Lada; Cabarkapa, Andrea; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

2015-01-01

47

Atypical autonomic regulation, auditory processing, and affect recognition in women with HIV  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of HIV on visceromotor (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability) and somatomotor (i.e., auditory processing and affect recognition) components of a social engagement system defined by the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995) that links vagal regulation of the heart with brainstem regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head. Relative to at risk HIV- seronegative women, HIV-seropositive women had less heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and had poorer performance on auditory processing and affect recognition tasks. CD4 was negatively correlated with the accuracy to detect specific emotions. The observed indices of atypical autonomic and behavioral regulation may contribute to greater difficulties in social behavior and social communication between HIV- infected women and other individuals in their social network. PMID:23792136

Heilman, K.J.; Harden, E.R.; Weber, K.M.; Cohen, M.; Porges, S.W.

2013-01-01

48

Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Cognition and Affect in Postmenopausal Women with Prior Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Context: Different menopausal hormone therapies may have varied effects on specific cognitive functions. We previously reported that conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with medroxyprogesterone acetate had a negative impact on verbal memory but tended to impact figural memory positively over time in older postmenopausal women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of unopposed CEE on changes in domain-specific cognitive function and affect in older postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Design: This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: The study was conducted at 14 of 40 Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical centers. Participants: Participants were 886 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy, aged 65 yr and older (mean 74 yr), free of probable dementia, and enrolled in the WHI and WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) CEE-Alone trial for a mean of 3 yr and followed up for a mean of 2.70 yr. Intervention: Intervention was 0.625 mg of CEE daily or placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Annual rates of change in specific cognitive functions and affect, adjusted for time since randomization, were measured. Results: Compared with placebo, unopposed CEE was associated with lower spatial rotational ability (P < 0.01) at initial assessment (after 3 yr of treatment), a difference that diminished over 2.7 yr of continued treatment. CEE did not significantly influence change in other cognitive functions and affect. Conclusions: CEE did not improve cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. CEE was associated with lower spatial rotational performance after an average of 3 yr of treatment. Overall, CEE does not appear to have enduring effects on rates of domain-specific cognitive change in older postmenopausal women. PMID:19850684

Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; An, Yang; Maki, Pauline M.; Coker, Laura H.; Jackson, Rebecca; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Wallace, Robert; Rapp, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

49

Winter and summer outdoor light exposure in women with and without seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The annual decrease of daylight duration initiates a depressive phase in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and light therapy treats it. How much bright light exposure in winter and summer these patients actually receive may help understand the pathogenetic factors initiating SAD. Methods: During a week in winter and summer, women with and without SAD kept daily logs

Peter Graw; Sabine Recker; Lothar Sand; Kurt Kräuchi; Anna Wirz-Justice

1999-01-01

50

Biological and Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with STDs\\/HIV in Women: Implications for Behavioral Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are disproportionately affected by the burden and consequences of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).\\u000a Of the estimated 19 million cases of STDs that occur annually in the United States (1), about two-thirds are in women (2).\\u000a Further, both bacterial and viral STDs are associated with negative sequelae in women. Untreated gonococcal and chlamydial\\u000a infections can produce significant and

Donna Hubbard McCree; Anne M. Rompalo

51

ROSIN DISPROPORTIONATION: CATALYTIC TESTING AND MODELLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model consisting of 3 pseudo-first order parallel reactions was developed for Pd\\/C catalyzed disproportionation of rosin at 270 ºC. Abietic type resin acids yield dehydroabietic and dihydroabietic acid in a molar ratio 25:1 and, simultaneously, pimaric type resin acids are hydrogenated to dihydropimaric acid. At 200 ºC only dehydrogenation was observed; the influence of metal loading (% Pd)

I. Portugal; C. Domingues; A. Valente

52

The Experience of Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder. It has significant and diverse clinical consequences including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological morbidities as well as predisposition to malignancies. It is unclear how women with PCOS experience symptoms of this syndrome. Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the dimensions and components of quality of life in iranian women with PCOS. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative study to explore and document perceptions of women with PCOS about their disorder and quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with open ended questions were conducted with 23 women with PCOS. The interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The study was conducted in the Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results: The study revealed that the most important factors affecting quality of life in women with PCOS were the role functioning items as well as physical, mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions. Conclusions: Comprehensive cares concerning various mental, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions of quality of life should be planned for women with PCOS. PMID:24829583

Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Montazeri, Ali; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali

2014-01-01

53

Disproportionate Representation in Special Education: A Synthesis and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionate representation of minority students in special education remains a very controversial, unresolved issue. This synthesis summarizes historical perspectives and current knowledge about disproportionate representation with respect to: (a) definitions of disproportionate representation and related issues of interpretation; (b) national and state-level estimates of disproportionality for four ethnic groups; (c) legal, policy, research and teacher education responses to disproportionality; and

Martha J. Coutinho; Donald P. Oswald

2000-01-01

54

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

55

USC study identifies genetic basis for aggressive breast cancer in women of African ancestry:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, together with other scientists, have identified the location of a genetic risk factor for a type of breast cancer that disproportionately affects women of African descent and carries a worse prognosis than other forms of the disease.

56

Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: Are Youth Disproportionately Affected?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of firearm availability on suicide may differ among age groups. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and household firearm ownership for four age groups in the nine census regions from 1979 to 1994, adjusting for regional divorce rates, education, unemployment, and urbanity. (BF)

Birckmayer, Johanna; Hemenway, David

2001-01-01

57

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

58

Intimate partner violence affects skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya.  

PubMed

Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:21688110

Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D

2012-07-01

59

Limiting disproportionate disaccommodation in design for human variability.  

PubMed

In the design of artefacts, tasks and environments for human use, the body dimensions of the target population are a critical element in spatial optimisation of the design. This study examines how the choices designers make affect the ability of different user groups to safely and effectively interact with a designed artefact. Due to the variability in body size and shape across different demographic groups, heterogeneous user populations are unlikely to experience uniform levels of performance. The associated variability in the rate of unacceptable user conditions is referred to here as disproportionate disaccommodation. This is both an ethical and a performance concern that can partially be addressed through improved design practice. Three methods for incorporating the consideration of user demographics and the corresponding variability in body size and shape are presented. They are compared with a baseline strategy in terms of accommodation and cost. PMID:24206449

de Vries, Charlotte; Parkinson, Matthew B

2014-01-01

60

Plasma leptin in men and women with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy matched controls.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a specific clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of depression, which typically occur during the winter with periods of remission during the spring and summer. These depression episodes are accompanied by hyperphagia with cravings for carbohydrates and moderate weight gain, and usually respond to light therapy. We examined potential relationships between leptin, a hormone known to affect appetite and weight regulation, and seasonal changes in mood and appetite by measuring plasma leptin, clinical severity of depression, appetite scores, and body mass index (BMI) in 19 women and 8 men with SAD and matched controls (20 women and 8 men) in the summer and winter. Plasma leptin was positively correlated with BMI in patients and controls during both seasons. Women and men with SAD both experienced depression in the winter, which was associated with increased appetite, caloric intake, and carbohydrate craving. Increased body weight during the winter in subjects with SAD was paralleled by a lack of concomitant changes in plasma leptin, which suggests that leptin sensitivity to changes in body weight may be influenced by seasons in subjects with SAD, similar to seasonal mammals. PMID:15702439

Cizza, G; Romagni, P; Lotsikas, A; Lam, G; Rosenthal, N E; Chrousos, G P

2005-01-01

61

Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

Vahabi, Mandana

2010-01-01

62

Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

2012-01-01

63

Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health  

PubMed Central

Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns proves that the gender perspective still lacks the promotion of shared responsibilities between men and women. There is a need for institutions that act as ‘policy watchdogs’ to control the gender biases in mass media and pharmaceutical marketing as well as to ensure the proper implementation and maintenance of Spanish equality laws. PMID:23806207

Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

2013-01-01

64

Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

Nicolas, Michel

2009-12-01

65

She Left, He Left: How Employment and Satisfaction Affect Men’s and Women’s Decisions to Leave Marriages  

PubMed Central

Most past studies examining determinants of divorce have ignored differences between the factors that elevate wives’ and husbands’ initiation of divorce. We use three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. We assess who left using each ex-spouse’s answer to a question that asked who had wanted the breakup more. We find that when men are not employed, either husbands or wives are more likely to leave. When wives report better than average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither their nor their husbands’ exits. However, when wives report below average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely that they will leave. We compare findings to predictions from two theories: an institutional perspective that sees divorce to result from a violation of gender-specific norms, and exchange/bargaining theory, which posits that resources allow a spouse to leave if exchange and bargaining fail to provide a satisfactory marriage. To amend the theories to better fit the data, we foreground the asymmetric nature of gender change in recent decades, with women changing more than men. PMID:21932472

Sayer, Liana C.; England, Paula; Allison, Paul; Kangas, Nicole

2012-01-01

66

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

67

Working with women survivors of the Holocaust: affective experiences in transference and countertransference.  

PubMed

This paper describes and discusses some late effects of massive traumatization on two women survivors of the Holocaust. Both had appeared to recover from their affective experience of psychic death and hopelessness in Auschwitz and to have moved towards a resumption of further stages of the life cycle. The normal transitional crises of adolescence, when children emotionally separate from their parents, led to severe breakdown in both these patients. Analysis showed that denial, repression and splitting had enabled them to distance themselves from the overwhelming horror of their past, but it had also led to concrete thinking as opposed to metaphorical, and to non-differentiation of psychic and somatic pain. Their inability to dream and the absence of fantasy life in the material could neither facilitate the analytic task of working through these patients' unbearable experience, nor enable them at first to face and recover unbearable affects during the course of the analysis. Hence the analyst's acceptance of an unbearable countertransference and careful monitoring of the affects evoked proved to be an invaluable tool. PMID:3744688

Pines, D

1986-01-01

68

HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

2013-01-01

69

Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization. PMID:23537172

2013-01-01

70

Factors Affecting Women's Decision to Study at the Technical University of Norway (NTH).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of engineering students at the Technical University of Norway (NTH) which focuses on the factors that influence women to become students at NTH. Compares study results to national and international studies concerning women and work. (ML)

Kvande, Elin

1986-01-01

71

Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?  

PubMed

In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. PMID:22560372

Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

2012-12-01

72

Understanding the Process: How Mediated and Peer Norms Affect Young Women's Body Esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of interpersonal and mediated perceived norms to young women's body esteem among first-year college women. In addition, we examined the role of social comparison as a mediator for the relationship between norms and body esteem. Several findings were notable. First, interpersonal norms do have a significant relationship with esteem. Young women who perceived that their

Marina Krcmar; Steve Giles; Donald Helme

2008-01-01

73

Latin America: Analysis of the Social Problems Affecting Women in Various Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses the conceptual framework of a study, built around three central ideas: the type of social entity in which women predominantly carry out their activities, sexual stereotypes, and cultural norms. The report discusses the class situation of women, and updates the information regarding the situation of women in education,…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

74

Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

Frisby, Cynthia M.

75

Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

76

The prevalence and determinants of antepartum mental health problems among women in the USA: a nationally representative population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. We sought to estimate the\\u000a prevalence of antepartum mental health problems and determine potential risk factors in a representative USA population. We\\u000a examined data on 3,051 pregnant women from 11 panels of the 1996–2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Poor antepartum mental\\u000a health was defined by self report of mental health

Whitney P. Witt; Thomas DeLeire; Erika W. Hagen; Margarete A. Wichmann; Lauren E. Wisk; Hilary A. Spear; Erika R. Cheng; Torsheika Maddox; John Hampton

2010-01-01

77

Self-efficacy and affect as mediators between pain dimensions and emotional symptoms and functional limitation in women with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of self-efficacy and affect as mediators of the relationship between pain and several fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms (functional limitation, depression, and anxiety). We evaluated 144 women with FM for self-reported pain (numerical pain scale), pressure pain sensitivity (pressure pain thresholds), functional limitation (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale), depression-anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and positive-negative affect (Positive-Negative Affect Scale). Mediating analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis. The results demonstrated that self-reported pain and pressure pain sensitivity exhibited significant relationships with functional limitation, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and affect. Affect mediated the relationship between pressure pain sensitivity and anxiety, whereas self-efficacy was the mediating variable between self-reported pain and functional limitation and depression. Our results support a complex nature of pain in women presenting with FM, as cognitive and emotional variables have different mediator relationships between pain dimensions and functional and emotional outcomes in women with FM. PMID:25179423

Peñacoba Puente, Cecilia; Velasco Furlong, Lilian; Écija Gallardo, Carmen; Cigarán Méndez, Margarita; Bedmar Cruz, Dolores; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

2015-02-01

78

Redox Disproportionation of Glucose as a Major Biosynthetic Energy Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies have concluded that very little if any energy is required for the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids from glucose -- processes that yield almost as much ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as they consume. However, these studies did not establish the strength nor the nature of the energy source driving these biological transformations. To identify and estimate the strength of the energy source behind these processes, we calculated the free energy change due to the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon of (a) 26 redox-balanced fermentation reactions, and (b) the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides of E. coli from glucose. A plot of the negative free energy of these reactions per mmole of carbon as a function of the number of disproportionative electron transfers per mmol of carbon showed that the energy yields of these fermentations and biosyntheses were directly proportional to the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon. Since this linear relationship showed that redox disproportionation was the dominant energy source of these reactions, we were able to establish that amino acid and lipid biosynthesis obtained most of their energy from redox disproportionation (greater than 94%). In contrast nucleotide biosynthesis was not driven by redox disproportionation of carbon, and consequently depended completely on ATP for energy. This crucial and previously unrecognized role of sugars as an energy source of biosynthesis suggests that sugars were involved at the earliest stage in the origin of anabolic metabolism.

Weber, Arthur L.

1996-01-01

79

Addressing the Unique Needs of African American Women in HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet there are few effective HIV prevention interventions that are exclusively tailored to their lives and that address their risk factors. Using an ecological framework, we offer a comprehensive overview of the risk factors that are driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African American women and explicate the consequences of ignoring these factors in HIV prevention strategies. We also recommend ways to improve HIV prevention programs by taking into consideration the unique life experiences of adult African American women. PMID:19372518

Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Gilbert, Louisa

2009-01-01

80

Recognizing health with pregnant Cambodian American women by finding meaning in relationship.  

PubMed

Late entry to prenatal care is a complex problem disproportionately affecting immigrant and refugee women living in Western-style countries. Improving the health and well-being of these women and their children is a critical need. Utilizing Newman's praxis research approach, this study explored engaging 6 Cambodian American women living with pregnancy in the process of finding meaning. Dialoguing on important events and relationship from childhood to present day, patterns of health emerged. Considering data across participants, 3 preliminary themes were illuminated. Study provides new knowledge about environmental disruptions and promoting health. PMID:19934838

Rosa, Katherine Cowen; Suong, Malida

2009-01-01

81

Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

82

Influences Affecting the Treatment of Women Prisoners in Toronto, 1880 to 1890  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of women prisoners in the 1880’s was largely dependent on the general attitudes towards the importance of their roles in society. In late nineteenth century Toronto the expected roles of women of all classes were those of wife and mother within the home and, to a very limited extent, of worker within the community. The responses and behaviour of

M. Jennifer Brown

1975-01-01

83

Factors affecting women's preference for type of prenatal screening test for chromosomal anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain, by means of a questionnaire, women's preferences for four different approaches to prenatal screening for Down syndrome. Methods Women attending antenatal clinics at six UK maternity units were asked to put in order of prefer- ence four different approaches to screening for Down syndrome all of which had the same false positive rate of 5%. The options

K. Spencer; D. Aitken

2004-01-01

84

Women and computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that many women opting for careers in computing either drop out of the academic pipeline or choose not to get advanced degrees and enter industry instead. Consequently, there are disproportionately low numbers of women in academic computer science and the computer industry. The situation may be perpetuated for several generations since studies show that girls from

Karen A. Frenkel

1990-01-01

85

Liver fat and SHBG affect insulin resistance in midlife women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)  

PubMed Central

The liver is an insulin-responsive organ that contributes significantly to both whole body insulin sensitivity and availability of sex steroids through the production of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Our objective was to explore whether lower SHBG was associated with ectopic liver fat and mediated its effect on insulin resistance in The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). A subset of midlife African American and Caucasian women from SWAN (n=208; 50.9±0.18 yrs; 71% Caucasian) had computed tomography scans to quantify visceral, subcutaneous and liver fat. Blood samples were collected and assayed for hormonal and metabolic markers. The cohort, while overweight, was generally healthy, and both liver fat and SHBG were unaffected by menopausal stage or race. Both higher liver fat and lower SHBG levels were significantly associated with higher insulin concentrations after adjustment for adiposity (r=?0.25, p<0.001 and r=?0.18, p=0.01). SHBG and liver fat had additive effects on insulin concentrations such that women with the lowest SHBG and the highest fat levels had the highest values (interaction p=0.09). The association between SHBG and insulin was more apparent among women with fattier livers. SHBG and liver fat appear to have independent effects on insulin levels as adjustment for each other did not diminish the strength of either association (p=0.023 and 0.001 respectively). These results confirmed the strong independent associations between increased liver fat and decreased SHBG with increased metabolic risk in midlife women. Further these data underscore the need for additional research into the role of liver fat in modifying SHBG’s influence on insulin levels. PMID:23784907

Kavanagh, Kylie; Espeland, Mark A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.

2012-01-01

86

Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.  

PubMed

This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

2014-11-23

87

How Many Women Are Affected by or at Risk of Preeclampsia?  

MedlinePLUS

... 10, 2012, from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/nmp/article/viewFile/28935/38075 [top] Ngoc, N. ... in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a nationwide population-based study. Annals of the Rheumatic Disease 69, 715– ...

88

Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers  

PubMed Central

Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

2012-01-01

89

Medicaid program; disproportionate share hospital payments. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule sets forth the data elements necessary to comply with the requirements of Section 1923(j) of the Social Security Act (Act) related to auditing and reporting of disproportionate share hospital payments under State Medicaid programs. These requirements were added by Section 1001(d) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). PMID:19143113

2008-12-19

90

A Qualitative Study of Factors Affecting Pregnancy Weight Gain in African American Women  

PubMed Central

African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8–23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24–36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6–12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

2014-01-01

91

Elevated body mass index (BMI) does not adversely affect in vitro fertilization outcome in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine if elevated body mass index in young women with normal ovarian reserve was associated with poorer ovarian response,\\u000a difficulty at embryo transfer, and lower clinical pregnancy rates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Retrospective study of 417 first, fresh in vitro fertilization cycles performed between October 2004 and December 2006. All\\u000a women were under the age of 35 and had normal cycle

Kurt Martinuzzi; Sarah Ryan; Martha Luna; Alan B. Copperman

2008-01-01

92

Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i  

E-print Network

Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i Teen. 12(5 Suppl):39-47. iii Silverman, J., Raj, A., Mucci, L., Hathaway, J. 2001. "Dating Violence Against

Derisi, Joseph

93

40 Years Later: The Health Related Quality of Life of Women Affected by Thalidomide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: 40 years ago, the sudden increase of births of babies with a range of severe deformities shocked the world. It was caused by the tranquilizer thalidomide. Women who took the drug in the first trimester of pregnancy gave birth to children with a wide but distinctive range of malformations. Thalidomide claimed more than 10,000 victims worldwide. Those who survived

Irmgard Nippert; Birgit Edler; Claudia Schmidt-Herterich

2002-01-01

94

More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

2009-01-01

95

Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

2008-09-01

96

Affect Regulation and the Cycle of Violence Against Women: New Directions for Understanding the Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of the intergenerational transmission of violence is not well understood. A risk and resilience model of criminal violence against women was investigated using secondary data. The sample was composed of adolescent male juvenile delinquents who had been physically abused by their parents, and who were followed up at ages 25 and 31. A series of structural equation models

Mary E. Dankoski; Margaret K. Keiley; Volker Thomas; Pamela Choice; Sally A. Lloyd; Brenda L. Seery

2006-01-01

97

Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

2010-01-01

98

Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

2010-01-01

99

Intimate Practices, Conjugal Ideals: Affective Ties and Relationship Strategies Among Lala (Lesbian) Women in Contemporary Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a range of marital ideologies and relationship strategies in the lives of lala (lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing. Although new discourses on same-sex marriage rights and sexual equality are becoming popular in parts of Chinese lala communities, the traditional mar- riage ideal continues to appear desirable, and it structures same-sex life aspirations as well as social, romantic,

Elisabeth Lund Engebretsen

2009-01-01

100

Cognitive-Affective Predictors of Women's Readiness to End Domestic Violence Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style)…

Shurman, Lauren A.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

2006-01-01

101

Feminism, postmodernism, and affect: An unlikely love triangle in women's media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comparative media project explores gender as a socially constructed concept and historical category constantly in flux. Throughout I utilize diverse women-orientated artifacts, focusing primarily on those residing in the popular culture realm, to track the production and consumption of gendered myths through cultural products. I argue that these female-directed texts act as both antagonist and aid for feminist work

Melissa Ames

2007-01-01

102

Actinides in Solution: Disproportionation, Strong Correlations, and Emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium in acid solutions can be found in oxidation states III through VI. There is a striking near perfect degeneracy of the reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials, each being about 1 volt. Neptunium is the only other element that approaches this degree of degeneracy. One consequence of the redox degeneracy is a marked tendency of plutonium ions to disproportionate; up to four different oxidation states can coexist simultaneously in the same solution, greatly complicating the environmental chemistry of the element. While the degeneracy could simply be a coincidence, it could also be the manifestation of a higher-level organizing principle at work. Other systems that exhibit disproportionation raise the possibility of an emergent negative-U attractive interaction. The hypothesis is tested by combining first-principles relativistic density-functional calculations using the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package with exact diagonalizations of Hubbard-like models of the strong correlations between the actinide 5f electrons.

Marston, Brad; Horowitz, Steven

2010-03-01

103

Alkylation and disproportionation of aromatic hydrocarbons over mesoporous molecular sieves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene alkylation with propylene and trimethylbenzene (TMB) disproportionation were investigated over mesoporous molecular sieves of MCM-41 type of different pore dimensions, possessing various Si\\/Al ratios or modified with heteropoly acids (HPA) of Keggin type. It was shown that the acid strength of (Al)MCM-41 was sufficient to activate propylene in the alkylation of toluene providing cymene selectivity over 96% while the

Ji?í ?ejka; Andrea Krej?í; Nad?žda Žilková; Ji?í D?de?ek; Ji?í Hanika

2001-01-01

104

Serum proinsulin levels are disproportionately increased in elderly prediabetic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion are thought to be the primary defects in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Disproportionately increased proinsulin relative to insulin levels are suggested to be an early indicator of a failing pancreas. We examined the relationship of fasting specific insulin, proinsulin, and 32, 33 split proinsulin concentrations, and the proinsulin: insulin ratio to

L. Mykkiinen; S. M. Haffner; J. Kuusisto; K. Pyiiriilii; C. N. Hales; M. Laakso

1995-01-01

105

On the Palladium-On-Charcoal Disproportionate of Rosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the composition of gum rosin during disproportionate in the presence of 5% palladium-on-charcoal have been determined by gas chromatography. The principal reaction product was dehydro-abietic acid. The exocyclic vinyl group of the pimaric\\/isopimaric-type resin acids was hydrogenated completely. Only a small amount of dihydroabietic acids was formed. Eight dihydro resin acids were identified. No tetrahydro resin acids were

Zhan-Qian Song; Eugene Zavarin; Duane F. Zinkel

1985-01-01

106

Premenopausal women affected by sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil: a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To verify whether sildenafil is effective in young premenopausal women affected by arousal disorder.Design A double-blind cross-over study.Setting Centre for Sexological Research, Department of Microbiological and Gynaecological Science, University of Catania, Italy.Sample Fifty-three volunteer women aged 22–28 years affected by arousal disorders.Methods The study consisted of three 4-week periods: sildenafil, washout, placebo, by six possible sequences. sildenafil was used

Salvatore Caruso; Giorgia Intelisano; Lorenzo Lupo; Carmela Agnello

2001-01-01

107

The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

2012-04-01

108

THROUGH HER EYES: Factors Affecting Women's Perception of and Resestance to Acquaintance Sexual Aggression Threat  

PubMed Central

A major component of a woman's ability to resist assaults by strangers versus acquaintances lies in the social and cognitive context in which she is engaged with the perpetrator and within which she must recognize potential threat before engaging in a behavioral response. This paper presents questionnaire and focus group findings of heterosexual college sorority women's social contexts, perceived risks, responses, and psychological barriers to protecting themselves from sexual aggression threat by fraternity acquaintances. Several social and cognitive factors, including alcohol consumption and psychological barriers, were related to projected responses to sexual aggression. Participants in general held a high sense of invulnerability to victimization and an optimistic belief in their ability to resist sexual aggression. Several differences between previously victimized and nonvictimized women also emerged. PMID:25705073

Norris, Jeanette; Nurius, Paula S.; Dimeff, Linda A.

2015-01-01

109

Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.  

PubMed

Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185?cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

2014-01-01

110

Evidence that Treatment with Risedronate in Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Affects Bone Mineralization and Bone Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risedronate is used in osteoporosis treatment. Postmenopausal women enrolled in the Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy\\u000a trial received either risedronate (5 mg\\/day) or placebo for 3 years. Subjects received calcium and vitamin D supplementation\\u000a if deficient at baseline. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at 3 years. Quantitative back-scattered\\u000a electron imaging (qBEI) was performed on

Peter Fratzl; Paul Roschger; Nadja Fratzl-Zelman; Eleftherios P. Paschalis; Roger Phipps; Klaus Klaushofer

2007-01-01

111

Does Religiosity Affect Health Risk Behaviors in Pregnant and Postpartum Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We examined the association between religious involvement and health risk behaviors such as smoking, drinking, marijuana\\u000a use, and having multiple sex partners among a multiethnic sample of pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Using data from the National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated multivariate logistic regression models to determine the\\u000a association between various aspects of religious involvement (e.g., attendance,

Robin L. Page; Christopher G. Ellison; Jinwoo Lee

2009-01-01

112

Intimate practices, conjugal ideals: Affective ties and relationship strategies among Lala (Lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a range of marital ideologies and relationship strategies in the lives of lala (lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing. Although new discourses on same-sex marriage rights and sexual equality are becoming\\u000a popular in parts of Chinese lala communities, the traditional marriage ideal continues to appear desirable, and it structures\\u000a same-sex life aspirations as well as social, romantic, and

Elisabeth Lund Engebretsen

2009-01-01

113

Diabetes distress may adversely affect the eating styles of women with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia, and eating styles in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Fifteen women (mean age 37 ± 13.5 years) with T1DM completed surveys measuring diabetes distress, fear of hypoglycemia (FOH), and eating style. Height, weight, and A1C were obtained, and open-ended comments regarding hypoglycemic concerns and experiences were recorded. Diabetes distress was positively associated with A1C (r = .655, p = .008). High levels of external (73 %), emotional (47 %), and restrained (53 %) eating styles were reported. Emotional and external eating styles were positively associated with diabetes distress (r = .575 and r = .622; p < .05). Those with poorer glycemic control (A1C > 7 %; 53 mmol/mol) had higher levels of restrained eating behavior (F = 10.69, p = .006) and greater interpersonal distress (F = 5.916, p = .03) than those with better glycemic control (A1C < 7 %; 53 mmol/mol). A nonlinear relationship was identified between interpersonal distress and FOH (behavior subscale, p = .0383) indicating that fewer behavioral approaches were employed to avoid hypoglycemia at higher distress levels. The women in this sample were emotionally burdened by their disease. Distress was associated with eating styles linked with overeating and poor glycemic control. High levels of emotional and external eating styles may have important clinical implications for those with T1DM. PMID:24615054

Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Quinn, Laurie; Hacker, Eileen; Park, Hanjong; Kujath, Amber S

2014-08-01

114

77 FR 2500 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments-Uninsured Definition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments-- Uninsured Definition AGENCY...SUMMARY: This proposed rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social...

2012-01-18

115

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education  

E-print Network

In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate...

Klingner, Janette K.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Harry, Beth; Zion, Shelley; Tate, William; Durá n, Grace Zamora; Riley, David

2005-01-01

116

Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ?4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

2015-01-16

117

Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8?±?4.7?years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

2014-01-01

118

Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

2013-01-01

119

Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex-work Establishments  

PubMed Central

Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real world and real time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries like China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms (FC) for HIV/STI prevention among Chinese women in sex-work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study’s intervention implementation and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007–2012) of the sex-work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex-work establishments, women’s social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the FC intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

2015-01-01

120

Breast cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide.  

PubMed

Recent progress with declines in mortality in some high-income countries has obscured the fact that for the majority of women worldwide who are newly diagnosed, breast cancer is a neglected disease in the context of other numerically more frequent health problems. For this growing majority, it is also an orphan disease, in that detailed knowledge about tumor characteristics and relevant host biology necessary to provide even basic care is absent. With the possible exception of nutritional recommendations, current international cancer policy and planning initiatives are irrelevant to breast cancer. The progress that has occurred in high-income countries has come at extraordinary fiscal expense and patient toxicity, which of themselves suggest nonrelevance to women and healthcare practitioners in middle- and low-income countries. The implications of these circumstances appear clear: if the promise of the now 60-year-old Declaration of Human Rights that the fruits of medical science accrue to all mankind is to be realized with respect to breast cancer, a basic and translational global research initiative should be launched. PMID:21410589

Ginsburg, Ophira M; Love, Richard R

2011-01-01

121

42 CFR 447.297 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992. 447...FOR SERVICES Payment Adjustments for Hospitals That Serve a Disproportionate Number...aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals beginning October 1, 1992....

2010-10-01

122

[Anticoagulant prophylaxis in women affected by thrombophilia and previous obstetric complications].  

PubMed

Pregnancy is a condition of excessive clotting due to a decrease of some coagulation factors and a reduction of anticoagulant proteins, such as protein S. It is known that the causes of congenital or acquired thrombophilia may be associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and/or obstetric complications, such early or late fetal loss, intrauterine fetal deaths, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy the use of a prophylaxis with antithrombotic drugs is considered at present a promising opportunity to significantly reduce the prevalence of thromboembolic complications, improving maternal and fetal outcomes. This article is a review to most recent evidence of pregnant anticoagulant prophylaxis in women with previous thromboembolic events. PMID:18854809

Grandone, E; Colaizzo, D; Vergura, P; Tiscia, G; Chinni, E; Tomaiuolo, M; Margaglione, M

2008-10-01

123

Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

2013-01-01

124

Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

De War, Joshua J.

2009-01-01

125

The Effect of Pre-Existing Affect on the Sexual Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives.\\u000a Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties\\u000a in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on

Alessandra H. Rellini; Samantha Elinson; Erick Janssen; Cindy M. Meston

126

Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.  

PubMed

In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. PMID:25474605

McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

2014-01-01

127

Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and twenty-six breast milk samples were collected from lactating women from 3 blocks of North-24 Paragans, one of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 226 samples, only in 39 samples arsenic was detected. Urine, hair, and nail samples were also analyzed to know the arsenic body burden of the lactating women. Arsenic in drinking water

Gautam Samanta; Dipankar Das; Badal K. Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Dipankar Chakraborti; Arup Pal; Sad Ahamed

2007-01-01

128

She left, he left: how employment and satisfaction affect women's and men's decisions to leave marriages.  

PubMed

Studies examining determinants of divorce have largely ignored differences between factors that elevate wives' and husbands' initiation of divorce. The authors use longitudinal data and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. They find that when men are not employed, either spouse is more likely to leave. When wives report better-than-average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither spouse's exit. However, when wives report below-average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely they will leave. The authors' findings suggest that theories of divorce require "gendering" to reflect asymmetric gender change. PMID:21932472

Sayer, Liana C; England, Paula; Allison, Paul D; Kangas, Nicole

2011-05-01

129

Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement  

PubMed Central

We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

2011-01-01

130

Manganese-dependent disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide in bicarbonate buffer.  

PubMed Central

At physiological concentrations of HCO3- and CO2, Mn(II) catalyzes disproportionation of H2O2. This catalase-like activity is directly proportional to the concentrations of Mn(II) and H2O2, and it increases exponentially with increases in pH. The effect of increasing pH is almost completely attributable to the concomitant increase in HCO3- concentration. The rate is proportional to the third power of the HCO3- concentration, suggesting that 3 equivalents of HCO3- combine with 1 equivalent of Mn(II) to form the catalytic complex. It is presumed that the redox potential of the Mn(II) in equilibrium with Mn(III) couple in such a complex permits H2O2 to carry out facile reactions with Mn(II) comparable to those that occur with Fe(III) and Cu(II) chelate complexes, in which OH. and O2-. are established intermediates. The Mn-catalyzed disproportionation of H2O2 does not occur at physiological pH in the absence of HCO3-. Hepes, inorganic phosphate, and inorganic pyrophosphate inhibit the reaction catalyzed by the Mn/HCO3- system. These results are similar to those of Sychev et al. [Sychev, A.Y., Pfannmeller, U. & Isak, V.G. (1983) Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 57, 1690-1693]. The catalase-like activity of Mn(II)-bicarbonate complexes reported here, together with the superoxide dismutase activity of Mn complexes demonstrated by Archibald and Fridovich [Archibald, F.S. & Fridovich, I. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 214, 452-463], strengthen the proposition that Mn may play an important role in the protection of cells against oxygen radical-mediated damage. PMID:2296593

Stadtman, E R; Berlett, B S; Chock, P B

1990-01-01

131

Women and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

132

Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

2013-01-01

133

The effects of nefazodone on women with seasonal affective disorder: clinical and polysomnographic analyses  

PubMed Central

Objective To outline the clinical and polysomnographic changes induced by nefazodone in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Methods Twelve patients were enrolled, and 9 of them studied, in an open-label trial with objective and subjective measurements. The mean age of the studied patients was 45 (range 35–58) years. They met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria for major depressive disorder and current major depressive episode with seasonal patterns. The patients' mean baseline score on the Seasonal Patterns Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was 15.7 (standard deviation [SD] 5.3). The total nefazodone treatment period was 8 weeks, and the daily dosages were 100 mg in week 1, 200 mg in week 2, 300 mg in week 3, and up to 400 mg in weeks 4–8. Each patient received the 29-item version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and 2-night polysomnographic assessments on 3 occasions: before treatment (baseline, W0), at the end of week 4 (W4) and at the end of week 8 (W8). Results There were statistically significant improvements in depression, anxiety, sleep latency and sleep efficiency during the 8-week treatment protocol. Repeated-measures analysis of variance results indicated that nefazodone has a time-dependent effect on both HAM-D and HAM-A scores. After 8 weeks of nefazodone therapy, HAM-D scores decreased from 33.4 (SD 8.1) to 11.6 (SD 5.6) (F2,14 = 13.68, p = 0.001) and HAM-A decreased from 26.6 (SD 7.0) to 11.5 (SD 11.1) (F2,14 = 13.46, p = 0.001). The results of paired t tests show that, compared with baseline, HAM-D and HAM-A scores decreased at both W4 (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively) and W8 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively). The time-dependent effects on stage 1 sleep (F2,16 = 6.06, p = 0.011) and periodic leg movement index (F2,16 = 4.31, p = 0.035) were also significant. The mean sleep latency of these patients decreased from 39.9 (SD 32.7) minutes at W0 to 16.6 (SD 15.3) minutes at W8 (p < 0.05). Sleep efficiency increased from 78.8% (SD 14.6%) at W0 to 91.5% (SD 5.5%) at W8 (p < 0.05). Stage 1 sleep decreased from 4.9% (SD 1.9%) at W0 to 3.4% (SD 2.6%) at W8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this preliminary study indicate that nefazodone not only has favourable antidepressant and anxiolytic effects but also enhances sleep efficiency and sleep latency. PMID:15644992

Shen, Jianhua; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Levitan, Robert D.; Kayumov, Leonid; Shapiro, Colin M.

2005-01-01

134

Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

135

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Inferred from a Field Study of Stable-Isotope Fractionations between Elemental Sulfur and Pyrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (ES) is a common product of pyrite oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD), but bacterial disproportionation of ES has not previously been inferred in acidic environments. Pore water profiles were collected seasonally within a coal-mine waste deposit, Minnehaha, in Southwest Indiana that has been abandoned for over 30 years. Geochemical characterization and modeling were used to assess how the interactions between the sulfur and iron cycle are affected by seasonally dynamic hydrologic conditions. Pore waters were collected seasonally and concentrations of Fe-species and sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate were determined. Additionally, a sediment core was collected and used for sequential extraction and isotopic characterization of solid-phase sulfur species including elemental sulfur (?34Ses), pyrite (?34Spy), acid-volatile sulfides, water-soluble sulfates, and acid-soluble sulfates. The dominant disulfide phase was found to be pyrite through x-ray diffraction of an additional sediment core. Sulfur isotope fractionations between ?34Spy and ?34Ses (?34Ses-py) of up to -33% are inferred to indicate bacterial disproportionation of ES in the presence of a non-limiting sulfide 'scrub' Fe(III). The initial isotopic composition, following formation from pyrite oxidation, is inferred from ?34Spy, found to be ? 8.75% at the study site. Although ES has previously been found to accumulate in acidic Fe(III)-rich pore waters, ES is typically assumed to account for less than 1% of the oxidized sulfur pool and measurements of the ES isotopic composition are often neglected during field studies of acid AMD. The pore waters at Minnehaha were seasonally suboxic with sharp transitions from Fe(III)- to Fe(II)- dominated conditions near the phreatic surface. It is hypothesized that the sulfide product of ES disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6%, is immediately re-oxidized to ES near the redox gradient via reaction with Fe(III). Sulfide re-oxidation allows for the accumulation of isotopically light ES that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for ES, incorporating seasonally varying rates for pyrite oxidation, ES disproportionation, and ES oxidation, was developed in order to determine the potential and conditions necessary for extensive recycling of ES by disproportionating bacteria to produce ES enriched in 32S compared to the pyrite source. Simulations run for 32 seasonal cycles resulted in a ?34Ses-py of -16.4.% and an ES concentration of 170 ppm, which is consistent with average values obtained from the sediment core. The findings suggest that ES disproportionation is likely an important microbial process in AMD that should be considered at similar mining waste deposits experiencing seasonally varying hydrologic conditions and that ?34Ses-py can be used to estimate multiple cycles of ES disproportionation in oxic settings where the original source of ES is pyrite oxidation.

Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L. M.; Olyphant, G. A.; Bell, J.; Johnson, A.

2011-12-01

136

Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640

2014-01-01

137

Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.  

PubMed

Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9±2.7years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7±3.1years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. PMID:25727023

Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

2015-05-01

138

A distinctive autosomal recessive syndrome of severe disproportionate short stature with short long bones, brachydactyly, and hypotrichosis in two consanguineous Arab families.  

PubMed

Disproportionate short stature is a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders, which are classified according to their mode of inheritance, their clinical skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations, and their radiological characteristics. Herein, we inform on eight individuals with severe disproportionate short stature from two unrelated consanguineous families of Arab-Muslim ancestry. The adult height of the affected individuals is between 112 cm and 127 cm, and is due to pre- and post-natal growth retardation, which probably manifests as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. At a young age, the phenotype is characterized by a short stature, a relatively large head, and a long triangular face, and this phenotype later evolves to one with in which the head is relatively small, the mandible is large and pointy. The affected individuals have normal cognitive abilities and lack any neurological deficits. Other typical features include a prominent nose, a voice with an unusual high-pitched sound, relatively small ears, clinodactyly, brachydactyly, small hands, hypoplastic fingernails, a waddling gait, and sparse hair post-pubertally. Typical skeletal changes include short long bones, especially the femurs and humeri, with mild metaphyseal changes and very short femoral necks. After due consideration of the other hereditary causes of disproportionate short stature and close examination of the pedigrees of the two families, we concluded that these eight individuals have the same hitherto unreported form of severe disproportionate short stature that is inherited in the autosomal recessive mode. PMID:22440536

Shalev, Stavit A; Spiegel, Ronen; Borochowitz, Zvi U

2012-04-01

139

Do Religious Physicians Disproportionately Care for the Underserved?  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Religious traditions call their members to care for the poor and marginalized, yet no study has examined whether physicians’ religious characteristics are associated with practice among the underserved. This study examines whether physicians’ self-reported religious characteristics and sense of calling in their work are associated with practice among the underserved. METHODS This study entailed a cross-sectional survey by mail of a stratified random sample of 2,000 practicing US physicians from all specialties. RESULTS The response rate was 63%. Twenty-six percent of US physicians reported that their patient populations are considered underserved. Physicians who were more likely to report practice among the underserved included those who were highly spiritual (multivariate odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.7], those who strongly agreed that their religious beliefs influenced their practice of medicine (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.5), and those who strongly agreed that the family in which they were raised emphasized service to the poor (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). Physicians who were more religious in general, as measured by intrinsic religiosity or frequency of attendance at religious services, were much more likely to conceive of the practice of medicine as a calling but not more likely to report practice among the underserved. CONCLUSIONS Physicians who are more religious do not appear to disproportionately care for the underserved. PMID:17664502

Curlin, Farr A.; Dugdale, Lydia S.; Lantos, John D.; Chin, Marshall H.

2007-01-01

140

Why Did Poverty Feminize When Women Have Always Been Poor?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that women have always been disproportionately represented among those in poverty and that recent attempts to promote the view of a feminization of poverty masks and promotes sexist and racist public policy agendas. (JDH)

Marciano, Teresa D.

1986-01-01

141

Disproportionate Placement of Black and Hispanic Students in Special Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines practices and procedures that are seen as contributory to disproportionate placement of Black and Hispanic students in special education programs and discusses various components of the Boston Public School's Remedial Plan. Practices and procedures critical in disproportionate placement are seen to include biased assessment,…

Goodale, Ronda; Soden, Marcia

142

Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1%) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucleotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

Weber, Arthur L.

1997-01-01

143

Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1 %) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucteotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

Weber, Arthur L.

1997-01-01

144

Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

2013-01-01

145

Climate Change Disproportionately Increases Herbivore over Plant or Parasitoid Biomass  

PubMed Central

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M.

2012-01-01

146

Climate change disproportionately increases herbivore over plant or parasitoid biomass.  

PubMed

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M

2012-01-01

147

Disproportionate subarachnoid space hydrocephalus—outcome and perivascular space  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to identify the prevalence of MRI features of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus in possible idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (DESH-iNPH) and to describe the clinico-radiological features and outcomes of a community-based investigation (The Vienna Trans-Danube Aging study). Methods Of the 697 inhabitants (all 75 years old), 503 completed extensive neurological examinations at baseline and were followed up every 30 months thereafter with MRIs, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Section (UPDRSM). The DESH-iNPH participant data were compared with the data from participants with Evans index ratios >0.3 (ex vacuo hydrocephalus), cerebral small-vessel diseases, and normal MRIs. The widening of perivascular space was also evaluated by MRI in these groups. Results Eight participants with DESH-iNPH (1.6%) and 76 with ex vacuo hydrocephalus (16.1%) at baseline were identified. The mean MMSE in DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs was 26.4, 27.9, and 28.3, respectively, and the mean UPDRSM was 9.75, 2.96, and 1.87, respectively. After a 90-month follow-up, the mortality rates for DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs were 25.0%, 21.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. The perivascular-space widening scores were significantly smaller in the DESH-iNPH cases, particularly at the centrum semiovale, compared to cerebral small-vessel disease and ex vacuo hydrocephalus cases. Interpretation The prevalence of DESH-iNPH was 1.6% for participants aged 75 years and revealed significantly lower MMSE and higher UPDRSM scores compared to the ex vacuo hydrocephalus and controls. Moreover, it is suggested that perivascular-space narrowing is a morphological and pathophysiological marker of DESH-iNPH. PMID:25356428

Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Budka, Herbert; Watanabe, Yuko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Shiino, Akihiko; Ogita, Mihoko; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Jungwirth, Susanne; Krampla, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter

2014-01-01

148

Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV  

PubMed Central

Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036

Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

2011-01-01

149

HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge and Behaviors Among Rural Married Migrant Women in Shandong Province, China: A Comparison Study.  

PubMed

Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

2015-02-01

150

The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

2013-03-01

151

Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

2010-01-01

152

42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disproportionate share of low-income patients. 412.106 Section 412.106 Public...disproportionate share of low-income patients. (a) General considerations. ...include the number of beds, the number of patient days, and the hospital's...

2010-10-01

153

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

E-print Network

psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal eating and impulsivity. Analyses using both bulimic women and occasional binge eaters among the controls showed that a combination of reported

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

154

Interactions of the PPAR?2 Polymorphism with Fat Intake Affecting Energy Metabolism and Nutritional Outcomes in Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To determine the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR?2 gene and the dietary lipid intake on energy metabolism and nutritional outcomes in obese women after an acute fat load or following a low-calorie diet for 10 weeks. Methods: Sixty obese women (aged 30–46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to 2 groups depending on the

Eliane L. Rosado; Josefina Bressan; J. Alfredo Martínez; Iva Marques-Lopes

2010-01-01

155

Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Middle-aged and Older Rural Appalachian Women  

PubMed Central

Although cervical cancer rates in the United States have declined sharply in recent decades, certain groups of women remain at elevated risk, including middle-aged and older women in central Appalachia. Cross-sectional baseline data from a community-based randomized controlled trial were examined to identify barriers to cervical cancer screening. Questionnaires assessing barriers were administered to 345 Appalachian women aged 40-64, years when Pap testing declines and cervical cancer rates increase. Consistent with the PRECEDE/PROCEED framework, participants identified barriers included predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Descriptive and bivariate analyses are reported, identifying (a) the most frequently endorsed barriers to screening, and (b) significant associations of barriers with sociodemographic characteristics in the sample. Recommendations are provided to decrease these barriers and, ultimately, improve rates of Pap tests among this traditionally underserved and disproportionately affected group. PMID:23179390

Studts, Christina R.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

2012-01-01

156

Disproportionation in Hydrogen and Recombination of the Laves Phases of Zirconium with Chromium  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the methods of differential thermal, X-ray phase diffraction, and metallographic analyses, we study the processes of conventional and solid HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) in ZrCr2 compound with C14- and C15-type structures under initial pressures of hydrogen of 3 and 5 MPa at temperatures of up to 1243°K. The ZrCr2 compound with C15-type structure disproportionates at 1048 and 1093°K for PH2 =

I. I. Bulyk; Yu. B. Basaraba; A. M. Trostyanchyn; V. M. Davydov

2005-01-01

157

Synergism between molybdenum and lanthanum in the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide into singlet oxygen.  

PubMed

The catalytic disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide into singlet molecular oxygen was studied using the combined action of lanthanum(III) and molybdenum(VI). A synergistic effect was observed between both metals, resulting in a strong acceleration of the H2O2 disproportionation. An optimum in the catalytic activity was found at La/Mo and La/NaOH molar ratios of 4/1 and 1/3, respectively. PMID:16332047

Wahlen, Joos; De Vos, Dirk E; Groothaert, Marijke H; Nardello, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie; Alsters, Paul L; Jacobs, Pierre A

2005-12-14

158

The Production of 34S-Depleted Sulfide During Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur fractionate sulfur isotopes such that sulfate is enriched in sulfur-34 by 12.6 to 15.3 per mil and sulfide is depleted in sulfur-34 by 7.3 to 8.6 per mil. Through a repeated cycle of sulfide oxidation to S^0 and subsequent disproportionation, these bacteria can deplete sedimentary sulfides in sulfur-34. A prediction, borne out by observation, is

Donald E. Canfield; Bo Thamdrup

1994-01-01

159

Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n?=?1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n?=?77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n?=?184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2) ?=?12.93 p?=?0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor-Leste, impacting on their health, child-rearing and ability to participate fully in socio-economic development. PMID:23950885

Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

2013-01-01

160

Mechanism of charge transfer/disproportionation in LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-Cu intersite charge transfer and Fe charge disproportionation are interesting phenomena observed in some LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides) compounds containing light and heavy Ln atoms, respectively. We show that a change in the spin state is responsible for the intersite charge transfer in the light Ln compounds. At the high-spin state, such systems prefer an unusual Cu d8 configuration, whereas at the low-spin state they retreat to the normal Cu d9 configuration through a charge transfer from Fe to the Cu 3dxy orbital. We find that the strength of the crystal-field splitting and the relative energy ordering between Cu 3dxy and Fe 3d states are the key parameters determining the intersite charge transfer (charge disproportionation) in light (heavy) Ln compounds. It is further proposed that the size of Ln affects the on-site interaction strength of Cu 3d states, leading to a strong modification of the Cu L3-edge spectrum, as observed by the x-ray-absorption spectroscopy.

Rezaei, N.; Hansmann, P.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.

2014-03-01

161

Women's Employment and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women's ability to affect their socioeconomic status (SES) has significant health consequences. Paid employment is an increasingly important factor in women's SES. This paper presents a historical overview of working women, challenges faced by women (including unique challenges for minority women), and strategies for rectifying these problems,…

Rienzo, Barbara A.; Button, James W.; Tynes, Shannon

2002-01-01

162

The Interplay of National, State, and Local Policy in Financing Care for Drug-Affected Women and Children in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent prevalence studies in California indicate that perinatal alcohol and other drug use remains a serious issue for large numbers of women and their children. In response, national, state and local policymakers have taken steps to address the problem, including increasing funding for treatment services. To gauge the impact of policy attention to this problem, the Center for the Vulnerable

Laurie A. Soman; Claire Brindis; Ellen Dunn-Malhotra

1996-01-01

163

Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of

Lynne C Giles; Gary FV Glonek; Vivienne M Moore; Michael J Davies; Mary A Luszcz

2010-01-01

164

How does AIDS illness affect women's residential decisions? Findings from an ethnographic study in a Cape Town township.  

PubMed

This paper explores the nature and consequences of residential decision-making for women on treatment for AIDS illness in a poor urban settlement in South Africa. Drawing on ethnographic data collected over a two-year period, it points to the subtle shifts in 'householding' practices and kinship relationships prompted by women's individual experiences and understanding of their HIV status, illness and treatment. Women's decisions to move or to arrange that other family members move can be explained by pre-existing threats to individual wellbeing or family residential security. But an HIV diagnosis can intensify a mother's thoughts and actions in relation to residential and emotional security, in particular on behalf of her children. In a context where extended periods of childcare by rural relatives is common, mothers with AIDS illness may gather all their children in their home to offer direct care, achieve intimacy and facilitate disclosure. They are likely to avoid making frequent contact with, and demands on, their elderly parents. Siblings are favoured as co-residents and confidants in disclosure, but their long-term support is contingent on reciprocity. Partners, where present, are valued for economic, social and emotional security. Women attempt to balance their children's nurturing, in the short and long term, with care of the self. Their efforts do not always succeed and can incur high costs to their wellbeing and relationships with their children. PMID:25875568

Bray, Rachel

2009-06-01

165

Evidence for Chromosome 2p16.3 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Susceptibility Locus in Affected Women of European Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Context: A previous genome-wide association study in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) identified a region on chromosome 2p16.3 encoding the LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) genes as a reproducible PCOS susceptibility locus. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the role of the LHCGR and/or FSHR gene in the etiology of PCOS in women of European ancestry. Design: This was a genetic association study in a European ancestry cohort of women with PCOS. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Participants in the study included 905 women with PCOS diagnosed by National Institutes of Health criteria and 956 control women. Intervention: We genotyped 94 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms and two coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to the coding region of LHCGR and FSHR plus 20 kb upstream and downstream of the genes and test for association in the case control cohort and for association with nine quantitative traits in the women with PCOS. Results: We found strong evidence for an association of PCOS with rs7562215 (P = 0.0037) and rs10495960 (P = 0.0046). Although the marker with the strongest association in the Chinese PCOS genome-wide association study (rs13405728) was not informative in the European populations, we identified and genotyped three markers (rs35960650, rs2956355, and rs7562879) within 5 kb of rs13405728. Of these, rs7562879 was nominally associated with PCOS (P = 0.020). The strongest evidence for association mapping to FSHR was observed with rs1922476 (P = 0.0053). Furthermore, markers with the FSHR gene region were associated with FSH levels in women with PCOS. Conclusions: Fine mapping of the chromosome 2p16.3 Chinese PCOS susceptibility locus in a European ancestry cohort provides evidence for association with two independent loci and PCOS. The gene products LHCGR and FSHR therefore are likely to be important in the etiology of PCOS, regardless of ethnicity. PMID:23118426

Mutharasan, Priscilla; Galdones, Eugene; Peñalver Bernabé, Beatriz; Garcia, Obed A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Legro, Richard S.; Dunaif, Andrea

2013-01-01

166

Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Women’s Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women’s health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women’s groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women’s and children’s health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory women’s groups focused on women’s and children’s health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

2014-01-01

167

Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada

2008-01-01

168

Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123  

PubMed Central

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

169

Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Beninese women would impair absorption of dietary iron or utilization of circulating iron. Design: Iron absorption and utilization from an iron-fortified sorghum-based meal were estimated by using oral and intravenous isotope labels in 23 afebrile women with a positive malaria smear (asexual P. falciparum parasitemia; >500 parasites/?L blood). The women were studied while infected, treated, and then restudied 10 d after treatment. Iron status, hepcidin, and inflammation indexes were measured before and after treatment. Results: Treatment reduced low-grade inflammation, as reflected by decreases in serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 (P < 0.05); this was accompanied by a reduction in median serum hepcidin of ?50%, from 2.7 to 1.4 nmol/L (P < 0.005). Treatment decreased serum erythropoietin and growth differentiation factor 15 (P < 0.05). Clearance of parasitemia increased geometric mean dietary iron absorption (from 10.2% to 17.6%; P = 0.008) but did not affect systemic iron utilization (85.0% compared with 83.1%; NS). Conclusions: Dietary iron absorption is reduced by ?40% in asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia, likely because of low-grade inflammation and its modulation of circulating hepcidin. Because asymptomatic parasitemia has a protracted course and is very common in malarial areas, this effect may contribute to IDA and blunt the efficacy of iron supplementation and fortification programs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01108939. PMID:20926522

Egli, Ines M; Ahouandjinou, Ella; Dossa, Romain; Zeder, Christophe; Salami, Lamidhi; Tjalsma, Harold; Wiegerinck, Erwin; Tanno, Toshihiko; Hurrell, Richard F; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Zimmermann, Michael B

2010-01-01

170

Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for attrition was interest in another (non-STEM) field. Participants placed little importance on other reasons for leaving STEM that were identified in previous research, such as competition, social isolation, or financial considerations.

Heilbronner, Nancy N.

171

Women in pharmacy  

PubMed Central

Background: Women have historically been attracted to pharmacy because it is widely perceived as a profession that offers them an opportunity to combine a professional career with a family. Women now make up the majority of practising pharmacists in Canada, yet the literature demonstrates disparities such as gender segregation and underrepresentation of women in senior positions. This study was intended to identify the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacy students about women’s issues in pharmacy and raise awareness of these issues. Methods: First- and fourth-year University of Saskatchewan pharmacy students were invited to share their overall impressions of the status of female pharmacists and the impact of women on the pharmacy profession through an online questionnaire. Results: Of the 60 respondents, the majority disagreed that there is segregation of men and women in pharmacy. More fourth-year students than first-year students recognized the underrepresentation of women in pharmacy management. Many students believed the number of women in pharmacy would have no negative impact on the profession. Forty students (67.8%) agreed that it is important to maintain a significant proportion of men in pharmacy. Conclusion: Most pharmacy students in this study do not recognize gender disparities present in pharmacy or the impact the disproportionate number of women could have on the profession. Can Pharm J 2013;146:109-116. PMID:23795187

Janzen, Donica; Fitzpatrick, Kerry; Suveges, Linda

2013-01-01

172

Cosmopolitan Whiteness: The Effects and Affects of Skin-Whitening Advertisements in a Transnational Women's Magazine in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous scholarship on the immense popularity of skin-whitening frames this practice as revealing women's desire to emulate whiteness and upper class white populations (Burke 1996; Peiss 1998; Hall 2005). Others have focused on whitening practices to highlight the working of racialized color hierarchy and European\\/Euro-American hegemony in local and global contexts (Hunter 2005; Pierre 2008; Glenn 2009;). This article breaks

L. Ayu Saraswati

2010-01-01

173

Cosmopolitan Whiteness: The Effects and Affects of Skin-Whitening Advertisements in a Transnational Women's Magazine in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Previous scholarship on the immense popularity of skin-whitening frames this practice as revealing women's desire to emulate whiteness and upper class white populations (Burke 1996; Peiss 1998; Hall 2005). Others have focused on whitening practices to highlight the working of racialized color hierarchy and European\\/Euro-American hegemony in local and global contexts (Hunter 2005; Pierre 2008; Glenn 2009;). This article breaks

L. Ayu Saraswati

2010-01-01

174

Factors Affecting Informed Decision-Making in Women with Increased Breast Cancer Risk or DCIS Pursuing Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy.  

PubMed

Despite lack of survival benefit, an increasing number of women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) opt for removal of the unaffected breast in addition to the breast with known pathology, i.e. contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). Little is known about women's decision-making processes that contribute to this rising trend, particularly for DCIS. Further obscuring the decision is the highly variable terminology used to discuss breast cancer pathologies and treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors impacting risk comprehension and decision-making related to increased risk for breast cancer or DCIS. We conducted a retrospective and prospective pilot study to evaluate women's perceived contralateral breast cancer risk, health literacy, numeracy, and comprehension of terms used in genetics and breast cancer. Clinical data such as breast MRI, genetic testing, family history, and breast cancer risk derived from predictive models were also collected. Women with DCIS and those high-risk for development of invasive breast cancer were eligible, and 68 patients participated. Of the cohort, 33 (48.5%) women considered pursuing CPM and 11 (16.2%) underwent CPM. Anxiety about cancer recurrence was the top reason for considering CPM. Undergoing CPM was significantly associated with plastic surgery consultation, increased 10-year breast cancer risk, genetic counseling, and genetic testing. The consideration of CPM was also associated with higher incomes. Numeracy, health and genetic literacy, and terminology scores were not significant predictors of CPM. Lastly, 83.8% of respondents stated DCIS qualified as breast cancer, but only 39.7% of patients correctly defined DCIS. When asked to interpret the phrase "indolent lesion of epithelial origin" (new terminology advocated to replace "DCIS"), 27.9% of respondents believed it referred to cancer, 47.1% did not, and 23.5% were unsure. Patients commonly thought "lesion" meant "skin wound" or "sore". Decision-making related to DCIS remains complex. Although CPM has not shown a survival advantage and can have significant complications, CPM rates continue to rise. Recognizing patients' knowledge of risk communication and terminology is vital to support shared and informed surgical decisions. PMID:25834156

Valente, J; Stybio, T; Hyde, S; Lipscomb, J; Gillespie, T W

2015-04-01

175

Fertility sparing surgery in young women affected by endometrial stromal sarcoma: an oncologic dilemma or a reliable option? review of literature starting from a peculiar case  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a term used to define a rare neoplasm that accounts for approximately 0.2%–1% of all uterine malignancies; it is, however, implicated in an estimated 10%–15% of those malignancies with a mesenchymal component. Recent evidence suggests that while the preservation of the ovaries may be considered appropriate in premenopausal women, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the recommended treatment in postmenopausal women. Currently, only a few case series reporting the treatment of ESS in young women with a desire to preserve fertility and thus subjected to a fertility-sparing surgery are available in the literature. Case presentation We report a peculiar case of early stage ESS treated by laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery and a strict follow-up program (every 3 months) of imaging and clinical evaluation. The patient remained disease free 1 year after primary treatment. Three months after completing oncological follow-up, the patient conceived spontaneously and is, to date, pregnant at 11 weeks of gestation without evidence of recurrent disease or obstetric complications. Conclusion Based on our case report and in accordance with the data available, we suggest that in young patients affected by early stage ESS who wish to preserve reproductive function, fertility-sparing surgery could represent a valid option, though strict oncological follow-up remains mandatory. PMID:25565863

Noventa, Marco; Gizzo, Salvatore; Conte, Lorena; Dalla Toffola, Angela; Litta, Pietro; Saccardi, Carlo

2015-01-01

176

In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling  

PubMed Central

Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from premenopausal (n?=?6) and postmenopausal (n?=?5) women. In an in vitro model, the myotubes were treated with palmitate (300 µM) for one-, two- or three days during differentiation. Effects on lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin signaling were studied. Palmitate treatment led to a 108% (CI 95%: 50%; 267%) increase in intramyocellular ceramide in the myotubes from the postmenopausal women (post-myotubes) compared with a 26% (CI 95%: ?57%; 96%) increase in myotubes from the premenopausal women (pre-myotubes), (p<0.05). Furthermore, post-myotubes had a 22% (CI 95%: 4%; 34%) increase in pJNK (p?=?0.04) and a 114% (CI 95%: 50%; 177%) increase in Hsp70 protein expression (p?=?0.03) after three days of palmitate treatment, compared with pre-myotubes, in which no increase in either pJNK (?12% (CI 95: ?26%; 2%)) or Hsp70 (7% (CI 95: ?78%; 91%)) was detected. Furthermore, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p?=?0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p?=?0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes. PMID:25000528

Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C.; Pedersen, Anette T.; Langley, Katherine G.; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindegaard, Birgitte

2014-01-01

177

Preliminary study of how alcohol consumption during pregnancy affects immune components in breast milk and blood of postpartum women.  

PubMed

Human milk has been shown to contain numerous immune components that can potentially protect the infant during the period before its own immune system is completely developed. Alcohol consumption in both experimental animals and humans has been associated with alterations to a number of immune parameters. We have investigated the possibility that alcohol consumption during pregnancy alters certain immune components in day 3 postpartum breast milk and peripheral blood of women. Our study group consisted of 10 alcoholic beverage drinkers (moderate to heavy, most of whom smoked a 1/2-1 pack of cigarettes per day), 15 non-drinking/non-smoking controls, and 10 non-drinking/smokers (1/2-1 pack per day) controls. The immune parameters measured in these otherwise healthy women were: (1) percentage and absolute number of the various subsets of leukocytes; (2) percentage of T cells, B cells, T helper and cytotoxic/suppressors subsets, and natural killer cells; (3) levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha; (4) levels of IgA in milk and IgG in serum. Milk from the alcohol group contained an elevated amount of IL-8 as compared with milk from non-smoker controls; however, it did not differ statistically from that of the smoker controls. Blood from the alcohol group showed an increased level of IL-8 when compared with that from both smoker and non-smoker controls. The total number of leukocytes in milk was elevated in milk from the alcohol group as compared to both the smoker and non-smoker control groups. In the leukocyte component of milk, neutrophils predominate and are responsible for the elevation in total number of cells, as both lymphocyte and macrophage populations did not differ from those of the controls. For lymphocytes, B cells were also increased in blood of the smokers as compared with the alcohol and non-smokers controls. There were no statistical differences in any of the other immune parameters tested among the three groups. The present study found that alcohol consumption during pregnancy could modulate the production of IL-8 and infiltration of certain leukocytes in milk and blood of postpartum women. Some of these alterations were also evident in the smoker controls and thus could not be attributed to alcohol consumption alone. PMID:9373700

Na, H R; Daniels, L C; Seelig, L L

1997-01-01

178

Gender Differences and Role of Pregnancy in the History of Post-Surgical Women Affected by Tetralogy of Fallot  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to describe gender differences in patients operated on for TOF and to define the impact of pregnancy in late post-surgical follow-up in women. Methods In this research, we studied 145 patients after correction of TOF: 66 male, 79 women, 41 of which reported history of 68 pregnancies, means age 37±10 years, age at operation 7±8 years, mean duration of post-surgical follow-up 30±7 years. Selected variables were compared according to sex and according to history of pregnancy with statistical tests. Results Men had more severe hemodynamic impairment and a higher number of cardiac reoperations than females. 41% of patients had at least one complication during pregnancy; there were 16 (67%) abortions and 39 (74%) Caesarian delivers; the recurrence of congenital heart defect was 10%. After pregnancy, there was a shift from first to second functional class: unique pregnancy determined no differences in term of morpho-functional ventricular features compared to nulliparous, but they complained fatigue and palpitation and echocardiographyc dysfunction. Left ventricular dysfunction and QRS duration at ECG were independent predictors of ventricular arrhythmias in all patients. Conclusions There were no gender-specific differences in patients operated on for TOF using ventriculotomy. Pregnancy is an event in these patients at risk for the newborn, in terms of miscarriage, prematurity, and recurrence of birth defects, and for the mother in terms of ventricular dysfunction and electrical instability. At least a single pregnancy does not appear to significantly modify the natural history of post-surgical patients operated on for TOF. PMID:23239969

Daliento, Luciano; Dal Bianco, Lucia; Bagato, Francesco; Secco, Eleonora; Sarubbi, Berardo; Mazzotti, Elisa; Bauce, Barbara; Rizzoli, Giulio

2012-01-01

179

n3 PUFAs Do Not Affect Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Overweight to Moderately Obese Men and Women123  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m2 consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N.; Hagman, Derek K.; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Weigle, David S.

2013-01-01

180

Evaluating Domestic Violence Interventions for Black Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although African American women are at disproportionate risk for domestic violence, review of the literature suggests that traditional law enforcement, criminal justice, and advocacy efforts may be ineffective with this population due to (a) Black female victims' experiences of systemic racism and oppression, which prevents disclosure of abuse and access to resources, and (b) utilization of culture-blind approaches in the

Robert L. Hampton; Jaslean J. LaTaillade; Alicia Dacey; J. R. Marghi

2008-01-01

181

SOME MAGNESIUM STATUS INDICATORS AND OXIDATIVE METABOLISM RESPONSES TO LOW DIETARY MAGNESIUM ARE AFFECTED BY DIETARY COPPER IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In both animals and humans, deficiencies of both magnesium and copper result in undesirable changes in lipid and reactive oxygen metabolism that can adversely affect cardiovascular and bone health. Thus, a study with human volunteers was conducted with the objective of ascertaining whether a low in...

182

Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease that affects 1 in 1,000 people, often young women (BOX 1).  

E-print Network

Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease that affects 1 in 1,000 people, often young-remitting phase2 . This shortcoming reflects the complexity of multiple sclerosis. A more comprehensive understanding of the aetiology of multiple sclerosis and the pathways leading to disease should provide rational

Cai, Long

183

Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

2008-01-01

184

Gender and WarThe Effects of Armed Conflict on Women's Health and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender inequality is magnified in situations ofwar, andwomen are disproportionately disadvantaged in terms of personal safety, access to resources, and human rights. This article summarizes the effects of armed conflict on women and women's greater vulnerability to health and mental health concerns because in war, women's bodies become a battleground. UN Security Council Resolution 1325 is introduced as an international

Golie G. Jansen

2006-01-01

185

Multigenerational family structure in Japanese society: impacts on stress and health behaviors among women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population aging in Japan has led to rising demands for informal care giving. Traditionally, care giving for aging parents has fallen disproportionately on the shoulders of women living in multigenerational households. However, rising labor force participation by Japanese women, declining marriage and fertility rates, and women's changing expectations have combined to produce unprecedented strains on traditional multigenerational households where

Yasuhisa Takeda; Ichiro Kawachi; Zentaro Yamagata; Shuji Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Matsumura; Shigenori Oguri; Akira Okayama

2004-01-01

186

The Role of Students in the Experience of Women Faculty on the Tenure Track  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women faculty disproportionately leave academia by their second or third semester and experience slow rates of tenure and promotion. What then, may cause women faculty, both White and of color, to leave early or conversely, to stay through tenure? With a critical feminist framework, this article presents qualitative research into women's…

Kelly, Bridget Turner; Fetridge, Jessica S.

2012-01-01

187

A biferrocenium salt containing paramagnetic tetracyanoquinodimethane hexamers: charge disproportionation via donor-acceptor interactions.  

PubMed

[Dineopentyl-biferrocene]2[Cl1TCNQ]7, which has an unprecedented high donor-acceptor ratio of 2?:?7, contains a linear paramagnetic hexamer of Cl1TCNQ. Both the donor and acceptor molecules exhibit charge disproportionation in the crystal through mutual electrostatic interactions. PMID:25233286

Mochida, Tomoyuki; Funasako, Yusuke; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Inokuchi, Makoto; Sakurai, Takahiro; Ikeda, Shohei; Ohta, Hitoshi; Mori, Hatsumi; Uruichi, Mikio

2014-11-11

188

Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N = 7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a…

Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

2012-01-01

189

Hydrogenation and disproportionation of SmCo5 compound by high energy ball milling in heptane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) technique succeeds in fabricating bonded Nd-Fe-B magnet while encounters difficulty in the fabrication of Sm-Co magnet, due to the higher thermodynamic stability of the Sm-Co compounds against the disproportionation by hydrogen. To induce the disproporationation of Sm-Co compounds, high pressure hydrogen under high temperature has to be employed. This paper reports a hydrogenation and disproporationation reactions of SmCo5 compound that does not involve gaseous hydrogen: high energy ball milling in heptane. The H atom comes from heptane. Being milled for more than 600 min, the SmCo5 phase completely disproportionates into Sm hydride (SmH2±?) and cubic Co. Heating the disproportionated powder in vacuum from room temperature to 800 °C, two desorption processes, one between 200 and 400 °C and the other around about 600 °C, were observed. The desorbed gas is proved to be hydrogen by gas chromatography. The Heated product consists of mainly hexagonal SmCo7 phase with a TbCu7 structure. The coercivity of SmCo7 phase is larger than 1 T, being able to meet the demand of permanent magnetic application. Excess high energy ball milling results in the appearance of minor SmCoC2 and cubic Co phases.

Zhang, J. J.; Yan, Y.; Gao, H. M.; Geng, H. M.; Feng, X. Y.; Hou, Z. P.; Li, H. D.; Wang, W. Q.; Su, F.; Du, X. B.

2015-01-01

190

26 CFR 1.141-9 - Unrelated or disproportionate use test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disproportionate use if the issue meets the conditions... Whether a private business use is related to a...with the proceeds of an issue is determined on a case-by-case...basis, emphasizing the operational relationship between...use and the private business use. In general,...

2010-04-01

191

Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education Academic, Demographic, and Economic Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on variables that predict disproportionate representation of minority students in special education has often ignored an important variable -- academic achievement. This study examined the prediction of representation of students from various minority racial/ethnic groups using district-level academic, demographic, and economic blocks of…

Hosp, John L.; Reschly, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

192

Disproportionate Classification of ESL Students in U.S. Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the possible causes behind the disproportionate percentages of English language learners (ELLs) classified into U.S. special education. Elementary school classroom teachers were examined, from school districts that exhibited growth in the percentage of English language learners with Individual Education Plans during 2007-2010.…

Fernandez, Nicole; Inserra, Albert

2013-01-01

193

Optimism and Subjective Well-Being: Affectivity Plays a Secondary Role in the Relationship Between Optimism and Global Life Satisfaction in the Middle-Aged Women. Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the present study lies on optimism and its relationships to the components of subjective well-being, i.e. global\\u000a life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. We investigated the direct and indirect (via affectivity) effects\\u000a of optimism on global life satisfaction in the Swedish middleaged women at two time points (age 43 and 49), and in the Lithuanian\\u000a middle-aged

Daiva Daukantait?; Rita Zukauskiene

2012-01-01

194

Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy. PMID:24405198

Averitt Taylor, Jessica

2014-01-01

195

A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in their own context that are described in this review. Further research on this population, including those who drop out of or never access health services, is needed to inform effective implementation. PMID:25372479

Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

2014-01-01

196

Pregnant women's cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster affects DNA methylation in their children 13 years later: Project Ice Storm.  

PubMed

Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome. However, no animal or human research can determine the extent to which the effects of PNMS on DNA methylation in human offspring is the result of the objective severity of the stressor to the pregnant mother, or her negative appraisal of the stressor or her resulting degree of negative stress. We examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in T cells from 34 adolescents whose mothers had rated the 1998 Québec ice storm's consequences as positive or negative (that is, cognitive appraisal). The methylation levels of 2872 CGs differed significantly between adolescents in the positive and negative maternal cognitive appraisal groups. These CGs are affiliated with 1564 different genes and with 408 different biological pathways, which are prominently featured in immune function. Importantly, there was a significant overlap in the differentially methylated CGs or genes and biological pathways that are associated with cognitive appraisal and those associated with objective PNMS as we reported previously. Our study suggests that pregnant women's cognitive appraisals of an independent stressor may have widespread effects on DNA methylation across the entire genome of their unborn children, detectable during adolescence. Therefore, cognitive appraisals could be an important predictor variable to explore in PNMS research. PMID:25710121

Cao-Lei, L; Elgbeili, G; Massart, R; Laplante, D P; Szyf, M; King, S

2015-01-01

197

Genetic polymorphisms in the mevalonate pathway affect the therapeutic response to alendronate treatment in postmenopausal Chinese women with low bone mineral density.  

PubMed

Alendronate is an antiosteoporotic drug that targets the mevalonate pathway. To investigate whether the genetic variations in this pathway affect the clinical efficacy of alendronate in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis, 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes were genotyped in 500 patients treated with alendronate for 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and after 12 months. The rs10161126 SNP in the 3' flanking region of MVK and the GTCCA haplotype in FDFT1 were significantly associated with therapeutic response. A 6.6% increase in BMD in the lumbar spine was observed in the GG homozygotes of rs10161126; AG heterozygotes and AA homozygotes experienced a 4.4 and 4.5% increase, respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of G allele carriers to be responders in lumbar spine BMD was 2.06 (1.08-6.41). GTCCA haplotype in FDFT1 was more frequently detected in the group of responders than in the group of non-responders at the total hip (2.6 vs 0.5%, P=0.009). Therefore, MVK and FDFT1 polymorphisms are genetic determinants for BMD response to alendronate therapy in postmenopausal Chinese women. PMID:25223561

Wang, C; Zheng, H; He, J-W; Zhang, H; Yue, H; Hu, W-W; Gu, J-M; Shao, C; Fu, W-Z; Hu, Y-Q; Li, M; Liu, Y-J; Zhang, Z-L

2015-04-01

198

The role of d-dimer as first marker of thrombophilia in women affected by sterility: implications in pathophysiology and diagnosis of thrombophilia induced sterility  

PubMed Central

Background D-dimer is considered a marker of hypercoagulable state and of endogenous fibrinolysis, so increased d-dimer is detectable in patients affected by thrombosis. Yet, several studies showed that also infertility, in particular secondary infertility due to recurrent fetal losses, has been often related to thrombotic events, in particular in women carrying thrombotic risk factors such as inherited thrombophilia (MTHFRC677T, PTHRA20210G, Factor V Leiden polimorphisms and/or inhAfter this screening we selected 39erited protein C, protein S, AT III deficiency) or acquired thrombophilia (primary antiphospholipid syndrome, acquired protein C, protein S, AT III deficiency, drugs induced thrombophilia). However, because its high predictive negative value in case of suspected thrombosis, increased d-dimer has been often associated to subclinical thrombophilia. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of d-dimer as first marker of thrombophilia in women affected by unexplained infertility and subsequently to search the cause of increased d-dimer, such as inherited and/or acquired thrombophilia. Patients and Methods We selected 79 patients with unexplained primary or secondary infertility. We excluded 40 patients affected by hydrosalpinx, uterine fibroids, uterine malformations, endocrinological and immunological diseases, luteal insufficiency, cytogenetical alterations. All remaining 39 patients were tested for d-dimer and divided in two groups: the patients of group A (25 patients) showed increased plasma d-dimer, in group B were included 14 patients with normal plasma level of d-dimer. After this step all 39 patients were screened for MTHFRC677T, PTHRA20210G, Factor V Leiden polimorphisms, protein C, protein S, AT III, anticardiolipin IgM and IgG, lupus anticoagulant. In the control group were included 15 age matched women without sterility problems referred to our outpatient's section of vascular medicine for suspected deep venous thrombosis. Statistical analysis was based on ?2 test, differences were considered to be significant if p < 0.05. Results D-dimer was increased in 25/39 and 20/25 showed inherited/acquired thrombophilia while patients with normal d-dimer showed inherited/acquired thrombophilia in 7/14 (p: < 0.05, s). Discussion D-dimer is a well known marker of hypercoagulable state, in particular its high predictive negative value in case of suspected thrombosis has been recognised by several reports. Yet, increased d-dimer has been identified also for subclinical thrombophilia besides for vascular thrombosis. Our data, in fact, for the first time suggest an interesting role of d-dimer to identify women affected by unexplained primary or secondary infertility and thrombophilia. So, probably there is a role for d-dimer in these subjects for its predictive positive value. Of course, further data on large based population are needed to confirm our results, because these findings may speed up a diagnostic screening in these patients also for a good cost/effectiveness of this test. PMID:15535889

Di Micco, Pierpaolo; D'Uva, Maristella; Strina, Ida; Mollo, Antonio; Amato, Valeria; Niglio, Alferio; De Placido, Giuseppe

2004-01-01

199

Male Mammies: A Social-Comparison Perspective on How Exaggeratedly Overweight Media Portrayals of Madea, Rasputia, and Big Momma Affect How Black Women Feel About Themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews with 36 Black women, ages 18 to 59, reveal that exaggeratedly overweight depictions of Black women portrayed by men dressed up as women had a strong effect on their identities. The women reported that portrayals, such as Madea in Tyler Perry's films, Rasputia in Eddie Murphy's Norbit, and Martin Lawrence's Big Momma, were “mammy-like” and the fact that

Gina Masullo Chen; Sherri Williams; Nicole Hendrickson; Li Chen

2012-01-01

200

"Disproportionately Influential?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,…

Stuart, Reginald

2010-01-01

201

Hostility and facial expression in young men and women: is social regulation more important than negative affect?  

PubMed

Behavioral differences may clarify the link between hostility and health. This study examined facial expression. Seventy-two low- and high-hostile undergraduates underwent the Type A Structured Interview (SI) and a test of social anxiety. Facial behavior was measured with the Facial Action Coding System. Low-hostile participants displayed non-Duchenne smiles more frequently than high-hostile participants during the SI. There were no group differences in the expression of disgust. The results identify differences in the nonverbal behavior of hostile people. Restricted use of non-Duchenne smiles may reflect limited use of appeasement, contributing to uncomfortable interpersonal relations and limited social support. The findings are consistent with a behavioral ecology perspective and suggest that social regulation may be as important as negative affect in determining the consequences of hostility. PMID:11846343

Prkachin, Kenneth M; Silverman, Barbara E

2002-01-01

202

Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

2014-01-01

203

[Administration of MICRONIZED PALMITOYLETHANOLAMIDE (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)-transpolydatin in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women affected by endometriosis. Methods: Twenty-four patients with suspected endometriosis affected by severe pelvic pain were enrolled. All patients received two tablets a day of PEA 400 mg and 40 mg polydatin for 90 days consecutively. A Visual Analogic Scale was used for the assessment of the severity of global pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria and dischezia. A second questionnaire was submitted to patients to assess the quality of life. The compilation of a diary lead us to evaluate the monthly assumption of any painkillers. Patients were evaluated at the begin of the treatment and then monthly until the end of the study (90 days). The statistical analysis was performed by using the ANOVA for the analysis of variance. Results: Statistically significant results were found in relation to pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia compared to the initial evaluation of patients. Results related to dysuria and dischezia were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decrease in pelvic pain leads to an improvement of the quality of life of patients. A decreased assumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was also observed. Conclusion: PEA could be considered an effective supplement to conventional analgesic therapies in the management of pelvic pain related to endometriosis. PMID:23486373

Lo Monte, G; Soave, I; Marci, R

2013-03-13

204

Gonorrhea infection in women: prevalence, effects, screening, and management  

PubMed Central

Gonorrhea is a set of clinical conditions resulting from infection with the sexually-acquired bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Acquisition may involve multiple mucosal sites in the lower female genital tract, including the urethra, cervix, Bartholin’s and Skene’s glands, as well as the anorectal canal, pharynx, and conjunctivae. It may spread to the upper genital tract, uterine tubes, abdominal cavity, and other systemic sites. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported sexually-transmitted infection in the US and rates are higher among women than men. Women and infants are affected disproportionately by gonorrhea, because early infection may be asymptomatic and also because extension of infection is often associated with serious sequelae. Screening is critical for infection identification and the prevention or limitation of upper genital tract spread, and horizontal and vertical transmission. Routine genital screening is recommended annually for all sexually active women at risk for infection, including women aged < 25 years and older women with one or more of the following risks: a previous gonorrhea infection, the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, new or multiple sex partners, inconsistent condom use, commercial sex work, drug use, or human immunodeficiency virus infection with sexual activity or pregnancy. Pharyngeal gonococcal infections are common in adolescents, and direct culture screening is necessary to identify affected individuals. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are considered the standard for screening and diagnosis. Although urine NAAT testing is most commonly used, there is growing support for vaginal swabs collected by providers or patients themselves. Resistance to all antibiotics currently recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea has been documented and complicates therapeutic strategies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend treatment of gonorrhea with a single class of drugs, ie, the cephalosporins. PMID:21845064

Walker, Cheryl K; Sweet, Richard L

2011-01-01

205

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val??Met polymorphism affects resting regional cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity differentially in women versus men.  

PubMed

The human Val??Met single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene impacts BDNF signaling at the cellular level. At the neural-systems level, it is associated with differences in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal function during performance of cognitive and affective tasks. Because the impact of this variant on basal prefrontal and hippocampal activity is not known but may be relevant to understanding the function of this gene in health and disease, we studied 94 healthy individuals with H? ¹?O PET to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during rest and tested for between-genotype differences. Because BDNF and gonadal steroid hormones conjointly influence neuronal growth, survival, and plasticity in hippocampus and PFC, we also tested for sex × genotype interactions. Finally, in light of the known impact of BDNF on plasticity and dendritic arborization, we complimented direct rCBF comparisons with connectivity analyses to determine how activity in hippocampal and prefrontal regions showing between-genotype group differences covaries with rCBF in other nodes throughout the brain in a genotype- or sex-dependent manner. Compared with Val homozygotes, Met carriers had higher rCBF in prefrontal (BA25 extending into BA10) and hippocampal/parahippocampal regions. Moreover, there were significant sex × genotype interactions in regions (including frontal, parahippocampal, and lateral temporal cortex) in which Val homozygotes showed higher rCBF in females than males, but Met carriers showed the opposite relationship. Functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that correlations of BA25, hippocampus, and parahippocampus with frontal and temporal networks were positive for Val homozygotes and negative for Met carriers. In addition, sex × genotype analysis of functional connectivity revealed that genotype affected directionality of the inter-regional correlations differentially in men versus women. Our data indicate that BDNF allelic variation and sex interactively affect basal prefrontal and hippocampal function. PMID:22593075

Wei, Shau-Ming; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Kippenhan, Jonathan S; Kolachana, Bhaskar S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

2012-05-16

206

Disproportionation of abietic acid: I. Iodine catalyzed reaction at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionation of abietic acid in the presence of equimolar iodine was carried out in benzene at 60 C, and the reaction\\u000a products were continuously determined by gas-liquid chromatography as methyl esters. The major peaks were isolated and characterized\\u000a by mass, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Four isomers of dihydroabietic acids, dehydroabietic acid,\\u000a and small amounts of lactones were detected.

M. Ishigami; K. Yamane; T. Agawa; Y. Ohshiro; I. Ikeda

1976-01-01

207

Balancing safety and autonomy: structural and social barriers affecting the exercise participation of women with disabilities in community recreation and fitness facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with disabilities consider exercise an important health promotion activity. A lack of accessible facilities within the community has been identified as a major limiting factor to exercise participation among women with disabilities. To increase exercise participation among women with disabilities, we need to understand the structural and social barriers that they face within community recreation and fitness facilities. Interviews

D. E. Rolfe; K. Yoshida; R. Renwick; C. Bailey

2012-01-01

208

Prevalence and Predictors of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Prospective, Controlled Study in 254 Affected Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resis- tant, have insulin secretory defects, and are at high risk for glucose intolerance. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of glucose intolerance and parameters associated with risk for this in PCOS women. Two-hundred and fifty-four PCOS women, aged 14 - 44 yr, were prospectively evaluated at 2 centers, 1

RICHARD S. LEGRO; ALLEN R. KUNSELMAN; WILLIAM C. DODSON; ANDREA DUNAIF

209

The Impact of Incarceration on African-American Families: A Focus on African-American Women Prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women constitute a highly disproportionate amount of the California female prison population. Other statistics show that within the past twenty years, these numbers have continued to rise, making young women of color, particularly black women, the fastest growing prison population of today. The nation has declared a war on drugs and crime, instituted harsh three strikes' legislation and mandatory

Lanita Morris

1999-01-01

210

Substance use and partner violence among urban women seeking emergency care.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bidirectional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low-income urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for sociodemographics and potentially confounding multilevel risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior 6 months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as nonheroin-using women to indicate any physical, injurious, or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low-income urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita

2012-06-01

211

HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.  

PubMed

Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

2015-01-17

212

Breast Cancer Survival among Economically Disadvantaged Women: The Influences of Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment on Mortality  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer affects thousands each year in the United States, and disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, the incidence of breast cancer in South Carolina is lower in African American compared with European American women by ~12% to 15%, but their mortality rate is twice as high as in European American women. The purpose of the study was to assess factors associated with breast cancer mortality between African American and European American women. Participants (n = 314) in South Carolina's Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (SCBCCEDP), which provides breast cancer screening and treatment services, during the years 1996-2004 were included in the study. Data, including tumor characteristics, delay intervals, and race, were examined using the ?2 test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between delay intervals and other factors. No racial differences were found in age at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, or delay intervals. Time delay intervals did not explain differences and mortality rates by race. Survival, however, was affected by prognostic factors as well as by a significant interaction between hormone-receptor status and race. Despite the excellent record of the SCBCCEDP in screening and diagnostic or treatment referrals, the racial disparities in breast cancer mortality continue to exist in South Carolina. These findings highlight the need for future research into the etiology of racial differences, and their impact on breast cancer survival. PMID:18835941

Smith, Emily Rose; Adams, Swann Arp; Das, Irene Prabhu; Bottai, Matteo; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

2010-01-01

213

42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utilization rates or low-income utilization rates (as defined in section 1923 (b) of the Act) at or above the statewide arithmetic mean. (4) A methodology for disproportionate share hospital payments that was established and in effect as of...

2010-10-01

214

The relationship of vascular glycolipid storage to clinical manifestations of Fabry disease: a cross-sectional study of a large cohort of clinically affected heterozygous women.  

PubMed

Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) resulting in the storage of glycosphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in cells throughout the body, causing life-threatening renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular complications in hemizygous males and some heterozygous females. Disease manifestations in heterozygotes are being recognized increasingly, but quantitative prospective data on their extent and severity are limited. Prospective clinical and laboratory assessments were performed in a 7-day study of 61 women with signs and symptoms of Fabry disease. Analyses included medical history and physical, neurologic, cardiac, and ophthalmologic assessments; laboratory assessments; renal function tests; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the head; and Fabry-related blood and urine tests, including Gb3 levels in blood and urine, skin biopsies, and DNA genotype analysis of the alpha-Gal A gene to identify causative mutations. Quality of life, pain and concomitant medication were documented using validated questionnaires and diaries. All patients had normal Gb3 levels in plasma; only 1 patient had visible storage material in the superficial dermal vascular endothelial cells. Cardiac, renal, or cerebrovascular abnormalities were documented in 52 of the 57 patients (91%) with confirmed Fabry genotypes. These included electrocardiographic abnormalities in 38 of 52 patients (73%), echocardiographic abnormalities in 8 of 57 (14%), proteinuria (>150 g protein/24-h urine) in 23 of 38 (61%), low estimated glomerular filtration rate (<90 mL/min per 1.73 m) in 24 of 57 (42%), abnormal MRI in 4 of 54 (7%), and abnormal MRA in 10 of 50 patients (20%). Angiokeratomas and corneal epitheliopathy were documented in 63% and 82% of the 57 patients, respectively. Despite the virtual absence of storage material in plasma and skin vascular endothelial cells, this population of women with Fabry disease exhibited a wide spectrum of clinical abnormalities. Useful outcome measures for assessment of specific therapies need to be developed. Studies limited to homogeneously affected subjects may be possible. PMID:16148726

Gupta, Surya; Ries, Markus; Kotsopoulos, Steven; Schiffmann, Raphael

2005-09-01

215

A birth-season/DRD4 gene interaction predicts weight gain and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder: A seasonal thrifty phenotype hypothesis.  

PubMed

We have recently described an association between the hypofunctional 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), weight gain, and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In the current study, we examined whether season-of-birth might interact with the 7R allele to influence body weight regulation in SAD. In 182 female probands with SAD, we performed an analysis of covariance predicting maximum lifetime body mass index (BMI) with both the exon-3 variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of DRD4 and season-of-birth as independent variables, and age as the covariate. The overall model was highly significant (F = 4.42, df = 8, 173, p < 0.0001) with season-of-birth predicting maximal lifetime BMI both on its own and in its interaction with the 7R allele. The latter finding was attributable to 7-repeat carriers born in the spring (N = 17), who had a mean maximal lifetime BMI of 33.7 kg/m2 (SD 8.6), compared to 26.7 kg/m2 (SD 5.4) for all other probands combined (N = 165) (F = 20.01, df = 1, 179, p < 0.0001). The lifetime rate of obesity (maximal BMI > 30 kg/m2) was also significantly higher in the 7R/spring birth group (9/17=52.9% vs 32/165=19.4%; chi2 = 9.94, df = 1, p = 0.002; odds ratio = 4.68, 95% CI = 1.67-13.07). These data may reflect a novel gene-environment interaction, during early brain development, which establishes an increased risk for obesity in women with SAD. Although the mechanism for season-of-birth effects in psychiatric disorders is unknown, a characteristic pattern of melatonin exposure during the second and third trimesters may be of particular relevance in this study population. We speculate that these data may reflect the vestigial expression of a seasonal thrifty phenotype that contributed to the positive selection of the 7R allele over the past 40,000 years. PMID:16760922

Levitan, Robert D; Masellis, Mario; Lam, Raymond W; Kaplan, Allan S; Davis, Caroline; Tharmalingam, Subi; Mackenzie, Bronwyn; Basile, Vincenzo S; Kennedy, James L

2006-11-01

216

Childhood inattention and dysphoria and adult obesity associated with the dopamine D4 receptor gene in overeating women with seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention deficit disorder (ADD) comorbidity, and body weight regulation. As part of an ongoing genetic study of increased eating behavior and mood in female subjects, 108 women with winter SAD and carbohydrate craving/weight gain were administered the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to measure childhood ADD symptomatology, and a questionnaire to assess maximal lifetime body mass index (BMI). To test for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used in a subsample of probands providing familial DNA. Standard parametric tests were used to compare childhood ADD symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI across the two genotypic groups defined by the presence or absence of 7R. The TDT found no initial evidence for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD. However, 7R carriers reported significantly greater inattention and dysphoria in childhood (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively) and a higher maximal lifetime BMI (p=0.007) than did probands without this allele. Furthermore, excluding probands with extreme obesity (maximal BMI >40), a strong correlation was found linking childhood inattentive symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI (r=0.35, p=0.001). In overeating women with SAD, the 7R allele of DRD4 may be associated with a unique developmental trajectory characterized by attentional deficits and dysphoria in childhood and mild to moderate obesity in adulthood. This developmental course may reflect different manifestations of the same underlying vulnerability related to central dopamine dysfunction. Given the possibility of population stratification when studying genotype/phenotype relationships, future use of genomic controls and replication of our findings in other overeating and/or ADD populations are needed to confirm these initial results. PMID:14560322

Levitan, R D; Masellis, M; Lam, R W; Muglia, P; Basile, V S; Jain, U; Kaplan, A S; Tharmalingam, S; Kennedy, S H; Kennedy, J L

2004-01-01

217

Angina in Women without Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Angina in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, sometimes referred to as cardiac syndrome X (CSX), is a debilitating condition that disproportionately affects women. More than 50% of women evaluated for angina have non-obstructive disease by cardiac catheterization, although the total numbers of women affected by CSX are unknown. Varying clinical definitions and the lack of large scale epidemiologic studies focusing on this illness have resulted in limited knowledge about its risk factors, although there appears to be an association with black race, estrogen deficiency, and insulin resistance. Contrary to prior beliefs about the benign nature of this entity, these women suffer considerable morbidity with costly economic implications that approach the lifetime costs of healthcare utilization for those with obstructive coronary disease. Two prevailing hypotheses have emerged to explain CSX: the ischemic hypothesis detailing abnormal coronary microvascular function and the non-ischemic hypothesis describing altered pain perception and myocardial hypersensitivity. Treatment strategies have focused on both of these pathways with the main goal of improving symptoms. Beta blockers provide the most convincing evidence for benefit, with other antianginals having secondary roles. Other promising pharmacologic therapies include xanthine derivatives, estrogen replacement therapy, ACE inhibitors, and statin medications, among other emerging treatment options. Neurostimulation and lifestyle factors including exercise can also be beneficial in reducing symptoms. However, managing patients with CSX can be frustrating for both patients and physicians, as there is a lack of data regarding an optimal treatment algorithm including few large-scale randomized controlled trials to clarify effective therapies. PMID:21286281

Banks, Kamakki; Lo, Monica; Khera, Amit

2010-01-01

218

Disproportionate emission of bubble streams with killer whale biphonic calls: perspectives on production and function.  

PubMed

Stereotyped pulsed calls were attributed to 11 killer whales (Orcinus orca) with and without synchronous bubble streams in three datasets collected from two facilities from 1993 to 2012. Calls with and without synchronous bubble streams and divergent overlapping high frequency components ("biphonic" vs "monophonic") were compared. Subjects produced bubbles significantly more often when calls had divergent high frequency components. However, acoustic features in one biphonic call shared by five subjects provided little evidence for an acoustic effect of synchronous bubble flow. Disproportionate bubbling supported other evidence that biphonic calls form a distinct category, but suggested a function in short-range communication. PMID:25698045

Bowles, Ann E; Grebner, Dawn M; Musser, Whitney B; Nash, Juliette S; Crance, Jessica L

2015-02-01

219

Disproportionate Organizational Injustice: A Close Look at Facilities Exempted from Indoor Smoking Laws in Canada  

PubMed Central

Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans. PMID:23968612

Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

2012-01-01

220

Insulin and Extremity Muscle Mass in Overweight and Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Obesity disproportionately affects women, especially those of African descent, and is associated with increases in both fat and muscle masses. Although increased extremity muscle mass may be compensatory to fat mass load, we propose that elevated insulin levels resulting from diminished insulin sensitivity may additionally contribute to extremity muscle mass in overweight or obese women. The following measurements were performed in 197 non-diabetic women (57% black, 35% white; age 46±11 years [mean±SD], BMI range 25.0 to 57.7 kg/m2): dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for fat and extremity muscle masses; exercise performance by duration and peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during graded treadmill exercise; fasting insulin and in 183 subjects insulin sensitivity index (SI) calculated from the minimal model. SI (range 0.5 to 14.1 liter/mU?1•min?1) was negatively, and fasting insulin (range 1.9 to 35.6 ?U/mL) positively, associated with extremity muscle mass (both P<0.001), independent of age and height. Sixty-seven percent of women completed 6 months of participation in a weight loss and exercise program: We found a significant association between reduction in fasting insulin and a decrease in extremity muscle mass (P=0.038), independent of reduction in fat mass or improvement in exercise performance by VO2 peak and exercise duration, and without association with change in SI or interaction by race. Thus, hyperinsulinemia in overweight or obese women is associated with increased extremity muscle mass, which is partially reversible with reduction in fasting insulin concentration, consistent with stimulatory effects of insulin on skeletal muscle. PMID:23609936

Leon, Benjamin; Jenkins, Shannon; Pepin, Kristen; Chaudhry, Hira; Smith, Kevin; Zalos, Gloria; Miller, Bernard V.; Chen, Kong Y.; Remaley, Alan T.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Sumner, Anne E.; Cannon, Richard O.

2013-01-01

221

Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

2010-01-01

222

Male Sex Roles and Epithets for Ethnic Women in American Slang.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that derogatory names used for women of ethnic outgroups (1) are aimed disproportionately at women of racial minorities; (2) stereotype physical differences between ethnic groups; (3) make derogatory sexual allusions, often using food and animal metaphors; and (4) display the strains of traditional male sex roles in ethnic and…

Allen, Irving Lewis

1984-01-01

223

Women Scientists in Academia: Geographically Constrained to Big Cities, College Clusters, or the Coasts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women scientists in academia have been shown to be less geographically mobile than their male counterparts, a factor that may exacerbate gender inequities in faculty representation, tenure, and salary. This study examines the extent to which the jobs of academic women scientists are disproportionately concentrated in large cities, areas with many colleges and universities, and regions where most doctorates are

Stephen Kulis; Diane Sicotte

2002-01-01

224

Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study With African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has not been realized. By clearly elucidating the process

Amy E. Harley; Janet Buckworth; Mira L. Katz; Sharla K. Willis; Angela Odoms-Young; Catherine A. Heaney

2009-01-01

225

Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

226

Gendered institutions and gender roles: understanding the experiences of women in policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men are disproportionately represented in many institutions including law, politics, the academy, and the economy. Women have made great strides in increasing representation in many of these professions with the exception of policing; where police departments have had difficulty hiring, retaining, and promoting female officers. The available literature on women in policing, however, is largely atheoretical and does not thoroughly

Tara O’Connor Shelley; Melissa Schaefer Morabito; Jennifer Tobin-Gurley

2011-01-01

227

The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier

2011-01-01

228

Does laparoscopic ovarian diathermy affect the outcome of IVF-embryo transfer in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome? A retrospective comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF and embryo transfer and outcome parameters were compared retrospectively in 31 women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Of these women, 15 had previously undergone laparoscopic ovarian diathermy before IVF (group A, total 22 cycles) and 16 had not had surgical treatment (group B, total 24 cycles). No statistically significant differences were observed in the

A. J. Tozer; T. Al-Shawaf; A. Zosmer; S. Hussain; C. Wilson; A. M. Lower; J. G. Grudzinskas

2001-01-01

229

Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women  

PubMed Central

Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women’s health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:25729776

Kornfield, Sara L.; Geller, Pamela A.; Epperson, C. Neill

2015-01-01

230

Disproportionation of pyrophyllite into new phases at high pressure and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase relations of pyrophyllite were investigated in the pressure range of 10-20 GPa and at temperatures between 600-1400°C, using a split-sphere type high pressure apparatus. Pyrophyllite has been found to disproportionate into a mixture of stishovite and a X phase (unknown phase) at pressures higher than 10 GPa, and to disproportionate into a mixture of stishovite and a monoclinic phase at pressures higher than 14.5 GPa, when at a temperature of 1000°C. From the X-ray powder data, the unit cell dimensions of the monoclinic phase were determined to be a = 9.800(6) Å, b = 18.232(13) Å, c = 5.356(4) Å, ? = 103.78(5)°. The stability fields of the X phase and the monoclinic phase were also investigated in detail. As pyrophyllite is often used as a pressure medium or as components of the pressure cells in high-pressure and high-temperature apparatuses, the efficiency of pyrophyllite as a pressure medium under the conditions of pressures higher than 10.0 GPa and under the conditions of elevated temperatures is briefly discussed.

Suito, K.

1986-05-01

231

Catabolic thiosulfate disproportionation and carbon dioxide reduction in strain DCB-1, a reductively dechlorinating anaerobe  

SciTech Connect

Strain DCB-1 is a strict anaerobe capable of reductive dehalogenation. We elucidated metabolic processes in DCB-1 which may be related to dehalogenation and which further characterize the organism physiologically. Sulfoxy anions and CO2 were used by DCB-1 as catabolic electron acceptors. With suitable electron donors, sulfate and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate and thiosulfate supported growth with formate or hydrogen as the electron donor and thus are probably respiratory electron acceptors. Other electron donors supporting growth with sulfate were CO, lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and 3-methoxybenzoate. Thiosulfate also supported growth without an additional electron donor, being disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. In the absence of other electron acceptors, CO2 reduction to acetate plus cell material was coupled to pyruvate oxidation to acetate plus CO2. Pyruvate could not be fermented without an electron acceptor. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was found in whole cells, indicating that CO2 reduction probably occurred via the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. Autotrophic growth occurred on H2 plus thiosulfate or sulfate. Diazotrophic growth occurred, and whole cells had nitrogenase activity. On the basis of these physiological characteristics, DCB-1 is a thiosulfate-disproportionating bacterium unlike those previously described.

Mohn, W.W.; Tiedje, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-04-01

232

Interfacial effects on lithium superoxide disproportionation in li-o2 batteries.  

PubMed

During the cycling of Li-O2 batteries the discharge process gives rise to dynamically evolving agglomerates composed of lithium-oxygen nanostructures; however, little is known about their composition. In this paper, we present results for a Li-O2 battery based on an activated carbon cathode that indicate interfacial effects can suppress disproportionation of a LiO2 component in the discharge product. High-intensity X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements are first used to show that there is a LiO2 component along with Li2O2 in the discharge product. The stability of the discharge product was then probed by investigating the dependence of the charge potential and Raman intensity of the superoxide peak with time. The results indicate that the LiO2 component can be stable for possibly up to days when an electrolyte is left on the surface of the discharged cathode. Density functional calculations on amorphous LiO2 reveal that the disproportionation process will be slower at an electrolyte/LiO2 interface compared to a vacuum/LiO2 interface. The combined experimental and theoretical results provide new insight into how interfacial effects can stabilize LiO2 and suggest that these interfacial effects may play an important role in the charge and discharge chemistries of a Li-O2 battery. PMID:25615912

Zhai, Dengyun; Lau, Kah Chun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J; Lu, Jun; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua; Yang, Wenge; Gao, Jing; Indacochea, Ernesto; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

2015-02-11

233

African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity  

PubMed Central

Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women. PMID:19271331

Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

234

Health Inequality Among Estonian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Eastern Europe, in post-Communist countries, transformations during the past 10 years have considerably affected the life of women. Our aims were to (a) examine health status and socioeconomic inequalities among Estonian women, and (b) study the relationships between women's social roles and health. A group of 659 women, aged 18-45, completed the Health Questionnaire for Adults (HQA) and the

Merike Kull

2006-01-01

235

Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.  

PubMed

Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

2012-02-01

236

Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

237

Inter-ethnic and intra-cultural differences on somatic and psychological\\/affective expressions of emotional distress: A case study of Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women in the South Bronx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research suggests that cultural differences in expressions of emotional distress complicate cross-cultural evaluation of emotional disorder. Using survey data on women in the South Bronx, this study compares inter-ethnic groups (Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White) and, among Puerto Ricans, acculturation groups in somatic and psychological\\/affective expressions. The mental health items are from the often cited Dohrenwend Short

Ariane Sylva

1997-01-01

238

Secondary Effects of Antipsychotics: Women at Greater Risk Than Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The health burden of antipsychotic medication is well known, but the disproportionate effect on women as compared with men is underappreciated. Objective: The goal of this article is preventive—to better inform clinicians so that the risks to women and to their offspring can be di- minished.Method:All PubMed sources in which the search term gender (or sex) was linked to

Mary V. Seeman; M. Parelman; B. Stoecker; A. Baker; D. Medeiros; D. Gaddy; D. S. Perrien; N. S. Akel; E. E. Dupont-Versteegden; R. A. Skinner; E. R. Siegel; A. Alberich-Bayarri; L. Marti-Bonmati; R. Sanz-Requena; E. Belloch; T MRI; Schizophr Bull

2008-01-01

239

Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women. OBJECTIVES (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding weight loss and maintenance; and (3) to help develop a relevant questionnaire that can be used to explore weight loss and maintenance in a large sample of African Americans. DESIGN Seven focus groups were conducted with African-American women: four with women successful at weight loss maintenance, three with women who lost weight but regained it. Discussions centered on weight loss and maintenance experiences. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven African-American women. APPROACH Content analysis of focus group transcripts. RESULTS Weight loss maintainers lost 22% of body weight. They view positive support from others and active opposition to cultural norms as critical for maintenance. They struggle with weight regain, but have strategies in place to lose weight again. Some maintainers struggle with being perceived as sick or too thin at their new weight. Regainers and maintainers struggle with hairstyle management during exercise. The theoretical constructs from TPB were defined and supported by focus group content. CONCLUSIONS A weight loss questionnaire for African Americans should include questions regarding social support in weight maintenance, the importance of hair management during exercise, the influence of cultural norms on weight and food consumption, and concerns about being perceived as too thin or sick when weight is lost. PMID:17415617

Goodrick, G. Kenneth; Pavlik, Valory; Markesino, Jennifer; Laws, Donna Y.; Taylor, Wendell C.

2007-01-01

240

Plasma Fatty Acid Ratios Affect Blood Gene Expression Profiles - A Cross-Sectional Study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort  

PubMed Central

High blood concentrations of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) relative to n-3 FAs may lead to a “physiological switch” towards permanent low-grade inflammation, potentially influencing the onset of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancer. To explore the potential effects of FA ratios prior to disease onset, we measured blood gene expression profiles and plasma FA ratios (linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid, LA/ALA; arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, AA/EPA; and total n-6/n-3) in a cross-section of middle-aged Norwegian women (n?=?227). After arranging samples from the highest values to the lowest for all three FA ratios (LA/ALA, AA/EPA and total n-6/n-3), the highest and lowest deciles of samples were compared. Differences in gene expression profiles were assessed by single-gene and pathway-level analyses. The LA/ALA ratio had the largest impact on gene expression profiles, with 135 differentially expressed genes, followed by the total n-6/n-3 ratio (125 genes) and the AA/EPA ratio (72 genes). All FA ratios were associated with genes related to immune processes, with a tendency for increased pro-inflammatory signaling in the highest FA ratio deciles. Lipid metabolism related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) signaling was modified, with possible implications for foam cell formation and development of cardiovascular diseases. We identified higher expression levels of several autophagy marker genes, mainly in the lowest LA/ALA decile. This finding may point to the regulation of autophagy as a novel aspect of FA biology which warrants further study. Lastly, all FA ratios were associated with gene sets that included targets of specific microRNAs, and gene sets containing common promoter motifs that did not match any known transcription factors. We conclude that plasma FA ratios are associated with differences in blood gene expression profiles in this free-living population, and that affected genes and pathways may influence the onset and progression of disease. PMID:23825649

Olsen, Karina Standahl; Fenton, Christopher; Frøyland, Livar; Waaseth, Marit; Paulssen, Ruth H.; Lund, Eiliv

2013-01-01

241

Mutation analysis of BRIP1/BACH1 in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative Chinese women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives.  

PubMed

The proper interaction between BRIP1/BACH1 and BRCA1 protein has been found to be crucial for BRCA1-mediated DNA double-strand break repair and BRIP1/BACH1 mutations were estimated to confer a relative risk for breast cancer of 2.0 in western populations. In Chinese population, BRCA1 mutations could explain a relatively large proportion of inherited breast cancer cases in comparison with BRCA2 mutations, which probably deduced a hypothesis that those genes involved in BRCA1-mediated DNA repair pathway might play a more significant role in the etiology of Chinese breast cancer. To investigate the contribution of BRIP1/BACH1 mutations to the predisposition of Chinese non-BRCA1/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer, we screened all the coding exons and adjacent intronic splice junction regions of BRIP1/BACH1 in 357 Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer or affected relatives from five different breast disease clinical centers in China, using PCR-DHPLC and DNA sequencing analysis. Some genetic variants identified in the cases were then studied in 864 normal controls with no personal or family history of breast cancer. We found no protein-truncated mutations in our population, while a novel recurrent non-synonymous variant, Q944E, was detected in two independent families in contrast with none in the controls, interestingly, this alteration occurs in the BRCA1 binding domain of the BACH1 protein. Then a further study performed on the two mutation positive families revealed the partial co-segregation of this mutation allele with cancer. The novel alteration Q944E identified in our study possibly represents a rare disease-related allele, nevertheless functional analysis is still warranted to resolve the ability of this altered BACH1 protein to bind BRCA1. Altogether, the results of our study indicated that germline mutations in BRIP1/BACH were extremely rare in Chinese population and there was no evidence for the recommendation of BRIP1/BACH1 for genetic testing in Chinese. PMID:18483852

Cao, A-Yong; Huang, Juan; Hu, Zhen; Li, Wen-Feng; Ma, Zhong-Liang; Tang, Li-Li; Zhang, Bin; Su, Feng-Xi; Zhou, Jie; Di, Gen-Hong; Shen, Kun-Wei; Wu, Jiong; Lu, Jin-Song; Luo, Jian-Min; Yuan, Wen-Tao; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Wei; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2009-05-01

242

Environment and Women's Health Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... women's health fact sheet ePublications The environment and women's health fact sheet Print this fact sheet The environment ... Return to top How can the environment affect women's health? Chemicals and other substances in the environment can ...

243

Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

2011-01-01

244

Recognition memory measures yield disproportionate effects of aging on learning face-name associations.  

PubMed

No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: More face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies. PMID:18808254

James, Lori E; Fogler, Kethera A; Tauber, Sarah K

2008-09-01

245

Medicaid program; disproportionate share hospital payments--uninsured definition. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social Security Act (the Act). Under this limitation, DSH payments to a hospital cannot exceed the uncompensated costs of furnishing hospital services by the hospital to individuals who are Medicaid-eligible or "have no health insurance (or other source of third party coverage) for the services furnished during the year.'' This rule provides that, in auditing DSH payments, the quoted test will be applied on a service-specific basis; so that the calculation of uncompensated care for purposes of the hospital-specific DSH limit will include the cost of each service furnished to an individual by that hospital for which the individual had no health insurance or other source of third party coverage. PMID:25508456

2014-12-01

246

Trends in Medicare disproportionate share (DSH) distribution in US hospitals: 1996-2003.  

PubMed

Implemented in 1986, Medicare's disproportionate share (DSH) adjustment is intended to recognize hospitals' additional resource investment in caring for low-income patients. This project analyzed changes in the DSH percentage between 1996 and 2003 and examined the association between selected hospital characteristics and such changes. Results obtained revealed some interesting findings. First, minimal changes in DSH percentage occurred during the period 1996-1999 with a hike in that ratio in 2000-2001. However, even with the absence of any legislative or executive changes to the DSH threshold or formula during 2002 and 2003, significant increases occurred during 2001-2003 (11 percent increase between 2001 and 2003). Such an increase may be caused by the nation's economic situation during that timeframe (i.e., more people depending on public programs for coverage). PMID:19175241

Saleh, Shadi S; Callan, Mark

2006-01-01

247

Disproportionate Exposures in Environmental Justice and Other Populations: The Importance of Outliers  

PubMed Central

We examined traditional environmental justice populations and other groups whose exposure to contaminants is often disproportionately high. Risk assessment methods may not identify these populations, particularly if they are spatially dispersed. We suggest using a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey approach to oversample minority communities and develop methods for assessing exposure at different distances from pollution sources; publishing arithmetic and geometric means and full distributions for minority populations; and paying particular attention to high-end exposures. Means may sufficiently characterize populations as a whole but are inadequate in identifying vulnerable groups and subgroups. The number of individuals above the 95th percentile of any distribution may be small and unrepresentative, but these outliers are the ones who need to be protected. PMID:21551384

Gochfeld, Michael

2011-01-01

248

Lengthening of the duration of xylogenesis engenders disproportionate increases in xylem production.  

PubMed

In cold climates, the expected global warming will lead to earlier cambial resumptions in spring, with a resultant lengthening of the growing season but unknown consequences on forest productivity. The phenological traits of cambium activity and xylem formation were analyzed at a short time scale along a thermal gradient represented by an alti-latitudinal range from the 48th to 53rd parallels and covering the whole closed black-spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] forest in Quebec, Canada. A hypothesis was tested that warmer temperatures influence cambium phenology, allowing longer duration and higher intensity of growth, and resulting in proportionally increased xylem production. From April to October 2012, cell division in cambium and post-cambial differentiation of xylem were observed on anatomical sections obtained from microcores collected weekly from the stem of fifty trees. The southern and warmer site was characterized by the highest radial growth, which corresponded to both the highest rates and longest durations of cell production. The differences in terms of xylem phenology and growth were marginal between the other sites. Xylem growth was positively correlated with rate and duration of cell production, with the latter explaining most variability in growth. Within the range analyzed, the relationship between temperature and most phenological phases of xylogenesis was linear. On the contrary, temperature was related with cell production according to an exponential pattern. Periods of xylogenesis of 14 days longer (+13.1%) corresponded to a massive increase in cell production (33 cells, +109%). This disproportionate change occurred at a May-September average temperature of ca. 14 °C and a snow-free period of 210-235 days. At the lower boundary of the distribution of black spruce, small environmental changes allowing marginal lengthening of the period of cell division could potentially lead to disproportionate increases in xylem cell production, with substantial consequences for the productivity of this boreal species. PMID:24259354

Rossi, Sergio; Girard, Marie-Josée; Morin, Hubert

2014-07-01

249

Linking Beauty and Health Among African American Women: Using Focus Group Data to Build Culturally and Contextually Appropriate Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality compared to Caucasian women. Addressing racial\\/ethnic disparities in health requires the engagement of African-American women in the development of interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate. Three age groups of African-American women who attend beauty salons (18-29; 30-49; 50+) were recruited into six focus groups. Participants reviewed a series of

Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Laura Linnan; Noel Kulik; Veronica Carlisle; Zoe Enga; Margaret Bentley

2007-01-01

250

Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

2014-01-01

251

An untold story in labor health: Korean women workers.  

PubMed

Very little is known about labor health among Korean women workers, who have been left behind by the occupational safety and health institutions. In this article, we examine, from a gender perspective, the occupational safety and health (OSH) statistics, institutions, and the struggles of women workers, and discuss how to make a society where women workers become and stay healthy. The problems Korean women workers face have both universal and unique aspects. On the one hand, they tend to be exposed to "invisible hazards" and to disproportionately suffer from neo-liberal policies, as do women workers in other countries. On the other hand, Korean women workers are still positioned under the strong patriarchy found in pre-modern societies. The examples of struggle presented here come out of this condition; those struggles by women workers and support from concerned specialists have played an important role in overcoming patriarchy and protecting health rights for women workers. PMID:18184625

Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Hyun-joo

2007-01-01

252

Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

2009-01-01

253

Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (?10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ?45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon; Mittendorfer, Bettina

2012-03-15

254

Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

Josephine Lutz

255

College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

2012-01-01

256

Trade Liberalisation and Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

257

Odanacatib treatment affects trabecular and cortical bone in the femur of postmenopausal women: results of a two-year placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Odanacatib, a selective cathepsin K inhibitor, increases areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the spine and hip of postmenopausal women. To gain additional insight into the effects on trabecular and cortical bone, we analyzed quantitative computed tomography (QCT) data of postmenopausal women treated with odanacatib using Medical Image Analysis Framework (MIAF; Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany). This international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-year, phase 3 trial enrolled 214 postmenopausal women (mean age 64 years) with low aBMD. Subjects were randomized to odanacatib 50?mg weekly (ODN) or placebo (PBO); all participants received calcium and vitamin D. Hip QCT scans at 24 months were available for 158 women (ODN: n?=?78 women; PBO: n?=?80 women). There were consistent and significant differential treatment effects (ODN-PBO) for total hip integral (5.4%), trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) (12.2%), and cortical vBMD (2.5%) at 24 months. There was no significant differential treatment effect on integral bone volume. Results for bone mineral content (BMC) closely matched those for vBMD for integral and trabecular compartments. However, with small but mostly significant differential increases in cortical volume (1.0% to 1.3%) and thickness (1.4% to 1.9%), the percentage cortical BMC increases were numerically larger than those of vBMD. With a total hip BMC differential treatment effect (ODN-PBO) of nearly 1000?mg, the proportions of BMC attributed to cortical gain were 45%, 44%, 52%, and 40% for the total, neck, trochanter, and intertrochanter subregions, respectively. In postmenopausal women treated for 2 years, odanacatib improved integral, trabecular, and cortical vBMD and BMC at all femur regions relative to placebo when assessed by MIAF. Cortical volume and thickness increased significantly in all regions except the femoral neck. The increase in cortical volume and BMC paralleled the increase in cortical vBMD, demonstrating a consistent effect of ODN on cortical bone. Approximately one-half of the absolute BMC gain occurred in cortical bone. PMID:24898537

Engelke, Klaus; Fuerst, Thomas; Dardzinski, Bernard; Kornak, John; Ather, Shabana; Genant, Harry K; de Papp, Anne

2015-01-01

258

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Students from Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in Special Education: A Resource Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to facilitate efforts to develop and implement equitable educational policies and procedures, and remedy discriminatory practices that lead to disproportionate representation of students from racial and ethnic minority groups in special education. It aims to enable technical assistance providers to provide more effective…

Markowitz, Joy; And Others

259

Disproportionate Minority Representation in Suspension and Expulsion in Minnesota Public Schools: A Report from the Minnesota Department of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suspension of any student is problematic for students from all groups. Suspension and expulsion as interventions are inadequate to change behavior unless they are paired with teaching replacement behaviors. However, African American/Black, American Indian and Hispanic students are suspended and expelled at rates that are disproportionate to…

Anfinson, Allison; Autumn, Stephanie; Lehr, Cammy; Riestenberg, Nancy; Scullin, Sarah

2010-01-01

260

Universal Screening for Behavioral and Emotional Risk: A Promising Method for Reducing Disproportionate Placement in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overrepresentation of U.S. minority students identified for emotional and behavior disorders special education programs plagues schools and challenges researchers and practitioners. Arcane methods including teacher nomination continue to guide referral processes, despite compelling evidence of their influence on disproportionate special…

Raines, Tara C.; Dever, Bridget V.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Roach, Andrew T.

2012-01-01

261

Exploring the social and interpersonal experiences of South Asian women with a diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.  

PubMed

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) negatively impacts life quality, disproportionately affecting women and UK ethnic minorities. The study aimed to explore how UK South Asian women with SLE make sense of their social and interpersonal experiences, within the context of their ethnicity and perceived cultural influences. A qualitative design was employed to collect data from a homogenous sample of six South Asian women with SLE. Semi-structured interviews elicited participants' experiences of living with SLE and data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Master themes were (1) 'SLE: Complexities and Ironies', (2) 'The Power of SLE', (3) 'A Sense of Personal Responsibility and Accountability', (4) 'Essential Relationships: Qualities and Consequences' and (5) 'Struggling in Public View'. Findings revealed that illness, function and emotion were experienced as interrelated, and psychosocial issues were a powerful feature in SLE illness processes. Body image concerns, difficulties maintaining roles and the perceived views of others, triggered embarrassment and withdrawal, negatively influencing social function and relationships. Interestingly, explicit references to ethnicity and culture were minimal, suggesting that for these women, the key features of experience tended to reflect those of other SLE groups. These findings call for an integrated, biopsychosocial and multidisciplinary approach to health care provision in this area. PMID:25307703

Rutter, S J; Kiemle, G

2015-01-01

262

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur in Marine Sediments Amplified by a Seafloor Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide and to grow only in the presence of a sulfide scavenger have been enriched electrochemically in marine sediments. During a 7-month experiment designed to demonstrate sustained electrical energy harvesting by a seafloor fuel cell (Tender et al. 2002), a graphite anode embedded in sediment within Yaquina Bay, OR, developed a biofilm showing a 60% enrichment in ?-Proteobacteria belonging to the genera Desulfobulus/Desulfocapsa. Cytophagales showed a secondary enrichment in 36.7% of 16S rDNA sequences. These two groups of microorganisms made up 23.5% and 8.8%, respectively, of clones derived from graphite scrapings of a control cell with zero current. Sediment porewater profiles show millimolar increases in sulfate and iron concentrations, but also sulfide depletion approaching the active anode. Electron microprobe analyses reveal accumulations of sulfur and iron between the graphite surface of the anode and the overcoating biofilm with a Fe/S ratio below one. Extractions of iron mineral phases also indicate a small decrease in crystalline iron oxide near the anode. These chemical changes are consistent with four interactive processes. (1) Sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur directly at the anode. (2) The elemental sulfur promotes the microbial production of sulfate and FeS + FeS2. (3) Iron sulfide apparently dissolves to re-supply sulfide that is consumed by the anode. (4) Released Fe+2 accumulates and with organic ligands may catalyze the reduction and dissolution of crystalline iron oxide (Luther et al. 1992). Thus, we conclude the anodic half-cell reaction of the marine fuel cell provides a novel experimental approach for in situ enrichment of bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur while highlighting a biogeochemical cycle usually obscured by competing processes. Tender L. M., Reimers C. E., Stecher H. A. III, Holmes D. E., Bond D. R, Lowy, D. A., Pilobello K., Fertig S. J., Lovley D. R., Harnessing microbially generated power on the seafloor, Nature Biotechnology (2002) 20: 821-825. Luther G. W. III, Kostka J. E., Church T. M., Sulzberger B., Stumm W., Seasonal iron cycling in the salt-marsh sedimentary environment: the importance of ligand complexes with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and pyrite, respectively, Marine Chemistry (1992) 40: 81-103

Ryckelynck, N. B.; Reimers, C. E.; Stecher, H. A.; Holmes, D. E.; Bond, D. E.

2002-12-01

263

Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.  

PubMed

Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism. PMID:25794197

Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

2015-04-01

264

What Works for Women in Undergraduate Physics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics community in the U.S. has been concerned about the low participation by women for many years. Although some progress has been made, the percentage of undergraduate women in physics is still less than half that in mathematics and chemistry. While the percentage of women in physics declines at every step up the academic ladder, the largest decrease occurs in the undergraduate years. Therefore it is worthwhile to look at how undergraduate physics departments might make women students comfortable. We have conducted a study of undergraduate physics departments in order to learn "what works" in attracting and retaining women in the undergraduate physics major. With a team of women physicists, we visited nine undergraduate physics departments, five with high participation by women and four with average participation. We also visited six departments in women's colleges, which are known for producing accomplished women in all fields, including science. Three of the 15 schools are historically Black colleges, which produce disproportionate numbers of African-American women scientists. We found that the most important factor in a female-friendly physics department is a warm and inclusive culture that reaches out to introductory students. We also discuss the effects of curriculum, pedagogy, and institutional policy.

Whitten, Barbara L.; Dorato, Shannon R.; Foster, Suzanne R.; Duncombe, Margaret L.

2005-10-01

265

Disproportionation in Li-O{sub 2} Batteries Based on a Large Surface Area Carbon Cathode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report on a kinetics study of the discharge process and its relationship to the charge overpotential in a Li-O{sub 2} cell for large surface area cathode material. The kinetics study reveals evidence for a first-order disproportionation reaction during discharge from an oxygen-rich Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component with superoxide-like character to a Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component. The oxygen-rich superoxide-like component has a much smaller potential during charge (3.2-3.5 V) than the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component (similar to 4.2 V). The formation of the superoxide-like component is likely due to the porosity of the activated carbon used in the Li-O{sub 2} cell cathode that provides a good environment for growth during discharge. The discharge product containing these two components is characterized by toroids, which are assemblies of nanoparticles. The morphologic growth and decomposition process of the toroids during the reversible discharge/charge process was observed by scanning electron microscopy and is consistent with the presence of the two components in the discharge product. The results of this study provide new insight into how growth conditions control the nature of discharge product, which can be used to achieve improved performance in Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Zhai, D.; Wang, H.-H.; Yang, J.; Lau, K. C.; Li, K.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division) [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2013-10-16

266

Laser-induced charge-disproportionated metallic state in LaCoO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of the spin transition in LaCoO3 is one of the long-standing aims in condensed matter physics. Aside from its fundamental interest, a detailed description of this crossover will have a direct impact on the interpretation of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) and the properties of the high-temperature metallic phase in this compound, which has shown to have important applications in environmentally friendly energy production. To date, the spin transition has been investigated mainly as a function of temperature in thermal equilibrium. These results have hinted at dynamical effects. In this paper, we have investigated the SMT by means of pump-probe soft x-ray reflectivity experiments at the O K , Co L , and La M edges and theoretical calculations within a DFT++ formalism. The results point towards a laser-induced metallization in which the optical transitions stabilize a metallic state with high-spin configuration and increased charge disproportionation.

Izquierdo, M.; Karolak, M.; Trabant, C.; Holldack, K.; Föhlisch, A.; Kummer, K.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Spiwek, M.; Belozerov, A.; Poteryaev, A.; Lichtenstein, A.; Molodtsov, S. L.

2014-12-01

267

Separation of Nd metal by using disproportionation reaction of Nd(II) in molten chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to separate neodymium (Nd) from lanthanides in chloride melts, the electrochemical characteristics Nd ions in molten LiCl-CaCl 2 eutectic were studied. The formal redox potentials of the Nd 3+|Nd 2+ and Nd 2+|Nd couples in molten LiCl-CaCl 2 eutectic at 823 K were determined to be -2.745 ± 0.005 and -3.081 ± 0.005 V vs. Cl 2|Cl -. Under the controlled potential electrolysis by applying negative potential to form Nd 2+, Nd 2+ was disproportionated to Nd 3+ and metallic Nd fog according to the reaction; 3Nd 2+ ? 2Nd 3+ + Nd. When a quartz glass was immersed in the melt during the electrolysis, Nd was coated on the quartz surface. The chemical composition of the recovered Nd was analyzed to be Nd metal and Nd 2O 3 by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron probe microanalysis. The same electrolytic method was carried out under the coexistence of Nd 3+ and lanthanum ion (La 3+). Nd 3+ was separated from La 3+ and recovered to be Nd 2O 3.

Uehara, A.; Fukasawa, K.; Nagai, T.; Fujii, T.; Yamana, H.

2011-07-01

268

Na order and Co charge disproportionation in NaxCoO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized and characterized different stable phases of sodium cobaltates NaxCoO2 with sodium content 0.65 < x < 0.80. We demonstrate that 23Na NMR allows us to determine the difference in the susceptibility of the phases and reveals the presence of Na order in each phase. 59Co NMR experiments give clear evidence that Co charge disproportionation is a dominant feature of Na cobaltates. Only a small fraction (?25%) of cobalt are in a non-magnetic Co3+ charge state whereas electrons delocalize on the other cobalt. The magnetic and charge properties of the different Co sites are highly correlated with each other as their magnetic shift KZZ scales linearly with their quadrupolar frequency ?Q. This reflects the fact that the hole content on the Co orbitals varies from site to site. The unusual charge differentiation found in this system calls for better theoretical understanding of the incidence of the Na atomic order on the electronic structures of these compounds.

Mukhamedshin, I. R.; Alloul, H.

2015-03-01

269

Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(?6-C6H6)2 are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX3 (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX2 to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X2U(µ-?6:?6-arene)UX2] and a UX4 by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a ‘cooperative small-molecule activation’ mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX3 are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds.

Arnold, Polly L.; Mansell, Stephen M.; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

2012-08-01

270

A Theoretical Study of the Qualitative Reaction Mechanism for the Homogeneous Disproportionation of Pentavalent Uranyl Ions  

SciTech Connect

There is significant interest in understanding the oxidation and reduction of aqueous uranium ions. In the literature, there is considerable variation in the results of attempts to reduce uranium depending on very small differences in reducing species, pH, spectator ions, mineral substrates, and other factors. Of particular curiosity is the fact that U(V) can be stabilized in the lab but is almost never found in the environment. In order to better understand these two phenomena, a direct computational study of homogenous, aqueous U(V) disproportionation was undertaken. Using a combination of Marcus Theory with Hartree– Fock and MP2 calculations, the rate constant of the electron-transfer reaction was calculated. Under the conditions studied, the electron-transfer reaction is slow (k observed ~10 -1 M-1 s-1). This reduced rate is a result of a variety of factors: the +1 charge of the reactants, the large encounter complex distance, and the electronic reorganization energies associated with the proton transfers. Excluding the energy from the coupled proton transfers, all of the remaining factors could be eliminated by small alterations of the uranium’s environment.

Wander, Matthew C.; Shuford, Kevin L.

2012-02-12

271

Sodiation via heterogeneous disproportionation in FeF2 electrodes for sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Sodium-ion batteries utilize various electrode materials derived from lithium batteries. However, the different characteristics inherent in sodium may cause unexpected cell reactions and battery performance. Thus, identifying the reactive discrepancy between sodiation and lithiation is essential for fundamental understanding and practical engineering of battery materials. Here we reveal a heterogeneous sodiation mechanism of iron fluoride (FeF2) nanoparticle electrodes by combining in situ/ex situ microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. In contrast to direct one-step conversion reaction with lithium, the sodiation of FeF2 proceeds via a regular conversion on the surface and a disproportionation reaction in the core, generating a composite structure of 1-4 nm ultrafine Fe nanocrystallites (further fused into conductive frameworks) mixed with an unexpected Na3FeF6 phase and a NaF phase in the shell. These findings demonstrate a core-shell reaction mode of the sodiation process and shed light on the mechanistic understanding extended to generic electrode materials for both Li- and Na-ion batteries. PMID:24911154

He, Kai; Zhou, Yongning; Gao, Peng; Wang, Liping; Pereira, Nathalie; Amatucci, Glenn G; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Yimei; Wang, Feng; Su, Dong

2014-07-22

272

Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation.  

PubMed

Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(?(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX(3) (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX(2) to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X(2)U(µ-?(6):?(6)-arene)UX(2)] and a UX(4) by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a 'cooperative small-molecule activation' mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX(3) are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds. PMID:22824900

Arnold, Polly L; Mansell, Stephen M; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David

2012-08-01

273

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

274

Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects\\/setting: 2038 females aged 12-17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design\\/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1

C A Edwards; W C Harris; D R Cook; K F Bedford; Y Zuo

2004-01-01

275

One Year of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Treatment Does Not Affect Bone Density, Body Composition, or Psychological Measures in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the hypothalamic-GH-insulin-like growth factor I (hypothalamic-GH-IGF-I) axis declines with age, and some of the catabolic changes of aging have been attributed to the somato- pause. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of 1 yr of IGF-I hormone replacement therapy on body composition, bone density, and psychological parameters in healthy, nonobese, postmenopausal women over

ANNE L. FRIEDLANDER; GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD; SHARON MOYNIHAN; JEANINE GRILLO; MARGARET POLLACK; LEAH HOLLOWAY; LEAH FRIEDMAN; JEROME YESAVAGE; DWIGHT MATTHIAS; SCOTT LEE; ROBERT MARCUS; ANDREW R. HOFFMAN

2010-01-01

276

Pregnancy and Lactation Affect Markers of Calcium and Bone Metabolism Differently in Adolescent and Adult Women with Low Calcium Intakes1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiologic adaptation to the high calcium demand during pregnancy and lactation may be different in adolescents than in adults, particularly at low calcium intake. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism between adolescent (14 -19 y) and adult (21-35 y) women with calcium intake 500 mg\\/d, in three different physiologic states,

Flavia F. Bezerra; Fabrõ ´ cia; P. Laboissiere; Janet C. King; Carmen M. Donangelo

277

Heart Disease in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Español In the United States, ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...

278

Women in Islam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore basic beliefs and practices of Islam and examine the different views of women's roles in Islam and modern American society in this lesson. They look closely at two issues that affect American Muslims: hijab and prayer.

WNET

2008-08-21

279

Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO{sub 2}/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

GeO disproportionation into GeO{sub 2} and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO {yields} GeO{sub 2} + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 {+-} 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO{sub 2}/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO{sub 2} is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

Wang Shengkai [Micorowave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Liu Honggang [Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2012-08-06

280

Basal adipose tissue and hepatic lipid kinetics are not affected by a single exercise bout of moderate duration and intensity in sedentary women  

PubMed Central

Hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In men we have shown that the effects of evening exercise on basal very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are dose-dependent: a single, prolonged bout of aerobic exercise (2 h at 60% of peak oxygen consumption, VO2 peak) reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations, via enhanced clearance of VLDL-TG from the circulation, whereas the same exercise performed for 1 h has no effect on VLDL-TG metabolism and concentration. We hypothesized that women are more sensitive to the TG-lowering effect of exercise because they reportedly use more intramuscular TG as energy source during exercise and depletion of muscle TG stores has been linked to reciprocal changes in skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. To test our hypothesis we measured basal VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics, by using stable isotope labeled tracer techniques, on the morning after a single session of evening exercise of moderate duration and intensity (1 h at 60% of VO2 peak) in eight sedentary pre-menopausal women (age: 28 ± 3 yr, body mass index: 27 ± 2 kg/m2, body fat: 34 ± 3%; means ± SEM). Compared with an equivalent period of evening rest, exercise had no effect on post-absorptive FFA concentration and rate of appearance in plasma, VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations, hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion and plasma clearance rates (all P > 0.05). We conclude that in women, as in men, a single session of exercise of moderate intensity and duration is not sufficient to bring about the alterations in VLDL metabolism that have been linked to post-exercise hypotriglyceridemia. PMID:18752466

Magkos, Faidon; Patterson, Bruce W.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Mittendorfer, Bettina

2008-01-01

281

Intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and factors affecting it among married women in Adigrat town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increase in contraceptive use worldwide over the last decade, there is still discrepancy in the need to limit birth and utilization of modern contraceptives specifically long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Intention to use long acting and permanent methods of contraception is an important indicator of the potential demand for family planning services. Objective To assess intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) and identifying associated factors among currently married women in Adigrat town. Methods A community based cross sectional study design complemented with a qualitative method was conducted in three selected Kebeles of Adigrat town. A total of 594 study subjects were interviewed. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study subjects. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Open code software version 3.6.2.0 was used to facilitate coding of the qualitative data. Factors associated with intention were identified using logistic regression model and content analysis was done on the qualitative data. Results Intention to use LAPMs was 48.4%. Intention to use LAPMs was higher among women who knew at least one of LAPMs (AOR?=?4.7, 95% CI?=?1.58, 14.01) and women who do not want to have birth within the next 2 years (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.22, 3.13). Intention to use LAMPs was less among women who perceive poor support from their husbands (AOR?=?0.2, 95% CI?=?0.09, 0.45) and those who perceive LAPMs are harmful for the womb (AOR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.14, 0.41). Similarly, participants in the focus group discussion have expressed their concern on the return of fertility after using implants or IUCD as well as insertion and removal procedures. Conclusions The magnitude of intention to use LAPMs in the study area was low. The main limiting factors were fear of side effect, infertility after LAPMs use, knowledge on LAPMs and perception on partner’s support of LAPMs use. To further promote the use of LAPMs addressing associated misconceptions through effective communication strategies and involving spouses in family planning programs is essential. PMID:24628764

2014-01-01

282

Amlodipine Increased Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Decreased Nitroxidative Stress Disproportionately to Blood Pressure Changes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Clinical trials have shown that amlodipine reduces cardiovascular events at a rate that is not predicted by changes in brachial arterial pressure alone. These findings may be explained, in part, by the pleiotropic effects of amlodipine on endothelial cell (EC) function. In this study, we elucidated the effect of amlodipine on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and cytotoxic peroxynitrite (ONOO–) and blood pressure (BP). METHODS Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with vehicle or amlodipine (5mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks and compared with untreated, baseline rats. NO and ONOO– release from aortic and glomerular ECs were measured ex vivo using amperometric nanosensors following maximal stimulation with calcium ionophore. BP was measured using the tail-cuff method. RESULTS As compared with baseline, vehicle treatment had reduced aortic endothelial NO release from 157±11nM to 55±6nM and increased ONOO– from 69±7nM to 156±19nM. The NO/ONOO– ratio, a comprehensive measurement of eNOS function, decreased from 2.3±0.3 to 0.3±0.1. Compared with vehicle, amlodipine treatment restored NO to 101±3nM, decreased ONOO– to 50±4nM, and increased the NO/ONOO– ratio to 2.0±0.2, a level similar to baseline. Similar changes were observed for glomerular ECs. Mean arterial blood pressure increased from 149±3mm Hg (baseline) to 174±1mm Hg (vehicle). Amlodipine slightly, but significantly, decreased mean arterial blood pressure to 167±3mm Hg vs. vehicle treatment. CONCLUSIONS Amlodipine increased NO bioavailability and decreased nitroxidative stress in SHRs with EC dysfunction disproportionately to BP changes. These direct, vascular effects of amlodipine on EC function may contribute to reduced risk for atherothrombotic events as observed in clinical trials. PMID:24168917

2014-01-01

283

Coordinated public health initiatives to address violence against women and adolescents.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health care settings and partner with domestic violence programs, effects of early IPV intervention, and models for taking interventions to scale. PMID:25549182

Dutton, Mary Ann; James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise

2015-01-01

284

The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor…

Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

285

Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries  

DOE PAGESBeta

Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2–) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2– produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s–1 M–1, 0.020 s–1 M–1 and 0.67 s–1 M–1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

Wang, Qiang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zheng, Doug [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

2015-01-01

286

Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li-air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2- produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1 and 0.67 s-1 M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

2015-01-01

287

Catalytic properties of heteropoly acid\\/zeolite hybrid materials: toluene disproportionation and transalkylation with 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hybrid heteropoly acid (HPA)\\/zeolite catalysts has been prepared by supporting 12-tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O40) on a faujasitic matrix. It has been shown that the structure of a dealuminated zeolite Y is retained upon contact with a very strong solid acid. The catalytic properties of the hybrid catalysts were examined in the two gas-phase reactions: disproportionation of toluene and

B. Sulikowski; R. Rachwalik

2003-01-01

288

Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests? Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality Between Arrest and Incarceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do large racial and ethnic disparities in prison populations reflect systematic racial and policy discrimination in the criminal\\u000a justice system, or do they reflect disproportionate involvement of blacks and Hispanics in “serious” or street crime? Our\\u000a investigation of this question keys off the approach initiated by Alfred Blumstein is his pioneering studies on the topic.\\u000a While yielding important findings, there

Casey T. Harris; Darrell Steffensmeier; Jeffrey T. Ulmer; Noah Painter-Davis

2009-01-01

289

Disproportionate inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the unilaterally diseased kidney of dog and man after an acute saline load  

PubMed Central

Clearance studies were performed on 49 split-bladder dogs with a unilateral pyelonephritic or remnant kidney and three patients with unilateral kidney disease to examine the effects of an acute saline load on the diseased kidney (DK) as opposed to a simultaneously studied, contralateral control kidney (CK), which also served to maintain a nonuremic environment. Before saline loading, base line studies in many of the dogs and the three humans were in agreement with previously published data. However, in dogs with a severe pyelonephritic lesion, a greater difference in DK vs. CK fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and water was noted, whose magnitude was inversely correlated with the level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and maximum urine osmolality of DK compared to CK. An acute saline load (75 ml/kg) resulted in an inhibition of fractional sodium and water reabsorption in the diseased dog kidney which was disproportionately greater than in the simultaneously studied CK, regardless of the type or severity of the lesion. While mean DK GFR for all dogs increased 15% more than CK GFR, failure of FENa to increase after induction of a disproportionate increase in DK GFR with parathyroid hormone suggested that the saline-induced disproportionate increase in GFR was not solely responsible for the exaggerated inhibition of fractional sodium and water reabsorption in the diseased dog kidney. Studies in the three patients after saline loading (25 ml/kg) revealed a similar disproportionate resetting of glomerulotubular balance. Thus, regardless of base line function before expansion, the unilaterally diseased kidney of dog and man possesses unique characteristics in the absence of uremia which render it more reactive to the stimuli produced by acute saline loading. This suggests that the intrarenal environment of the kidney with a reduced nephron population may under some circumstances serve as a determinant of its function. Images PMID:5540177

Gutmann, Frank D.; Rieselbach, Richard E.

1971-01-01

290

Women in development.  

PubMed

The author reports on travel in the Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, and conditions she found affecting development. Development for women in the Philippines has been hampered by a dichotomy between home economics and agricultural work. Although the majority of students in agriculture are women, many village cooperatives have been formed with less than 10% women members. Malaysia has a high level of education; development projects can easily be implemented. The National Association of Women's Institutes of Peninsular Malaysia (NAWIPM) emphasizes training for rural women. Its activiti include nursuries, poultry raising, home improvement, cooperatives, and income generating projects such as catering and tailoring. As in the Philippines ther is an important Muslim minority; Muslim women lag behind other Sri Lankans in education. The Mahila Samiti is the organization which trains rural women i some 1500 chapters. The women of Pakistan have the greatest need for assistance. Less than 15% Pakistan women are literate; their enrollment in school lags far behind the boys. The All Pakistan Women's Association works on problems of development through its Nutrition Education Training Courses. The centers have begun poultry raising and gardening as parts of its program. PMID:12261905

White, E H

1980-01-01

291

Knowledge of HPV Among United States Hispanic Women: Opportunities and Challenges for Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, Hispanic women contribute disproportionately to cervical cancer incidence and mortality. This disparity, which primarily reflects lack of access to, and underutilization of, routine Pap smear screening may improve with increased availability of vaccines to prevent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the principal cause of cervical cancer. However, limited research has explored known determinants of HPV vaccine acceptability

Erin Kobetz; Julie Kornfeld; Robin C. Vanderpool; Lila J. Finney Rutten; Natasha Parekh; Gillian OBryan; Janelle Menard

2010-01-01

292

In search of a canopy: Tribal Women's Livelihood in Forest-based industries in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribal women known for their deep association with the forests are an economically active lot but nevertheless, they suffer disproportionately more from illiteracy, poverty and social abuse. Moreover many forest belts in India are becoming centres of militancy and civil strife because of improper designing of development programmes. The paper argues that more inclusive development in the present time of

Nilabja Ghosh

293

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

2011-01-01

294

Women in Street Prostitution: The Result of Poverty and the Brunt of Inequity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street prostitution is intrinsically related to poverty. Female prostitutes, in disproportionate numbers, are known to be ethnic minorities who are impoverished, uneducated and possess few marketable skills. Viewed as depraved individuals, lawmakers have and continue to chastise these women through the law. Consistency in enforcing prostitution laws, which includes laws against patronizing prostitutes, nonetheless, has been and continues to be

Jacquelyn Monroe

2005-01-01

295

Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence.  

PubMed

The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex) are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs) with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning). However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals, men, couples, and social networks. There is also a critical need for the development of culturally tailored combination HIV prevention interventions that not only incorporate evidence-based behavioral and biomedical approaches (eg, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, female-initiated barrier methods) but also take into account the risk environment at the physical, social, economic and political levels. Ultimately, this approach will have a significant impact on reducing HIV infections among drug-using women with histories of partner violence. PMID:24500422

Stockman, Jamila K; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Hoffman, Monica A; Ulibarri, Monica D; Dyer, Typhanye V Penniman

2012-01-01

296

The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure  

SciTech Connect

It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

Lindberg, Anna-Lena [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Rahman, Mahfuzar [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, (ICDDR.B), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Persson, Lars-Ake [International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se

2008-07-01

297

Isotopic disproportionation during hydrogen isotopic analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rationale High-precision hydrogen isotope ratio analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic materials using high-temperature conversion (HTC) techniques has proven troublesome in the past. Formation of reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) has been suspected as a possible cause of incomplete H2 yield and hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Methods The classical HTC reactor setup and a modified version including elemental chromium, both operated at temperatures in excess of 1400 °C, have been compared using a selection of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds, including caffeine. A focus of the experiments was to avoid or suppress hydrogen cyanide (HCN) formation and to reach quantitative H2 yields. The technique also was optimized to provide acceptable sample throughput. Results The classical HTC reaction of a number of selected compounds exhibited H2 yields from 60 to 90 %. Yields close to 100 % were measured for the experiments with the chromium-enhanced reactor. The ?2H values also were substantially different between the two types of experiments. For the majority of the compounds studied, a highly significant relationship was observed between the amount of missing H2and the number of nitrogen atoms in the molecules, suggesting the pyrolytic formation of HCN as a byproduct. A similar linear relationship was found between the amount of missing H2 and the observed hydrogen isotopic result, reflecting isotopic fractionation. Conclusions The classical HTC technique to produce H2 from organic materials using high temperatures in the presence of glassy carbon is not suitable for nitrogen-bearing compounds. Adding chromium to the reaction zone improves the yield to 100 % in most cases. The initial formation of HCN is accompanied by a strong hydrogen isotope effect, with the observed hydrogen isotope results on H2 being substantially shifted to more negative ?2H values. The reaction can be understood as an initial disproportionation leading to H2 and HCN with the HCN-hydrogen systematically enriched in 2H by more than 50 ‰. In the reaction of HCN with chromium, H2 and chromium-containing solid residues are formed quantitatively.

Nair, Sreejesh; Geilmann, Heike; Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Gehre, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Brand, Willi A.

2015-01-01

298

Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

299

Childhood Inattention and Dysphoria and Adult Obesity Associated with the Dopamine D4 receptor Gene in Overeating Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention

R D Levitan; M Masellis; R W Lam; P Muglia; V S Basile; U Jain; A S Kaplan; S Tharmalingam; S H Kennedy; J L Kennedy

2004-01-01

300

Aspirin-induced increase in intestinal paracellular permeability does not affect the levels of LPS in venous blood of healthy women.  

PubMed

The presence of subclinical levels of LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, also referred to as endotoxin, in the circulation may induce a pro-inflammatory immune response that leads to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent data indicate that high-fat meals may elevate circulating levels of LPS. However, it is currently unclear how the LPS transits from the gut lumen to the general circulation. We determined whether aspirin-induced damage of the small intestinal mucosa, evidenced by an increase in the paracellular permeability, allows greater transit of LPS into the systemic circulation. The 3-h cumulative excretion of lactulose was significantly increased after the consumption of aspirin solution relative to that after the consumption of an equal volume of water in 15 healthy women (median after aspirin 0.09% of dose vs. median after water 0.03% of dose; P?=?0.004). Dosage with aspirin also significantly increased the lactulose : mannitol ratio (median after aspirin 0.014 vs. median after water 0.005; P?=?0.017). However, serum LPS levels after the consumption of the aspirin solution were not significantly different from those after consumption of the control (plain water). Further, there was no correlation between body fat content and circulating levels of LPS. PMID:25398227

Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

2014-11-14

301

The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics of Texas school districts and the Texas Education Agency's indicators of disproportionate representation in special education programs  

E-print Network

definitions of disproportionality (Coutinho & Oswald, 1998b; Markowitz, 1996b; Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Simmons, Feggins-Azziz & Chung, 2005). Variations in defining and measuring disproportionate representation in special education programs often result...

Ramirez, Eleazar

2008-10-10

302

Epidemiology, Determinants, and Consequences of Cigarette Smoking in African American Women: An Integrative Review  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biosychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25 years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW. PMID:20061090

Mickens, Lavonda; Ameringer, Katie; Brightman, Molly; Leventhal, Adam M.

2010-01-01

303

Contribution of three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy for women affected by bulky stage II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the outcome and dose distribution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by helical tomotherapy in women treated for large supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin’s disease. Material and methods A total of 13 patients received adjuvant radiation at a dose of 30 Gy to the initially involved sites with a boost of 6 Gy to those areas suspected of harboring residual disease on the simulation CT scan. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months, the two-year progression-free survival was 91.6%, and the 2- and 3-year overall survivals were 100%. We did not report any heart or lung acute side effects. The conformity index of PTV (Planning Target Volume) was better for IMRT than for 3D-CRT (p=0.001). For the breasts, lungs, heart, thyroid and esophagus, the volume distributions favored the IMRT plans. For the breasts, the V20Gy, V25Gy and V30Gy were 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the lung tissues, the V20Gy and V30Gy were 2 times and 4.5 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the heart, the V20Gy and V30Gy were 1.4 and 2 times lower, respectively, for IMRT than for 3D-CRT. For the esophagus, the V35Gy was 1.7 lower for IMRT than for 3D-CRT, and for the thyroid, the V30Gy was 1.2 times lower for IMRT. Conclusion IMRT by helical tomotherapy improved the PTV coverage and dramatically decreased the dose in organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, but a longer follow-up is necessary to prove a translation of these dosimetric improvements in the outcome of the patients. PMID:23638873

2013-01-01

304

Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14?g protein, 85?g carbohydrate and 50?g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3?mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2?h) for C-peptide in nmol.120?min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2?h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

2014-01-01

305

Secondary Effects of Antipsychotics: Women at Greater Risk Than Men  

PubMed Central

Context: The health burden of antipsychotic medication is well known, but the disproportionate effect on women as compared with men is underappreciated. Objective: The goal of this article is preventive—to better inform clinicians so that the risks to women and to their offspring can be diminished. Method: All PubMed sources in which the search term gender (or sex) was linked to a side effect of antipsychotic medication were reviewed. Result: There is general agreement in the literature on women's increased susceptibility to weight gain, diabetes, and specific cardiovascular risks of antipsychotics, with less consensus on malignancy risks and risks to the fetus. Cardiovascular death, to which men are more susceptible than women, is disproportionately increased in women by the use of antipsychotics. Sedating antipsychotics raise the risk of embolic phenomena during pregnancy, and postpartum. Prolactin-elevating drugs suppress gonadal hormone secretion and may enhance autoimmune proclivity. Conclusions: Clinicians need to be aware of the differential harm that women (and their offspring) can incur from the side effects of antipsychotics. PMID:18400811

Seeman, Mary V.

2009-01-01

306

Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests? Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality Between Arrest and Incarceration.  

PubMed

Do large racial and ethnic disparities in prison populations reflect systematic racial and policy discrimination in the criminal justice system, or do they reflect disproportionate involvement of blacks and Hispanics in "serious" or street crime? Our investigation of this question keys off the approach initiated by Alfred Blumstein is his pioneering studies on the topic. While yielding important findings, there are, however, substantial gaps in the empirical literature on the racial disproportionality issue. We attempt to fill those gaps by (1) using both data on prison admission as well as in-stock prison populations, (2) presenting more recent racially and ethnically disaggregated arrest and incarceration data from Pennsylvania for 2003-2007, and (3) including Hispanic offenders in our racial and ethnic disproportionality comparisons. Our results indicate, first, that the representation of blacks, whites, and Hispanics among offenders admitted to state prison and in the prison population corresponds closely to their representation in arrest statistics. Second, using arrests as a marker of violent offending, the overrepresentation of blacks among offenders admitted to state prisons occurs because they commit a disproportionate number of frequently imprisoned (i.e., violent) crimes. Third, for those offenses where there is a within-race difference between arrest and incarceration representation, Hispanics experience the greatest disadvantage. Fourth, failing to account for Hispanics in white and black estimates tends to inflate white proportions and deflate black proportions of arrests, admissions, and prison population estimates, masking the "true" black and white racial disproportionality. We conclude that while there is a need for continued concern with possible racial discrimination in justice system processing, this concern should not distract attention from what arguably is the more important matter-ameliorating the social environmental conditions that foster disproportionate minority (especially black) involvement in violent crime. PMID:25067960

Harris, Casey T; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffrey T; Painter-Davis, Noah

2009-12-01

307

Increasing women in leadership in global health.  

PubMed

Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

2014-08-01

308

Women's Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

1981-01-01

309

Smokefree Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Smoking » share 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health Maybe you’ve heard that smoking causes cancer… ... full story: 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health » share Tips Give Yourself a Smokefree Makeover! Making ...

310

Women in IT Leadership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study published by the Applied Information Management Institute looks at women in IT leadership. Men and women in senior positions in IT were interviewed to explore "1) early experiences affecting womenâ??s later interest in IT; 2) career paths and the influence of IT education; 3) barriers to success within IT environments; and 4) organizational practices that may facilitate womenâ??s careers in IT." The results show that early engagement and IT education are important, barriers to women's careers in IT remain, and organizational culture is a core concern.

311

What’s So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women’s Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations  

PubMed Central

We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM. PMID:25554713

Sassler, Sharon; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M.

2014-01-01

312

Procedure-related miscarriages and down syndrome–affected births: implications for prenatal testing based on women’s preferences 1 1 We thank Virginia Gildengorin, PhD, for statistical support. We also thank Bryna Harwood, MD, James Lewis, MD, Ruth Schaber MD, and David Walton, MD, at Kaiser Permanente, and the following physicians for their participation in this study: Albert L. Brooks, MD, Carol Eades, MD, Chris Grover, MD, Susan Sykes, MD (La Clinica de la Raza); Curtis E. Montgomery, MD, Alex Moy, MD, Lawrence Newman, MD, Laura Norell, MD, M. Ming Quan, MD, Kimberly Sorem, MD, and Jonathan Wong, MD (North East Medical Services)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine how pregnant women of varying ages, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds value procedure-related miscarriage and Down–syndrome-affected birth.Methods: We studied cross-sectionally 534 sociodemographically diverse pregnant women who sought care at obstetric clinics and practices throughout the San Francisco Bay area. Preferences for procedure-related miscarriage and the birth of an infant affected by Down syndrome were assessed using the

Miriam Kuppermann; Robert F Nease; Lee A Learman; Elena Gates; Bruce Blumberg; A. Eugene Washington

2000-01-01

313

Women in Meteorology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized quickly as individuals. It also may be partially attributed to the relative youth of the women involved. They are too young to have encountered the severe discrimination others experienced in the past, and too young to have reached the barriers that have traditionally prevented women from advancing to higher positions. No figures are available that would allow comparison between salaries of male and female holders of bachelor's and master's degrees.

Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

1982-11-01

314

Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

2007-01-01

315

Sleep and Women’s Health  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints) often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the woman’s lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed. PMID:25688329

Nowakowski, Sara; Meers, Jessica; Heimbach, Erin

2015-01-01

316

Charge disproportionation and the pressure-induced insulator-metal transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3.  

PubMed

The perovskite PbCrO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. However, the fundamental interactions leading to the insulating state in this single-valent perovskite are unclear. Moreover, the origin of the unprecedented volume drop observed at a modest pressure of P = 1.6 GPa remains an outstanding problem. We report a variety of in situ pressure measurements including electron transport properties, X-ray absorption spectrum, and crystal structure study by X-ray and neutron diffraction. These studies reveal key information leading to the elucidation of the physics behind the insulating state and the pressure-induced transition. We argue that a charge disproportionation 3Cr(4+) ? 2Cr(3+) + Cr(6+) in association with the 6s-p hybridization on the Pb(2+) is responsible for the insulating ground state of PbCrO3 at ambient pressure and the charge disproportionation phase is suppressed under pressure to give rise to a metallic phase at high pressure. The model is well supported by density function theory plus the correlation energy U (DFT+U) calculations. PMID:25624483

Cheng, Jinguang; Kweon, K E; Larregola, S A; Ding, Yang; Shirako, Y; Marshall, L G; Li, Z-Y; Li, X; Dos Santos, António M; Suchomel, M R; Matsubayashi, K; Uwatoko, Y; Hwang, G S; Goodenough, John B; Zhou, J-S

2015-02-10

317

Effect of carbon deposition by carbon monoxide disproportionation on electrochemical characteristics at low temperature operation for solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deterioration by carbon deposition was evaluated for electrolyte- and anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in comparison with carbon monoxide disproportionation and methane cracking. The polarization resistance of the nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anode increased with a rise in CO concentration in H2-CO-CO2 mixture for the electrolyte-supported cells at 923 K. The resistance, however, did not change against CO concentration for the anode-supported cells. In a methane fuel with a steam/carbon (S/C) ratio of 0.1, the cell performance decreased for both of the cells at 1073 K. A large amount of agglomerated amorphous carbon was deposited from the anode surface to the interface between the anode and the electrolyte after power generation at S/C = 0.1 in methane fuel. On the other hand, the crystalline graphite was deposited only at the anode surface for the anode-supported cell after power generation in CO-CO2 mixture. These results suggest that the reaction rate of CO disproportionation is faster than that of methane cracking. The deposited carbon near the anode/electrolyte interface caused the increase in the polarization resistance.

Sumi, Hirofumi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Kamijo, Motohisa; Mimuro, Shin; Yamanaka, Mitsugu; Nakajima, Yasushi; Eguchi, Koichi

2011-05-01

318

On the mechanism of the copper-mediated C-S bond formation in the intramolecular disproportionation of imine disulfides.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the copper-mediated disproportionation of aromatic imine disulfides to benzothiazoles in the gas phase is investigated by experimental and theoretical methods. Application of infrared multiphoton dissociation and hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relevant molecular structures and the associated infrared spectra allows the identification of the observed ionic intermediates. The theoretical investigation of the possible reaction pathways supported by collision-induced dissociation experiments provides a consistent mechanistic picture of the reaction catalyzed by a single copper(I) ion. Activation of the substrate proceeds via homolytic sulfur-sulfur bond cleavage, yielding metal complexes in the formal +3 oxidation state; carbon-sulfur coupling and hydrogen-atom transfer complete the transformation to the products. Exploratory studies demonstrate that in the gas phase, the disproportionation of the imine disulfide can also be mediated by other metal ions via different either homo- or heterolytic mechanisms without involving high-valent intermediates. PMID:21932764

Rokob, Tibor András; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Šrogl, Ji?í; Révész, Ágnes; Zins, Emilie L; Schröder, Detlef

2011-10-17

319

Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

Stevens, Bethany

2012-01-01

320

Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

2009-01-01

321

Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2011-01-01

322

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION—A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general.?OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer.?SUBJECTS—From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease.?METHODS—DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry.?RESULTS—Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers.?CONCLUSIONS—A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast cancer is predictive of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, particularly when combined with information on the patients' age at diagnosis and family history of breast/ovarian cancer.???Keywords: breast cancer; mutations; BRCA1; BRCA2 PMID:11389159

Bergthorsson, J; Ejlertsen, B; Olsen, J; Borg, A; Nielsen, K; Barkardottir, R; Klausen, S; Mouridsen, H; Winther, K; Fenger, K; Niebuhr, A; Harboe, T; Niebuhr, E

2001-01-01

323

Women's health  

MedlinePLUS

Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women's health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections ( ...

324

Living with sugar: Socioeconomic status and cultural beliefs about type 2 diabetes among Afro-Caribbean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., individuals of Afro-Caribbean and Latino descent are two to three times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. Caribbean and Latin America migrants, particularly minority women bear a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate if Afro-Caribbean women share a cultural belief model

Chrystal A. S Smith

2009-01-01

325

Properties of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination NdFeB powders prepared from recycled sintered magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) processing conditions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB powders prepared from recycling sintered N42 grade magnets were evaluated. Temperatures below 840 oC and above 900 oC are deleterious to HDDR powders' properties. The hydrogen pressure, ranging from 60 to 135 kPa, has a major influence on the remanence compared to that on the intrinsic coercivity. The best magnetic properties (Jr = 0.58 T and ?0Hc = 1.15 T) were obtained with Trecomb = 860 °C, PH2 = 135 kPa, and trecomb = 330 s. Such coercivity value corresponds to 93% of the starting material, not achieved yet by optimizing the HDDR process and without using Dy.

Périgo, E. A.; da Silva, S. C.; Martin, R. V.; Takiishi, H.; Landgraf, F. J. G.

2012-04-01

326

Charge disproportionation induced exchange bias in La0.5Ca0.5FeO3-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed an exchange bias effect in La0.5Ca0.5FeO3-? perovskite compound. The exchange bias is associated with the charge disproportionation transition from Fe4+ ions to Fe3+ and Fe5+ ions below 175 K. The competition between the ferromagnetic interaction of Fe3+ and Fe5+ ions and the antiferromagnetic one of Fe3+ and Fe3+ ions results in a unidirectional anisotropy in the cluster-glass system. An antiferromagnetically interfacial exchange coupling constant J i?-1.95 meV at the cluster-glass region was yielded by fitting the cooling field-dependence of the exchange bias field.

Liang, YaQiong; Zhang, XiangQun; Jin, JinLing; Zhan, QingFeng; Cheng, ZhaoHua

2013-11-01

327

Repression of both isoforms of disproportionating enzyme leads to higher malto-oligosaccharide content and reduced growth in potato.  

PubMed

Two glucanotransferases, disproportionating enzyme 1 (StDPE1) and disproportionating enzyme 2 (StDPE2), were repressed using RNA interference technology in potato, leading to plants repressed in either isoform individually, or both simultaneously. This is the first detailed report of their combined repression. Plants lacking StDPE1 accumulated slightly more starch in their leaves than control plants and high levels of maltotriose, while those lacking StDPE2 contained maltose and large amounts of starch. Plants repressed in both isoforms accumulated similar amounts of starch to those lacking StDPE2. In addition, they contained a range of malto-oligosaccharides from maltose to maltoheptaose. Plants repressed in both isoforms had chlorotic leaves and did not grow as well as either the controls or lines where only one of the isoforms was repressed. Examination of photosynthetic parameters suggested that this was most likely due to a decrease in carbon assimilation. The subcellular localisation of StDPE2 was re-addressed in parallel with DPE2 from Arabidopsis thaliana by transient expression of yellow fluorescent protein fusions in tobacco. No translocation to the chloroplasts was observed for any of the fusion proteins, supporting a cytosolic role of the StDPE2 enzyme in leaf starch metabolism, as has been observed for Arabidopsis DPE2. It is concluded that StDPE1 and StDPE2 have individual essential roles in starch metabolism in potato and consequently repression of these disables regulation of leaf malto-oligosaccharides, starch content and photosynthetic activity and thereby plant growth possibly by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:20700743

Lütken, Henrik; Lloyd, James R; Glaring, Mikkel A; Baunsgaard, Lone; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Haldrup, Anna; Kossmann, Jens; Blennow, Andreas

2010-10-01

328

Risk factors among handgun retailers for frequent and disproportionate sales of guns used in violent and firearm related crimes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the retailer and community level factors associated with frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes (VFC handguns). Design: Cross sectional. The authors used California records to identify all handguns sold by study subjects during 1996–2000 and federal gun tracing records to determine which of these guns had been recovered by a police agency in the US or elsewhere and traced by 30 September 2003. Subjects and setting: The 421 licensed gun retailers in California selling at least 100 handguns annually during 1996–2000. Main outcome measure: The number of VFC handguns per 1000 gun years of exposure. Differences are expressed as incidence rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Subjects accounted for 11.7% of California retailers with handgun sales, 81.5% of handgun sales, and 85.5% of VFC handguns. Among subjects, the 3426 VFC handguns accounted for 48.0% of all traced handguns and 65.0% of those linked to a specified crime. The median VFC handgun trace rate was 0.5/1000 gun years (range 0–8.8). In multivariate analysis, this rate increased substantially for each single-point increase in the percentage of proposed sales that were denied because the purchasers were prohibited from owning guns (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.56), and was increased for pawnbrokers (RR 1.26; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.55). Community level crime rates and sociodemographics had little predictive value. Conclusions: Risk factors, largely determined at the retailer level, exist for frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes. Screening to identify high risk retailers could be undertaken with data that are already available. PMID:16326771

Wintemute, G; Cook, P; Wright, M

2005-01-01

329

Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions  

PubMed Central

The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

Johns, Merida L.

2013-01-01

330

Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.  

PubMed

The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

Johns, Merida L

2013-01-01

331

Discrimination and Sexual Risk Among Young Urban Pregnant Women of Color  

PubMed Central

Objective Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. Method During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14–21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Results Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. Conclusion This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. PMID:24417689

Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Lewis, Tené T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

2014-01-01

332

RELS 3023: Women, Religion, and Secularism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course will consider the current struggle over the role of women in societies around the world by looking at religious debates and experiences. We will examine the historical and contemporary experiences and roles of women, paying particular attention to the ways in which religious beliefs and ideologies have affected women's lives in relation to religious, social, economic and political

Jill Irvine

333

DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl  

Cancer.gov

Tobacco control policies, such as increases in cigarette excise taxes, worksite smoking bans, and youth-focused media campaigns show promise in reducing smoking at the population level. However, few studies have examined the effects of policies in reducing smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among disadvantaged women and girls. Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher-than-average rates of tobacco use and suffer disproportionately from the health consequences of tobacco.

334

HIV+ women’s narratives of non-disclosure: resisting the label of immorality  

PubMed Central

Increasing partner disclosure rates among HIV positive individuals is widely seen as an important public health strategy to reduce HIV transmission. One approach for encouraging disclosure is to emphasize individuals’ moral responsibility to disclose their status to their partners. We use South Africa as a case study to draw attention to two problems with labeling non-disclosure as immoral. First, we argue that because women are tested for HIV at much higher rates than men, any approach that involves blaming HIV positive individuals for not disclosing their status will disproportionately burden women. Second, through the narratives of six HIV positive women, we highlight how a focus on morality undervalues the complexity of sexual partnerships. Specifically, women describe how their perceived obligation to disclose is directly influenced by communication with their sexual partners. Women also discuss how the onset of different life events might alter the meaning of HIV and change obligations regarding disclosure within the partnership. The differences in testing rates across gender combined with the complexity of sexual partnerships leads us to suggest that labeling non-disclosure as immoral does little to advance HIV prevention. There is an urgent need to identify alternative interventions that support women through the disclosure process. PMID:22594880

Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre

2014-01-01

335

Women and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Diabetes is a serious ... More in Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth ...

336

Women Veterans Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Women Veterans Health Care Women Veterans Health Care Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care Home Program Overview About ... Priorities FAQs Women Veterans Call Center Providers WVPMs Women's Health Services Eligibility and Enrollment About VA Health Care ...

337

The Haptic Creature Project: Social Human-Robot Interaction through Affective Touch  

E-print Network

The Haptic Creature Project: Social Human-Robot Interaction through Affective Touch Steve Yohanan1 disproportionate attention. This paper presents an overview of the Haptic Creature project, where we seek compan- ionship. Drawing from studies on human-animal interaction, we are developing the Haptic Creature

MacLean, Karon

338

The Haptic Creature Project: Social Human-Robot Interaction through Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication of emotion plays an important role in social interaction. Research in affective display both in the so- cial sciences and in social human-robot interaction has focused al- most exclusively on the modalities of vision and audition; however, touch has received disproportionate attention. This paper presents an overview of the Haptic Creature project, where we seek to develop a

Steve Yohanan; Karon E. MacLean

339

Women on the margins.  

PubMed

In some parts of the world, females are the victims of violence before birth as they are selectively aborted in societies which favor sons. If infant girls survive, they are subject to the same domestic violence which affects their mothers and leaves women more at risk of death by a male partner than from any other kind of assault. This issue was brought to the world's attention by the 1985 Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies and is placed second on the 1995 Beijing women's conference list of "critical concerns." Women are also particularly at risk as they grow older, leave their jobs, and require expensive health care. One way to reintegrate older, retired women into society may be by employing them in child care facilities. Women migrants are also at risk of legal discrimination and physical and mental abuse, yet their plight has gone largely unnoticed as the world community focuses on male migrants. Women labor migrants are in a particularly vulnerable position and may be exploited or forced into prostitution when their legal status expires. The rights of women migrants must be clarified, and women must be informed of these rights. The plight of refugee women is better known, but, although refugee programs are becoming more gender sensitive, it is difficult to overcome old ways of behaving during emergency situations. Women also comprise an increasing number of the victims of AIDS, yet women in many societies are unable to deny having sexual intercourse with their husbands or to insist that their husbands use a condom. These same husbands are free to become infected by prostitutes and to pass this infection on to their wives. The prostitutes are often just as helpless as the wives and usually have been forced into the sex trade by abject poverty. The spread of AIDS, poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration all arise from the relegation of women to secondary status. The upcoming UN conferences will measure their success by how well they incorporate a gender perspective in their proposed solutions to these societal ills. PMID:12157785

1995-01-01

340

Concomitant Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Biological Factors Associated with the Disproportionate HIV Infection Burden among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities  

PubMed Central

Background American Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood. Methods Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV. Results HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6th (16.2%) were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD); of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND). Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001); less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001); more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p?=?0.011) or chlamydia (p?=?0.020). Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001); and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p?=?0.004), and urethral (p?=?0.025) or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001). They were less likely to report female (p?=?0.002) or transgender partners (p?=?0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia. Conclusions ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily affected community. PMID:24498067

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl; Mannheimer, Sharon; Magnus, Manya; del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wilton, Leo; Cummings, Vanessa; Watson, Christopher C.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Gaydos, Charlotte; Eshleman, Susan H.; Clarke, William; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Mao, Cherry; Griffith, Samuel; Wheeler, Darrell

2014-01-01

341

Women's reproductive health.  

PubMed

Beginning in the mid-1800s, the American Medical Association, antiobscenity crusaders, and even women's groups supported criminalization of abortion. By 1900, it was illegal nationwide. In the late 1960s, women, physicians, and states began questioning abortion laws, since many women had unsafe, often fatal, illegal abortions. By 1973, 4 states had legalized abortion and 15 other states had liberalized abortion laws. A mid-1960 study showed that private patients comprised about 95% of all elective abortions. Poor clinic patients did not have the power to convince 3 physicians to support their request for an abortion. IN 1965, the Supreme Court agreed that a Connecticut Planned Parenthood Affiliate had the right to distribute contraceptives. The 1973 Roe v. Wade Court decision advanced this decision, by confirming a woman's right to abortion during the first 2 semesters of pregnancy. In 1976, the US Congress passed the Hyde amendment forbidding federal funding (e.g., Medicaid) for abortions except to save a mother. 2 1980 Supreme Court decisions supported the Hyde amendment. The Hyde amendment and these court decisions showed discrimination against poor women. Since then there have been other decisions that have whittled away at Roe v. Wade. Contraceptive failure is responsible for about 50% of the 1.6 million abortions/year. About 60% of women having an abortion are under 25 years old. Thus, criminalization of abortion would adversely affect many women as well as society. Many prochoice physicians had cared for women who suffered from botched abortions. Physicians under 45 years old tend to not know how to perform a 2nd trimester abortion because most obstetrician/gynecology residency training programs do not require them to learn it, and they do not want to do them. 2nd trimester abortion should be a required part of residency training. Physicians as preservers of women's health should be advocating safe abortion and not adopt the legal vs. illegal abortion dichotomy. PMID:8333437

Rosenfield, A

1993-07-01

342

Optical purifications via self-disproportionation of enantiomers by achiral chromatography: case study of a series of ?-CF3-containing secondary alcohols.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates that self-disproportionation of enantiomers via achiral chromatography can be recommended as inexpensive and general method for optical purification of enantiomerically enriched compounds. In particular, the advantage of this approach over conventional recrystallization is that it can be used for both crystalline as well as liquid compounds. PMID:23716267

Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Katagiri, Toshimasa; Ono, Taizo; Wzorek, Alicja; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A

2013-06-01

343

Disproportionate Representation: A Critique of State and Local Strategies. Policy Forum Report (Washington, D.C., September 14-15, 1995). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the purpose, implementation, and outcomes of a policy forum on strategies used to address the disproportionate number of students from minority ethnic/racial groups receiving special education. Participants included representatives of state education agencies, local education agencies, the university/research community,…

Markowitz, Joy

344

Strategies That Address the Disproportionate Number of Students from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups Receiving Special Education Services: Case Studies of Selected States and School Districts. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes strategies identified from interviews with educators in eight school districts in three states (Arkansas, New Mexico, and Pennsylvania) concerning the disproportionate number of students from racial/ethnic minority groups receiving special education services. The first section describes the methodology of the case study…

Markowitz, Joy

345

Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

2005-01-01

346

Estimation of changes in C-reactive protein level and pregnancy outcome after nonsurgical supportive periodontal therapy in women affected with periodontitis in a rural set up of India  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: Estimation of changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) level and pregnancy outcome after nonsurgical supportive periodontal therapy in pregnant women affected with Periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant females with periodontitis were assigned to treatment and control groups. All the details about previous and current pregnancies were obtained. Full-mouth periodontal examination was done at baseline, which included oral hygiene index simplified plaque index, gingival index, and clinical attachment loss. CRP level was also measured from collected blood sample initially at baseline and later after the delivery in both the group. Subjects in the treatment group received nonsurgical periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestational period, and those in the control group did not receive any periodontal therapy during this period. Periodontal therapy included mechanical plaque control instructions and scaling and root planning. Outcome measures assessed were changes in CRP levels, gestational age, and birth weight of the infants. When delivery occurred at <37 weeks of gestation, it was considered as preterm birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW) was recorded when the infant weighed <2500 g. Results: In the treatment group, 32% of PTB and 68% of Normal term birth (NTB) delivery whereas in the control group 72% PTB and 28% of NTB were recorded. Infants measured with LBW were 36% in the treatment group and 52% in the control group. Mean birth weight was 2644.44 ± 450.53 g in the treatment group and 2447.82 ± 368.02 g in the control group (P < 0.05). Mean gestational age in the treatment group was 35.57 ± 2.40 weeks and 34.17 ± 2.92 weeks in the control group (P < 0.05). The treatment group showed statistically significant reduction in mean values of CRP level after delivery in comparison to baseline values (P < 0.05), whereas control group showed no significant reduction in values (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Nonsurgical supportive periodontal therapy may lower the risk of preterm delivery in females affected with periodontitis by reducing CRP level. PMID:25821375

Khairnar, Mayur S.; Pawar, Babita R.; Marawar, Pramod P.; Khairnar, Darshana M.

2015-01-01

347

Predicting the Timing of Women's Departure from Abusive Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate forces that affect the timing of women's exit from violent relationships with men. Abused women were recruited from posters in the community and battered women's shelters, interviewed, and followed up for 10 years. Data for this study are based on 100 women and were analyzed using event history analysis.…

Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; McCloskey, Laura A.

2007-01-01

348

Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

Strauss, Judy R.

2011-01-01

349

Evidence of High Circulating Testosterone in Women with Prior Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with prior preeclampsia are characterized by hyperinsu- linemia and a 2- to 3-fold excess risk of hypertension and ischemic heart disease in later life. We therefore studied whether these women present changes in pituitary, ovarian, and endothelial factors that could also affect the risk of vascular disorders. Twenty-two women with prior preeclampsia and 22 control women matched by age

HANNELE LAIVUORI; RISTO KAAJA; EEVA-MARJA RUTANEN; LASSE VIINIKKA; OLAVI YLIKORKALA

2010-01-01

350

On Campus with Women, Number 33, Winter 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News concerning developments affecting women at colleges and universities is presented. Among the issues are the following: the Graduate Women's Network at the University of Michigan; a portable campus that provides career help to rural women in Minnesota; reentry programs into the corporate world for women 35 to 45 years old; an increase in…

On Campus with Women, 1982

1982-01-01

351

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

352

Women with Disabilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the National Women's Health Information Center offers a plethora of resources of interest to women with disabilities and those who work and live with them. Divided into topical areas such as abuse, parenting, and sexuality, the site has a range of information about different types of disabilities and how they may particularly affect women. Also provided is information on federal laws and regulations that protect those with disabilities as well as extensive lists of services and support resources. A section on statistics may prove especially useful to researchers and educators. This site has literally hundreds of helpful links and publications and will be useful to both the general public and professionals.

353

Empowering Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

Gomez, Aurelia

2012-01-01

354

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

355

AMERICAN WOMEN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

356

Highly oriented NdFeCoB nanocrystalline magnets from partially disproportionated compacts by reactive deformation under low pressure  

SciTech Connect

In the present investigation, we take advantage of the ultrafine grain size of NdFeCoB partially hydrogen-disproportionated phases, and prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Our results suggest that the pressure could properly promote an occurrence of desorption-recombination reaction due to a shorter-range rearrangement of the atoms, and the newly recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately after the phase transformation, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The maximum magnetic properties, (BH){sub max}?=?25.8 MGOe, Br?=?11.8 kG, H{sub cj}?=?5.5 kOe, were obtained after being treated for 5?min at 820?°C in vacuum. The present study highlights the feasibility to prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with homogeneous microstructure and a strong (00l) texture of uniform grain size under low pressure.

Zheng, Qing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying, E-mail: liuying5536@163.com; Yu, Yunping; Lian, Lixian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

2014-05-07

357

Origin of radical coercivity reduction in fine Nd-Fe-B-type hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, recombination particles and its recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coercivity variation of fine Nd-Fe-B-type particles prepared by ball milling of HDDR (hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, recombination)-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material was investigated using a HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 material, and it was compared with that of fine particles prepared by mechanical milling of sintered Nd10Pr2.5Fe80.4B6Ga1Cu0.1 magnet. Coercivity of the fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material was radically reduced as particle size decreased. In order to determine the major cause for the radical coercivity reduction, surface oxidation, structural damage (micro-strain), and crystallographic change (lattice shrinkage due to residual hydrogen desorption) in the milled fine particles were examined. The major contributory factor for the observed radical coercivity reduction was surface oxidation. Chemical etching proved an effective means for the recovery of the reduced coercivity in the milled fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated Nd-Fe-B-type material. In contrast to fine particles prepared from sintered Nd-Fe-B-type magnet, the fine particles prepared from the HDDR-treated material could have reasonably high coercivity even as a very fine powder.

Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

2014-05-01

358

Imprisonment and women’s health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health  

PubMed Central

Abstract The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance. Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women’s human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children. National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity. PMID:21897490

Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

2011-01-01

359

Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes With Individual Culture  

E-print Network

to the risk of eating disorders when women of non-AsianBecause eating disorders disproportionately affect women, 27women participat- ed. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires on cultural value orientations, enmeshment, and eating disorder

Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T

2008-01-01

360

Cultural factors in collegiate eating disorder pathology: When family culture clashes with individual culture  

E-print Network

to the risk of eating disorders when women of non-AsianBecause eating disorders disproportionately affect women, 27women participat- ed. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires on cultural value orientations, enmeshment, and eating disorder

Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T

2008-01-01

361

75 FR 27820 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-05-18

362

75 FR 27818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1122--NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-05-18

363

75 FR 28818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Number 1122-0017] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-05-24

364

75 FR 42129 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-07-20

365

75 FR 27819 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-05-18

366

75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-07-20

367

75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Number 1122-0017] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected public...

2010-07-20

368

Disproportionate Minority Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to…

Piquero, Alex R.

2008-01-01

369

Poverty, Gender Inequities, and Women’s Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of women’s and girls’ circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in women’s disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance women’s access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce women’s poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways. PMID:17954681

Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Medlin, Carol A.; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Padian, Nancy S.

2008-01-01

370

Women and Lung Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

371

Women's Health Topics  

MedlinePLUS

... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Take Time to Care about Your Health . ... Publications for Women Pregnancy Registries ¡Nunca Más! Novelas Women's Health Research Pink Ribbon Sunday Program Stay Informed Get ...

372

Reproductive rights denied: the Hyde Amendment and access to abortion for Native American women using Indian health service facilities.  

PubMed

Restrictions on the use of federal funds to provide abortions have limited the access to abortion services for Native American women receiving care at Indian Health Service facilities. Current data suggest that the vast majority of Indian Health Service facilities are unequipped to provide abortions under any circumstances. Native American women experience disproportionately high rates of sexual assault and unintended pregnancy. Hyde Amendment restrictions systematically infringe on the reproductive rights of Native American women and present a pressing public health policy concern. PMID:25122025

Arnold, Shaye Beverly

2014-10-01

373

Women's Lifestyle and Health (WLHS)  

Cancer.gov

Oral contraceptives, use of hormone replacement therapy, dietary habits, and other lifestyle factors affect the risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other chronic diseases in young women. Starting in 1991, a comprehensive questionnaire was mailed to 96,000 Swedish women aged 30 to 49 years. Approximately 50,000 completed questionnaires were returned providing detailed information on a wide range of lifestyle factors with a focus on oral contraceptive use, diet, UV light exposure, reproductive factors, and familial occurrence of cancer.

374

How men can excel as mentors of women.  

PubMed

Most male professionals have more experience mentoring men than they do mentoring women, and their male mentees progress further than their female mentees. Yet, in academic medicine, men have few forums in which to discuss the gender-related issues that they encounter. To address the gender-related questions that commonly arise, the author of this commentary offers perspectives and recommendations, consolidated from over 25 years of experience leading career and talent development programs, to assist men in successfully mentoring women. Her recommendations are organized around three questions: (1) How do women's and men's experiences in mentoring relationships tend to differ? (2) What interferes with the accurate evaluation of women's skills? and (3) Is the current generation of female trainees still at a gender-related disadvantage? She argues that men's ability to effectively mentor women depends to a great extent on their understanding of the challenges that women disproportionately face in developing their careers. Mentors who are skilled in adapting to the gender-related needs of mentees will contribute to women's retention and development in academic medicine, enhance the leadership capacity of their organizations and the profession, and extend their own legacies. PMID:24853197

Bickel, Janet

2014-08-01

375

Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya.  

PubMed

Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of young women's resources-including employment and material transfers from male partners-and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that young women's income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease young women's negotiating power. PMID:22180665

Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E; Mberu, Blessing U; Zulu, Eliya M

2011-10-01

376

Exercise has a Disproportionate Role in the Pathogenesis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy in Patients Without Desmosomal Mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise is associated with age?related penetrance and arrhythmic risk in carriers of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C)?associated desmosomal mutations; however, its role in patients without desmosomal mutations (gene?elusive) is uncertain. This study investigates whether exercise is (1) associated with onset of gene?elusive ARVD/C and (2) has a differential impact in desmosomal and gene?elusive patients. Methods and Results Eighty?two ARVD/C patients (39 desmosomal, all probands) were interviewed about regular physical activity from age 10. Participation in endurance athletics, duration (hours/year), and intensity (MET?Hours/year) of exercise prior to clinical presentation were compared between patients with desmosomal and gene?elusive ARVD/C. All gene?elusive patients were endurance athletes. Gene?elusive patients were more likely to be endurance athletes (P<0.001) and had done significantly more intense (MET?Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation (P<0.001), particularly among cases presenting < age 25 (P=0.027). Family history was less prevalent among gene?elusive patients (9% versus 40% desmosomal, P<0.001), suggesting a greater environmental influence. Gene?elusive patients without family history did considerably more intense exercise than other ARVD/C patients (P=0.004). Gene?elusive patients who had done the most intense (top quartile MET?Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation had a younger age of presentation (P=0.025), greater likelihood of meeting ARVD/C structural Task Force Criteria (100% versus 43%, P=0.02), and shorter survival free from a ventricular arrhythmia in follow?up (P=0.002). Conclusions Gene?elusive, non?familial ARVD/C is associated with very high intensity exercise suggesting exercise has a disproportionate role in the pathogenesis of these cases. As exercise negatively modifies cardiac structure and promotes arrhythmias, exercise restriction is warranted. PMID:25516436

Sawant, Abhishek C.; Bhonsale, Aditya; te Riele, Anneline S. J. M.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Russell, Stuart D.; Tandri, Harikrishna; Tedford, Ryan J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A.

2014-01-01

377

Endogenous Distal Airway Progenitor Cells, Lung Mechanics, and Disproportionate Lobar Growth following Long-Term Post-Pneumonectomy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Utilizing a model of post-pneumonectomy (PNY) compensatory lung growth in mice, we previously observed an increase in numbers of a putative endogenous distal airway progenitor cell population (CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells located at bronchoalveolar duct junctions (BADJ)), at 3, 7, and 14 days after pneumonectomy, returning to baseline at 28 days post-PNY. As the origin of these cells is poorly understood, we evaluated whether bone marrow cells contributed to the pool of these or other cells during prolonged post-PNY lung regrowth. Naïve and sex-mismatched chimeric mice underwent left PNY and were evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 months for numbers of BADJ CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells and presence of donor-derived marrow cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelium. Non-chimeric mice were also examined at 12 months after PNY for numbers of BADJ CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells. Notably, the right accessory lobe (RAL) continued to grow disproportionately over 12 months, a novel finding not previously described. Assessment of lung mechanics demonstrated an increase in lung stiffness following PNY, which significantly diminished over one year, but remained elevated relative to 1 year-old naïve controls. However, the number of CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos BADJ cells ?1 month following PNY was equivalent to that found in naïve controls even after 12 months of continued RAL growth. Notably, no donor bone marrow-derived cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelial cells, including those at the BADJ, up to 3 months after PNY. These studies suggest that lung epithelial cells, including CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells, are not replenished from marrow-derived cells during post-PNY lung growth in mice. PMID:23533195

Eisenhauer, Philip; Earle, Benjamin; Loi, Roberto; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Goodwin, Meagan; Allen, Gilman B.; Lundblad, Lennart; Mazan, Melissa R.; Hoffman, Andrew M.; Weiss, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

378

Creative productivity in women analysts.  

PubMed

A pilot study of female analyst creative productivity finds that women authors are well represented in numbers in two leading analytic journals, The Journal of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, for 1980-81. However, women analyst members of the journals' parent organizations are very poorly represented compared with male analyst members. This has led to an exploration of factors affecting female analyst productivity, encompassing a broad sweep from the sociological to the personal, dynamic level. Differential opportunities for women analysts may be inherent in the educational processes. There is evidence for an "accumulation of disadvantage" for women in the field of psychiatry, as well as the impression of gender bias and feelings of stigmatization in psychoanalysis. The question of whether academic research career paths for women are adequately encouraged is raised. Mentorship patterns are also discussed. Whether gender bias affects journal publications and the nature of psychoanalytic thinking is questioned. Women's lessened productivity is sometimes ascribed to practical aspects of feminine role. This myth is debunked for women in science, where married women with children are equally productive. The author suggests that women analysts, however, may be a select group and may be more subject to role conformity pressures. Feminine role conflicts and their effects are discussed. Dynamic issues related to creative productivity are explored in two major areas. The author suggests that female preoedipal object relations may play a part in females devaluing of their own creative efforts in a competitive arena. The oedipal situation is also discussed, especially with regard to very high-achieving women. It is suggested that though competition with the maternal-nurturant rival may be worked through, often there is incomplete resolution of the surpassing and separation from the protective, loving, but dominant oedipal father, thus limiting true professional autonomy. PMID:3988573

Schuker, E

1985-01-01

379

Leibniz's women.  

PubMed

Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten. PMID:15571762

Fara, Patricia

2004-12-01

380

Oxidation and disproportionation of carbon monoxide over Pd-ZrO 2 catalysts prepared from glassy Pd-Zr alloy and by coprecipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palladium\\/zirconia catalysts prepared by oxidation of an amorphous PdZr3 alloy were tested for the oxidation and disproportionation of CO. Their catalytic and structural properties were compared with those of a Pd\\/ZrO2 catalyst of similar composition, prepared by conventional coprecipitation. For the preparation of Pd\\/ZrO2, the glassy PdZr3 alloy was either oxidized in situ, i.e. under CO oxidation conditions or oxidation

S. Gredig; S. Tagliaferri; M. Maciejewski; A. Baiker

1995-01-01

381

Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.  

PubMed

Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. PMID:22055674

Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook

2011-11-01

382

Factors associated with participation in cancer prevention and control studies among rural Appalachian women  

PubMed Central

Rural Appalachian women bear a disproportionate burden from many types of cancer yet often are underrepresented in cancer research. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate barriers faced and strategies used when recruiting hard-to-reach rural participants. Recruitment barriers include the population’s competing demands and lack of trust of outsiders. Strategies employed include involving insider advocates, highlighting the positive experiences of early participants, spending extensive time in the community, and emphasizing potential community benefits of the study. We suggest recruitment strategies to better involve rural women and others who, by virtue of being “hard-to reach,” often are overlooked. PMID:21378508

Leach, Corinne R.; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Hatcher, Jennifer

2011-01-01

383

The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women’s Lives  

PubMed Central

Objective: Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social – cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women’s lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women’s lives. Methods: For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. Results: The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Conclusion: Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of ‘being women’, along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to women’s mental health would be beneficial. PMID:23730649

Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

2013-01-01

384

Genital prolapse in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:21726473

2009-01-01

385

Genital prolapse in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:22414610

2012-01-01

386

A community approach to addressing excess breast and cervical cancer mortality among women of African descent in Boston.  

PubMed Central

In 2000, the REACH Boston 2010 Breast and Cervical Cancer Coalition conducted a community needs assessment and found several factors that may have contributed to disproportionately high breast and cervical cancer mortality among black women: (a) Focus group participants reported that many women in their communities had limited awareness about risk factors for cancer as well as about screening. (b) Black women experienced barriers to care related to the cultural competence of providers and of institutions. (c) Black women were not receiving adequate follow-up for abnormal mammograms and Pap smears. The Coalition's Community Action Plan to address disparities includes a model primary care service for black women; scholarships to increase the number of black mammogram technologists; primary care provider and radiology technologist training about disparities and cultural competence; and education to increase awareness among black women and to increase leadership and advocacy skills. PMID:12815081

Bigby, JudyAnn; Ko, Linda K.; Johnson, Natacha; David, Michele M. A.; Ferrer, Barbara

2003-01-01

387

Women's Rights Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

388

Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Affect Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Does PCOS affect pregnancy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Women with PCOS are at higher risk for certain problems or ...

389

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

390

Community Health Worker Intervention to Decrease Cervical Cancer Disparities in Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION U.S. Hispanic women suffer a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with incidence and mortality rates almost twice that of whites. Community health workers, or promotoras, are considered a potential strategy for eliminating such racial and ethnic health disparities. The current study is a randomized trial of a promotora-led educational intervention focused on cervical cancer in a local Hispanic community. METHODS Four promotoras led a series of two workshops with community members covering content related to cervical cancer. Sociodemographic characteristics, cervical cancer risk, previous screening history, cervical cancer knowledge, and self-efficacy were measured by a pre-intervention questionnaire. The post-intervention questionnaire measured the following outcomes: cervical cancer knowledge (on a 0–6 scale), self-efficacy (on a 0–5 scale), and receipt of Pap smear screening during the previous 6 months (dichotomous). Univariate analyses were performed using chi square, t-test, and the Mann–Whitney test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between explanatory variables and receipt of Pap smear screening. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups at baseline. Follow-up data revealed significant improvements in all outcome measures: Pap smear screening (65% vs. 36%, p-value 0.02), cervical cancer knowledge (5.4 vs. 3.5, p-value?disproportionately affect them. Future research should evaluate such programs on a larger scale, and identify novel targets for intervention. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1434-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20607434

Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bixby, Rebecca; Pimentel, Susana; Shea, Judy A.

2010-01-01

391

Radical Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the University of Florida Digital Collections program, the Radical Women exhibition "documents the valiant history of women in the Gainesville Women's Liberation Movement." The collection consists of photos, oral histories, self-published newsprints, newsletters, brochures, notes from feminist organizations, and other original documents. Visitors can perform an advanced search across all the items, search via text passages, and also just browse the All Items section. The documents here include scholarly appraisals of the feminist movement in Gainesville during the 1970s, newspaper clippings that provide historical perspective on the subject, and opinion pieces published during this period on a range of subjects related to the struggle for equal rights.

2012-07-13

392

Food insecurity: special considerations for women.  

PubMed

Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is the converse state, is often associated with poverty and low income, and has important implications for the health and nutrition of individuals. Given their contribution to food production and preparation, their role in society as child bearers and caregivers, the increasing number of female-headed households worldwide, and their disproportionately poor economic status, women need special consideration in discussions of food insecurity and its effect on health, nutrition, and behavior. This article reviews the scientific literature on issues related to women and food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with obesity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms; risky sexual behavior; poor coping strategies; and negative pregnancy outcomes in women, although evidence about the direction and causality of associations is unclear. There is a lack of evidence and understanding of the effects of food insecurity in resource-poor settings, including its effect on weight, nutritional outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes, as well as its effect on progression of diseases such as HIV infection. More research is needed to guide efficient interventions that address food insecurity among women. However, practical experience suggests that both short-term assistance and longer-term strategies that improve livelihoods, address behavioral and coping strategies, acknowledge the mental health components of food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that women have the same economic opportunities, access to land, and economic power as men are important. PMID:22089447

Ivers, Louise C; Cullen, Kimberly A

2011-12-01

393

Advancing the Careers of Women with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to assess whether differences exist in the barriers reported by, and in the person- and situation-centred factors related to the managerial advancement of, women with and without children. The study also seeks to examine whether having children influences womens advancement, by affecting person-situation factors such as…

Metz, Isabel

2005-01-01

394

Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

Merrill, Martha C.

1990-01-01

395

Androgen Replacement in Women: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence to suggest that many postmenopausal women experience symptoms alleviated by androgen therapy and that such symptoms may be secondary to androgen deficiency. Affected women complain of fatigue, low libido, and diminished well-being, symptoms easily and frequently attributed to psychosocial and environmental factors. When such symptoms occur in the setting of low circulating bioavailable testosterone, testosterone replacement

Susan Davis

1999-01-01

396

Dimensions of Women's Health across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This teaching strategy provides students with an opportunity to promote women's health literacy via construction of a creative health information booklet. Students will be able to: (1) Identify health issues that affect women during one particular lifespan stage; (2) Categorize issues according to the seven dimensions of health; (3)…

Vamos, Cheryl A.; Vamos, Sandra D.

2008-01-01

397

Workplace/Women's Place: An Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Paula England); "Introduction to the Study of Women and Work" (Dana Dunn); "Gender Culture and Socialization" (Rita Mae Kelly); "Parental Influence and Women's Careers" (Sue Joan Mendelson Freeman); "Shortchanging Girls: Gender Socialization in Schools" (Peggy Orenstein); "Factors Affecting Female…

Dunn, Dana

398

Learning and Violence: Women Speak Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of a bilingual periodical dedicated to the investigation of women's access to education and to feminist analysis of education and learning presents a variety of stories written by women who have experienced abuse that affected their education. The issue opens with an editorial, presented in full in both French and English, by…

Starr, Christina, Ed.; And Others

1992-01-01

399

International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

400

Sex differences in the neural correlates of affective experience  

E-print Network

the opposite pattern of results (Greenwald et al., 1989). Sometimes women smile more than men (LaFrance et al hypothesis that men and women differ in the neural correlates of affective experience, rather than in the intensity of neural activity, with women being more internally (interoceptively) focused and men being more

Dickerson, Brad

401

Women's Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Women's Workshop Notebook is the tool used in the nine-week course designed for the mature woman returning to school at Antelope Valley College. The notebook exercises along with the group interaction and instruction stress the importance of personal assessment of strengths, weaknesses, dreams, deliberations and life history in…

Karelius, Karen

402

Women's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

1986-01-01

403

[Stress incontinence in elderly women].  

PubMed

Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women. PMID:23680859

Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

2013-06-01

404

Women's Health USA 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... Services Utilization HRSA Programs Related to Women's Health Women's Health USA 2013 Home This Web site has been ... women, their families, and their communities. Data in Women's Health USA: Reflects the everchanging, increasingly diverse population and ...

405

Minority Women's Health: Latinas  

MedlinePLUS

... address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Latinas Minority Women's Health Latinas Health conditions common in Latinas Latinos are ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...

406

Social change and women's health.  

PubMed

Over the past five decades, the organization of women's lives has changed dramatically. Throughout the industrialized world, paid work and family biographies have been altered as the once-dominant role of homemaker has given way to the role of secondary, dual, or even primary wage-earner. The attendant changes represent a mix of gains and losses for women, in which not all women have benefited (or suffered) equally. But little is known about the health consequences. This article addresses that gap. It develops a "situated biographies" model to conceptualize how life course change may influence women's health. The model stresses the role of time, both as individual aging and as the anchoring of lives in particular historical periods. "Situating" biographies in this way highlights two key features of social change in women's lives: the ambiguous implications for the health of women as a group, and the probable connections to growing social and economic disparities in health among them. This approach lays the groundwork for more integrated and productive population-based research about how historical transformations may affect women's health. PMID:24066418

McDonough, Peggy; Worts, Diana; McMunn, Anne; Sacker, Amanda

2013-01-01

407

"My legs affect me a lot. … I can no longer walk to the forest to fetch firewood": challenges related to health and the performance of daily tasks for older women in a high HIV context.  

PubMed

Compromised health negatively impacts older persons' ability to participate in expected social roles. Researchers have published little empirical work, however, to explore these issues in HIV endemic African settings. Qualitative interviews with 30 women, aged 60-plus, in rural South Africa, provide insight into the relationship between health and daily activities, with attention to the fulfillment of social roles. In this poor HIV endemic context, older women make connections between their compromised health and their (lack of) capacity to perform the daily tasks that they view as expected of them. By expanding the conceptualization of health to include the capacity to achieve the expectations and perform the tasks expected of one, we better understand how and why health and performance of daily activities are so intricately linked in the minds of respondents. This also provides a starting point for thinking about the social and structural support needed by older persons in these settings, especially as HIV erodes familial supports. PMID:24628607

Schatz, Enid; Gilbert, Leah

2014-01-01

408

Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.  

PubMed

Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080

Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

2010-09-01

409

Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.  

PubMed

In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

2014-01-01

410

Testosterone, SHBG and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects men and women differently with women having a lower incidence and later onset of disease. Research has recently refocused interest on the cardiovascular role of androgens. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence available on the association between testosterone and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. Published studies relating testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin

J S Brand; Y T van der Schouw; YT van der Schouw

2010-01-01

411

Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

412

Job Options for Women in the 80's. Pamphlet 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide guidance to women who are making decisions about their lives and work and to help them take advantage of the opportunities that are now open to them. Part I gives an overview of the status of women in the work force and some of the factors that affect women's employment. Alternative work patterns are a special…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

413

Highlights in the History of the Education of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of the education of women from prehistory through the 1960s reveals constant themes. In every period, obstacles reflecting the prevalent social attitudes were placed in the paths of women seeking education. Economic conditions directly affected the status and scope of women's education, although certain disciplines such as religion and…

Zuelow, Margo J.

414

"Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.  

PubMed

Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

2015-05-01

415

The evaluation of women with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia affects approximately 1 percent of the population worldwide. Its manifestation and response to treatment are often different in women and men and sex hormones, such as estrogen, may help to explain some of these phenomenological and clinical differences. This article reviews important sex differences in symptom expression and treatment response of schizophrenia and focuses on gender-specific factors, such as motherhood, that require specific methods of assessment in women with the disorder. The evaluation of suicide risk, substance abuse, and medical comorbidity in women with schizophrenia is also addressed. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation needs of women receiving antipsychotics, some of which elevate serum prolactin levels. PMID:9803753

Canuso, C M; Goldstein, J M; Green, A I

1998-01-01

416

Annual Women's Health Forum Global Women's Health  

E-print Network

5th Annual Women's Health Forum Global Women's Health Hosted by The Stanford WSDM* Center May 21;3 Welcome to the 5th Annual Women's Health Forum - hosted by the Stanford WSDM Center, also known acknowledges the wisdom of conducting research and expanding knowledge about women's health and sex differences

Kay, Mark A.

417

WOMEN-S HEALTH USA 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

Women's Health USA 2002, the first annual report on the health status of America's women is presented by the HRSA's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and the Office of Women's Health. This first edition of the Women's Health USA data book brings together key facts and figur...

418

Positive affect and distressed affect over the day in older people.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of affect over the day in a representative sample of older people, with particular emphasis on the impact of loneliness and depression. Momentary assessments of positive and distressed affect were obtained four times over a single day from 4,258 men and women aged 52-79 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Positive and distressed affect were only modestly correlated (r = -0.23). Positive affect was low on waking and peaked in the early evening, while distressed affect decreased progressively over the day. The diurnal variation in positive affect was greater in participants <65 years compared with older individuals. Positive affect was greater in men, married participants and in healthy individuals, while distressed affect was higher among women, unmarried and lower socioeconomic status respondents, and in those with limiting longstanding illnesses. Depressed individuals experienced lower positive affect throughout the day, while differences in distressed affect were more pronounced in the morning. Loneliness was associated with lower positive affect and greater distressed affect independently of age, sex, marital status, paid employment, socioeconomic status, health, and depression. This study demonstrates that ecological momentary assessment of affect is feasible on a large scale in older individuals, and generates information about positive affect and distress that is complementary to standard questionnaire measures. The associations with loneliness highlight the everyday distress and reduced happiness and excitement experienced by lonely older men and women, and these may contribute to enhanced risks to physical and mental health. PMID:21517182

Steptoe, Andrew; Leigh, Elizabeth S; Kumari, Meena

2011-12-01

419

Cardiac Risk Underestimation in Urban, Black Women  

PubMed Central

Background Black women have a disproportionately higher incidence of cardiovascular disease mortality than other groups and the reason for this health disparity is incompletely understood. Underestimation of personal cardiac risk may play a role. Objective We investigated the personal characteristics associated with underestimating cardiovascular disease in black women. Design, Setting, Participants Trained surveyors interviewed 128 black women during the baseline evaluation for a randomized controlled trial in an urban, academic continuity clinic affiliated with a public hospital system. They provided information on the presence of cardiac risk factors and demographic and psychosocial characteristics. These self-report data were supplemented with medical record abstraction for weight. Measurements and Main Results The main outcome measure was the accurate perception of cardiac risk. Objective risk was determined by a simple count of major cardiac risk factors and perceived risk by respondent's answer to a survey question about personal cardiac risk. The burden of cardiac risk factors was high in this population: 77% were obese; 72% had hypertension; 48% had high cholesterol; 49% had a family history of heart disease; 31% had diabetes, and 22% currently used tobacco. Seventy-nine percent had 3 or more cardiac risk factors. Among those with 3 or more risk factors (“high risk”), 63% did not perceive themselves to be at risk for heart disease. Among all patients, objective and perceived cardiac risk was poorly correlated (?=0.026). In a multivariable model, increased perceived personal stress and lower income were significant correlates of underestimating cardiac risk. Conclusions Urban, disadvantaged black women in this study had many cardiac risk factors, yet routinely underestimated their risk of heart disease. We found that the strongest correlates of underestimation were perceived stress and lower personal income. PMID:16423102

DeSalvo, Karen B; Gregg, Jessica; Kleinpeter, Myra; Pedersen, Bonnie R; Stepter, Alayna; Peabody, John

2005-01-01

420

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

421

The bad taste of social ostracism: The effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.  

PubMed

African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

2015-05-01

422

Women’s well-being and reproductive health in Indian mining community: need for empowerment  

PubMed Central

This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women’s reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women’s well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community. PMID:23602071

2013-01-01

423

Gender attitudes, feminist identity, and body images among college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural forces influence body-image development in gender-contingent ways, such that women in our society possess more dysfunctional\\u000a body-image attitudes than men do. However, few studies have examined how women’s body-image experiences relate to their own\\u000a gender attitudes and ideologies. This investigation of 122 college women assessed multiple parameters of body image (i.e.,\\u000a evaluation, investment, and affect) and different facets of

Thomas F. Cash; Julie R. Ancis; Melissa D. Strachan

1997-01-01

424

Thin or overweight women's fat talk: which is worse for other women's body satisfaction?  

PubMed

Fat talk is not merely correlated with, but appears to be one of the causes of body dissatisfaction in other women. Moderators of fat talk's deleterious effects, however, have not yet been identified. This experiment tested whether the body type of the fat-talker affects listeners' body satisfaction. Women viewed photos of either noticeably thin or overweight women making either fat talk or positive body statements. Fat talk by thin and overweight women both had a negative impact on women's body satisfaction, but dissatisfaction was highest after exposure to photos of thin women making fat talk statements. Statistically indistinguishable from this latter effect, however, was the negative effect of thin women making positive body statements. Results are considered within a social comparison framework. Theoretical implications for the thin-ideal and fat talk literatures are presented, as are clinical implications for work with clients. PMID:24320716

Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Pick, Cari M

2014-01-01

425

Reality television and its impact on women's body image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that both print media and television may affect the body image of young women. Tiggerman and Pickering (1996) found that it was not just the amount of television viewed, but the viewing of appearance focused shows that affected body image. Schooler, Ward, Merriwether and Caruthers (2004) came to the conclusion that women's viewing of shows with

Ayarza Manwaring

2011-01-01

426

Effect of Training on Attitudes toward Women Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in 1986 to determine the factors that affect attitudes toward women in management in the Minnesota Extension Service. An instrument developed by Ezell and Odewahn (1980) and adapted for use in the Extension Service by Lyday (1985) was used to determine what factors affect attitudes toward women managers. A number of…

Goering, Lois A.

427

Women's Health Insurance Coverage  

MedlinePLUS

Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Dec 10, 2014 Health insurance coverage is a critical factor in making health care affordable and ... on women’s coverage in future years. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance Approximately 55 million women ...

428

Advertising to Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the enormous power that women wield in the marketplace, the role of women in advertisements is not commensurate with women as a powerful group. Studies demonstrate a gender bias in advertising, such that, despite their buying power, women are portrayed in stereotypical roles. This manuscript discusses ways that women are depicted in magazine advertisements and the effect

Jane C. Levy

2008-01-01

429

Yoga experience as a predictor of psychological wellness in women over 45 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Although high levels of subjective well-being (SWB) are common in old age, a subset of older individuals is disproportionately vulnerable to negative affect. Yoga has been shown to have many short-term benefits, but researchers have not determined whether a long-term or frequent yoga practice increasingly protects older women from low levels of psychological well-being. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which psychological attitudes, transcendence, mental mastery, and subjective vitality in a sample of female yoga practitioners over 45 years varied according to the length and frequency of yoga practice. Materials and Methods: We administered online surveys to a non-probability sample of 211 female yoga practitioners 45 to 80. We used weighted least squares regression analyses to evaluate the relationship of extent of yoga experience to the outcome variables after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. Results: Participants had practiced yoga for as long as 50 years and for up to 28 h per week. There were significant positive relationships between yoga experience and all outcome variables. These significant relationships remained after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. When we computed yoga experience in terms of total calendar years, without accounting for hours of practice, significant relationships did not remain. Transcendence of the ordinary was the most strongly associated with current yoga practice frequency, and positive psychological attitudes were the most strongly associated with total lifetime hours of practice. Conclusions: Among a non-probability sample of female yoga practitioners between 45 and 80 years, increased yoga experience predicted increased levels of psychological well-being. Results showed a dose-response effect, with yoga experience exercising an increasingly protective effect against low levels of SWB and vitality. PMID:23440029

Moliver, N; Mika, EM; Chartrand, MS; Haussmann, RE; Khalsa, SBS

2013-01-01

430

Making rights a reality The human rights approach to stopping violence against women \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some of the historic and contemporary debates surrounding women's human rights. Women's rights activists have effectively challenged and expanded traditional interpretations of human rights, which has affected the development of Amnesty International's own approach to the human rights of women. The development of this approach from its beginnings to the recently- launched Stop Violence Against Women campaign

LARA FERGUS

431

Women and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Historical and Personal Psychosocial Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents brief historical look at women, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Describes women as invisible participants in AIDS epidemic and notes how societal sexism, racism, and classism have affected public perception of HIV infection and AIDS in women. Also considers the role of women as…

Wiener, Lori S.

1991-01-01

432

Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are paid significantly less than men are in nearly every occupation. Because pay equity affects women and their families in all walks of life, it is not surprising that many women consider the issue important. For more than 130 years, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has advocated for gender equity in education and the…

Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine

2012-01-01

433

Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

2011-01-01

434

Invisible Barriers: The Career Progress of Women Secondary School Principals in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the career progress of female principals in Greek secondary schools and the under-representation of women in management positions. Drawing on in-depth interviews with six women principals in Athens, the paper considers the factors affecting women's participation in school management. The findings demonstrate that women are…

Kaparou, Maria; Bush, Tony

2007-01-01

435

Conflict and the women of Chad.  

PubMed

Chad was used as an example of how women and children were the most affected during national and international conflicts. The conditions of women before and during the conflict were described. Chad has been a country involved in a war provoked by psychological differences between the way of life, economic activity, and culture of Arab Muslims who are nomadic pastoralists, and Animist and Christian farmers. The important year was 1979, when the country was torn apart by civil war. Women before the conflict were part of a patriarchal society of men heading households and sole producers for the family. One decision maker controlled family matters: the man. Men also possessed all household goods. Women were biological and social producers, and value was placed on having large numbers of children. Muslim women lived in seclusion. Married women, who engaged in commercial activity, were mocked and exposed their husbands to the humiliation of not being able to provide sufficiently for the family. Between 1979 and 1982, many men were exiled to other countries nearby, which sometimes meant the abandonment of women and children. The remaining men were limited in their ability to earn money, and reverted to fishing, farming, and hunting. Gender relations changed. Survival strategies were developed, such as women working as domestics or selling products. Petty trading and agricultural and market gardening enterprises were flourishing. Women learned skills in dressmaking, embroidery, or knitting. Sometimes long distances were traveled in order to secure income. Women set up their own banking system with a system of "tontines" or savings cooperatives. The war's impact was to disrupt social and private life, which allowed women to enter the public domain and contribute to economic security. The downside of the conflict was the toll in human life and poverty for vast numbers of women and children. The physical, financial, and psychological exhaustion helped to create an awareness of women's essential role in the survival of their families and communities. PMID:12345211

Sy, A D

1993-06-01

436

Affective disorder and hyperandrogenism.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old female patient with bipolar disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder did not present any physical evidence of virilization, treated with quetiapine and lithium carbonate. Laboratory testing showed evidence of hyperandrogenism (Testosterone levels 88.5ng/dL). After control, testosterone levels were normal (free testosterone 0.20 pg/ml, total testosterone 27.90ng/dl), as free thyroxine levels decreased (T4 0.83ng/dl) and increased progesterone levels (progesterone 3.80ng/ml). We consider an association between increased androgenic hormone levels in women, quetiapine and lithium carbonate treatment as well as the presence of an affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this review. PMID:23198704

Zerouni, Celen; Kummerow, Elaine; Martinez, Mariflor; Diaz, Ana; Ezequiel, Uribe; Wix-Ramos, Richard

2013-01-01

437

Women and health technologies   

E-print Network

As women approach midlife they become potential candidates for a range of health technologies. The study examined areas such as women's own assessments of the risks and benefits involved; the medical and informal knowledge women draw upon; and how...

Backett-Milburn, Kathryn

438

Cancer and Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Among Women Cancer Among Children Racial or Ethnic Variations Trends by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Incidence Trends ... Trends Among Women Mortality Trends Among Women Geographic Variations By Cancer Type Other Data Sources Research Citation ...

439

Shanghai Women's Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Women's Health Study, a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 women, which aims to evaluate the causes of cancer among Chinese women.

440

Women's Earnings: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

Bowler, Mary

1999-01-01

441

Intimate partner violence against African American women: An examination of the socio-cultural context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern that affects an alarmingly high percentage of women. There is evidence to suggest that African American women are impacted by IPV at higher rates than are Caucasian women, yet little of the IPV literature addresses the cultural and structural factors that differentially affect African American and Caucasian couples. The present

Casey T. Taft; Thema Bryant-Davis; Halley E. Woodward; Shaquita Tillman; Sandra E. Torres

2009-01-01

442

Startle modulation by affective faces  

PubMed Central

Startle reflex modulation by affective pictures is a well-established effect in human emotion research. However, much less is known about startle modulation by affective faces, despite the growing evidence that facial expressions robustly activate emotion-related brain circuits. In this study, acoustic startle probes were administered to 33 young adult participants (16 women) during the viewing of slides from the Pictures of Facial Affect set including neutral, happy, angry, and fearful faces. The effect of expression valence (happy, neutral, negative) on startle magnitude was highly significant (p<.001). Startle reflex was strongly potentiated by negative expressions (fearful and angry), however, no attenuation by happy faces was observed. A significant valence by gender interaction suggests stronger startle potentiation effects in females. These results demonstrate that affective facial expressions can produce significant modulation of the startle reflex. PMID:19833169

Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon

2009-01-01

443