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The food, fuel, and financial crises affect the urban and rural poor disproportionately: a review of the evidence.  


The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with the rural poor to these types of shocks. It reviews some of the unique characteristics of urban life that could make the urban poor particularly susceptible to price and financial shocks and summarizes the evidence regarding the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban poor. The focus is on impacts on poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition. The review shows that although the urban poor are clearly one of the population groups most affected by the current (and previous) crises, the rural poor, landless, and net buyers are in no better position to confront the crisis without significant suffering. The poorest of the poor are the ones who will be most affected, irrespective of the continent, country, or urban or rural area where they live. The magnitude and severity of their suffering depends on their ability to adapt and on the specific nature, extent, and duration of the coping strategies they adopt. A better understanding of how these coping strategies are used and staggered is critical to help design triggers for action that can prevent households from moving to more desperate measures. Using these early coping strategies as early warning indicators could help prevent dramatic losses in welfare. PMID:19939990

Ruel, Marie T; Garrett, James L; Hawkes, Corinna; Cohen, Marc J



What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?  


... Resources and Publications What health issues or conditions affect women differently than men? Skip sharing on social ... that are common to both men and women affect women differently. Although the symptoms may be similar, ...


Women's health.  


Although women live longer than men, new evidence indicates women bear a disproportionately heavy burden of disease. The effect of disease on economic productivity of women in developing countries has been largely ignored. Infections are often causes of disease in women, including those that affect reproductive health. Although men and women usually experience similar rates of many diseases, rates of exposure and treatment vary between men and women. If untreated, factors adversely affecting women's health in one stage compound women's ill health in succeeding stages. PMID:7673671

Curlin, P; Tinker, A



Global Factors Affecting Women's Participation in Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a multi-level, cross-cultural study of women in leadership conducted with both macro-society data and individual-level data aggregated to the country level. The research questions are, “What macro and micro forces are hindering or advancing women into business or political leadership?” “How do these forces impact the level of women’s involvement in business and political leadership in a

Amanda M Bullough



Global factors affecting women's participation in leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a multi-level, cross-cultural study of women in leadership conducted with both macro-society data and individual-level data aggregated to the country level. The research questions are, “What macro and micro forces are hindering or advancing women into business or political leadership?” “How do these forces impact the level of women's involvement in business and political leadership in a

Amanda M Bullough



Charge disproportionation, everywhere!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charge disproportionation (CD) recently observed in many organic conductors is reviewed. CD is closely related to the charge ordering (CO) but is observed even when no long range CO is established. In a theta -phase BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF){2}RbZn(SCN){4}, an extremely slow dynamics of CD has been observed above T_MI. A similar phenomenon is also observed in the Cs-analog, (BEDT-TTF){2}CsZn(SCN){4}. However,

T. Takahashi; K. Hiraki; S. Moroto; N. Tajima; Y. Takano; Y. Kubo; H. Satsukawa; R. Chiba; H. M. Yamamoto; R. Kato; T. Naito



Does trade affect women and men differently?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary—This note reviews recent evidence on the gender effects of trade, identifies research gaps and suggests lessons for policy. Trade policies, like any other economic policy, are likely to have gender differentiated effects because of women's and men's different access to, and control over, resources, and because of their different roles in both the market economy and the household. It

Marzia Fontana


Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37%). Speaking was equally prevalent among the 3 groups (12%-19%). Behaviors were associated with nightmares, dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, and altered hormone levels. Citation: Nielsen T; Paquette T. Dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum women. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1162-1169. PMID:17910388

Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna



Charge disproportionation, everywhere!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge disproportionation (CD) recently observed in many organic conductors is reviewed. CD is closely related to the charge ordering (CO) but is observed even when no long range CO is established. In a ? -phase BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF){2}RbZn(SCN){4}, an extremely slow dynamics of CD has been observed above T_MI. A similar phenomenon is also observed in the Cs-analog, (BEDT-TTF){2}CsZn(SCN){4}. However, a spin-singlet ground state without CD is suggested in this salt at low temperatures. It is shown that ? -(BETS){2}I{3} exhibits CD at low temperatures, as in ? -(BET-TTF){2}I{3}. Recently, an abnormal line broadening has been observed in 13C-NMR of (TMTSF){2}FSO{3} under pressure as well as in 77Se-NMR of ?-(BETS){2}FeCl{4} in a high field. We expect that both are very likely caused by a large CD among the organic molecular sites. The current investigation is a part of a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas of Molecular Conductors (No. 15073221) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and the “Japan-Korea Joint Research Project” from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (03-01-8) and Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (F01-2003-000-20023-0).

Takahashi, T.; Hiraki, K.; Moroto, S.; Tajima, N.; Takano, Y.; Kubo, Y.; Satsukawa, H.; Chiba, R.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Kato, R.; Naito, T.



A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba



Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah



Psychophysiological, Somatic, and Affective Changes Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored menstrual symptoms, somatic focus, negative affect, and psychophysiological responding across the menstrual cycle in women with panic disorder and controls. Women with and without panic disorder completed a psychophysiological task and self-report measures of menstrual symptoms, somatic focus, and negative affect on 4 occasions across 2 menstrual cycles (twice during intermenstrual and premenstrual phases). Women in the

Sandra T. Sigmon; Diana M. Dorhofer; Kelly J. Rohan; Lisa A. Hotovy; Nina E. Boulard; Christine M. Fink



Women and Alcoholism: How a Male-as-Norm Bias Affects Research, Assessment, and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that comprehensive discussion of women's alcoholism must include understanding of how male-as-norm bias has affected alcoholism research, assessment, and treatment. Summarizes how male-as-norm bias has affected research on women's alcoholism and shaped perceptions of women's alcoholic behavior and their responses to treatment. (Author/NB)

Wilke, Dina



Cystic ovaries in women affected with hereditary angioedema.  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome is biochemically characterized by abnormal gonadotropin secretion and polycystic ovaries associated with increase in size and functional activity of stromal tissue; multifollicular ovaries (MFO) are defined by the presence of multiple cysts with no increase in stromal tissue. A central (hypothalamic-pituitary) abnormality, including high plasma beta-endorphin (BE) concentrations without simultaneous elevation of ACTH, was reported for subjects with PCO syndrome. Since we have found the presence of high plasma BE concentrations in hereditary angioedema (HANE) during attacks as well as during symptom-free periods, we studied, by means of pelvic ultrasound scanning employed to determine the prevalence of PCO and of MFO, 13 women of reproductive age affected with HANE who were not on oral contraceptives. We have found PCO in 5/13 (38.4%) and MFO in 7/13 (53.8%) HANE patients. Nine patients had oligomenorrhoea (five with PCO, three with MFO, one with normal ovaries), five (three with PCO, two with MFO) were hirsute and only one (with MFO) had weight loss. No patient was obese. Mean plasma LH, testosterone, prolactin, cortisol and ACTH concentrations were normal, while FSH was significantly reduced and LH/FSH ratio increased. BE concentrations were significantly high in all the patients studied. Our results clearly demonstrate that women with HANE frequently have cystic ovaries (polycystic or multifollicular) in the presence of high BE concentrations. PMID:1333923

Perricone, R; Pasetto, N; De Carolis, C; Vaquero, E; Noccioli, G; Panerai, A E; Fontana, L



Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must

E James Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; GO Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene



ORIGINAL PAPER The Effect of Pre-Existing Affect on the SexualResponses of Women  

E-print Network

stress disorder (PTSD) provides support for an associ- ation between trauma-related cues and negative affective res- ponses. For example, women with PTSD, as compared to womenwithnotraumaorabusehistory


Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explain factors that encouraged and discouraged the participation of Black women in RN completion programs. A qualitative design and a Black feminist theoretical framework guided the study. Ten Black women were interviewed: 7 attended RN completion programs, and 3 were recent graduates. Factors that encouraged the participation of Black women can be grouped

Lolita Chappel Aiken; Ronald M. Cervero; Juanita Johnson-Bailey



Sex affects health: women are different than men  

E-print Network

depression in part because women's brains Smoking has a more negative effect on cardiovascular health in women than men. Women are also less successful quitting smoking and have more severe withdrawal symptoms,270 will be diagnosed w/ melanoma this year; it will cause 8,650 deaths this year Cause ­ UV light induced mutations

Dever, Jennifer A.


Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

Rosser, Sue



Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe



Body temperature and diurnal type in women with seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body temperature rhythms and diurnal type were explored in female controls and women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) before and after phototherapy. Women with SAD reported being more like evening types than did controls. Morning phototherapy advanced the body temperature rhythms of women with SAD, and shifted their morningness\\/eveningness scores toward the morning end of the continuum. The implications of

Shawn K. Elmore; Kitty Dahl; David H. Avery; Margaret V. Savage; George L. Brengelmann



HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen



The Internet's Effect on Women's Coauthoring Rates and Academic Job Market Decisions: The Case of Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The late 1990s saw the introduction and spread of the Internet and email. For social scientists, these technologies lowered communication costs and made inter-department collaboration much easier. Using women in political science as a case study, we show that this change has disproportionately affected women in two ways. First, women have…

Butler, Daniel M.; Butler, Richard J.



Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush



Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.  


Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the duration of Islamic dressing (P < .05, r = -0.334). We concluded that the vitamin D levels of young women are associated with clothing style, and the age at which a female begins wearing Muslim style clothing is related. PMID:25156789

Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez



Programmatic Efforts Affect Retention of Women in Science and Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from a study that investigated the impact of a Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program (WISE-RP) on the retention of women in science and engineering disciplines. Reports that WISE-RP is more effective in retaining white and asian students than underrepresented students of color. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

Hathaway, Russel S.; Sharp, Sally; Davis, Cinda-Sue



Sex affects health: women are different I. Body composition & metabolism  

E-print Network

. Cardiovascular Disease III. Chronic Conditions A. Osteoporosis B. Autoimmune conditions C. Alzheimer's Disease inactivity #12;3 Women & Cardiovascular Disease n Heart disease is the #1 killer of women q Since 1984 States die of heart disease, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases as from all forms of cancer

Dever, Jennifer A.


Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10–12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive

Alex J. Zautra; Lisa M. Johnson; Mary C. Davis



Risk Factors for Alcoholism Among Women Religious: Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for addiction have received extensive empirical attention. Specific risk factors for women Religious (nuns),\\u000a however, are not well known. This report examines risk factors for alcoholism in a retrospective study of 148 chemically dependent\\u000a women Religious in treatment. Negative emotionality, a personality measure, was the only significant predictor of alcoholism\\u000a severity in a joint multiple regression with childhood

Elizabeth M. Hill


Factors Affecting HIV Contraceptive Decision-Making Among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined contraceptive decision-making among African American, Latina, and European American women ages 18–50 years. Logistic regressions examined relationships between demographic and religious factors, unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reasons for sex, and contraceptive decision-making. Women who were older, single, African American, used pregnancy prevention, and had histories of STDs and unintended pregnancies made contraceptive decisions alone. Older and

Gail E. Wyatt; JenniferVargas Carmona; TamraBurns Loeb; Donald Guthrie; Dorothy Chin; Gwen Gordon



Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. (Texas Univ. Medical Branch, Galveston (United States))



Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

Mech, L.D.



Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita



Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.  


There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states. PMID:22844519

Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas



Does experiencing homelessness affect women’s motivation to change alcohol or drug use??  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Homeless women are at high risk of drug and alcohol dependence and may receive less opportunity for treatment. Our objective was to examine the association between experiencing homelessness and motivation to change drug or alcohol use. Methods Women (n=154) participants in a study of substance dependence at an urban medical center (69 with some homeless days in the last 90 days; 85 continuously housed at baseline) completed 6 items rating motivation to change alcohol or drug use (i.e., importance, readiness, and confidence) at baseline and in 3, 6, and 12-month follow up interviews. Unadjusted, and longitudinal analyses controlling for covariates (e.g., demographics, insurance status, substance use consequences, mental health status, and participation in treatment), were conducted. Results There were no significant differences between women experiencing homeless days versus continuously housed women in the odds of reporting high motivation to change alcohol or drug use, either in unadjusted baseline analyses or longitudinal analyses adjusted for covariates. Covariates that were significantly associated with high importance, readiness or confidence to change behavior were higher life time consequences of substance use, and participation in 12-step programs. Discussion and Conclusions The findings suggest that clinicians should not make assumptions that homeless women have low motivation to change their substance use. Scientific Significance and Future Directions The same opportunities for addiction treatment should be offered to homeless as to housed women. PMID:24313245

Upshur, Carole C.; Weinreb, Linda; Cheng, Debbie M.; Kim, Theresa W.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard



Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.



Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Experimentally Adopted Schemas on Sexual Arousal and Affect in Sexually Healthy Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n?=?28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than

Stephanie W. Kuffel; Julia R. Heiman



An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder.  


The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women. PMID:16843228

Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany



Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  


Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen



Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.  


The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other. PMID:24885468

Davis-Delano, Laurel R



The Social Legacy of AIDS: Fertility Aspirations Among HIV-Affected Women in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated the impact of HIV status on fertility desires in Uganda. Methods. We surveyed 1594 women aged 18 to 49 years visiting outpatient services at Mbarara Regional Hospital, from May through August 2010. Of these, 59.7% were HIV-positive; 96.4% of HIV-positive women were using antiretroviral therapy (ART). We used logistic regression models to examine relationships between HIV status and fertility desires, marital status, household structure, educational attainment, and household income. Results. Among married women, HIV-positive status was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of desiring more children (27.7% vs 56.4% of HIV-negative women; ?2?=?39.97; P?women were more likely to be poor, unmarried, single heads of household, in second marriages (if married), living with an HIV-positive spouse, and supporting foster children. Conclusions. We found a strong association between positive HIV status and lower fertility aspirations among married women in Uganda, irrespective of ART status. Although the increasing availability of ART is a tremendous public health achievement, women affected by HIV have numerous continuing social needs. PMID:23237166

Mutumba, Massy; Resnicow, Kenneth; Mugyenyi, Godfrey



Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in women affected by Alzheimer's disease.  


X-chromosome instability has been a long established feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Premature centromere division and aneuploidy of the X-chromosome has been found in peripheral blood lymphocytes and neuronal tissue in female AD patients. Interestingly, only one chromosome of the X pair has been affected. These results raised a question, "Is the X-chromosome inactivation pattern altered in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women affected by AD?" To address this question, we analyzed the methylation status of androgen receptor promoter which may show us any deviation from the 50 : 50% X inactivation status in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women with AD. Our results showed skewed inactivation patterns (>90%). These findings suggest that an epigenetic alteration on the inactivation centers of the X-chromosome (or skewing) relates not only to aging, by might be a novel property that could account for the higher incidence of AD in women. PMID:25159673

Bajic, Vladan; Mandusic, Vesna; Stefanova, Elka; Bozovic, Ana; Davidovic, Radoslav; Zivkovic, Lada; Cabarkapa, Andrea; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana



Biological and Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with STDs\\/HIV in Women: Implications for Behavioral Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are disproportionately affected by the burden and consequences of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).\\u000a Of the estimated 19 million cases of STDs that occur annually in the United States (1), about two-thirds are in women (2).\\u000a Further, both bacterial and viral STDs are associated with negative sequelae in women. Untreated gonococcal and chlamydial\\u000a infections can produce significant and

Donna Hubbard McCree; Anne M. Rompalo


The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke in young women (E. N. Lopez, D. J. Drobes, J. K. Thompson, & T. H. Brandon, 2008). This study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and

Elena N. Lopez Khoury; Erika B. Litvin; Thomas H. Brandon



Winter and summer outdoor light exposure in women with and without seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The annual decrease of daylight duration initiates a depressive phase in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and light therapy treats it. How much bright light exposure in winter and summer these patients actually receive may help understand the pathogenetic factors initiating SAD. Methods: During a week in winter and summer, women with and without SAD kept daily logs

Peter Graw; Sabine Recker; Lothar Sand; Kurt Kräuchi; Anna Wirz-Justice



Contraceptive counselling and factors affecting women's contraceptive choices: results of the CHOICE study in Austria.  


Empirical evidence of the impact of contraceptive counselling and factors affecting women's contraceptive choices are limited. CHOICE (Contraceptive Health Research Of Informed Choice Experience) was a large-scale study in 11 European countries. Women in Austria aged 15-40 years considering a short-acting, reversible form of combined hormonal contraceptive were eligible to participate. The choices included the combined daily pill, weekly transdermal patch, and monthly vaginal ring. This study assessed and compared 2478 women's original preferences with their post-counselling choices and evaluated their perceptions and criteria for their choice. Women who were 'undecided' decreased from 18.1% pre-counselling to 3.2% post-counselling; significantly more women post-counselling chose the monthly ring (8.7% to 23.8%; difference 15.1%, 95% CI 13.3-16.8%; P<0.0001) or the weekly patch (6.2% to 7.8%; difference 1.7%, 95% CI 0.5-2.9%; P=0.0014). Women's primary reasons for choosing a method included 'easy to use' (daily pill, weekly patch and monthly ring) and 'still effective if I experience vomiting, diarrhoea' (weekly patch and monthly ring). Structured and balanced counselling led to changes in the method chosen. PMID:22285247

Egarter, Christian; Grimm, Christoph; Nouri, Kazem; Ahrendt, Hans-Joachim; Bitzer, Johannes; Cermak, Christine



Variation in NGFB is Associated with Primary Affective Disorders in Women  

PubMed Central

Affective disorders (AFDs) are highly comorbid with substance dependence (SD) and both are genetically influenced. However, the specific etiology of the comorbidity is not well understood. We genotyped an array of 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 130 genes in 868 European-Americans (EAs), including 182 individuals with primary AFDs (PAFDs), 214 with SD comorbid with AFD (CAFD), and 472 screened controls. NGFB, which encodes nerve growth factor ? and was represented in the array by 15 SNPs, showed the strongest evidence of association, but only among women with PAFDs. Six of the SNPs showed a nominally significant association with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0007–0.01); three (rs2856813, rs4332358, and rs10776799) were empirically significant based on 1,000,000 permutations (Ps = 0.008–0.015). Seven haplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (Ps = 0.0014–0.01), of which six were significant based on empirical permutation analysis (minimal P = 0.0045). Four diplotypes were significantly associated with PAFDs in women (global Ps = 0.001–0.01). The specific diplotype GG-TC, reconstructed from rs2856813 and rs6678788, showed the strongest evidence of association with PAFDs in women (OR = 4.07, P = 4.2E-05). No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with PAFDs in men or with CAFDs in either sex. We conclude that variation in NGFB is a risk factor for PAFDs in women, but not for CAFD. PMID:21294249

Cui, Donghong; Zhang, Huiping; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Listman, Jennifer B.; Li, Dawei; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Anton, Raymond F.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel



Women's Health  


Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...


Rising closures of hospital trauma centers disproportionately burden vulnerable populations.  


Closures of hospital trauma centers have accelerated since 2001. These closures may disproportionately affect disadvantaged communities. We evaluate how driving time between ZIP code areas and the nearest trauma centers-a proxy for access, given the time-sensitive nature of trauma care-changed nationwide during 2001-07. By 2007, sixty-nine million Americans (24 percent of the population) had to travel farther to the nearest trauma center than they did in 2001, and almost sixteen million people had to travel an additional thirty minutes or more. Communities with disproportionately high numbers of African American residents, uninsured people, and people living in poverty, as well as people living in rural areas, were more likely than others to be thus affected. Because mortality from traumatic injuries has also worsened for these vulnerable populations, policy makers should learn more about the possible connections-and consider such measures as paying trauma centers serving these communities higher amounts for treatment of injuries. PMID:21976335

Hsia, Renee Yuen-Jan; Shen, Yu-Chu



USC study identifies genetic basis for aggressive breast cancer in women of African ancestry:

Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, together with other scientists, have identified the location of a genetic risk factor for a type of breast cancer that disproportionately affects women of African descent and carries a worse prognosis than other forms of the disease.


Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.  


Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses. PMID:19856092

Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen



Reforming the Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Program  

PubMed Central

Since 1991, three Federal laws have sought to reform the Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) program, which is designed to help safety net hospitals. This article provides findings from a 40-State survey about Medicaid DSH and supplemental payment programs in 1997. Results indicate that the overall size of the DSH program did not grow from 1993 to 1997, but the composition of DSH revenues and expenditures changed substantially: A much higher share of the DSH funds were being paid to local hospitals and relatively less was being retained by the States. The study also revealed that large differences in States' use of DSH still persist. PMID:12500325

Coughlin, Teresa A.; Ku, Leighton; Kim, Johnny




Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Sixty women participated in highly structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique. We asked, ''How does being a Black (White) woman affect your weight?'' Body image disparity (BID) was determined with the Stunkard Figure Rating scale by comparing the women's current body image perception to their ideal body image. Results: Food preparation and selection were major factors

Jamy D. Ard; Lori F. Greene; Christie Z. Malpede; Wendy K. Jefferson



Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure



Comparison of HIV-positive women with children and without children accessing HIV care and treatment in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, women comprise half of all people living with HIV, but in sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately affected. Data were obtained from 8419 HIV-infected women at enrollment into 10 HIV treatment programs in Cameroon, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the Central Africa region of the International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS. We used chi-squared

A. Freeman; J. Newman; J. Hemingway-Foday; J. Iriondo-Perez; K. Stolka; W. Akam; A. Balimba; L. Kalenga; M. Mbaya; B. Mfangam Molu; H. Mukumbi; T. Niyongabo; G. Woelk; M. Kiumbu; J. Atibu



Comparison of HIV-positive women with children and without children accessing HIV care and treatment in the IeDEA Central Africa cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, women comprise half of all people living with HIV, but in sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately affected. Data were obtained from 8419 HIV-infected women at enrollment into 10 HIV treatment programs in Cameroon, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the Central Africa region of the International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS. We used chi-squared

A. Freeman; J. Newman; J. Hemingway-Foday; J. Iriondo-Perez; K. Stolka; W. Akam; A. Balimba; L. Kalenga; M. Mbaya; B. Mfangam Molu; H. Mukumbi; T. Niyongabo; G. Woelk; M. Kiumbu; J. Atibu



Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health  

PubMed Central

Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the target group of institutional gender awareness campaigns proves that the gender perspective still lacks the promotion of shared responsibilities between men and women. There is a need for institutions that act as ‘policy watchdogs’ to control the gender biases in mass media and pharmaceutical marketing as well as to ensure the proper implementation and maintenance of Spanish equality laws. PMID:23806207

Cambronero-Saiz, Belén



Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.



Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.  


Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B



She Left, He Left: How Employment and Satisfaction Affect Men’s and Women’s Decisions to Leave Marriages  

PubMed Central

Most past studies examining determinants of divorce have ignored differences between the factors that elevate wives’ and husbands’ initiation of divorce. We use three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. We assess who left using each ex-spouse’s answer to a question that asked who had wanted the breakup more. We find that when men are not employed, either husbands or wives are more likely to leave. When wives report better than average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither their nor their husbands’ exits. However, when wives report below average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely that they will leave. We compare findings to predictions from two theories: an institutional perspective that sees divorce to result from a violation of gender-specific norms, and exchange/bargaining theory, which posits that resources allow a spouse to leave if exchange and bargaining fail to provide a satisfactory marriage. To amend the theories to better fit the data, we foreground the asymmetric nature of gender change in recent decades, with women changing more than men. PMID:21932472

Sayer, Liana C.; England, Paula; Allison, Paul; Kangas, Nicole



Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane



HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.



Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflicting results regarding pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a national study of 171 lesbians and 124 heterosexual women undergoing sperm donation both as D-IUI (lesbian n = 438, heterosexual n = 298) and as embryo transfers (ET) after IVF with donated sperm (lesbians n = 225, heterosexuals n = 230) during 2005–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All clinics in Sweden offering sperm donation recruited patients. Differences in patients' medical history, treatment results and number of treatments to live birth were analyzed using independent samples t-test, Pearson's ?2 test or Fisher's exact probability test. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE 71.8% of heterosexuals and 69.0% of lesbians had a child after treatment. The mean number of treatments was 4.2 for heterosexual women and 3.9 for lesbians. The total live birth rate, regardless of treatment type, was 19.7% for heterosexuals and 19.5% for lesbians. For D-IUI, the live birth rate was 12.8% for heterosexuals and 16.0% for lesbians and the live birth rate for all IVF embryo transfers (fresh and thawed cycles) was 28.7% for heterosexuals and 26.2% for lesbians. There were no differences in live birth rate between the groups for each of the different types of insemination stimulations (natural cycle; clomiphene citrate; FSH; clomiphene citrate and FSH combined). Nor was there a difference in live birth rate between the groups for either fresh or thawed embryo transfer. There was no difference between the proportions of women in either group or the number of treatments needed to achieve a live birth. Heterosexuals had a higher prevalence of smokers (9.2%), uterine polyps (7.2%) or previous children (11.3%) than lesbians (smokers 2.8%, P = 0.03; polyps 1.8%, P = 0.03; child 2.5%, P = 0.003). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study is limited to women living in stable relationships undergoing treatment with donated sperm in a clinical setting and may not apply to single women or those undergoing home inseminations. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These results may influence healthcare policy decisions as well as increase the quality of clinical care and medical knowledge of healthcare professionals. The data also have important implications for individuals regarding screening, infertility diagnostic procedures and treatment types offered to heterosexuals and lesbians seeking pregnancy through sperm donation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Funding was granted by the Stiftelsen Familjeplaneringsfonden i Uppsala; the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare; and the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation. The authors report no conflicts of interest. PMID:24435777

Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjö, G.; Lampic, C.; Åkerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.



African American women’s perspectives on “Down Low/DL” men: Implications for HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Some research has explored if non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) contribute to women’s HIV risk. Popular media discourse tends to refer to these men as “Down Low” or “DL”. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D.C. to examine their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours regarding “Down Low/DL” men. Three of the focus groups were composed of HIV positive women and three groups were composed of HIV negative women. Data analysis reveals six central subcategories related to women’s perspectives on the “DL”: awareness; suspicion; coping with partner infidelity: male vs. female; sexual health communication; empathy; and religion. No major differences were identified between the HIV positive and HIV negative focus groups. Findings from this study provide insight into African American women’s perceptions of African American male sexuality and how these perceptions serve to influence interpersonal relationship factors and women’s exposure to HIV risk. PMID:22804686

Goparaju, Lakshmi; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari



Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD. Patients and methods 61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery. Results Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD. Interpretation Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women. PMID:22489886



Environmental and Occupational Exposures: Do They Affect Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Differently in Women and Men?  

Microsoft Academic Search

chronicobstructivepulmonarydiseasemortalityinrelationtotraffic among elderly women compared with men, the other finding no gender difference). Two other environmental studies suggested small gender differences with slightly greater effect of biomass or traffic-related pollution among women. Four of five occupational studiesalsofoundincreasedeffectsofworkplacepollutantexposure on measures of chronic airflow obstruction or bronchitis symptoms in women; again the differences were small. Preliminary findings from analysis of pooled data

Susan M. Kennedy; Reid Chambers; Weiwei Du; Helen Dimich-Ward



The dynamics of “tokenism”: How college students are affected by the proportion of women in their major  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an empirical test of Kanter's theory of “tokenism” (1977a,b)—that individuals will be affected adversely by declining representation of their own gender within an environment. Using students' college major as the environmental backdrop, this study examines how the proportion of women in a major affects students' college grades, academic self-concept, mathematical self-concept, social selfconcept, satisfaction with the major,

Linda J. Sax



Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

Frisby, Cynthia M.


Rifaximin modulates the vaginal microbiome and metabolome in women affected by bacterial vaginosis.  


Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by the decrease of lactobacilli and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and resident anaerobic vaginal bacteria. In the present work, the effects of rifaximin vaginal tablets on vaginal microbiota and metabolome of women affected by BV were investigated by combining quantitative PCR and a metabolomic approach based on (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. To highlight the general trends of the bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in response to the antibiotic/placebo therapy, a multivariate statistical strategy was set up based on the trajectories traced by vaginal samples in a principal component analysis space. Our data demonstrated the efficacy of rifaximin in restoring a health-like condition in terms of both bacterial communities and metabolomic features. In particular, rifaximin treatment was significantly associated with an increase in the lactobacillus/BV-related bacteria ratio, as well as with an increase in lactic acid concentration and a decrease of a pool of metabolites typically produced by BV-related bacteria (acetic acid, succinate, short-chain fatty acids, and biogenic amines). Among the tested dosages of rifaximin (100 and 25 mg for 5 days and 100 mg for 2 days), 25 mg for 5 days was found to be the most effective. PMID:24709255

Laghi, Luca; Picone, Gianfranco; Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Donders, Gilbert; Capozzi, Francesco; Vitali, Beatrice



Aerobic exercise affects T-wave alternans and heart rate variability in postmenopausal women.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 10-week high-intermediate exercise intervention on heart rate variability/microscopic T-wave alternans (HRV/MTWA) in healthy postmenopausal women (PMW). 62 healthy PMW were recruited and randomly divided into an exercise group (EG, n=32) or a control group (CG, n=30). The EG attended a progressively high-intermediate intensity (75-85% heart rate reserve, HRR) group-based step aerobic exercise program for 10 weeks, whereas the CG did not receive any intervention. HRV/MTWA, blood chemistry and physical function-related indices were measured before and within 24?h following the 10-week exercise program. Following a 10-week exercise intervention, the EG had significant mean decreases in SDNN (22.4%), CV (21.4%), NN50 (72.6%), LF (ms2; 55.8%), HF (ms2; 39.9%), LF (n.u.; 11.2%), and LF/HF (34.5%). The EG showed a significant increase in HF (n.u.; 40.0%) and CAV (44.4%), whereas there was no significant finding in the CG. The coupling effect of MTWA and HRV after intervention suggests that exercise intervention potentially affects regulation changes of the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular condition synchronically in PMW. The rebound effect of biomarkers has proven to be a considerable factor on HRV/MTWA measurements. PMID:23757126

Shen, T-W; Wen, H-J



42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment...



42 CFR 412.320 - Disproportionate share adjustment factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.320 Disproportionate share adjustment...



Self-efficacy and affect as mediators between pain dimensions and emotional symptoms and functional limitation in women with fibromyalgia.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the role of self-efficacy and affect as mediators of the relationship between pain and several fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms (functional limitation, depression, and anxiety). We evaluated 144 women with FM for self-reported pain (numerical pain scale), pressure pain sensitivity (pressure pain thresholds), functional limitation (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale), depression-anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and positive-negative affect (Positive-Negative Affect Scale). Mediating analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis. The results demonstrated that self-reported pain and pressure pain sensitivity exhibited significant relationships with functional limitation, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and affect. Affect mediated the relationship between pressure pain sensitivity and anxiety, whereas self-efficacy was the mediating variable between self-reported pain and functional limitation and depression. Our results support a complex nature of pain in women presenting with FM, as cognitive and emotional variables have different mediator relationships between pain dimensions and functional and emotional outcomes in women with FM. PMID:25179423

Peñacoba Puente, Cecilia; Velasco Furlong, Lilian; Écija Gallardo, Carmen; Cigarán Méndez, Margarita; Bedmar Cruz, Dolores; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César



Self-Referential Processing in Women With PTSD: Affective and Neural Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative self-referential processing and identity disturbance are not uncommon clinical outcomes in adults who were significantly maltreated as children. In this study a novel cognitive paradigm, akin to mirror viewing while experiencing negative versus positive thoughts, was developed to investigate verbal and visual self-referential processing disturbances in women with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Relative to women without PTSD, women

Paul A. Frewen; David J. A. Dozois; Richard W. J. Neufeld; Maria Densmore; Todd K. Stevens; Ruth A. Lanius



Women and computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that many women opting for careers in computing either drop out of the academic pipeline or choose not to get advanced degrees and enter industry instead. Consequently, there are disproportionately low numbers of women in academic computer science and the computer industry. The situation may be perpetuated for several generations since studies show that girls from

Karen A. Frenkel



Negative Affect and Vasomotor Symptoms in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are common during the menopausal transition. Negative affect is consistently associated with self-reported VMS, but interpretation of this relationship is limited by infrequent measurement and retrospective recall of VMS. Using prospective data from daily diaries, we examined the daily association between negative affect and reported VMS, as well as temporal associations between negative affect and next day VMS, and VMS and next day negative affect. Methods Data were derived from the third wave of the Daily Hormone Study (DHS) (n=625). DHS is a substudy of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants reported VMS and affect in daily diaries for 12–50 days. Multilevel mixed models were used to determine the associations between reported VMS and negative affect, adjusted by antidepressant use, age, education, menopausal status, self-reported health, and race/ethnicity drawn from annual SWAN visits. Results VMS were reported by 327 women (52.3%). Negative affect was positively associated with VMS (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.43–2.17, p<.001) in cross-sectional analyses. Negative affect, adjusted by same day VMS, was not predictive of next day VMS (OR 1.11, 95% CI .85–1.35, p=.55), whereas VMS, adjusted by same day negative affect, was predictive of negative affect the next day (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03–1.58, p=.01). Conclusions Negative affect was more likely to be reported on the same day and the day after VMS. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship include negative cognitive appraisal, sleep disruption, and unmeasured third factors. PMID:21900850

Gibson, Carolyn J.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kamarck, Thomas; Matthews, Karen A.



Addressing the Unique Needs of African American Women in HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet there are few effective HIV prevention interventions that are exclusively tailored to their lives and that address their risk factors. Using an ecological framework, we offer a comprehensive overview of the risk factors that are driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African American women and explicate the consequences of ignoring these factors in HIV prevention strategies. We also recommend ways to improve HIV prevention programs by taking into consideration the unique life experiences of adult African American women. PMID:19372518

Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Gilbert, Louisa



Influences Affecting the Treatment of Women Prisoners in Toronto, 1880 to 1890  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of women prisoners in the 1880’s was largely dependent on the general attitudes towards the importance of their roles in society. In late nineteenth century Toronto the expected roles of women of all classes were those of wife and mother within the home and, to a very limited extent, of worker within the community. The responses and behaviour of

M. Jennifer Brown



The Relationship Between Perceived Body Image and Depression: How College Women See Themselves May Affect Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for the ideal body type is an area of focus for many women, and the inability to reach the ideal for some women is devastating. The relationship between low body image perceptions and depression has been studied numerous times over the past few decades. Past research indicates that as a woman becomes more focused on her appearance, or

Sabrina R. Hamilton



Obesity and Black Women: Special Considerations Related to Genesis and Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Black women in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity, with almost two-thirds considered obese based on body mass index. Obesity has been directly linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in black women. Therefore, understanding contributors to the genesis of obesity in black women is imperative. While biologic differences likely result in varying obesity prevalence across racial/ethnic groups, behaviors such as post-partum weight retention and limited leisure-time physical activity, may especially contribute to obesity in black women. Black women also appear to be particularly susceptible to cultural, psychosocial, and environmental factors that can promote weight gain. Therapeutic interventions are being tailored to specifically address these social determinants of health and to foster lifestyle modification; however, more work is needed to understand barriers to behavior change for black women. Knowledge gaps also remain in identifying mechanisms by which pharmacologic and surgical treatments for obesity modify cardiovascular risk in black women. PMID:24159367

Agyemang, Priscilla; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.



Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.  


This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn



Diurnal and seasonal variations in cortisol, prolactin, TSH and thyroid hormones in women with and without seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with and without seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were studied on two winter days separated by a week of light treatment (LT) at 2500 lux either in the morning (0800–1000h; 8 patients and 4 controls) or afternoon (1600–1800 h; 5 patients and 3 controls), and on a summer day (7 patients of the morning subgroup and 7 controls). Blood samples

Konstantin V. Danilenko; Arcady A. Putilov



Women's reactions to dominant and Agreeable men: how are initial judgements of attraction affected by peer discussion  

E-print Network

WOMEN'S REACTIONS TO DOMINANT AND AGREEABLE MEN: HOW ARE INITIAL JUDGMENTS OF ATTRACTION AFFECTED BY PEER DISCUSSION A Senior Honors Thesis By CYNTHIA MARIA DEAN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 4 Academic Scholarships Texas A 8c M... A Senior Honors Thesis By CYNTHIA MARIA DEAN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 8r, Academic Scholarships Texas A k M University In partial fulfiHment for the designation of UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW Approved...

Dean, Cynthia Maria



Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers  

PubMed Central

Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine



A Qualitative Study of Factors Affecting Pregnancy Weight Gain in African American Women  

PubMed Central

African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8–23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24–36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6–12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong



A chilly conference climate: The influence of sexist conference climate perceptions on women's academic career intentions  

E-print Network

Despite women's increased presence in academia, women are still underrepresented in faculty positions relative to men. Though many obstacles interfere with women's academic career success, including family responsibilities and disproportionate...

Ratliff, Jacklyn M.



Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage. PMID:22106751

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine



Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.



The Role of Coercion in Affecting Women's Inferior Outcomes in Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted by the author into concessions of rightful property, child support and maintenance awards from ex-spouses under pressures from emotional blackmail of coercion. Information was obtained from legal and sociological literature, divorce records in Hennepin County, Minnesota, along with informal interviews with one attorney and eight divorced women. Spousal attempts at coercion during divorce negotiations may influence

Barbara J. Lonsdorf



Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok



Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina



Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i  

E-print Network

Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i Teen dating violence is prevalent and teens may also be exposed to domestic violence in their homes. Teens

Derisi, Joseph


Metabolic syndrome affects cardiovascular risk profile and response to treatment in hypertensive postmenopausal women.  


Metabolic syndrome is increasingly recognized as an important cardiovascular risk factor in hypertension, but its influence on the cardiovascular risk profile in hypertensive postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the cardiovascular risk profile and the response to treatment. We enrolled 350 hypertensive postmenopausal women, 55+/-6 years of age (range 47 to 60 years of age). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Compared with those without, women with metabolic syndrome had higher waist circumference, body mass index, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, as would be expected, based on definition. In addition, patients with metabolic syndrome had a cardiovascular risk profile less favorable, characterized by a significantly higher highly sensitive C-reactive protein (2.2+/-0.6 versus 1.7+/-0.7 ng/L; P<0.01), a more compromised endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation 2.4+/-2.2 versus 4.4+/-2.5%; P=0.01), and a significantly higher left ventricular mass (44+/-15 versus 41+/-16 g/m(2.7)). Also, antihypertensive treatment induced a more modest improvement of both endothelial dysfunction and subclinical inflammation in women with metabolic syndrome. The results of our study show that in postmenopausal women, there are 2 different forms of hypertension: that which is isolated, and that which is associated with metabolic syndrome. This last form is related to a more severe risk profile, and response to therapy is less favorable. PMID:18852391

Rossi, Rosario; Nuzzo, Annachiara; Origliani, Giorgia; Modena, Maria Grazia



Racially disproportionate prison populations in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews trends in black-white incarcerations in the North and South from 1870 to 1980. Using census data on imprisonments it finds that the degree of disproportionate imprisonment of blacks (relative to their representation in the general population) has been higher in Northern states than in Southern states from the middle of the 19th century through the present, although

William J. Sabol



NO2 disproportionation for the IR characterisation of basic zeolites.  


NO2 disproportionation on alkaline zeolites is used to generate nitrosonium (NO+) and nitrate ions on the surface, and the infrared vibrations observed are very sensitive to the cation chemical hardness and to the basicity of zeolitic oxygen atoms. PMID:15719112

Marie, Olivier; Malicki, Nicolas; Pommier, Catherine; Massiani, Pascale; Vos, Ann; Schoonheydt, Robert; Geerlings, Paul; Henriques, Carlos; Thibault-Starzyk, Fréderic



Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.  


Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185?cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J



Meat and Soy Protein Affect Calcium Homeostasis in Healthy Women1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We showed that increasing dietary protein from omnivorous sources increases intestinal calcium absorption and urinary calcium, whereas a low-protein diet decreases calcium absorption and lowers urinary calcium. To assess the effect of soy protein on this relation, we substituted soy for meat in high- and low-protein diets fed to healthy women. The study consisted of a 2-wk adjustment period followed

Jane E. Kerstetter; Diane E. Wall; Kimberly O. O'Brien; Donna M. Caseria; Karl L. Insognay


Barriers to Psychosocial Services Among Homeless Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterans make up a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to 4 times more likely to be homeless than nonveteran women. This article provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Vivian Hines; Donna L. Washington



Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.  


Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ?4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita



Dietary Intake of Selected Nutrients Affects Bacterial Vaginosis in Women123  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition of altered vaginal flora, is associated with various adverse reproductive health outcomes. We evaluated the association between diet and the presence of BV in a subset of 1521 women (86% African-American) from a larger study of vaginal flora. Participants completed the Block Food Questionnaire and clinical assessments and self-report measures of sexual and hygiene behavior. A total of 42% of the women were classified as having BV (Nugent score ?7). Severe BV (Nugent score ?9 and vaginal pH ?5) was present in 14.9% of the women. BV was associated [adjusted OR (AOR)] with increased dietary fat (1.5, 1.1–2.4) after adjusting for other energy nutrients and behavioral and demographic covariates. Severe BV was associated with total fat (2.3, 1.3–4.3), saturated fat (2.1, 1.2–3.9), and monounsaturated fat (2.2, 1.2–4.1). Energy intake was only marginally associated (P = 0.05) with BV (1.4, 1.0–1.8). There were significant inverse associations between severe BV and intakes of folate (0.4, 0.2–0.8), vitamin E (0.4, 0.2–0.8), and calcium (0.4, 0.3–0.7). We conclude that increased dietary fat intake is associated with increased risk of BV and severe BV, whereas increased intake of folate, vitamin A, and calcium may decrease the risk of severe BV. PMID:17709453

Neggers, Yasmin H.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Andrews, William W.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Yu, Kai-fun; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.



Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.  


Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. PMID:20138896

de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R



Excessive and disproportionate advertising in peer-reviewed journals.  


The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has outlined ethical guidelines concerning the advertising practices of peer-reviewed journals that briefly discuss issues of excessive and disproportionate advertising. The authors evaluated these guidelines using quantitative data, assessing the types and frequencies of advertising in 2001 print issues of NEJM and JAMA, two principal members of ICMJE. Advertising ratios (ratio of advertisements to editorial content) were near unity in NEJM and 0.30 in JAMA, compared with reported ratios of 0.15 among low-circulation specialty science journals and 0.80 among high-circulation consumer magazines. In both journals, five corporations placed more than 50% of all display advertisements. The findings suggest a dissonance between the ethical guidelines and the de facto advertising practices of arguably the two most important member journals of the ICMJE. There is a need to define and apply standards for excessive and disproportionate advertising. PMID:16523984

Friedman, Lee S; Richter, Elihu D



Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa Along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

PubMed Central

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, a more protracted clinical course, and a worse treatment response. This report describes two prospective studies which found that young women with threshold (n = 48) and subthreshold (n = 83) bulimic pathology can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes, that two subtyping approaches produced similar results (M ? = .94), that the subtyping distinction showed 4-week test-retest reliability (? = .61), and that the dietary-negative affect subtype showed greater eating pathology, emotional distress, functional impairment, treatment seeking, and lower likelihood of recovery over 6-month and 3-year follow-ups than the dietary subtype. The dieting-negative affect subtyping distinction evidenced greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity than did the purging-nonpurging subtyping distinction. The additional evidence for the reliability and validity of this subytping scheme, particularly the prognostic utility, suggests it is worth additional inquiry. PMID:19045970

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Nathan Marti, C.; Fischer, Kathryn



Positive Affect and Incidence of Frailty in Elderly Women Caregivers and Noncaregivers: Results of Caregiver–Study of Osteoporotic Fractures  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine whether positive affect is associated with a lower incidence of frailty over 2 years in elderly community-dwelling women and to test the stress-buffering hypothesis by evaluating whether these associations differed in caregivers and noncaregivers. DESIGN Prospective cohort study with three annual interviews conducted in four U.S. communities between 1999 and 2004. SETTING Home-based interviews. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred thirty-seven caregiver and 617 noncaregiver participants from the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (Caregiver-SOF) who were not frail at the baseline Caregiver-SOF interview. MEASUREMENTS High and low positive affect and depressive symptoms were derived from the baseline 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Frailty was the development of three or more indicators (weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, or weak grip strength) at the first or second follow-up interview. RESULTS Respondents’ mean age was 81.2. Caregivers and noncaregivers had similar levels of positive affect (56.3% vs 58.3%) and frailty incidence (15.4% vs 15.9%) but differed in perceived stress (mean Perceived Stress Scale score 16.7 vs 14.8, P<.001). Frailty risk was lower in respondents with high positive affect than in those with low positive affect in the total sample (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) =0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.35–0.70), caregivers (adjusted HR =0.44, 95% CI =0.24–0.80) and noncaregivers (adjusted HR =0.50, 95% CI =0.32–0.77). CONCLUSION These findings add to the evidence that positive affect protects against health decline in older adults, although it had no additional stress-buffering effect on health in elderly caregivers. PMID:19392954

Park-Lee, Eunice; Fredman, Lisa; Hochberg, Marc; Faulkner, Kimberly



Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.



Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.



Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

De War, Joshua J.



Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.  


In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. PMID:25474605

McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin



42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...disproportionate share of low-income patients. ...for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.106 Special...disproportionate share of low-income patients. ...disproportionate number of low-income patients, its...for inpatient operating costs are increased by an...



Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.  


Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs. PMID:24084394

Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei



Working memory is differentially affected by stress in men and women.  


Stress has been shown to influence working memory. However, sex differences and the potential impact of stimulus emotionality have not received much attention. In a first experiment the effects of stress on a neutral working memory (WM) paradigm were tested in male and female participants (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 employed the same paradigm but used emotional stimuli. For this purpose, healthy participants were exposed either to a stressful (Trierer Social Stress Test (TSST)) or to a non-stressful control condition. Subsequently, WM performance in an n-back task was assessed. In Experiment 1, single digits were used as stimuli, while in Experiment 2 neutral and negative pictures were additionally employed. Salivary cortisol and Alpha-Amylase (sAA) were measured before and three times after the treatment as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis- and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In both experiments, stress caused a substantial cortisol and sAA increase. For WM performance (response time) a stress by sex interaction was apparent. Stress enhanced performance in men, while impairing it in women. In both experiments stress had no effect on response accuracy. No modulating effect of the emotional quality of stimuli on n-back performance was observed (study 2). The results indicate that the effect of acute stress on n-back performance differs between the sexes. In contrast to long-term memory, the influence of stress on WM appears not to be modulated by the emotionality of the employed stimuli if stimuli are potential targets as it is the case in the n-back task. PMID:23238042

Schoofs, Daniela; Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T



A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism  

PubMed Central

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height. PMID:23527306

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso



Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco



WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper


Health and development in the first 4 years of life in offspring of women with schizophrenia and affective psychoses: Well-Baby Clinic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of genetic high-risk (HR) groups provides the opportunity to study diathesis characteristics associated with schizophrenia (Sc) and affective psychoses. High-risk offspring of women with a history of schizophrenia, affective and other psychoses (n=84), as well as normal-risk control (NC) offspring (n=100), were studied from 0 to 4 years of age, using prospectively recorded information from Well-Baby Clinic (WBC)

Karin M Henriksson; Thomas F McNeil



Skeletal dysplasia with craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism in hair sheep of northeastern Brazil.  


This paper reports a newly described form of skeletal dysplasia affecting Brazilian hair sheep of the Cabugi breed. This breed is characterized by having a short head and in some cases the animals are smaller and more compact than sheep of similar breeds. Lambs born with craniofacial abnormalities and dwarfism that die at 2-6 months of age are frequent in this breed. In a flock of 68 ewes and three rams of the Cabugi breed, 134 lambs were born over a 4-year period. Of these, 14 (10.4%) had marked cranial abnormalities and dwarfism and died or were humanely destroyed, 43 (32%) had a normal face and 77 (57.5%) had the short face characteristic of the breed. Dwarf lambs were much smaller than normal, with short legs, a domed head with retruded muzzle and protruded mandible, sternal deformities and exophthalmic eyes situated more laterally in the face than normal. Microscopical examination of long bones of the limbs, bones of the base of the skull and vertebrae showed no lesions. Bones from four affected lambs and one control lamb were macerated for morphometric examination. Although the length of the spinal cord was similar, there was disproportionate shortening of the appendicular bones, particularly the distal segments. Thus the disease was defined as a skeletal dysplasia characterized by craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism. It is suggested that the disease is inherited as an incomplete dominant trait. The shortened face, which is a feature of the Cabugi breed, may represent the heterozygous state and the more severe, often lethal, dwarfism may occur in homozygotes. PMID:24447571

Dantas, F P M; Medeiros, G X; Figueiredo, A P M; Thompson, K; Riet-Correa, F



Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640



Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation.  


The composition of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary sulfides and sulfates traces the sulfur cycle throughout Earth's history. In particular, depletions of sulfur-34 ((34)S) in sulfide relative to sulfate exceeding 47 per mil (‰) often serve as a proxy for the disproportionation of intermediate sulfur species in addition to sulfate reduction. Here, we demonstrate that a pure, actively growing culture of a marine sulfate-reducing bacterium can deplete (34)S by up to 66‰ during sulfate reduction alone and in the absence of an extracellular oxidative sulfur cycle. Therefore, similar magnitudes of sulfur isotope fractionation in sedimentary rocks do not unambiguously record the presence of other sulfur-based metabolisms or the stepwise oxygenation of Earth's surface environment during the Proterozoic. PMID:21719675

Sim, Min Sub; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei



Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven



HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge and Behaviors Among Rural Married Migrant Women in Shandong Province, China: A Comparison Study.  


Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei



Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.  


Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A



The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond



High octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gasoline, propylene, and isobutane by disproportionation, clevage and alkylation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing high octane value gasoline which comprises in a disproportionation zone subjecting propylene and a mixture of propylene and ethylene obtained as hereinafter delineated to disproportionation conditions to produce a stream containing ethylene and a stream containing butenes, passing the ethylene-containing stream from said disproportionation zone together with a catalytic cracking gasoline to a cleavage zone under disproportionation conditions and subjecting the mixture of hydrocarbons therin to cleavage to produce said mixture of propylene and ethylene, a C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline-containing product and butenes and wherein the butenes obtained in the overall operation of the disproportionation zone and the cleavage zone are passed to an alkylation zone wherein said butenes are used to alkylate an isoparaffin to produce additional high octane value product.

Banks, R.



A Birth-Season\\/DRD4 Gene Interaction Predicts Weight Gain and Obesity in Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Seasonal Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently described an association between the hypofunctional 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), weight gain, and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In the current study, we examined whether season-of-birth might interact with the 7R allele to influence body weight regulation in SAD. In 182 female probands with SAD, we performed an analysis

Robert D Levitan; Mario Masellis; Raymond W Lam; Allan S Kaplan; Caroline Davis; Subi Tharmalingam; Bronwyn Mackenzie; Vincenzo S Basile; James L Kennedy



Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1%) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucleotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

Weber, Arthur L.



Energy from Redox Disproportionation of Sugar Carbon Drives Biotic and Abiotic Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To identify the energy source that drives the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides from glucose, we calculated the free energy change due to redox disproportionation of the substrate carbon of: (1) 26-carbon fermentation reactions and (2) the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids of E. coli from glucose. The free energy (cal/mmol of carbon) of these reactions was plotted as a function of the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon (disproportionative electron transfers (mmol)/mmol of carbon). The zero intercept and proportionality between energy yield and degree of redox disproportionation exhibited by this plot demonstrate that redox disproportionation is the principal energy source of these redox reactions (slope of linear fit = -10.4 cal/mmol of disproportionative electron transfers). The energy and disproportionation values of E. coli amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose lie near this linear curve fit with redox disproportionation accounting for 84% and 96% (and ATP only 6% and 1 %) of the total energy of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, respectively. These observations establish that redox disproportionation of carbon, and not ATP, is the primary energy source driving amino acid and lipid biosynthesis from glucose. In contrast, we found that nucteotide biosynthesis involves very little redox disproportionation, and consequently depends almost entirely on ATP for energy. The function of sugar redox disproportionation as the major source of free energy for the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids suggests that sugar disproportionation played a central role in the origin of metabolism, and probably the origin of life.

Weber, Arthur L.



Sociodemographic characteristics and health-related factors affecting the use of Pap smear screening among women with mental disabilities in Taiwan.  


This study examined the use of the Pap cervical cancer screening test among women with mental disabilities in Taiwan and analyzed factors related thereto. Data were obtained from three national databases in Taiwan: the 2008 database of physically and mentally disabled persons from the Ministry of the Interior, 2007-2008 Pap smear test data from the Health Promotion Administration, and claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study subjects included 49,642 Taiwanese women aged ?30 years with mental disabilities. Besides descriptive and bivariate analyses, logistic regression analysis was also performed to examine factors affecting Pap smear use. In 2007-2008, Taiwanese women with mental disabilities had a Pap screening rate of 11.05%. Age, income, education, marital status, catastrophic illness/injury, relevant chronic illnesses, and severity of disability were identified as factors affecting their Pap smear use. Age and severity of disability were negatively correlated with Pap screening, with the odds of screening being 0.37 times as high in ?70-year-olds as in 30-39-year-olds and 0.49 times as high for very severe disability as for mild disability. Income was positively correlated with Pap screening. Being married (OR=2.55) or divorced or widowed (OR=2.40) relative to being unmarried, and having a catastrophic illness/injury (OR=1.13), cancer (OR=1.47), or diabetes (OR=1.25), were associated with greater odds of screening. In Taiwan, women with mental disabilities receive Pap smears at a far lower rate than women in general. PMID:25462509

Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen



Climate Change Disproportionately Increases Herbivore over Plant or Parasitoid Biomass  

PubMed Central

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M.



Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.  


It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4?-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P < 0.0022). No difference was found between the NPW-1 and NPW-5 groups. We detected 5-methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at as NCT01741077. PMID:24991041

Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L



Do Women Prefer a Cooperative Work Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are women disproportionately attracted to work environments where cooperation rather than competition is rewarded? This paper reports the results of a real-effort experiment in which participants choose between an individual compensation scheme and a team-based payment scheme. We find that women are more likely than men to select team-based compensation in our baseline treatment, but women and men join teams

Peter J. Kuhn; Marie-Claire Villeval



African-American women's perceptions of their most serious health problems.  

PubMed Central

African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes are the most common causes of mortality among African Americans. Data were gathered from 1,055 African-American women to gain their perspectives of the most serious health problems affecting African-American women and their related knowledge, attitudes and health promoting behaviors. Women listed CDC's top four causes of mortality as their top four most serious health threats. Cancer was reported as a serious health threat by 81% of the participants, whereas heart disease, the most common cause of mortality and a disease amenable to prevention and early intervention, was mentioned by only 31% of the women. Diabetes was reported by 59% of the women and cerebrovascular disease by 52%. As the Health Belief and other theoretical models would predict, awareness of the seriousness of these four disease groups among African-American women was associated with a greater likelihood of adherence for several of the recommended behaviors. Many opportunities exist for raising women's awareness of these four diseases and linking women's growing health awareness with those health promoting behaviors known to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:15719869

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Escobar, Rita Paola; Ko, Celine Marie; White, Monique; Lee, Shianti; Neal, Tiffany; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.



75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention and Public Health Fund Activities...follows. Part A--HIV Screening and HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral...costs.) Both Part A (HIV Screening and HIV Counseling, Testing, and...



Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and\\/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that

Nancy N. Heilbronner



Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the Retention and Attrition of Talented Men and Women from the STEM Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…

Heilbronner, Nancy N.



Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Beninese women would impair absorption of dietary iron or utilization of circulating iron. Design: Iron absorption and utilization from an iron-fortified sorghum-based meal were estimated by using oral and intravenous isotope labels in 23 afebrile women with a positive malaria smear (asexual P. falciparum parasitemia; >500 parasites/?L blood). The women were studied while infected, treated, and then restudied 10 d after treatment. Iron status, hepcidin, and inflammation indexes were measured before and after treatment. Results: Treatment reduced low-grade inflammation, as reflected by decreases in serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 (P < 0.05); this was accompanied by a reduction in median serum hepcidin of ?50%, from 2.7 to 1.4 nmol/L (P < 0.005). Treatment decreased serum erythropoietin and growth differentiation factor 15 (P < 0.05). Clearance of parasitemia increased geometric mean dietary iron absorption (from 10.2% to 17.6%; P = 0.008) but did not affect systemic iron utilization (85.0% compared with 83.1%; NS). Conclusions: Dietary iron absorption is reduced by ?40% in asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia, likely because of low-grade inflammation and its modulation of circulating hepcidin. Because asymptomatic parasitemia has a protracted course and is very common in malarial areas, this effect may contribute to IDA and blunt the efficacy of iron supplementation and fortification programs. This trial was registered at as NCT01108939. PMID:20926522

Egli, Ines M; Ahouandjinou, Ella; Dossa, Romain; Zeder, Christophe; Salami, Lamidhi; Tjalsma, Harold; Wiegerinck, Erwin; Tanno, Toshihiko; Hurrell, Richard F; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Zimmermann, Michael B



Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.  


Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J



Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123  

PubMed Central

Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.



Salty Taste Acuity Is Affected by the Joint Action of ?ENaC A663T Gene Polymorphism and Available Zinc Intake in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the ?-epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The ?ENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p < 0.05). In women, the salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with ?ENaC AA homozygotes (? = ?0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the ?ENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the ?ENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women. PMID:24317554

Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong



Disproportionate Body Composition and Neonatal Outcome in Offspring of Mothers With and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE High birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal complications. It is not known if the risk differs with body proportionality. The primary aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to body proportionality in large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants stratified by maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based study of all LGA (birth weight [BW] >90th percentile) infants born to women with GDM (n = 1,547) in 1998–2007. The reference group comprised LGA infants (n = 83,493) born to mothers without diabetes. Data were obtained from the Swedish Birth Registry. Infants were categorized as proportionate (P-LGA) if ponderal index (PI) (BW in grams/length in cm3) was ?90th percentile and as disproportionate (D-LGA) if PI >90th percentile. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity: Apgar score 0–3 at 5 min, birth trauma, respiratory disorders, hypoglycemia, or hyperbilirubinemia. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for adverse outcomes. RESULTS The risk of composite neonatal morbidity was increased in GDM pregnancies versus control subjects but comparable between P- and D-LGA in both groups. D-LGA infants born to mothers without diabetes had significantly increased risk of birth trauma (OR 1.19 [95% CI 1.09–1.30]) and hypoglycemia (1.23 [1.11–1.37]). D-LGA infants in both groups had significantly increased odds of Cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS The risk of composite neonatal morbidity is significantly increased in GDM offspring. In pregnancies both with and without GDM, the risk of composite neonatal morbidity is comparable between P- and D-LGA. PMID:24159180

Persson, Martina; Fadl, Helena; Hanson, Ulf; Pasupathy, Dharmintra



The prevalence of PALB2 germline mutations in BRCA1\\/BRCA2 negative Chinese women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

PALB2 has been recently identified as breast cancer susceptibility gene in western populations. To investigate the contribution\\u000a of PALB2 mutations to Chinese non-BRCA1\\/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer, we screened all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries\\u000a of PALB2 in 360 Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer or affected relatives from five breast disease clinical centers\\u000a in China by utilizing PCR-DHPLC and DNA

A-Yong Cao; Juan Huang; Zhen Hu; Wen-Feng Li; Zhong-Liang Ma; Li-Li Tang; Bin Zhang; Feng-Xi Su; Jie Zhou; Gen-Hong Di; Kun-Wei Shen; Jiong Wu; Jin-Song Lu; Jian-Min Luo; Wen-Tao Yuan; Zhen-Zhou Shen; Wei Huang; Zhi-Ming Shao



Mechanism of charge transfer/disproportionation in LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-Cu intersite charge transfer and Fe charge disproportionation are interesting phenomena observed in some LnCu3Fe4O12 (Ln = lanthanides) compounds containing light and heavy Ln atoms, respectively. We show that a change in the spin state is responsible for the intersite charge transfer in the light Ln compounds. At the high-spin state, such systems prefer an unusual Cu d8 configuration, whereas at the low-spin state they retreat to the normal Cu d9 configuration through a charge transfer from Fe to the Cu 3dxy orbital. We find that the strength of the crystal-field splitting and the relative energy ordering between Cu 3dxy and Fe 3d states are the key parameters determining the intersite charge transfer (charge disproportionation) in light (heavy) Ln compounds. It is further proposed that the size of Ln affects the on-site interaction strength of Cu 3d states, leading to a strong modification of the Cu L3-edge spectrum, as observed by the x-ray-absorption spectroscopy.

Rezaei, N.; Hansmann, P.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because manganese (Mn) is potentially toxic, and because dietary fat type may affect Mn absorption, the objectives of the current study were to determine whether diets containing very low or very high amounts of Mn and enriched in either saturated or unsaturated fats affected measures of neuropsycho...


Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators' roles: a concurrent mixed method study.  


HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence among women with HIV; (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators' roles in contributing to violence; and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent Mixed Method study design was used, including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi's technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/intimate partner violence prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500

Njie-Carr, Veronica



Fertility sparing surgery in young women affected by endometrial stromal sarcoma: an oncologic dilemma or a reliable option? review of literature starting from a peculiar case  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a term used to define a rare neoplasm that accounts for approximately 0.2%–1% of all uterine malignancies; it is, however, implicated in an estimated 10%–15% of those malignancies with a mesenchymal component. Recent evidence suggests that while the preservation of the ovaries may be considered appropriate in premenopausal women, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the recommended treatment in postmenopausal women. Currently, only a few case series reporting the treatment of ESS in young women with a desire to preserve fertility and thus subjected to a fertility-sparing surgery are available in the literature. Case presentation We report a peculiar case of early stage ESS treated by laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery and a strict follow-up program (every 3 months) of imaging and clinical evaluation. The patient remained disease free 1 year after primary treatment. Three months after completing oncological follow-up, the patient conceived spontaneously and is, to date, pregnant at 11 weeks of gestation without evidence of recurrent disease or obstetric complications. Conclusion Based on our case report and in accordance with the data available, we suggest that in young patients affected by early stage ESS who wish to preserve reproductive function, fertility-sparing surgery could represent a valid option, though strict oncological follow-up remains mandatory.

Noventa, Marco; Gizzo, Salvatore; Conte, Lorena; Dalla Toffola, Angela; Litta, Pietro; Saccardi, Carlo



In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling  

PubMed Central

Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from premenopausal (n?=?6) and postmenopausal (n?=?5) women. In an in vitro model, the myotubes were treated with palmitate (300 µM) for one-, two- or three days during differentiation. Effects on lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin signaling were studied. Palmitate treatment led to a 108% (CI 95%: 50%; 267%) increase in intramyocellular ceramide in the myotubes from the postmenopausal women (post-myotubes) compared with a 26% (CI 95%: ?57%; 96%) increase in myotubes from the premenopausal women (pre-myotubes), (p<0.05). Furthermore, post-myotubes had a 22% (CI 95%: 4%; 34%) increase in pJNK (p?=?0.04) and a 114% (CI 95%: 50%; 177%) increase in Hsp70 protein expression (p?=?0.03) after three days of palmitate treatment, compared with pre-myotubes, in which no increase in either pJNK (?12% (CI 95: ?26%; 2%)) or Hsp70 (7% (CI 95: ?78%; 91%)) was detected. Furthermore, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p?=?0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p?=?0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes. PMID:25000528

Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C.; Pedersen, Anette T.; Langley, Katherine G.; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindegaard, Birgitte



Common Clinical Conditions – Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Tenofovir is used commonly in HIV treatment and prevention settings, but factors that correlate with tenofovir exposure in real-world setting are unknown. Design Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of tenofovir in a large, diverse cohort of HIV-infected women over 24-hours at steady-state were performed and factors that influenced exposure (assessed by areas-under-the-time-concentration curves, AUCs) identified Methods HIV-infected women (n=101) on tenofovir-based therapy underwent intensive 24-hour PK sampling. Data on race/ethnicity, age, exogenous steroid use, menstrual cycle phase, concomitant medications, recreational drugs and/or tobacco, hepatic and renal function, weight and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Multivariable models using forward stepwise selection identified factors associated with effects on AUC. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) prior to starting tenofovir were estimated by the CKD-EPI equation using both creatinine and cystatin-C measures Results The median (range) of tenofovir AUCs was 3350 (1031–13,911) ng x h/mL. Higher AUCs were associated with concomitant ritonavir use (1.33-fold increase, p 0.002), increasing age (1.21-fold increase per decade, p=0.0007) and decreasing BMI (1.04-fold increase per 10% decrease in BMI). When GFR was calculated using cystatin-C measures, mild renal insufficiency prior to tenofovir initiation was associated with higher subsequent exposure (1.35-fold increase when pre-tenofovir GFR <70mL/min, p=0.0075). Conclusions Concomitant ritonavir use, increasing age, decreasing BMI and lower GFR prior to tenofovir initiation as estimated by cystatin C were all associated with elevated tenofovir exposure in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinicians treating HIV-infected women should be aware of common clinical conditions that affect tenofovir exposure when prescribing this medication. PMID:24275255

BAXI, Sanjiv M.; GREENBLATT, Ruth M.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SCHERZER, Rebecca; MINKOFF, Howard; HUANG, Yong; ANASTOS, Kathryn; COHEN, Mardge; GANGE, Stephen J.; YOUNG, Mary; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; GANDHI, Monica



n3 PUFAs Do Not Affect Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Overweight to Moderately Obese Men and Women123  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m2 consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N.; Hagman, Derek K.; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Weigle, David S.



The health disparities of uterine fibroid tumors for African American women: a public health issue.  


Uterine fibroid tumors (leiomyomas) are the most common benign pelvic tumors in women and are the major indication for hysterectomy. Fibroid tumors are more common and more severe among African American women. Although this disease disproportionately affects the African American population, we understand little about what causes the disparity. Fibroid tumors should be considered a public health issue, given the magnitude of the problem and the costs of health care for this disease. In this review, we examine the burden of disease from fibroid tumors in the African American population and review the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine fibroid tumors, with emphasis on how these can differ, depending on race. We also focus on the socioeconomic burden caused by the disease and describe the anticipated influence of new health care reforms and funding mechanisms for fibroid tumor research. PMID:23942040

Eltoukhi, Heba M; Modi, Monica N; Weston, Meredith; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Stewart, Elizabeth A



Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease that affects 1 in 1,000 people, often young women (BOX 1).  

E-print Network

Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease that affects 1 in 1,000 people, often young-remitting phase2 . This shortcoming reflects the complexity of multiple sclerosis. A more comprehensive understanding of the aetiology of multiple sclerosis and the pathways leading to disease should provide rational

Cai, Long


Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn



“Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand”: Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVeterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation’s homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans’ pathways into homelessness.

Alison B. Hamilton; Ines Poza; Donna L. Washington



Why Highly Educated Women Face Potential Poverty: A Case Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although highly educated women in Bangladesh expect to achieve gender equality, compared to highly educated men, they experience poverty in disproportionate scales. Various educational and motivational programs have been successfully working in Bangladesh. Subsequently, women have broken out the common social problems like illiteracy, early marriage, etc. For example, Bangladesh has already achieved gender parity in education levels. Many women

Syeda Umme Jakera Malik



Three Steps Forward, Two Steps Backward: The Status of Women's Integration into Public Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two decades of affirmative action and finds the number of women in decision-making positions disproportionately low when compared to their numbers in the public work force. Compares the status of women to that of men in career public management positions and argues that women have a way to go to reach parity. (Author)

Guy, Mary E.



Determination of the disproportionation products of limonene used for the catalytic hydrogenation of castor oil.  


The direct determination by GC-MS analysis of the products from the limonene disproportionation obtained from the catalytic hydrogenation of castor oil is not possible since a transesterification of the oil is required before injection. Therefore, a method for the determination of those products is proposed here: a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by GC-MS. With the optimization of SPME it was possible to isolate a great number of products of the disproportionation of limonene used as hydrogen donor in the catalytic hydrogenation of castor oil by Pd/C. This system also proved to be appropriate to monitor castor oil hydrogenation by following and identifying the limonene disproportionated products. PMID:12580499

Schneider, R C S; Baldissarelli, V Z; Martinelli, M; von Holleben, M L A; Caramão, E B



A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in their own context that are described in this review. Further research on this population, including those who drop out of or never access health services, is needed to inform effective implementation. PMID:25372479

Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.



Susceptibility to overeating affects the impact of savory or sweet drinks on satiation, reward, and food intake in nonobese women.  


Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susceptibility to overeating. In a crossover design, 30 women (BMI = 22.7 ± 2.3; age = 21.9 ± 2.6 y) consumed a fixed energy preload (360 kJ/g) with a savory, sweet, or bland taste before selecting and consuming items from a test meal ad libitum. Sensations of hunger were used to calculate the satiating efficiency of the preloads. A computerized task was used to examine effects on food reward (explicit liking and implicit wanting). The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to compare individual differences in eating behavior traits. Satiation and total food intake did not differ according to preload taste, but there was an effect on explicit liking and food selection. The savory preload reduced liking and intake of high-fat savory foods compared to sweet or bland preloads. The eating behavior trait disinhibition interacted with preload taste to determine test meal intake. Higher scores were associated with increased food intake after the sweet preload compared to the savory preload. Independent of preload taste, disinhibition was associated with lower satiating efficiency of the preloads and enhanced implicit wanting for high-fat sweet food. Savory taste has a stronger modulating effect on food preference than sweet or bland taste and may help to preserve normal appetite regulation in people who are susceptible to overeating. PMID:22131553

Finlayson, Graham; Bordes, Isabelle; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Blundell, John E



Iron-containing micronutrient supplementation of Chinese women with no or mild anemia during pregnancy improved iron status but did not affect perinatal anemia.  


Universal prenatal daily iron-folic acid (IFA) and multiple micronutrient (MM) supplements are recommended to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anemia, and iron deficiency (ID) during pregnancy, but the evidence of their effect on iron status among women with mild or no anemia is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the iron status [serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI)] before and after micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy. We examined 834 pregnant women with hemoglobin > 100 g/L at enrollment before 20 wk of gestation and with iron measurement data from a subset of a randomized, double-blind trial in China. Women were randomly assigned to take daily 400 ?g of folic acid (FA) (control), FA plus 30 mg of iron, or FA, iron, plus 13 additional MMs provided before 20 wk of gestation to delivery. Venous blood was collected in this subset during study enrollment (before 20 wk of gestation) and 28-32 wk of gestation. We found that, at 28-32 wk of gestation, compared with the FA group, both the IFA and MM groups had significantly lower prevalence of ID regardless of which indicator (SF, sTfR, or BI) was used for defining ID. The prevalence of ID at 28-32 wk of gestation for IFA, MM, and FA were 35.3%, 42.7%, and 59.6% by using low SF, 53.6%, 59.9%, and 69.9% by using high sTfR, and 34.5%, 41.2%, and 59.6% by using low BI, respectively. However, there was no difference in anemia prevalence (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) between FA and IFA or MM groups. We concluded that, compared with FA alone, prenatal IFA and MM supplements provided to women with no or mild anemia improved iron status later during pregnancy but did not affect perinatal anemia. This trial was registered at as NCT00137744. PMID:24744317

Mei, Zuguo; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Jian-Meng; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M



Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L



Cancer and Women  


... Cards Web Badges Infographics Twitter Cancer and Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Every year, cancer claims ... older, but breast cancer also affects younger women. Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...


Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N = 7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a…

Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve



Hydrogenation and disproportionation of SmCo5 compound by high energy ball milling in heptane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) technique succeeds in fabricating bonded Nd-Fe-B magnet while encounters difficulty in the fabrication of Sm-Co magnet, due to the higher thermodynamic stability of the Sm-Co compounds against the disproportionation by hydrogen. To induce the disproporationation of Sm-Co compounds, high pressure hydrogen under high temperature has to be employed. This paper reports a hydrogenation and disproporationation reactions of SmCo5 compound that does not involve gaseous hydrogen: high energy ball milling in heptane. The H atom comes from heptane. Being milled for more than 600 min, the SmCo5 phase completely disproportionates into Sm hydride (SmH2±?) and cubic Co. Heating the disproportionated powder in vacuum from room temperature to 800 °C, two desorption processes, one between 200 and 400 °C and the other around about 600 °C, were observed. The desorbed gas is proved to be hydrogen by gas chromatography. The Heated product consists of mainly hexagonal SmCo7 phase with a TbCu7 structure. The coercivity of SmCo7 phase is larger than 1 T, being able to meet the demand of permanent magnetic application. Excess high energy ball milling results in the appearance of minor SmCoC2 and cubic Co phases.

Zhang, J. J.; Yan, Y.; Gao, H. M.; Geng, H. M.; Feng, X. Y.; Hou, Z. P.; Li, H. D.; Wang, W. Q.; Su, F.; Du, X. B.



Reducing the Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E566.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest summarizes the problem of over-representation of minority students in special education and offers suggestions to reduce this disproportionate representation. It notes concerns of the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) that minority students are being misclassified and receiving…

Burnette, Jane


Hispanic/Latina Women and AIDS: A Critical Perspective. JSRI Working Paper No. 36. JSRI Research & Publications Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are a rapidly growing group of people with AIDS in the United States, and Hispanic/Latina and African American women are disproportionately represented. This paper reviews the literature on the epidemiology of AIDS/HIV infection among Latina women, children, and adolescents and discusses the needs of Latinas regarding AIDS prevention…

Blasini-Caceres, Lydia; Cook, Amy Beth


HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.  


Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don



Substance use and partner violence among urban women seeking emergency care.  


Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bidirectional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low-income urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for sociodemographics and potentially confounding multilevel risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior 6 months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as nonheroin-using women to indicate any physical, injurious, or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low-income urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita



Exploring the Experiences of African American Women in an Undergraduate Summer Research Program Designed to Address the Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American women compose a critical proportion of the potential science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce of the future, yet are disproportionately represented and largely underutilized. While various programs and initiatives have been designed and implemented to target women and underrepresented minorities, the…

Reid, Ericka L.



Identifying hospitals that may be at most financial risk from Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital payment cuts.  


Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments are expected to decline by $35.1 billion between fiscal years 2017 and 2024, a reduction brought about by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and recent congressional action. DSH payments have long been a feature of the Medicaid program, intended to partially offset uncompensated care costs incurred by hospitals that treat uninsured and Medicaid populations. The DSH payment cuts were predicated on the expectation that the ACA's expansion of health insurance to millions of Americans would bring about a decline in many hospitals' uncompensated care costs. However, the decision of twenty-five states not to expand their Medicaid programs, combined with residual coverage gaps, may leave as many as thirty million people uninsured, and hospitals will bear the burden of their uncompensated care costs. We sought to identify the hospitals that may be the most financially vulnerable to reductions in Medicaid DSH payments. We found that of the 529 acute care hospitals that will be particularly affected by the cuts, 225 (42.5 percent) are in weak financial condition. Policy makers should recognize that decreases in revenue may affect these hospitals' ability to give vulnerable populations access to care. PMID:25367999

Cole, Evan S; Walker, Daniel; Mora, Arthur; Diana, Mark L



"Disproportionately Influential?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,…

Stuart, Reginald



Anisotropic ternary Pr13Fe80B7 powders prepared by hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-purity ternary Pr13Fe80B7 magnetic powder with high anisotropy is obtained by a modified hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process in this work. This powder exhibits a record-high Br of 1.05T, and has a good crystal texture along the c axis. It is found that the formation of HDDR Pr13Fe80B7 anisotropy is related to a rodlike disproportionation microstructure. We also show that by changing the HDDR conditions, an intrinsic coercivity of 800kA/m and an energy product of 144kJ/m3 are obtained on this powder. The details of the modified HDDR process are also presented in this paper.

Han, Jing-zhi; Liu, Shun-quan; Du, Hong-lin; Yang, Jin-bo; Yang, Ying-chang



Catalytic disproportionation of the superoxide intermediate from electrochemical O2 reduction in nonaqueous electrolytes.  


Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFPB) was found to be an efficient catalyst for rapid superoxide (O2(-)) disproportionation. The kinetics for the catalytic disproportionation reaction is much faster than the reaction between O2(-) and propylene carbonate. Therefore, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2(-) produced by the O2 reduction is minimized. The cathodic current for O2 reduction can be doubled in the presence of TPFPB. The high reduction current resulted from the pseudo two-electron O2-reduction reaction due to the replenishment of O2 at the electrode surface. This discovery could lead to a new avenue for the development of high-capacity, high-rate, rechargeable Li-air batteries. PMID:23650071

Zheng, Dong; Wang, Qiang; Lee, Hung-Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang



Modeling complex plastic deformation and fracture of metals under disproportionate loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is developed to describe fatigue-damage accumulation in structural materials (metals and their alloys) on multiaxial paths of disproportionate combined heat and power loading. The effect of the shape of the strain path on the fatigue life of metals was studied to obtain qualitative and quantitative estimates of the obtained constitutive relations. It is shown that the proposed constitutive relations adequately describe the main elastoplastic deformation effects and damage accumulation in structural materials for arbitrary strain paths.

Volkov, I. A.; Korotkikh, Yu. G.; Tarasov, I. S.



The Disproportionate Impact of Antigay Family Policies on Black and Latino Same-sex Couple Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the racial dynamics of antigay activism, and the particular, disproportionate impact of antigay family\\u000a policies on Black and Latino same-sex couple families. Starting in the mid-1990s, antigay activists have passed dozens of\\u000a laws and constitutional amendments banning and repealing state recognition of gay and lesbian relationships. For two decades\\u000a the antigay movement has portrayed sexual orientation nondiscrimination

Sean Cahill



Charge disproportionation in the metallic state of alpha -(BEDT-TTF){2}I{3}  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C-NMR measurements have been carried out on the quasi two-dimensional organic conductor, alpha -(BEDT-TTF){2}I{3}. We measured the angular dependence of 13C-NMR spectrum at several temperatures above metal-insulator transition temperature, 135 K (=T_MI,). We found that charge (spin) disproportionation already exists in the metallic state and gradually develops as temperature approaches to T_MI. Key words. 13C-NMR, Charge disproportination.

S. Moroto; K.-I. Hiraki; Y. Takano; Y. Kubo; T. Takahashi; H. M. Yamamoto; T. Nakamura



Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education  

E-print Network

–2341 Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems1 Janette K. Klingner, University of Colorado at Boulder Alfredo J. Artiles, Arizona... State University Elizabeth Kozleski, University of Colorado at Denver Beth Harry, University of Miami Shelley Zion, University of Colorado at Denver William Tate, Washington University Grace Zamora Durán, U.S. Department of Education David Riley...

Klingner, Janette K.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Harry, Beth; Zion, Shelley; Tate, William; Durá n, Grace Zamora; Riley, David



A birth-season/DRD4 gene interaction predicts weight gain and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder: A seasonal thrifty phenotype hypothesis.  


We have recently described an association between the hypofunctional 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), weight gain, and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In the current study, we examined whether season-of-birth might interact with the 7R allele to influence body weight regulation in SAD. In 182 female probands with SAD, we performed an analysis of covariance predicting maximum lifetime body mass index (BMI) with both the exon-3 variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of DRD4 and season-of-birth as independent variables, and age as the covariate. The overall model was highly significant (F = 4.42, df = 8, 173, p < 0.0001) with season-of-birth predicting maximal lifetime BMI both on its own and in its interaction with the 7R allele. The latter finding was attributable to 7-repeat carriers born in the spring (N = 17), who had a mean maximal lifetime BMI of 33.7 kg/m2 (SD 8.6), compared to 26.7 kg/m2 (SD 5.4) for all other probands combined (N = 165) (F = 20.01, df = 1, 179, p < 0.0001). The lifetime rate of obesity (maximal BMI > 30 kg/m2) was also significantly higher in the 7R/spring birth group (9/17=52.9% vs 32/165=19.4%; chi2 = 9.94, df = 1, p = 0.002; odds ratio = 4.68, 95% CI = 1.67-13.07). These data may reflect a novel gene-environment interaction, during early brain development, which establishes an increased risk for obesity in women with SAD. Although the mechanism for season-of-birth effects in psychiatric disorders is unknown, a characteristic pattern of melatonin exposure during the second and third trimesters may be of particular relevance in this study population. We speculate that these data may reflect the vestigial expression of a seasonal thrifty phenotype that contributed to the positive selection of the 7R allele over the past 40,000 years. PMID:16760922

Levitan, Robert D; Masellis, Mario; Lam, Raymond W; Kaplan, Allan S; Davis, Caroline; Tharmalingam, Subi; Mackenzie, Bronwyn; Basile, Vincenzo S; Kennedy, James L



Childhood inattention and dysphoria and adult obesity associated with the dopamine D4 receptor gene in overeating women with seasonal affective disorder.  


There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention deficit disorder (ADD) comorbidity, and body weight regulation. As part of an ongoing genetic study of increased eating behavior and mood in female subjects, 108 women with winter SAD and carbohydrate craving/weight gain were administered the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to measure childhood ADD symptomatology, and a questionnaire to assess maximal lifetime body mass index (BMI). To test for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used in a subsample of probands providing familial DNA. Standard parametric tests were used to compare childhood ADD symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI across the two genotypic groups defined by the presence or absence of 7R. The TDT found no initial evidence for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD. However, 7R carriers reported significantly greater inattention and dysphoria in childhood (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively) and a higher maximal lifetime BMI (p=0.007) than did probands without this allele. Furthermore, excluding probands with extreme obesity (maximal BMI >40), a strong correlation was found linking childhood inattentive symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI (r=0.35, p=0.001). In overeating women with SAD, the 7R allele of DRD4 may be associated with a unique developmental trajectory characterized by attentional deficits and dysphoria in childhood and mild to moderate obesity in adulthood. This developmental course may reflect different manifestations of the same underlying vulnerability related to central dopamine dysfunction. Given the possibility of population stratification when studying genotype/phenotype relationships, future use of genomic controls and replication of our findings in other overeating and/or ADD populations are needed to confirm these initial results. PMID:14560322

Levitan, R D; Masellis, M; Lam, R W; Muglia, P; Basile, V S; Jain, U; Kaplan, A S; Tharmalingam, S; Kennedy, S H; Kennedy, J L



Angina in Women without Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Angina in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, sometimes referred to as cardiac syndrome X (CSX), is a debilitating condition that disproportionately affects women. More than 50% of women evaluated for angina have non-obstructive disease by cardiac catheterization, although the total numbers of women affected by CSX are unknown. Varying clinical definitions and the lack of large scale epidemiologic studies focusing on this illness have resulted in limited knowledge about its risk factors, although there appears to be an association with black race, estrogen deficiency, and insulin resistance. Contrary to prior beliefs about the benign nature of this entity, these women suffer considerable morbidity with costly economic implications that approach the lifetime costs of healthcare utilization for those with obstructive coronary disease. Two prevailing hypotheses have emerged to explain CSX: the ischemic hypothesis detailing abnormal coronary microvascular function and the non-ischemic hypothesis describing altered pain perception and myocardial hypersensitivity. Treatment strategies have focused on both of these pathways with the main goal of improving symptoms. Beta blockers provide the most convincing evidence for benefit, with other antianginals having secondary roles. Other promising pharmacologic therapies include xanthine derivatives, estrogen replacement therapy, ACE inhibitors, and statin medications, among other emerging treatment options. Neurostimulation and lifestyle factors including exercise can also be beneficial in reducing symptoms. However, managing patients with CSX can be frustrating for both patients and physicians, as there is a lack of data regarding an optimal treatment algorithm including few large-scale randomized controlled trials to clarify effective therapies. PMID:21286281

Banks, Kamakki; Lo, Monica; Khera, Amit



Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.



Psychosocial Factors That Contribute to HIV\\/AIDS Risk Behaviors Among Young Black College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American women are disproportionately burdened by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though African Americans represent only 12% of the population in the United States, more than 54% of HIV-positive women in the United States are of African American descent (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003). The bulk of HIV\\/AIDS research focuses on prevention

Binta Alleyne; John Wodarski



Reassessing the Discrimination against Women in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which the income, power, and prestige potential of college curricula can explain sex composition and male/female attrition rate is examined. Men are disproportionately represented in curricula ranked high on the three stratification dimensions. Those curricula, also have the highest amounts of prejudicial attitudes against women.…

Wilson, Kenneth L.; Shin, Eui Hang



The Relationship between the Proportion of Same-Major Friendships and Academic and Affective Outcomes for Women and Men in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has continued to be an area of national concern. Research examining women's experiences in STEM has highlighted several factors, both at the student- and institutional-level, that contribute to women's continued underrepresentation in STEM, especially in…

Shapiro, Casey Ann Eznekier



Information women receive about heart attacks and how it affects their knowledge, beliefs, and intentions to act in a cardiac emergency.  


In this study we investigate (a) what information women receive on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from different information sources, (b) how women evaluate this information, and (c) how information acquisition is related to women's knowledge of AMI, personal risk perceptions, and behavioral intentions regarding a cardiac emergency. A random sample of 844 women 50 years and over were telephoned in the state of Washington. Repeated measures regression analyses showed that women receive most of their information on AMI from the mass media, even though they evaluated the media as less believable, less useful, less clear, and making less of an impression than information received from health care providers. Logistic regression analyses showed that the total number of information sources from which heart attack information was received in the past year was positively related to knowledge of AMI symptoms, beliefs about AMI, and personal risk perceptions. The results are discussed in terms of their pragmatic implications. PMID:11868962

Meischke, Hendrika; Kuniyuki, Alan; Yasui, Yutaka; Bowen, Deborah J; Andersen, Robyn; Urban, Nicole



42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utilization rates or low-income utilization rates (as defined in section 1923 (b) of the Act) at or above the statewide arithmetic mean. (4) A methodology for disproportionate share hospital payments that was established and in effect as of...



12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. 221.111 Section 221...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered...disproportionate to the right of participation in profits or losses, constitutes an “extension...



12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. 221.111 Section 221...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered...disproportionate to the right of participation in profits or losses, constitutes an “extension...



12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. 221.111 Section 221...contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered...disproportionate to the right of participation in profits or losses, constitutes an “extension...



Sundials in the shade: A study of women's persistence in the first year of a computer science program in a selective university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently women are underrepresented in departments of computer science, making up approximately 18% of the undergraduate enrollment in selective universities. Most attrition in computer science occurs early in this major, in the freshman and sophomore years, and women drop out in disproportionately greater numbers than their male counterparts. Taking an ethnographic approach to investigating women's experiences and progress in the

Rita Manco Powell



The Impact of Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment on Provision of Hospital Uncompensated Care  

PubMed Central

This study examines the association between hospital uncompensated care (UC) and reductions in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments resulting from the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Data on California hospitals from 1996 to 2003 were examined using two-stage least squares with a first-differencing model to control for potential feedback effects. Our findings suggest that not-for-profit hospitals did reduce UC provision in response to reductions in Medicaid DSH, but the response was inelastic in value. Policy makers need to continue to monitor how UC changes as sources of support for indigent care change with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PMID:23230705

Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.



Disproportionation of hydroxylamine by water-soluble iron(III) porphyrinate compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of hydroxylamine (HA) with several water-soluble iron(III) porphyrinate compounds, namely iron(III) meso-tetrakis-(N-ethylpyridinium-2yl)-porphyrinate ([FeIII(TEPyP)]5+), iron(III) meso-tetrakis-(4-sulphonatophenyl)-porphyrinate ([FeIII(TPPS)]3?), and microperoxidase 11 ([FeIII(MP11)]) were studied for different [FeIII(Porph)]\\/[HA] ratios, under anaerobic conditions at neutral pH. Efficient catalytic processes leading to the disproportionation of HA by these iron(III) porphyrinates were evidenced for the first time. As a common feature, only N2 and

Sara E. Bari; Valentín T. Amorebieta; María M. Gutiérrez; José A. Olabe; Fabio Doctorovich



Disproportionate organizational injustice: a close look at facilities exempted from indoor smoking laws in Canada.  


Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans. PMID:23968612

Al-Hamdani, Mohammed



Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.


Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Does Not Adversely Affect Immune or Virological Status in HIV Infected Men And Women: A Pilot Safety Study  

PubMed Central

Context: People infected with HIV have a higher risk for developing insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than the general population. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors are glucose-lowering medications with pleiotropic actions that may particularly benefit people with HIV, but the immune and virological safety of DPP4 inhibition in HIV is unknown. Objective: DPP4 inhibition will not reduce CD4+ T lymphocyte number or increase HIV viremia in HIV-positive adults. Design: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety trial of sitagliptin in HIV-positive adults. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Twenty nondiabetic HIV-positive men and women (9.8 ± 5.5 years of known HIV) taking antiretroviral therapy and with stable immune (625 ± 134 CD4+ T cells per microliter) and virological (<48 copies HIV RNA per milliliter) status. Intervention: The intervention included sitagliptin (100 mg/d) vs matching placebo for up to 24 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ T cell number and plasma HIV RNA were measured every 4 weeks; fasting serum regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal derived factor (SDF)-1?, Soluble TNF receptor II, and oral glucose tolerance were measured at baseline, week 8, and the end of study. ANOVA was used for between-group comparisons; P < .05 was considered significant. Results: Compared with placebo, sitagliptin did not reduce CD4+ T cell count, plasma HIV RNA remained less than 48 copies/mL, RANTES and soluble TNF receptor II concentrations did not increase. SDF1? concentrations declined (P < .0002) in the sitagliptin group. The oral glucose tolerance levels improved in the sitagliptin group at week 8. Conclusions: Despite lowering SDF1? levels, sitagliptin did not adversely affect immune or virological status, or increase immune activation, but did improve glycemia in healthy, nondiabetic HIV-positive adults. These safety data allow future efficacy studies of sitagliptin in HIV-positive people with cardiometabolic complications. PMID:23264399

Goodwin, Scott R.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Royal, Michael; Struthers, Heidi; Laciny, Erin



Plasma Fatty Acid Ratios Affect Blood Gene Expression Profiles - A Cross-Sectional Study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort  

PubMed Central

High blood concentrations of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) relative to n-3 FAs may lead to a “physiological switch” towards permanent low-grade inflammation, potentially influencing the onset of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancer. To explore the potential effects of FA ratios prior to disease onset, we measured blood gene expression profiles and plasma FA ratios (linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid, LA/ALA; arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, AA/EPA; and total n-6/n-3) in a cross-section of middle-aged Norwegian women (n?=?227). After arranging samples from the highest values to the lowest for all three FA ratios (LA/ALA, AA/EPA and total n-6/n-3), the highest and lowest deciles of samples were compared. Differences in gene expression profiles were assessed by single-gene and pathway-level analyses. The LA/ALA ratio had the largest impact on gene expression profiles, with 135 differentially expressed genes, followed by the total n-6/n-3 ratio (125 genes) and the AA/EPA ratio (72 genes). All FA ratios were associated with genes related to immune processes, with a tendency for increased pro-inflammatory signaling in the highest FA ratio deciles. Lipid metabolism related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) signaling was modified, with possible implications for foam cell formation and development of cardiovascular diseases. We identified higher expression levels of several autophagy marker genes, mainly in the lowest LA/ALA decile. This finding may point to the regulation of autophagy as a novel aspect of FA biology which warrants further study. Lastly, all FA ratios were associated with gene sets that included targets of specific microRNAs, and gene sets containing common promoter motifs that did not match any known transcription factors. We conclude that plasma FA ratios are associated with differences in blood gene expression profiles in this free-living population, and that affected genes and pathways may influence the onset and progression of disease. PMID:23825649

Olsen, Karina Standahl; Fenton, Christopher; Frøyland, Livar; Waaseth, Marit; Paulssen, Ruth H.; Lund, Eiliv



Complete genome sequence of Desulfocapsa sulfexigens, a marine deltaproteobacterium specialized in disproportionating inorganic sulfur compounds  

PubMed Central

Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:23961312

Finster, Kai Waldemar; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Schreiber, Lars



Interfacial effects on lithium superoxide disproportionation in li-o2 batteries.  


During the cycling of Li-O2 batteries the discharge process gives rise to dynamically evolving agglomerates composed of lithium-oxygen nanostructures; however, little is known about their composition. In this paper, we present results for a Li-O2 battery based on an activated carbon cathode that indicate interfacial effects can suppress disproportionation of a LiO2 component in the discharge product. High-intensity X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements are first used to show that there is a LiO2 component along with Li2O2 in the discharge product. The stability of the discharge product was then probed by investigating the dependence of the charge potential and Raman intensity of the superoxide peak with time. The results indicate that the LiO2 component can be stable for possibly up to days when an electrolyte is left on the surface of the discharged cathode. Density functional calculations on amorphous LiO2 reveal that the disproportionation process will be slower at an electrolyte/LiO2 interface compared to a vacuum/LiO2 interface. The combined experimental and theoretical results provide new insight into how interfacial effects can stabilize LiO2 and suggest that these interfacial effects may play an important role in the charge and discharge chemistries of a Li-O2 battery. PMID:25615912

Zhai, Dengyun; Lau, Kah Chun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J; Lu, Jun; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua; Yang, Wenge; Gao, Jing; Indacochea, Ernesto; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil



Impact of a women's program for science, mathematics and engineering on undergraduate women: Activity systems on the periphery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National reports such as National Science Foundation's highlight women's disproportionate distribution and differential treatment in the science, mathematics, and engineering (SM&E) fields, in both education and the workforce in the US. Women are less likely than men to choose a career that involves SM&E, and are more likely than men to earn bachelor's degrees in non-science and non-engineering fields. The need for support and encouragement is obvious for women already in college intending to pursue a major in a SM&E field. Comprehensive support networks can be and are established through programs for women entering college and willing to pursue careers in SM&E fields. The context of this research was the Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Mathematics (PWISEM) established in 2001 by a Southern teaching and research university in the US. I constructed a thorough theoretical lens by interweaving the theory of situated learning/legitimate peripheral participation and the cultural-historical activity theory. I explored the interactions and contradictions that affected the science identity formation of the PWISEM students, how they identified themselves as future scientists, and the key factors PWISEM involved in motivating and supporting women students in their intended SM&E majors. The design of the research was dominant-less dominant, the dominant approach being qualitative and the less-dominant being quantitative. The Program was successful in fostering the participation and retention of undergraduate women in SM&E. However, the women in the Program were more likely to internalize the status quo in the SM&E realms without actively challenging it (liberal feminist approach). To change the masculine culture embedded in SM&E, engaging in activism is essential. This research suggests that in fact, programs like PWISEM provide promising contexts for reforming the SM&E culture to be more appealing and inclusive of all. I suggest that there can be both explicit and implicit ways of transformation within such contexts and argue that the implicit approach is more powerful. This research also informs the theory of situated learning in that newcomer interactions are a key aspect and their actions should be understood to involve much more than knowledge circulation.

Kahveci, Ajda


Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett



Few colonies of the host Bombus terrestris disproportionately affect the genetic diversity of its parasite, Crithidia bombi.  


Sex and recombination have long been considered as necessary means for hosts to keep up with and resist to their faster reproducing parasites. On the other hand, comparatively little attention has been paid to potential benefits of recombination for the parasites. Using as model organisms the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its genetically highly variable trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi we analysed the infection dynamics as well as the relative frequency of parasite recombinants over time, in colonies that were either immune-challenged with heat-killed bacteria or sham-inoculated. In addition, we used infective cells from a given colony to infect workers from other, untreated colonies, to investigate whether recombinant parasite strains may have a competitive advantage over the parental strains to infect the surrounding host population. We show that in our experimental setup the host immune status does not influence the proportion of recombinant parasite cells in the infection. Neither do recombinant parasite strains have an advantage over the parental ones at infecting workers unrelated to the host colony the infection originally came from. However, we found that the prevalence of recombinants was highly variable among colonies, with one particular colony producing significantly more recombinant strains than others. As the successful infection of daughter queens--the only individuals surviving the winter to the next year--is proportional to the number of circulating parasite strains in the colony, we suggest that such "super-producing" colonies may be responsible for most of the infections happening in the next year. PMID:24263111

Cisarovsky, Gabriel; Schmid-Hempel, Paul



Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (?10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ?45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon



Perception, attention, and working memory are disproportionately impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To test the hypotheses that visuoperceptual and attentional ability are disproportionately impaired in patients having dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD).?METHODS—A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to assess working, episodic, and semantic memory, and visuoperceptual and attentional functions was given to groups of patients with DLB (n=10) and AD (n=9), matched for age, education, and mini mental state examination (MMSE), and to normal controls (n=17).?RESULTS—Both patient groups performed equally poorly on tests of episodic and semantic memory with the exception of immediate and delayed story recall, which was worse in the AD group. Digit span was by contrast spared in AD. The most striking differences were on tests of visuoperceptual/spatial ability and attention. Whereas patients with AD performed normally on several subtests of the visual object and space perception battery, the DLB group showed substantial impairments. In keeping with previous studies, the AD group showed deficits in selective attention and set shifting, but patients with DLB were more impaired on virtually every test of attention with deficits in sustained, selective, and divided attention.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with DLB have substantially greater impairment of attention, working memory, and visuoperceptual ability than patients with AD matched for overall dementia severity. Semantic memory seems to be equally affected in DLB and AD, unlike episodic memory, which is worse in AD. These findings may have relevance for our understanding of the genesis of visual hallucinations, and the differential diagnosis of AD and DLB.?? PMID:11160462

Calderon, J; Perry, R; Erzinclioglu, S; Berrios, G; Dening, T; Hodges, J



Talking from 9 to 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help individuals as well as companies thrive in a working world made up of increasingly diverse work forces and ever more competitive markets, this book addresses the differences in men's and women's speaking styles, without maintaining the superiority of any one style of speaking. Reinforced with extensive examples drawn from…

Tannen, Deborah


Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

Josephine Lutz


Odanacatib treatment affects trabecular and cortical bone in the femur of postmenopausal women: results of a two-year placebo-controlled trial.  


Odanacatib, a selective cathepsin K inhibitor, increases areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the spine and hip of postmenopausal women. To gain additional insight into the effects on trabecular and cortical bone, we analyzed quantitative computed tomography (QCT) data of postmenopausal women treated with odanacatib using Medical Image Analysis Framework (MIAF; Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany). This international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-year, phase 3 trial enrolled 214 postmenopausal women (mean age 64 years) with low aBMD. Subjects were randomized to odanacatib 50?mg weekly (ODN) or placebo (PBO); all participants received calcium and vitamin D. Hip QCT scans at 24 months were available for 158 women (ODN: n?=?78 women; PBO: n?=?80 women). There were consistent and significant differential treatment effects (ODN-PBO) for total hip integral (5.4%), trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) (12.2%), and cortical vBMD (2.5%) at 24 months. There was no significant differential treatment effect on integral bone volume. Results for bone mineral content (BMC) closely matched those for vBMD for integral and trabecular compartments. However, with small but mostly significant differential increases in cortical volume (1.0% to 1.3%) and thickness (1.4% to 1.9%), the percentage cortical BMC increases were numerically larger than those of vBMD. With a total hip BMC differential treatment effect (ODN-PBO) of nearly 1000?mg, the proportions of BMC attributed to cortical gain were 45%, 44%, 52%, and 40% for the total, neck, trochanter, and intertrochanter subregions, respectively. In postmenopausal women treated for 2 years, odanacatib improved integral, trabecular, and cortical vBMD and BMC at all femur regions relative to placebo when assessed by MIAF. Cortical volume and thickness increased significantly in all regions except the femoral neck. The increase in cortical volume and BMC paralleled the increase in cortical vBMD, demonstrating a consistent effect of ODN on cortical bone. Approximately one-half of the absolute BMC gain occurred in cortical bone. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24898537

Engelke, Klaus; Fuerst, Thomas; Dardzinski, Bernard; Kornak, John; Ather, Shabana; Genant, Harry K; de Papp, Anne



Acid-catalyzed disproportionation of oxoiron(IV) porphyrins to give oxoiron(IV) porphyrin radical cations.  


Disproportionation of oxoiron(IV) porphyrin (Compound II) to oxoiron(IV) porphyrin radical cation (Compound I) was studied in three P450 model systems with different electronic structures. Direct conversion of Compound II to Compound I has been observed for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-dichlorophenyl)porphyrin (TDCPP) in acid-catalyzed reactions in a mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water (1:1, v/v) containing excess m-CPBA oxidant, with a second-order rate constant of (1.3 ± 0.2) × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1). The acid-catalyzed disproportionation heavily depends on the electron demand of the substituted aryl groups on the porphyrin macrocycle. The disproportionation equilibrium constants show drastic change for the three porphyrin systems. PMID:21572532

Pan, Zhengzheng; Newcomb, Martin



Acid-catalyzed disproportionation of oxoiron(IV) porphyrins to give oxoiron(IV) porphyrin radical cations  

PubMed Central

Disproportionation of oxoiron(IV) porphyrin (Compound II) to oxoiron(IV) porphyrin radical cation (Compound I) was studied in three P450 model systems with different electronic structures. Direct conversion of Compound II to Compound I has been observed for 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-dichlorophenyl)porphyrin (TDCPP) in acid-catalyzed reactions in a mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water (1:1, v/v) containing excess m-CPBA oxidant, with a second-order rate constant of (1.3 ± 0.2) × 102 M?1 s?1. The acid-catalyzed disproportionation heavily depends on the electron demand of the substituted aryl groups on the porphyrin macrocycle. The disproportionation equilibrium constants show drastic change for the three porphyrin systems. PMID:21572532

Pan, Zhengzheng; Newcomb, Martin



Sex/Gender Disparities and Women's Eye Health.  


Abstract Our eyes are, both literally and figuratively, windows to the world, and ophthalmic approaches offer a tremendous space for conducting research to learn more. Male/female differences in ocular health and disease are prevalent but we know far too little about root causes to design and implement diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategies to address sex- and gender-based disparities in eye health. Herein, we discuss several ophthalmic diseases and other conditions with ocular manifestations, with a focus upon those that disproportionately affect women. Because the vast majority of biomedical research in this area comes from studies of mixed-gender populations, or of male-predominant populations, there is a pressing need for sex- and/or gender-based research at various points along the basic to clinical biomedical research continuum. Moreover, the multitude of factors that affect eye health call for a balanced look at the influence of biology, culture, and societal contributors. As clinicians, we owe our patients the best care for their needs, and that care must be derived from research that shows what is effective, for whom, and under what conditions. PMID:25548854

Clayton, Janine A; Davis, Alison F



Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.  


Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C



Exploring the social and interpersonal experiences of South Asian women with a diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.  


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) negatively impacts life quality, disproportionately affecting women and UK ethnic minorities. The study aimed to explore how UK South Asian women with SLE make sense of their social and interpersonal experiences, within the context of their ethnicity and perceived cultural influences. A qualitative design was employed to collect data from a homogenous sample of six South Asian women with SLE. Semi-structured interviews elicited participants' experiences of living with SLE and data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Master themes were (1) 'SLE: Complexities and Ironies', (2) 'The Power of SLE', (3) 'A Sense of Personal Responsibility and Accountability', (4) 'Essential Relationships: Qualities and Consequences' and (5) 'Struggling in Public View'. Findings revealed that illness, function and emotion were experienced as interrelated, and psychosocial issues were a powerful feature in SLE illness processes. Body image concerns, difficulties maintaining roles and the perceived views of others, triggered embarrassment and withdrawal, negatively influencing social function and relationships. Interestingly, explicit references to ethnicity and culture were minimal, suggesting that for these women, the key features of experience tended to reflect those of other SLE groups. These findings call for an integrated, biopsychosocial and multidisciplinary approach to health care provision in this area. PMID:25307703

Rutter, S J; Kiemle, G



Effect of carrier gas on stability and selectivity of large pore zeolites during disproportionation of monoalkylbenzenes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of carrier gas on catalytic activity, selectivity and coke formation of cumene disproportionation reaction over zeolite Beta is discussed. Catalytic performance was investigated by continuous flow reaction system. Characterisation of coke was carried out by {sup 13}CMAS and {sup 129}XeNMR and IR spectroscopy in association with thermogravimetric analysis. In the presence of different carrier gases, a notable decrease in the catalytic activity, in the order of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, He, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} was found in zeolite Beta. The catalytic stability was also found to increase in the same order. The ratio of m- and p-diisopropylbenzene isomers correlate well with the boiling points of the carrier gases, except for H{sub 2}. A transition complex salvation model is proposed.

Pradhan, A.R.; Chen, W.H.; Jong, S.J. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others



Medicaid program; disproportionate share hospital payments--uninsured definition. Final rule.  


This final rule addresses the hospital-specific limitation on Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments under the Social Security Act (the Act). Under this limitation, DSH payments to a hospital cannot exceed the uncompensated costs of furnishing hospital services by the hospital to individuals who are Medicaid-eligible or "have no health insurance (or other source of third party coverage) for the services furnished during the year.'' This rule provides that, in auditing DSH payments, the quoted test will be applied on a service-specific basis; so that the calculation of uncompensated care for purposes of the hospital-specific DSH limit will include the cost of each service furnished to an individual by that hospital for which the individual had no health insurance or other source of third party coverage. PMID:25508456



Maltooligosaccharide disproportionation reaction: an intrinsic property of amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea.  


Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea (AS) is a remarkable transglycosidase of family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases that catalyses the synthesis of an amylose-like polymer from sucrose and is always described as a sucrose-specific enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the ability of pure AS to catalyse the disproportionation of maltooligosaccharides by cleaving the alpha-1,4 linkage at the non-reducing end of a maltooligosaccharide donor and transferring the glucosyl unit to the non-reducing end of another maltooligosaccharide acceptor. Surprisingly, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetraose are very poor glucosyl donors whereas longer maltooligosaccharides are even more efficient glucosyl donors than sucrose. At least five glucose units are required for efficient transglucosylation, suggesting the existence of strong binding subsites, far from the sucrose binding site, at position +4 and above. PMID:12220635

Albenne, Cécile; Skov, Lars K; Mirza, Osman; Gajhede, Michael; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali



Disproportionate Exposures in Environmental Justice and Other Populations: The Importance of Outliers  

PubMed Central

We examined traditional environmental justice populations and other groups whose exposure to contaminants is often disproportionately high. Risk assessment methods may not identify these populations, particularly if they are spatially dispersed. We suggest using a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey approach to oversample minority communities and develop methods for assessing exposure at different distances from pollution sources; publishing arithmetic and geometric means and full distributions for minority populations; and paying particular attention to high-end exposures. Means may sufficiently characterize populations as a whole but are inadequate in identifying vulnerable groups and subgroups. The number of individuals above the 95th percentile of any distribution may be small and unrepresentative, but these outliers are the ones who need to be protected. PMID:21551384

Gochfeld, Michael



Efficient disproportionation of formic acid to methanol using molecular ruthenium catalysts.  


The disproportionation of formic acid to methanol was unveiled in 2013 using iridium catalysts. Although attractive, this transformation suffers from very low yields; methanol was produced in less than 2% yield, because the competitive dehydrogenation of formic acid (to CO2 and H2) is favored. We report herein the efficient and selective conversion of HCOOH to methanol in 50% yield, utilizing ruthenium(II) phosphine complexes under mild conditions. Experimental and theoretical (DFT) results show that different convergent pathways are involved in the production of methanol, depending on the nature of the catalyst. Reaction intermediates have been isolated and fully characterized and the reaction chemistry of the resulting ruthenium complexes has been studied. PMID:25088282

Savourey, Solène; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Thuéry, Pierre; Genre, Caroline; Cantat, Thibault



Prevalence and Correlates of Knowledge of Male Partner HIV Testing and Serostatus Among African-American Women Living in High Poverty, High HIV Prevalence Communities (HPTN 064).  


Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F



Does Metformin affect ER, PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 expression in women with diabetes mellitus and endometrial cancer?  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes mellitus, as a risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), causes an increase in insulin and IGF-1 concentrations in the blood serum. The increase in insulin and IGF-1 are considered mitogenic factors contributory to cancer development. Studies suggest that metformin has preventive activity, decreasing mortality and the risk of neoplasms. Since estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and IGF-1 (IGF-1R) receptor expression and ?-catenin and PAX-2 mutations are significant in the development of endometrial cancer, it was decided to study these factors in patients with endometrial cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to establish the effects of metformin on their expression. Methods The expression of ER, PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 have been immunohistochemically investigated in 86 type I endometrial cancer specimens. Patients were grouped according to the presence of DM2 and the type of hypoglycemic treatment administered. Results Comparing EC patients with DM2 and normal glycemic status, we found increased IGF-1R expression in women with DM2. A decrease in ER expression was noted in women with EC and DM2 receiving metformin as compared to women treated with insulin (p?=?0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in PR, IGF-1R, ?-catenin and PAX-2 expression among women receiving metformin and other hypoglycemic treatment. Conclusion Although epidemiological studies suggest the beneficial role of metformin in many human cancers, there are still few studies confirming its favorable effect on endometrial cancer. Decreased ER expression in patients receiving metformin needs further research to allow evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:24308813



Heart Disease in Women  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Español In the United States, 1 ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque (plak) ...


Disproportionate Minority Representation in Suspension and Expulsion in Minnesota Public Schools: A Report from the Minnesota Department of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suspension of any student is problematic for students from all groups. Suspension and expulsion as interventions are inadequate to change behavior unless they are paired with teaching replacement behaviors. However, African American/Black, American Indian and Hispanic students are suspended and expelled at rates that are disproportionate to…

Anfinson, Allison; Autumn, Stephanie; Lehr, Cammy; Riestenberg, Nancy; Scullin, Sarah



Universal Screening for Behavioral and Emotional Risk: A Promising Method for Reducing Disproportionate Placement in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overrepresentation of U.S. minority students identified for emotional and behavior disorders special education programs plagues schools and challenges researchers and practitioners. Arcane methods including teacher nomination continue to guide referral processes, despite compelling evidence of their influence on disproportionate special…

Raines, Tara C.; Dever, Bridget V.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Roach, Andrew T.



1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES  

E-print Network

1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http://

Vertes, Akos


Does hormone replacement therapy affect the use of prescription medicines in postmenopausal women: experience from the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Trial [ISRCTN35338757  

Microsoft Academic Search

arms. However, the type of prescribed drugs varied between the arms. After combining data from both hormone therapy arms, for women using HRT the combined hazard ratio was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.05-1.53) for the use of calcium channel blockers, 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for local vaginal treatment, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50-0.99) for hypnotics and sedatives and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-0.99)

P Veerus; K Fischer; S-L Hovi; H Karro; E Hemminki



Intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and factors affecting it among married women in Adigrat town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increase in contraceptive use worldwide over the last decade, there is still discrepancy in the need to limit birth and utilization of modern contraceptives specifically long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Intention to use long acting and permanent methods of contraception is an important indicator of the potential demand for family planning services. Objective To assess intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) and identifying associated factors among currently married women in Adigrat town. Methods A community based cross sectional study design complemented with a qualitative method was conducted in three selected Kebeles of Adigrat town. A total of 594 study subjects were interviewed. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study subjects. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Open code software version was used to facilitate coding of the qualitative data. Factors associated with intention were identified using logistic regression model and content analysis was done on the qualitative data. Results Intention to use LAPMs was 48.4%. Intention to use LAPMs was higher among women who knew at least one of LAPMs (AOR?=?4.7, 95% CI?=?1.58, 14.01) and women who do not want to have birth within the next 2 years (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.22, 3.13). Intention to use LAMPs was less among women who perceive poor support from their husbands (AOR?=?0.2, 95% CI?=?0.09, 0.45) and those who perceive LAPMs are harmful for the womb (AOR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.14, 0.41). Similarly, participants in the focus group discussion have expressed their concern on the return of fertility after using implants or IUCD as well as insertion and removal procedures. Conclusions The magnitude of intention to use LAPMs in the study area was low. The main limiting factors were fear of side effect, infertility after LAPMs use, knowledge on LAPMs and perception on partner’s support of LAPMs use. To further promote the use of LAPMs addressing associated misconceptions through effective communication strategies and involving spouses in family planning programs is essential. PMID:24628764



Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur in Marine Sediments Amplified by a Seafloor Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide and to grow only in the presence of a sulfide scavenger have been enriched electrochemically in marine sediments. During a 7-month experiment designed to demonstrate sustained electrical energy harvesting by a seafloor fuel cell (Tender et al. 2002), a graphite anode embedded in sediment within Yaquina Bay, OR, developed a biofilm showing a 60% enrichment in ?-Proteobacteria belonging to the genera Desulfobulus/Desulfocapsa. Cytophagales showed a secondary enrichment in 36.7% of 16S rDNA sequences. These two groups of microorganisms made up 23.5% and 8.8%, respectively, of clones derived from graphite scrapings of a control cell with zero current. Sediment porewater profiles show millimolar increases in sulfate and iron concentrations, but also sulfide depletion approaching the active anode. Electron microprobe analyses reveal accumulations of sulfur and iron between the graphite surface of the anode and the overcoating biofilm with a Fe/S ratio below one. Extractions of iron mineral phases also indicate a small decrease in crystalline iron oxide near the anode. These chemical changes are consistent with four interactive processes. (1) Sulfide is oxidized to elemental sulfur directly at the anode. (2) The elemental sulfur promotes the microbial production of sulfate and FeS + FeS2. (3) Iron sulfide apparently dissolves to re-supply sulfide that is consumed by the anode. (4) Released Fe+2 accumulates and with organic ligands may catalyze the reduction and dissolution of crystalline iron oxide (Luther et al. 1992). Thus, we conclude the anodic half-cell reaction of the marine fuel cell provides a novel experimental approach for in situ enrichment of bacteria that disproportionate elemental sulfur while highlighting a biogeochemical cycle usually obscured by competing processes. Tender L. M., Reimers C. E., Stecher H. A. III, Holmes D. E., Bond D. R, Lowy, D. A., Pilobello K., Fertig S. J., Lovley D. R., Harnessing microbially generated power on the seafloor, Nature Biotechnology (2002) 20: 821-825. Luther G. W. III, Kostka J. E., Church T. M., Sulzberger B., Stumm W., Seasonal iron cycling in the salt-marsh sedimentary environment: the importance of ligand complexes with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and pyrite, respectively, Marine Chemistry (1992) 40: 81-103

Ryckelynck, N. B.; Reimers, C. E.; Stecher, H. A.; Holmes, D. E.; Bond, D. E.



Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet prepared by mechanically activated disproportionation and desorption-recombination in-situ sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of mechanically activated disproportionation and desorption-recombination in-situ sintering was proposed to synthesize highly densified nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet, and its validity was demonstrated by experimental investigation with the use of a Nd16Fe76B8 (atomic ratio) alloy. Firstly, the as-cast alloy was disproportionated by mechanical milling in hydrogen, with the starting micron-sized Nd2Fe14B phase decomposed into an intimate mixture of nano-structured NdH2.7, Fe2B and ?-Fe phases. The as-disproportionated alloy powders were compacted by cold pressing and then subjected to desorption-recombination in-situ sintering. The microstructure of both the as-disproportionated and the subsequently sintered samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron transmission microscopy, respectively. The magnetic properties of the sintered samples were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that, by vacuum sintering, not only was the powder compact consolidated, but also the as-disproportionated microstucture transformed into nanocrystalline Nd2Fe14B phase via the well-known desorption-recombination reaction, thus giving rise to nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet. In the present study, the optimal sintering parameters were found to be 780 °C×30 min. In this case, the coercivity, the remanence, and maximum energy product of the magnet sample achieved 0.8 T, 635.3 kA/m, and 106.3 kJ/m3, respectively.

Xiaoya, Liu; Yuping, Li; Lianxi, Hu



Coordinated public health initiatives to address violence against women and adolescents.  


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health care settings and partner with domestic violence programs, effects of early IPV intervention, and models for taking interventions to scale. PMID:25549182

Dutton, Mary Ann; James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise



Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO{sub 2}/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

GeO disproportionation into GeO{sub 2} and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO {yields} GeO{sub 2} + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 {+-} 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO{sub 2}/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO{sub 2} is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

Wang Shengkai [Micorowave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Liu Honggang [Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)



Disproportionate-share hospital payment reductions may threaten the financial stability of safety-net hospitals.  


Safety-net hospitals rely on disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments to help cover uncompensated care costs and underpayments by Medicaid (known as Medicaid shortfalls). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) anticipates that insurance expansion will increase safety-net hospitals' revenues and will reduce DSH payments accordingly. We examined the impact of the ACA's Medicaid DSH reductions on California public hospitals' financial stability by estimating how total DSH costs (uncompensated care costs and Medicaid shortfalls) will change as a result of insurance expansion and the offsetting DSH reductions. Decreases in uncompensated care costs resulting from the ACA insurance expansion may not match the act's DSH reductions because of the high number of people who will remain uninsured, low Medicaid reimbursement rates, and medical cost inflation. Taking these three factors into account, we estimate that California public hospitals' total DSH costs will increase from $2.044 billion in 2010 to $2.363-$2.503 billion in 2019, with unmet DSH costs of $1.381-$1.537 billion. PMID:24889948

Neuhausen, Katherine; Davis, Anna C; Needleman, Jack; Brook, Robert H; Zingmond, David; Roby, Dylan H



Laser-induced charge-disproportionated metallic state in LaCoO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of the spin transition in LaCoO3 is one of the long-standing aims in condensed matter physics. Aside from its fundamental interest, a detailed description of this crossover will have a direct impact on the interpretation of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) and the properties of the high-temperature metallic phase in this compound, which has shown to have important applications in environmentally friendly energy production. To date, the spin transition has been investigated mainly as a function of temperature in thermal equilibrium. These results have hinted at dynamical effects. In this paper, we have investigated the SMT by means of pump-probe soft x-ray reflectivity experiments at the O K , Co L , and La M edges and theoretical calculations within a DFT++ formalism. The results point towards a laser-induced metallization in which the optical transitions stabilize a metallic state with high-spin configuration and increased charge disproportionation.

Izquierdo, M.; Karolak, M.; Trabant, C.; Holldack, K.; Föhlisch, A.; Kummer, K.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Spiwek, M.; Belozerov, A.; Poteryaev, A.; Lichtenstein, A.; Molodtsov, S. L.



Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  


The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W



Working Toward an Inclusive Psychology of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist critics of an androcentric bias in psychology have argued that the tendency to either exclude women from study or include women and men as comparison groups has resulted in faulty overgeneralizations about women's psychology, exaggerations of gender differences, and evaluations of women as deficient relative to a male-defined baseline. The authors warn of a parallel bias that could affect

Janice D. Yoder; Arnold S. Kahn



Childhood Inattention and Dysphoria and Adult Obesity Associated with the Dopamine D4 receptor Gene in Overeating Women with Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention

R D Levitan; M Masellis; R W Lam; P Muglia; V S Basile; U Jain; A S Kaplan; S Tharmalingam; S H Kennedy; J L Kennedy



Polymorphism of the serotonin-2A receptor gene (HTR2A) associated with childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult women with seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Several lines of research point to a possible overlap between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly in females. There is also emerging evidence that variation of the 5-HT2A receptor gene (HTR2A) contributes to both SAD and ADHD. The current study investigated whether variation in HTR2A was associated with symptoms of childhood ADHD in adult

R. D Levitan; M Masellis; V. S Basile; R. W Lam; U Jain; A. S Kaplan; S. H Kennedy; G Siegel; M. L Walker; F. J Vaccarino; J. L Kennedy



Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

Agosto, William N.



Disproportionation of clustered protein-stabilized bubbles at planar air-water interfaces.  


The rate of shrinkage of air bubbles, of initial radius from 50 to 200 microm, injected beneath a planar air-water interface has been measured. Bubbles were stabilized in solutions of 0.05 wt% gelatin or pure beta-lactoglobulin. It has been observed that small size differences between two closely spaced or touching bubbles result in markedly divergent rates of shrinkage for the two. By studying a number of different initial bubble configurations, it is demonstrated that the overall change in bubble size distribution is strongly dependent on local, interbubble gas diffusion. In this respect, the strong tendency for the gelatin-stabilized bubbles to aggregate and shrink, while remaining in contact, produced patterns of disproportionation significantly different from those observed with beta-lactoglobulin. In beta-lactoglobulin solutions, it was usually found that bubbles initially in contact shrank away from each other with time, becoming increasingly isolated as a result. A theoretical approach that can exactly incorporate the perturbation of local diffusion fluxes due to the proximity of two bubbles is presented. This enables one to map a "stability diagram" that delineates regions where the larger bubble of a pair will either shrink or grow, according to the relative size of the bubbles and their separation. Theoretical calculations show that it is possible for a bubble to exhibit more complex shrinkage behavior than is predicted by a mean field approach or the Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW) theory of Ostwald ripening for dilute systems. The inclusion of dilatational elasticity in the theoretical model introduces additional complications, which are also briefly discussed. PMID:12804884

Ettelaie, Rammile; Dickinson, Eric; Du, Zhiping; Murray, Brent S



Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li-air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2- produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1 and 0.67 s-1 M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang



Controlling nucleic acid secondary structure by intercalation: effects of DNA strand length on coralyne-driven duplex disproportionation  

PubMed Central

Small molecules that intercalate in DNA and RNA are powerful agents for controlling nucleic acid structural transitions. We recently demonstrated that coralyne, a small crescent-shaped molecule, can cause the complete and irreversible disproportionation of duplex poly(dA)·poly(dT) into triplex poly(dA)·poly(dT)·poly(dT) and a poly(dA) self- structure. Both DNA secondary structures that result from duplex disproportionation are stabilized by coralyne intercalation. In the present study, we show that the kinetics and thermodynamics of coralyne-driven duplex disproportionation strongly depend on oligonucleotide length. For example, disproportionation of duplex (dA)16·(dT)16 by coralyne reverts over the course of hours if the sample is maintained at 4°C. Coralyne-disproportioned (dA)32· (dT)32, on the other hand, only partially reverts to the duplex state over the course of days at the same temperature. Furthermore, the equilibrium state of a (dA)16·(dT)16 sample in the presence of coralyne at room temperature contains three different secondary structures [i.e. duplex, triplex and the (dA)16 self-structure]. Even the well-studied process of triplex stabilization by coralyne binding is found to be a length-dependent phenomenon and more complicated than previously appreciated. Together these observations indicate that at least one secondary structure in our nucleic acid system [i.e. duplex, triplex or (dA)n self-structure] binds coralyne in a length-dependent manner. PMID:12888521

Jain, Swapan S.; Polak, Matjaž; Hud, Nicholas V.



Flibanserin, a drug intended for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women, affects spontaneous motor activity and brain neurochemistry in female rats.  


Flibanserin, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, is being developed for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in pre-menopausal women. Here, we investigated the effects of acute administration of flibanserin (15 and 45 mg/kg, p.o.) and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on neurotransmitter levels in brain areas of female rats. Specifically, levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and neurotransmitter metabolites were examined in prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. In addition, spontaneous motor activity was determined in an automated motor activity system. Flibanserin (45 mg/kg) but not (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly reduced motor activity, when compared to vehicle controls. Specifically, the DA turnover was significantly increased (279%) in the PFC after flibanserin treatment but less pronounced (159%) after 8-OH-DPAT administration. Serotonin tissue levels were not altered in any of the investigated brain regions upon flibanserin treatment. However, flibanserin produced a significant decrease of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 5-HT turnover in the PFC, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem similar to (+)-8-OH-DPAT. In conclusion, the present study indicates that flibanserin is able to modulate dopaminergic and serotonergic activity in distinct brain areas. The observed effects in the PFC on dopaminergic markers are different from those induced by (+)-8-OH-DPAT and may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy in HSDD. The effects of flibanserin on spontaneous motor behaviour are in agreement with its receptor profile and underscore that flibanserin is devoid of any locomotor hyperactivity inducing properties. PMID:20422156

Ferger, Boris; Shimasaki, Makoto; Ceci, Angelo; Ittrich, Carina; Allers, Kelly A; Sommer, Bernd



Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.  


Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. PMID:24612972

Marzullo, Giovanni



Increasing women in leadership in global health.  


Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W



Women Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…

Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick


Migraine in women.  


Of the nearly 32 million Americans with migraine, 24 million are women. It is a disorder affecting women throughout their lifetimes, from childhood and puberty through the postmenopausal years. In childhood, before puberty girls are afflicted with migraine at approximately the same rate as boys, but after puberty, there is an emerging female predominance. Estrogen plays a key role in this epidemiologic variation but is not the only factor. There are numerous times when hormonal influences have an impact on migraine and its pattern, including menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause. Hence practitioners treating women with migraine need to have a clear understanding of these special considerations. PMID:19289228

Lay, Christine L; Broner, Susan W



Women in IT Leadership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study published by the Applied Information Management Institute looks at women in IT leadership. Men and women in senior positions in IT were interviewed to explore "1) early experiences affecting womenâ??s later interest in IT; 2) career paths and the influence of IT education; 3) barriers to success within IT environments; and 4) organizational practices that may facilitate womenâ??s careers in IT." The results show that early engagement and IT education are important, barriers to women's careers in IT remain, and organizational culture is a core concern.


What’s So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women’s Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations  

PubMed Central

We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM.

Sassler, Sharon; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M.



Assessing the Influence of Health Literacy on HIV-Positive Women’s Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Women living with HIV (WLH) bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer and may face challenges understanding health information. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of health literacy on WLH cervical cancer screening knowledge and behaviors. WLH were recruited from clinic- and community-based settings in the southeastern USA. The majority of women completing a questionnaire assessing factors related to cervical cancer were African American (90 %). About 38 % of women reported low health literacy. Compared to women with high health literacy, these women were more likely to report having had ?2 Pap tests during the year after HIV diagnosis (p=0.02), and less likely to have had a Pap test <1 year previously (p=0.05). There was no difference in cervical cancer or human papillomavirus knowledge among those with low versus high health literacy. Results revealed mixed finding on the influence of health literacy on screening knowledge and behaviors. PMID:23564430

Wigfall, Lisa T.; Brandt, Heather M.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hébert, James R.



Genital tract viral load in HIV Type 1-positive women correlates with specific cytokine levels in cervical-vaginal secretions but is not a determinant of infectious virus or anti-HIV activity.  


As the AIDS epidemic continues with women being disproportionately affected, it is crucial to understand factors that predict the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. We investigated whether genital tract viral load (GTVL) in cervical-vaginal lavages (CVL) from HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts correlates with cytokine levels, antimicrobial concentrations, and intrinsic anti-HIV activity. CVL were collected from 19 HIV-1-positive women with moderately low CD4 T cell counts [mean 381 cells/mm(3) (227-536 cells/mm(3))]. None of the women was on antiretroviral therapy. The women were categorized into those with detectable GTVL or those with undetectable GTVL (detectable GTVL RNA levels >?400 copies/ml). Women were also categorized according to bacterial vaginosis (BV) status irrespective of GTVL. The TZM-bl assay was used to determine the presence of infectious virus and anti-HIV activity. Significantly higher levels of RANTES, Eotaxin, Fractalkine, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, TNF-?, and GM-CSF were observed in women with detectable GTVL compared to women with undetectable GTVL. No significant differences were observed in the following cytokines and chemokines: G-CSF, IL-1RA, IL-8, and IP-10. GTVL did not correlate either with antimicrobials known to have anti-HIV activity or with the presence of infectious virus. BV status did not have a significant effect on anti-HIV activity. These findings further our understanding of the role of GTVL in determining the cytokine and chemokine milieu in the female reproductive tract. PMID:22356616

Mukura, Lucy R; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Wira, Charles R



The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics of Texas school districts and the Texas Education Agency's indicators of disproportionate representation in special education programs  

E-print Network

Despite considerable efforts, the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in special education programs remains among the most persistent problems in the field of education. Using data from...

Ramirez, Eleazar



Self-organized nanorods in disproportionated Sm2Fe17 and NdFe10.5Mo1.5 alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organized rod-like disproportionation microstructures were obtained in Sm2Fe17 alloy by modifying the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process. The SmH2 nanorods are uniformly embedded in a Fe matrix. All the SmH2 are oriented along the same direction, and show a certain orientation relationship with the Fe matrix. Similar morphology was also observed in the disproportionated products of the NdFe10.5Mo1.5 alloy. However, for both Sm2Fe17 and NdFe10.5Mo1.5 alloys, no crystallographic orientation relationship is found between the recombined grains and the corresponding disproportionated products, and there is no crystal texture in the HDDR treated magnetic powders.

Xing, Meiying; Han, Jingzhi; Lin, Zhong; Wan, Fangming; Liu, Shunquan; Wang, Changsheng; Xu, Qing; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang



Women in rural development.  


The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented. PMID:12336530

Palmer, I



Family structure, women's education and work: Re-examining the high status of women in Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literacy, together with non-domestic employment, which gave women access to independent sources of income, have been regarded as important indicators of women's `status', which affected fertility and mortality outcomes. Since women in Kerala have on average, been the most literate when compared with women in other states of India (though the same could not be said of female work-participation rates),

Mridul Eapen; Praveena Kodoth



Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.



Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.



Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, through a review of the status of working women on bottom and on the top, refutes a set of myths about women, work, and poverty that have shaped welfare reform. Chapter 1 highlights the big changes affecting women in the U.S. economy. Chapter 2 describes who is poor in the United States and examines how poverty has come to be defined.…

Albelda, Randy; Tilly, Chris


BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION—A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general.?OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer.?SUBJECTS—From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease.?METHODS—DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry.?RESULTS—Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers.?CONCLUSIONS—A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast cancer is predictive of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, particularly when combined with information on the patients' age at diagnosis and family history of breast/ovarian cancer.???Keywords: breast cancer; mutations; BRCA1; BRCA2 PMID:11389159

Bergthorsson, J; Ejlertsen, B; Olsen, J; Borg, A; Nielsen, K; Barkardottir, R; Klausen, S; Mouridsen, H; Winther, K; Fenger, K; Niebuhr, A; Harboe, T; Niebuhr, E



Charge-order melting in charge-disproportionated perovskite CeCu3Fe4O12.  


A novel quadruple perovskite oxide CeCu3Fe4O12 has been synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of 15 GPa and 1473 K. (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy displays a charge disproportionation transition of 4Fe(3.5+) ? 3Fe(3+) + Fe(5+) below ?270 K, whereas hard X-ray photoemission and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm that the Ce and Cu valences are retained at approximately +4 and +2, respectively, over the entire temperature range measured. Electron and X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the body-centered cubic symmetry (space group Im3?, No. 204) is retained at temperatures as low as 100 K, indicating the absence of any types of charge-ordering in the charge-disproportionated CeCu3Fe4O12 phase. The magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction data illustrate that the antiferromagnetic ordering of Fe ions is predominant in the charge-disproportionated CeCu3Fe4O12 phase. These findings suggest that CeCu3Fe4O12 undergoes a new type of electronic phase in the ACu3Fe4O12 series and that the melting of the charge-ordering in CeCu3Fe4O12 is caused by the substantial decrease in the Fe valence and the resulting large deviation from the ideal abundance ratio of Fe(3+):Fe(5+) = 1:1 for rock-salt-type charge-ordering. PMID:25334034

Yamada, Ikuya; Etani, Hidenobu; Murakami, Makoto; Hayashi, Naoaki; Kawakami, Takateru; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Ueda, Shigenori; Abe, Hideki; Liss, Klaus-Dieter; Studer, Andrew J; Ozaki, Tomoatsu; Mori, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ryoji; Irifune, Tetsuo



International Women's Day speech.  


The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

Kazibwe, S W



Many steps ahead, a few steps back: U.S. women in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, the decades-long slow but steady increase in participation in physics by undergraduate women has stalled. As the numbers of undergraduate majors in physics increase, the numbers of women are not keeping pace. Moreover, women of color represent a disproportionately small fraction of physicists. This means that women of color, and women in general, are an undertapped pool of talent. Significant variation in the participation of women from one institution to the next suggests that local factors, such as department culture, are important, rather than differences in aptitude, motivation, or preparation. Physicists in the U.S. must redouble their efforts to make physics departments and laboratories places where women and men of all backgrounds can thrive and produce exciting science.

Coble, K.; Cunningham, B.; Freeland, E.; Hodapp, T.; Hodari, A. K.; Ivie, R.; Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Ong, M.; Petty, S.; Seestrom, S.; Seidel, S.; Simmons, E.; Thoennessen, M.; Urry, M.; White, H.



Women's Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of their marital status earlier in life, most women can expect to be single for some of their old age. In addition, older single women often have reduced resources. Many women now face situations unlike their expectations when they chose their life courses. Such a situation is shared by a unique community of Catholic sisters. Changes in…

Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others


Charge disproportionation and the pressure-induced insulator-metal transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3.  


The perovskite PbCrO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. However, the fundamental interactions leading to the insulating state in this single-valent perovskite are unclear. Moreover, the origin of the unprecedented volume drop observed at a modest pressure of P = 1.6 GPa remains an outstanding problem. We report a variety of in situ pressure measurements including electron transport properties, X-ray absorption spectrum, and crystal structure study by X-ray and neutron diffraction. These studies reveal key information leading to the elucidation of the physics behind the insulating state and the pressure-induced transition. We argue that a charge disproportionation 3Cr(4+) ? 2Cr(3+) + Cr(6+) in association with the 6s-p hybridization on the Pb(2+) is responsible for the insulating ground state of PbCrO3 at ambient pressure and the charge disproportionation phase is suppressed under pressure to give rise to a metallic phase at high pressure. The model is well supported by density function theory plus the correlation energy U (DFT+U) calculations. PMID:25624483

Cheng, Jinguang; Kweon, K E; Larregola, S A; Ding, Yang; Shirako, Y; Marshall, L G; Li, Z-Y; Li, X; Dos Santos, António M; Suchomel, M R; Matsubayashi, K; Uwatoko, Y; Hwang, G S; Goodenough, John B; Zhou, J-S



Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions  

PubMed Central

The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

Johns, Merida L.



Discrimination and Sexual Risk Among Young Urban Pregnant Women of Color  

PubMed Central

Objective Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. Method During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14–21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Results Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. Conclusion This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. PMID:24417689

Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Lewis, Tené T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.



78 FR 28551 - Medicaid Program; State Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotment Reductions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Adopt the New Low-Income Adult Coverage Group The statute provides significant federal...that implements the new adult coverage group, the state and its hospitals will receive...Medicaid. Implementation of the new coverage group is expected to affect the amount of...



Affective Technology, Affective Management, towards Affective Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the term affective is defined as “being capable to evoke affects in people’s mind” or “being capable to deliberate affects to be evoked in people’s\\u000a mind”. This paper discusses potential impact of concept of affectiveness on development of technological products and services, management, and value systems of societies.

Hiroyuki Umemuro



Libraries and Women's Participation in Nigerian Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of Nigeria, cultural factors have been a serious source of problems for the development of women politically and have continued to affect the development and prominence of Nigerian women in their roles in politics. The country has governments run by men at all levels, not because there are no women fit to fill the positions but because

Ghaji Badawi



Women in Physics in the United States  

E-print Network

: ... women's representation and advancement in academic STEM positions are affected by many external factorsWomen in Physics in the United States Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean, Lyman Briggs College Professor Equity Report: Univ. of California Faculty Family

Ito, Atsushi


DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl

Tobacco control policies, such as increases in cigarette excise taxes, worksite smoking bans, and youth-focused media campaigns show promise in reducing smoking at the population level. However, few studies have examined the effects of policies in reducing smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among disadvantaged women and girls. Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher-than-average rates of tobacco use and suffer disproportionately from the health consequences of tobacco.


Women and peripheral arterial disease.  


Peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Americans. Without aggressive management of the disease as well as comorbidities and risk factors, peripheral arterial disease may progress and place patients at risk for amputation of the affected limb. In addition, patients affected by peripheral arterial disease are at increased risk for death from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes. Although traditionally felt to be a disease of Caucasian men, women compose a significant portion of patients with peripheral arterial disease, especially among the elderly. Increased prevalence of asymptomatic disease in women can lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Without the appropriate medical and or surgical intervention, women are at risk of poor procedural outcomes and increased mortality. This review will focus on the differences in peripheral arterial disease based on gender and how these differences can affect the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease in women. PMID:19863470

Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R



RAPID COMMUNICATION: Hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination on Sm2Fe17-xGax with high Ga content ? by means of reactive grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination was carried out on Sm2Fe17-xGax (x = 0, 1, 2) by means of reactive grinding (RG) in a hydrogen atmosphere at enhanced temperatures, opening a new way for the preparation of coercive Sm2Fe17-xGaxCy powders. X-ray diffraction showed that the samples were completely disproportionated into a mixture of nanocrystalline samarium hydride and ?-(Fe, Ga) after RG. Due to the stabilizing effect of Ga, samples with higher Ga content required longer milling times for a complete disproportionation and the oxidation of the powders was inhibited more effectively. Annealing of the samples at temperatures between 700 °C and 800 °C and subsequent carburization led to a mixture of Sm2Fe17-xGaxCy, mainly with a TbCu7-type structure and unrecombined ?-(Fe, Ga) with coercivities up to 1.8 T.

Kubis, M.; Cao, L.; Müller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.



Cluster headache in women.  


Cluster headache has long been considered a predominantly male disorder, with much of our knowledge based on studies of men. However, it has become increasingly more recognized in women. Although there are many similarities between men and women in the expression of the disorder, studies over the years have revealed gender differences. This article reviews epidemiologic, clinical, hormonal, and familial differences between male and female cluster patients, examines how they may affect treatment, and suggests studies that may give us a better understanding of the disorder. PMID:17367591

Broner, Susan W; Sun-Edelstein, Christina; Lay, Christine L



Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Materials and Nanotechnology and Laboratory of Applied Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran P.O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)



Sexual Orientation and Smoking: Results From a Multisite Women’s Health Study  

PubMed Central

Although lesbians are believed to be at disproportionately high risk for smoking, few published studies have focused on smoking rates in this population. We examined and compared rates and demographic correlates of smoking among 550 lesbians and 279 heterosexual women in Chicago, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and in New York City in 1994–1996 using a self-administered survey questionnaire. African-American lesbians were more likely than African-American heterosexual women or White lesbians to be current smokers. For the sample as a whole, education was the most robust predictor of both current and lifetime smoking. Racial/ethnic minority lesbians with high school education or less were most likely to report both current and lifetime cigarette smoking. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:18649240

Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Matthews, Alicia K.



Disparity in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among African American pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether African American women expecting their first infant carry a disproportionate burden of posttraumatic\\u000a stress disorder morbidity, we conducted a comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from the initial psychiatric interview\\u000a in a prospective cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder effects on childbearing outcomes. Participants were recruited\\u000a from maternity clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern USA. Eligibility

Julia S. Seng; Laura P. Kohn-Wood; Melnee D. McPherson; Mickey Sperlich


Sea Women  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Here on tiny Mara Island just south of Korea, women are the breadwinners and men take care of the children, do the shopping and, feed the pigs. The women are pretty successful, too: typically earning upwards of $30,000 a year...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William



Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.


Women's studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.

Carlowicz, Michael


Empowering Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

Gomez, Aurelia



Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

Strauss, Judy R.



Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.


Concomitant Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Biological Factors Associated with the Disproportionate HIV Infection Burden among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities  

PubMed Central

Background American Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood. Methods Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV. Results HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6th (16.2%) were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD); of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND). Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001); less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001); more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p?=?0.011) or chlamydia (p?=?0.020). Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001); and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p?=?0.004), and urethral (p?=?0.025) or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001). They were less likely to report female (p?=?0.002) or transgender partners (p?=?0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia. Conclusions ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily affected community. PMID:24498067

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl; Mannheimer, Sharon; Magnus, Manya; del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wilton, Leo; Cummings, Vanessa; Watson, Christopher C.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Gaydos, Charlotte; Eshleman, Susan H.; Clarke, William; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Mao, Cherry; Griffith, Samuel; Wheeler, Darrell



Right ventral frontal hypometabolism and abnormal sense of self in a case of disproportionate retrograde amnesia.  


We report the case of a 42-year-old man (patient CL) who developed a particular profile of amnesia with two dates of onset. At the first onset, the patient suffered a mild/lmoderate injury that accounts for an initial anterograde and mild retrograde memory impairment. At the second onset, 8 months later, he suffered a sudden and persistent loss of personal identity and severe retrograde amnesia. We report an extensive neuropsychological investigation of his memory systems carried out 18 months after the second onset. Results indicated mild executive dysfunction (primary memory), intact procedural skills and perceptual representational system. In accordance with Kopelman's methodological recommendations, we have reliably compared post- and pre-onset semantic and episodic memory using strict matched procedures. We found that post-onset, though not pre-onset semantic (autobiographical and nonautobiographical) memory was entirely preserved. Post-onset episodic autobiographical memory was not intact, however, although it was clearly less affected compared with the total absence of the pre-onset memory. Moreover, a novel and high standard investigation of the subjective states of consciousness, which accompanied retrieval of autobiographical memories via the Remember/lKnow (R/lK) paradigm with a long time interval from the present, demonstrated a deterioration of R responses compared to matched controls. Interestingly, this result showed deficient autonoetic consciousness and suggested an underlying accelerated forgetting rate for post-onset autobiographical episodic memories. Last, a [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose resting PET study revealed a significant right-sided ventral frontal lobe hypometabolism in the absence of overt structural lesions. The involvement of this region is consistent with CL's autobiographical retrograde amnesia and his inability to re-experience information concerning the self across time. In our particular case, characterised by two dates of onset, the attribution of causality is thoroughly examined in terms of CL's organic and psychogenic aspects. PMID:21038287

Piolino, Pascale; Hannequin, Didier; Desgranges, Beatrice; Girard, Carole; Beaunieux, Helene; Giffard, Benedicte; Lebreton, Karine; Eustache, Francis



Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci



The Role of Women?s Empowerment and Domestic Violence in Child Growth and Undernutrition in a Tribal and Rural Community in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate undernutrition continues to affect 46 per cent of children under 5 years of age and 47 per cent of rural women in India. Women?s lack of empowerment is believed to be an important factor in the persistent prevalence of undernutrition. In India, women?s empowerment often varies by community, with tribes sometimes being the most progressive. This paper explores the

Kavita Sethuraman



Reproductive rights denied: the Hyde Amendment and access to abortion for Native American women using Indian health service facilities.  


Restrictions on the use of federal funds to provide abortions have limited the access to abortion services for Native American women receiving care at Indian Health Service facilities. Current data suggest that the vast majority of Indian Health Service facilities are unequipped to provide abortions under any circumstances. Native American women experience disproportionately high rates of sexual assault and unintended pregnancy. Hyde Amendment restrictions systematically infringe on the reproductive rights of Native American women and present a pressing public health policy concern. PMID:25122025

Arnold, Shaye Beverly



Women's relationship with the environment.  


In developing countries, all development activities as well as reclamation of degraded areas, pollution reduction, and preservation of biodiversity affect women's environment, especially in rural areas. Women produce most subsistence foods and cash crops, but control only about 1% of the world's land. Lack of land tenure and of access to it keep women from obtaining credit, training, and other supports, thereby preventing them from using their traditional, longterm conservation practices. In many developing countries, commercial producers force women off the most productive lands and onto marginal lands where they grow subsistence crops. They tend to overuse the marginal land and to allow little time for soil recovery. Soil degradation is exacerbated when women need to travel greater distances to collect fuelwood, water, fodder, and food. Almost complete desertification awaits Rajasthan, India, where such events and intensive cash cropping occur. Heavy pesticide use on large commercial farms increases pest resistance, thereby boosting infestation and reducing species diversity. Women are testing sustainable agricultural techniques, for instance, interplanting and crop rotation. Even though women supply water needs, they tend to be excluded from planning, implementing, and maintaining water supplies. Women depend on forests to provide food, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicines, and many materials for income-earning efforts. Commercial logging, migration and resettlement, agricultural development, and cutting for firewood and charcoal destroy these forests. Reforestation schemes do not consider women's needs. Deforestation and desertification increase women's work burdens. Poor women who have migrated to urban areas also experience environmental degradation, deteriorating health, and resource depletion; most live in squatter settlements. Deteriorating economic circumstances in developing countries, reduced flows of official development assistance to developing countries, rapid population growth, lack of women's support mechanisms, and civil conflict are underlying factors for environmental degradation. PMID:12287131

Davidson, J



75 FR 42128 - Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...JUSTICE [OMB Number 1122-NEW] Office on Violence Against Women: Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...



75 FR 27818 - Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OMB Number 1122--NEW] Office on Violence Against Women; Agency Information Collection...The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting...S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (4) Affected...



Women's Health Topics  


... for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Take Time to Care about Your Health . ... Publications for Women Pregnancy Registries ¡Nunca Más! Novelas Women's Health Research Pink Ribbon Sunday Program Stay Informed Get ...


Women and Lung Cancer  


... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...


How men can excel as mentors of women.  


Most male professionals have more experience mentoring men than they do mentoring women, and their male mentees progress further than their female mentees. Yet, in academic medicine, men have few forums in which to discuss the gender-related issues that they encounter. To address the gender-related questions that commonly arise, the author of this commentary offers perspectives and recommendations, consolidated from over 25 years of experience leading career and talent development programs, to assist men in successfully mentoring women. Her recommendations are organized around three questions: (1) How do women's and men's experiences in mentoring relationships tend to differ? (2) What interferes with the accurate evaluation of women's skills? and (3) Is the current generation of female trainees still at a gender-related disadvantage? She argues that men's ability to effectively mentor women depends to a great extent on their understanding of the challenges that women disproportionately face in developing their careers. Mentors who are skilled in adapting to the gender-related needs of mentees will contribute to women's retention and development in academic medicine, enhance the leadership capacity of their organizations and the profession, and extend their own legacies. PMID:24853197

Bickel, Janet



Smokefree Women

JavaScript is disabled. Skip to Main Content Search Smokefree Women Search Quit Smoking Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before


Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim



Disproportionation of Bromous Acid HOBrO by Direct OTransfer and via Anhydrides O(BrO)2 and BrO-BrO2. An Ab Initio Study of the  

E-print Network

-catalyzed bromate oxida- tion of citric acid, HOOC-C(OH)(CH2COOH)2, in aqueous sulfuric acid solution. ZhabotinskyDisproportionation of Bromous Acid HOBrO by Direct OTransfer and via Anhydrides O(BrO)2 and Br*)). The reaction energy of bromous acid disproportionation is discussed in the context of the coupled reaction

Glaser, Rainer


Leibniz's women.  


Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten. PMID:15571762

Fara, Patricia



Stability of lithium superoxide LiO2 in the gas phase: computational study of dimerization and disproportionation reactions.  


Knowledge of the precise molecular mechanisms during the discharge and recharge processes in the lithium-air battery is critical for achieving desired improvements in specific capacity, current density, and cyclability. The initial oxygen reduction product formed in the presence of Li(+) ions is lithium superoxide LiO(2). In this study, we report the computed structures and thermodynamic parameters of LiO(2) dimerization in the gas phase, which enables us to provide a baseline for the reaction free energy profile of the subsequent disproportionation of (LiO(2))(2) to lithium peroxide Li(2)O(2) and O(2). Our calculations identified several low-lying (LiO(2))(2) dimers, with the singlet bipyramidal structure giving IR bands that are consistent with the characteristic IR vibration frequencies of (LiO(2))(2) in the oxygen matrix at T = 15-40 K. The activation barrier for (LiO(2))(2) = Li(2)O(2)+O(2) is 10.9 kcal/mol at the UCCSD(T)/CBS level (T = 298 K), suggesting that in the gas phase LiO(2) and its aggregates could only be observed at low temperatures. PMID:20684589

Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Blanco, Mario; Faglioni, Francesco



Highly oriented NdFeCoB nanocrystalline magnets from partially disproportionated compacts by reactive deformation under low pressure  

SciTech Connect

In the present investigation, we take advantage of the ultrafine grain size of NdFeCoB partially hydrogen-disproportionated phases, and prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Our results suggest that the pressure could properly promote an occurrence of desorption-recombination reaction due to a shorter-range rearrangement of the atoms, and the newly recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately after the phase transformation, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The maximum magnetic properties, (BH){sub max}?=?25.8 MGOe, Br?=?11.8 kG, H{sub cj}?=?5.5 kOe, were obtained after being treated for 5?min at 820?°C in vacuum. The present study highlights the feasibility to prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with homogeneous microstructure and a strong (00l) texture of uniform grain size under low pressure.

Zheng, Qing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying, E-mail:; Yu, Yunping; Lian, Lixian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)



Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.  


Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. PMID:22055674

Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook



Pink-collar medicine: Women and the future of medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of women in medicine is increasing. There is evidence that women practice in different ways than men; are interested\\u000a in different aspects of medicine; work fewer hours; and receive less pay for equivalent hours than men. Women are also less\\u000a likely to be represented in the higher echelons of power within academic medicine. Women’s carrers are adversely affected

Alison M. Heru



The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women’s Lives  

PubMed Central

Objective: Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social – cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women’s lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women’s lives. Methods: For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. Results: The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Conclusion: Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of ‘being women’, along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to women’s mental health would be beneficial. PMID:23730649

Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent



Disproportionate Minority Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to…

Piquero, Alex R.




EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...


The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Background HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied. Methods We recruited women based on HIV status through a Toronto community health centre. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea molecular testing and vaginal secretions for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Differences in prevalence were assessed for statistical significance using chi-square. Results We recruited 126 HIV-positive and 291 HIV-negative women, with a median age of 40 and 31 years, respectively (p?women (4.8% vs. 0.34%, p?=?0.004; and 47.6% vs. 21.2%, p?women (p?women (50.8% vs. 22.6%, p?women in Toronto. However, HSV-2 prevalence was higher than that reported in previous studies in the general Canadian population and was strongly associated with HIV infection, as was infection with hepatitis B and HPV. PMID:24238493



Impact of poverty on women's health.  

PubMed Central

Women's health is determined not only by biology but also by social context. While the health of both men and women is adversely affected by poverty, a higher proportion of women suffer from its effects because of increasing "feminization of poverty." The extent of this phenomenon, its multiple roots, and the role physicians could play in addressing it are discussed. Images p950-a PMID:8038638

Cohen, M.



Endogenous Distal Airway Progenitor Cells, Lung Mechanics, and Disproportionate Lobar Growth following Long-Term Post-Pneumonectomy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Utilizing a model of post-pneumonectomy (PNY) compensatory lung growth in mice, we previously observed an increase in numbers of a putative endogenous distal airway progenitor cell population (CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells located at bronchoalveolar duct junctions (BADJ)), at 3, 7, and 14 days after pneumonectomy, returning to baseline at 28 days post-PNY. As the origin of these cells is poorly understood, we evaluated whether bone marrow cells contributed to the pool of these or other cells during prolonged post-PNY lung regrowth. Naïve and sex-mismatched chimeric mice underwent left PNY and were evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 months for numbers of BADJ CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells and presence of donor-derived marrow cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelium. Non-chimeric mice were also examined at 12 months after PNY for numbers of BADJ CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells. Notably, the right accessory lobe (RAL) continued to grow disproportionately over 12 months, a novel finding not previously described. Assessment of lung mechanics demonstrated an increase in lung stiffness following PNY, which significantly diminished over one year, but remained elevated relative to 1 year-old naïve controls. However, the number of CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos BADJ cells ?1 month following PNY was equivalent to that found in naïve controls even after 12 months of continued RAL growth. Notably, no donor bone marrow-derived cells engrafted as airway or alveolar epithelial cells, including those at the BADJ, up to 3 months after PNY. These studies suggest that lung epithelial cells, including CCSPpos/pro-SPCpos cells, are not replenished from marrow-derived cells during post-PNY lung growth in mice. PMID:23533195

Eisenhauer, Philip; Earle, Benjamin; Loi, Roberto; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Goodwin, Meagan; Allen, Gilman B.; Lundblad, Lennart; Mazan, Melissa R.; Hoffman, Andrew M.; Weiss, Daniel J.



MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome: A clinico-radiologic phenotype linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase gene mutation  

PubMed Central

MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) syndrome, a rare X-linked disorder, generally seen in girls, is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, and disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia. It is caused by inactivating calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene mutations. We report a 2-year-old girl with severe neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, minimal pontine hypoplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and normal looking corpus callosum, with whom the conventional cytogenetic studies turned out to be normal, and an array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis showed CASK gene duplication at Xp11.4. Our case highlights the importance of using clinico-radiologic phenotype to guide genetic investigation and it also confirms the role of a-CGH analysis in establishing the genetic diagnosis of MICPCH syndrome, when conventional cytogenetic studies are inconclusive. PMID:23901204

Saleem, Rashid; Setty, Gururaj; Hussain, Nahin



Fourth World Conference on Women. Seeking action for equality, development, peace.  


There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing. PMID:12289951

Seufert-barr, N



International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.


Women's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.



Images of Women in Visual Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual culture permeates women's everyday lives, affecting how they see themselves, the world, and their relationships with others. Increasing women's opportunities to recognize the power and problem of visual culture and subsequently to create new meanings through visual culture is an important teaching goal of the author. The author considered…

Lai, Alice



Policy Inroads Undermining Women in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…

Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle



Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

Merrill, Martha C.



Learning and Violence: Women Speak Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of a bilingual periodical dedicated to the investigation of women's access to education and to feminist analysis of education and learning presents a variety of stories written by women who have experienced abuse that affected their education. The issue opens with an editorial, presented in full in both French and English, by…

Starr, Christina, Ed.; And Others



Alcohol-Screening Instruments for Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to new studies, even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can negatively affect the developing fetus, thereby increasing the importance of identifying women who drink during pregnancy. In response, researchers have developed several simple alcohol-screening instruments for use with pregnant women. These instruments, which can be administered quickly and easily, have been evaluated and found to be effective. Because

Grace Chang


Dimensions of Women's Health across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This teaching strategy provides students with an opportunity to promote women's health literacy via construction of a creative health information booklet. Students will be able to: (1) Identify health issues that affect women during one particular lifespan stage; (2) Categorize issues according to the seven dimensions of health; (3)…

Vamos, Cheryl A.; Vamos, Sandra D.



Androgen Deficiency in Women with Hypopituitarism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgen deficiency in men is associated with severe osteopenia, alterations in body composition including an increase in fat mass, and decreased libido. Little is known about the pathophysiology, meta- bolic consequences, or gender-specific effects of androgen deficiency in women. Acquired hypopituitarism in women is characterized by cen- tral hypogonadism and\\/or hypoadrenalism and therefore may affect critical sources of androgen production




Women's strategies for handling household detergents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing household-cleaning chores involves the use of chemical detergents; these are commonly believed to provide cleaner and safer households. Occupational health studies have associated health risks with detergents, including respiratory and skin problems. Women are the major users of household detergents, as they are in general the primary homemakers. Detergent-handling strategies including storage, use, and precautionary measures affect women's exposure

Rima R. Habib; Amal El-Masri; Robin L. Heath



Minority Women's Health: Latinas  


... address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Latinas Minority Women's Health Latinas Health conditions common in Latinas Latinos are ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...


Women, catastrophe and mental health.  


This paper examines the concept of catastrophic experience, its relationship to the range of acute and prolonged stressors to which women may be exposed and the broad impacts on their mental health and well-being. It identifies catastrophe in terms of multiple accumulated stresses including death, loss, victimization, demoralization, shame, stigmatization, helplessness and identity. Catastrophic experiences include personal violence in domestic circumstances of intimate partner abuse, sexual assault and child physical and sexual abuse. Women's experiences of loss through the violent deaths of children and loved ones may also have such enduring impacts. Terrorism victimizes men and women in this way, with the enduring impacts for women in terms of threat of ongoing attacks as well as acute effects and their aftermath. The catastrophes of war, conflict, genocide, sexual exploitation and refugee status differentially affect large numbers of women, directly and through their concerns for the care of their children and loved ones. Ultimate catastrophes such as Hiroshima and the Holocaust are discussed but with recognition of the very large numbers of women currently experiencing catastrophe in ongoing ways that may be silent and unrecognized. This is significant for clinical care and population impacts, and in the losses for women across such contexts. PMID:18058439

Raphael, Beverley; Taylor, Mel; McAndrew, Virginia



Risk factors for homelessness and sex trade among incarcerated women: A Structural equation model.  


Incarcerated women are among the most vulnerable and perhaps the least studied populations in the US. Significant proportions of female inmates are substance users, and many living in unstable housing conditions or being homeless. Female inmates are often at high risk of engaging in sex exchange for drugs or housing needs. While a disproportionate number of incarcerated women have experienced childhood household adversities and maltreatments, the effects of these childhood experiences on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of this population in later life. We apply a life course perspective to examine these pathways in a sample of incarcerated women in Cook County, Illinois. Findings demonstrated lasting, but differential, effects of household adversities and childhood abuse on subsequent life risks and opportunities among these women. PMID:22162944

Kim, Seijeoung; Johnson, Timothy P; Goswami, Samir; Puisis, Michael



Impact of breast cancer on African American women: priority areas for research in the next decade.  


Despite all the gains that have been made in the area of breast cancer research, African American women suffer disproportionately from the effects of the disease. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among African American women, exceeded only by lung cancer. Improvements in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates among populations are undoubtedly the outcome of quality research. Therefore, there is a need to identify and discuss issues regarding breast cancer among African American women and to determine whether these issues should be a part of the nation's breast cancer research agenda. This commentary summarizes the results of the Summit Meeting Evaluating Research on Breast Cancer in African American Women, which was held September 8-11, 2000, in Washington, DC. Listed are priority areas and some of the questions that fueled this 2-day discussion among 130 participants, including health advocates, cancer survivors, and experts representing various areas of cancer research. PMID:11919047

Jones, Lovell A; Chilton, Janice A



Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health. PMID:22111843

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.



Celebrate Women's History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam


The women's game conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women's Game Conference focuses on women in the computer and video game industry. The conference will focus on a variety of women's topics in the computer and video game industry including examining career paths for women in the industry and issues related to working in the industry as women as well as how women are portrayed in games and

Newton Lee



How poor are women in rural India?  


The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival of women regionally. Female labor force participation is low in all regions; the nature and distribution of agricultural laborers is discussed followed by examples from 3 different regions (east, south, and north). The gender inequalities in access to basic needs are reviewed for sex ratio, mortality, and nutrition, and education. The preference is for gender-based policies targeting women. PMID:12344615

Rajuladevi, A K



Women's Health Among the Chumash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants were, and still are, widely used for a number of conditions affecting women in California. This article discusses traditional remedies of the Chumash for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, feminine hygiene, heavy menstruation, urinary tract infections, parturition, lactation, infant care, meno- pause, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, contraception and abortions. Many plants are presented including Artemisia douglasiana, Paeonia californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia

James D. Adams Jr; Cecilia Garcia



Association of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase with disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a treatable cause of dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence in elderly patients with ventriculomegaly. Its unique morphological feature, called disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus (DESH), may also be a diagnostic feature. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a major cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein produced by arachnoid cells, and its concentration in the CSF is reportedly decreased in iNPH. L-PGDS acts as a prostaglandin D2-producing enzyme and behaves as a chaperone to prevent the neurotoxic aggregation of amyloid beta (A?) implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, a major comorbidity of iNPH. The aim of this study was to confirm the L-PGDS decrease in DESH-type iNPH and to clarify its relationship with clinico-radiological features or other CSF biomarkers. Methods We evaluated 22 patients (age: 76.4?±?4.4 y; males: 10, females: 12) referred for ventriculomegaly without CSF pathway obstruction, and conducted a CSF tap test to determine the surgical indication. CSF concentrations of L-PGDS, A?42, A?40, and total tau (t-tau) protein were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by the iNPH grading scale, mini-mental state examination, frontal assessment battery (FAB), and timed up and go test. The extent of DESH was approximated by the callosal angle, and the severity of parenchymal damage was evaluated by the age-related white matter change (ARWMC) score. Results L-PGDS and t-tau levels in CSF were significantly decreased in DESH patients compared to non-DESH patients (p?=?0.013 and p?=?0.003, respectively). L-PGDS and t-tau showed a significant positive correlation (Spearman r?=?0.753, p?



Enhancing the health of women living with HIV: the SMART/EST Women’s Project  

PubMed Central

The principal objective of these multisite studies (Florida, New York, New Jersey: epicenters for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] among women) was to develop and implement effective combinations of behavioral interventions to optimize the health status of the most neglected and understudied population affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in the United States: poor women of color living with HIV. The two studies enrolled nearly 900 women randomly assigned to “high intensity” (cognitive–behavioral stress management training combined with expressive–supportive therapy [CBSM]+ group) or “low intensity” (individual psychoeducational program) treatment conditions over a period of 9 years. The initial study of the stress management and relaxation training/expressive–supportive therapy (SMART/EST) Women’s Project (SWP I) focused on reducing depression and anxiety, as well as improving self-efficacy and overall quality of life for women with case-defined AIDS. Findings from this study demonstrated the utility of CBSM+ in reducing distress (depression, anxiety) and denial, while improving social support, self-efficacy, coping skills, and quality of life. The second study (SWP II), which included all women living with HIV, extended these findings by demonstrating that exposure to CBSM+ significantly improved the ability of the participants to take advantage of a health behavior change program encouraging the adoption and maintenance of healthier lifestyle behaviors (high levels of medication adherence, appropriate nutritional intake and physical activity, safer sexual practices, and reduced alcohol use/abuse) essential for optimal health in the context of living with HIV. SWP II also determined that the intervention program was equally beneficial to less-acculturated segments of the affected population (ie, non-English speaking HIV+ women) through the creation of culturally and linguistically sensitive Spanish and Creole versions of the program. A third study (SWP III) is currently underway to “translate” this evidence-based treatment program into Community Health Centers in Miami, New York City, and metropolitan New Jersey. PMID:21445376

Weiss, Stephen M; Tobin, Jonathan N; Antoni, Michael; Ironson, Gail; Ishii, Mary; Vaughn, Anita; Cassells, Andrea; Jones, Deborah; Schneiderman, Neil; Brondolo, Elizabeth; LaPerriere, Arthur; Lopez, Maria; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Camille, Joanne; Kumar, Mahendra; Page, J Bryan



Obesity in women.  


Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill



Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.



Risk Factors for Uterine Fibroids Among Women Undergoing Tubal Sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomas are reported to be the most common benign gynecologic tumors affecting premenopausal women, and they are often associated with considerable morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for uterine fibroids among women undergoing tubal sterilization. Cases comprised women aged 17-44 years whose uterine fibroids were first visualized at the time of tubal sterilization (1978-1979

Chao-Ru Chen; Germaine M. Buck; Norman G. Courey; Kimberly M. Perez; Jean Wactawski-Wende



Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others


Virtue and vulnerability: Discourses on women, gender and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the limited literature on gender and climate change, two themes predominate – women as vulnerable or virtuous in relation to the environment. Two viewpoints become obvious: women in the South will be affected more by climate change than men in those countries and that men in the North pollute more than women. The debates are structured in specific ways

Seema Arora-Jonsson



Women in Science Award Winners Women scientists at the Medical College of Wisconsin are advancing biomedical research and finding innovative  

E-print Network

Women in Science Award Winners Women scientists at the Medical College of Wisconsin are advancing care. The College celebrates their accomplishments with the Women Pioneers in Research Award. 2007 in the Department of Medicine. She is researching the role of fatty acids in the body and the affect these acids


Diabetes mellitus: its impact on women.  


Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic illness. It affects approximately 16 million people in the United States, half of whom are undiagnosed. The prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes is higher in women than in men, and more women die each year from diabetes than from breast cancer. Its complications, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease, exact a heavy toll on the individual with diabetes, as well as society. Because of its significant morbidity and mortality in women, diabetes deserves a place in the concerns designated "women's health issues." It deserves more research attention and especially more public awareness, since many of its devastating complications can be prevented by improved detection and control. This review examines the available data concerning the impact of diabetes on women, as well as gender differences in the incidence of diabetes and its complications. It will also discuss life cycle issues which are specific to women. PMID:8829698

Wishner, K L



Women’s well-being and reproductive health in Indian mining community: need for empowerment  

PubMed Central

This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women’s reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women’s well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community. PMID:23602071



Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.



Second Class Education in the Third World: Gail P. Kelly's Perspectives on the Miseducation of Women. Essay Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gail Kelly's research on women's education in developing nations enriched scholarship on improving women's quality of life through education. Main strands of inquiry examined how school processes and curricula affect women's educational outcomes (versus men's), the false bifurcation of private and public spheres of women's lives, and how women's…

Biraimah, Karen



Heterogeneity in mammography use across the nation: separating evidence of disparities from the disproportionate effects of geography  

PubMed Central

Background Mammography is essential for early detection of breast cancer and both reduced morbidity and increased survival among breast cancer victims. Utilization is lower than national guidelines, and evidence of a recent decline in mammography use has sparked concern. We demonstrate that regression models estimated over pooled samples of heterogeneous states may provide misleading information regarding predictors of health care utilization and that comprehensive cancer control efforts should focus on understanding these differences and underlying causal factors. Our study population includes all women over age 64 with breast cancer in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries, linked to a nationally representative 5% reference sample of Medicare-eligible women located in 11 states that span all census regions and are heterogeneous in racial and ethnic mix. Combining women with and without cancer in the sample allows assessment of previous cancer diagnosis on propensity to use mammography. Our conceptual model recognizes the interplay between individual, social, cultural, and physical environments along the pathways to health care utilization, while delineating local and more distant levels of influence among contextual variables. In regression modeling, we assess individual-level effects, direct effects of contextual factors, and interaction effects between individual and contextual factors. Results Pooling all women across states leads to quite different conclusions than state-specific models. Commuter intensity, community acculturation, and community elderly impoverishment have significant direct impacts on mammography use which vary across states. Minorities living in isolated enclaves with others of the same race/ethnicity may be either advantaged or disadvantaged, depending upon the place studied. Conclusion Careful analysis of place-specific context is essential for understanding differences across communities stemming from different causal factors. Optimal policy interventions to change behavior (improve screening rates) will be as heterogeneous as local community characteristics, so no "one size fits all" policy can improve population health. Probability modeling with correction for clustering of individuals within multilevel contexts can reveal important differences from place to place and identify key factors to inform targeting of specific communities for further study. PMID:18590540

Mobley, Lee R; Kuo, Tzy-Mey (May); Driscoll, David; Clayton, Laurel; Anselin, Luc



Social interactions of obese and nonobese women.  


The stigma associated with obesity is likely to limit the opportunities obese women have to develop social skills. This hypothesis was tested by having obese (n = 15) and nonobese (n = 22) women converse on the telephone with college students who were unaware of the women's weights. Ratings made by judges who listened to the women's contributions to the conversations but who were unaware of their weights showed that obesity was negatively related to judgments about the women's likability, social skills, and physical attractiveness. The telephone partners of obese women rated the women and themselves more negatively than did the partners of nonobese women. Obese and nonobese women generally did not differ in their evaluations of their own and their telephone partners' behavior, and they also did not differ on a measure of social self-esteem. These findings suggest that there are real differences in the social behavior of obese and nonobese women and that these differences affect the impressions formed by those with whom they interact. PMID:2213472

Miller, C T; Rothblum, E D; Barbour, L; Brand, P A; Felicio, D



Women's Game Conference 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Game Initiative's Women's Game Conference focuses on women in the computer and video game industry. The conference program includes career paths for women in the industry, gender inclusive game design and women and girls as consumers of games.The 2005 Women's Game Conference takes place October 26-27, 2005 - the day before and the first day of - the Austin

Newton Lee



Women's Studies (undergraduate)  

E-print Network

348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program courses in women's studies. Each semester the Women's Studies Department publishes a list of courses

Suzuki, Masatsugu


Under-representation of Women and Ethnic Minorities in Vascular Surgery Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives Gender and ethnicity are factors affecting the incidence and severity of vascular disease as well as subsequent treatment outcomes. Though well-studied in other fields, balanced enrollment of patients with relevant demographic characteristics in vascular surgery randomized-control trials (RCT) is not well known. This study describes the reporting of gender and ethnicity data in vascular surgery RCT and analyzes whether these studies adequately represent our diverse patient population. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of US-based RCT from 1983 through 2007 for three broadly defined vascular procedures: aortic aneurysm repair (AAR), carotid revascularization (CR), and lower extremity revascularization (LER). Included studies were examined for gender and ethnicity data, study parameters, funding source, and geographic region. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed to obtain group-specific procedure frequency as an estimate of procedure frequency in the general population. Results Seventy-seven studies were reviewed and 52 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, only 85% reported gender and 21% reported ethnicity. Reporting of ethnicity was strongly associated with larger (>280 subjects), multi-center, government-funded trials (P<0.001 for all). Women are disproportionately under-represented in RCT for all procedure categories (AAR: 9.0% vs 21.5%, CR: 30.0% vs 42.9%, LER: 22.4% vs 41.3%) while minorities are underrepresented in AAR studies (6.0% vs 10.7%) and CR studies (6.9% vs 9.5%) while they are over represented in LER studies (26.0% vs 21.8%, P<.001 for all). Conclusions Minority ethnicity and female gender are under-reported and under-represented in vascular surgery RCT, particularly in small, non-government funded and single-center trials. The generalizability of some trial results may not be applicable to these populations. Greater effort to enroll a balanced study population in RCT may yield more broadly applicable results. PMID:19631869

Hoel, Andrew W.; Kayssi, Ahmed; Brahmanandam, Soma; Belkin, Michael; Conte, Michael S.; Nguyen, Louis L.



Heeding New Voices: Gender-Related Herstories of Asian and Caribbean-Born Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older women who came to this country as adults have had little or no voice in public discourse, including feminist discussions of women's experiences, needs, and roles. This qualitative exploratory study of how life events affected the aging of 25 women born in Puerto Rico, the West Indies, China, India, and Korea investigated the women's early lives and current relationships

Fiona M. Patterson



Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women  


... Publication available in: PDF (153 KB) Related Resources Women Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian ...



E-print Network

WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY WOMEN'S LACROSSE 2011 PROSPECTUS #12;Wesleyan at a Glance general information...........John Biddiscombe women's lacrosse information Home field............................................... Smith Field returning/lost .......... 1/1 women's lacrosse staff Head coach..............................Holly Wheeler

Royer, Dana


Reproductive Health Disparities: A Focus on Family Planning and Prevention Among Minority Women and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Minority women and adolescent females of all races and ethnicities are disproportionately a?ected by unintended pregnancy in the United States. Adolescents also experience an additional proportion of the burden compared to other age groups, as 82% of pregnancies among women 19 years old and younger are unintended. Moreover, minority and adolescent mothers are at increased risk for having preterm deliveries, low birth weight infants, and other complications. Unintended pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in the United States, and prevention through family planning is urgently needed. This review presents an overview of the US demographics for unintended pregnancy among both minority and adolescent women and identifies current and past eüorts to reduce unintended pregnancy, specifically among minority and adolescent females, through contraception and family-planning programs. PMID:24416701

Stoffel, Cynthia; Donenberg, Geri; Geller, Stacie



Ethnoracial Variation in Women's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence.  


While intimate partner violence (IPV) has been acknowledged as a national public health concern, little research exists that directly assesses differential exposure to IPV for distinct ethnoracial groups. The current study compared the rate, severity, and type of IPV exposure across samples of White, African American, and Latina women (N = 180). Participants reported rates of exposure to violence on measures of physical assault, psychological aggression, injury, and sexual coercion; each subscale contained items denoting both mild and severe levels of violence. Multiple regression analyses indicated that women's frequency of exposure to sexual coercion, and severe and injurious violence significantly differed based on participants' ethnoracial identification, such that Latina women experienced disproportionate levels of violence relative to White and African American peers. Mothers' monthly income, level of education, general health, and relationship status also emerged as significant predictors of violence exposure. Results support the development of culturally sensitive adaptations of IPV interventions, targeting not only Latina populations but also women who are single, low-income, and educationally underserved. PMID:25392382

Clark, Hannah M; Galano, Maria M; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A



Turkish women’s opinions about cesarean delivery  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study explores the opinions of the Turkish women about cesarean delivery and the reasons and factors affecting their preference for it. Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted at Maternity Hospitals in Yozgat, Turkey. A total of 423 women who were on the first cesarean day participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire form administered in the form of a face-to-face interview. Pearson Chi-Square test and logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analyses. Results: The findings of the study revealed that 13 percent of the participating women reported that the ideal mode of delivery was cesarean delivery while a great majority (87%) opted for vaginal delivery. About 53% of them stated that they would prefer cesarean section for their next delivery while 47% reported that they would choose vaginal delivery . It was observed that 72.1% of participants were satisfied with cesarean delivery; 44.4% of the women were found to prefer cesarean delivery due to labor pain and fear. Conclusion: It was determined that nearly half of the women preferred cesarean delivery due to labor pain and fear despite the fact that they believe that the ideal mode of delivery is vaginal delivery.

Akarsu, Rukiye Hobek; Mucuk, Salime



Injuries in Intercollegiate Women’s Lacrosse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Historically, the sport of women’s lacrosse has required little or no protective equipment. Recently, there has been increasing concern over trauma to the face and head incurred during play. A rule change passed in spring 2003, during the course of this study, mandates goggles in 2005.Purpose: To survey injuries in women’s lacrosse over multiple seasons and institutions and to

Samuel O. Matz; Gregg Nibbelink



Gender differences in seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a 146 women and 44 men (out- and inpatients; treatment sample) with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD; winter type) were tested\\u000a for gender differences in demographic, clinical and seasonal characteristics. Sex ratio in prevalence was (women : men) 3.6\\u000a : 1 in unipolar depressives and 2.4 : 1 in bipolars (I and II). Sex ratios varied also between different birth cohorts

M. J. Lucht; S. Kasper



Women’s Preferences of Method of Delivery and Influencing Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, the rate of caesarean section has been substantially increased in developing and developed countries. To determine the factors causing such an increase, it is important to determine reasons for women to refuse vaginal delivery and preferring caesarean section. Objectives To determine Turkish women’s attitudes and basal knowledge regarding vaginal delivery and caesarean section, as well as factors causing women to prefer caesarean section even when a medical indication does not exist. Patients and Methods This descriptive study consisted of 840 women, completing the questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results Mean age rate of participants was 39.8 ± 11.8 years. The most significant reasons of vaginal delivery preferred by participants (n = 685) were determined to be healthy and swift recovery period after delivery, whereas those preferred by participants (n=155) for caesarean section were being safer for babies, easier than vaginal delivery and a less painful method. Higher educational status, pregnancy after infertility treatment and undergoing caesarean section for the last delivery were determined to be among important factors affecting to choose caesarean section. Conclusions Information gained misleadingly and fears related to vaginal delivery were seen as factors affecting women’s preferences for delivery. Thus, midwives are required to train both pregnant women during antenatal care and all women in society about methods of delivery and to give effective counseling. PMID:24578835

Yilmaz, Sema Dereli; Bal, Meltem Demirgoz; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Uludag, Seyfettin



Body Image Evaluation, Investment, and Affect: The Role of Ethnicity and Acculturation in College Females  

E-print Network

), body image was measured as three dimensions: evaluation, investment, and affect. Lastly, acculturation was measured as a bidimensional concept. A total of 465 participants, 360 White women and 105 Hispanic women, completed the Appearance Evaluation...

Lipschuetz, Angie



Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women  

PubMed Central

Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women.

Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid



Aging women with schizophrenia.  


The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry



Polyamorous Women, Sexual Subjectivity and Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores polyamorous women’s potential to enlarge the concept of sexual subjectivity through their engagement in nontraditional relationships and their attempts to reject sexual objectification. Polyamorous people openly engage in romantic, sexual, and\\/or affective relationships with multiple people simultaneously. Polyamory differs from swinging with its emphasis on long-term, emotionally intimate relationships and from adultery with its focus on honesty

Elisabeth Sheff




NSDL National Science Digital Library

BabyBoomWomen@Work2020 is part of a research project at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. The project examines how women born between 1946 and 1964 (i.e., the Baby Boom) see paid work after the age of 65 and the ways in which public policy will affect this aging sector of the female workforce. The site offers information on its ongoing studies as well as a varied collection of links.


The education of women in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

and culture. The variables that most directly affect the position of women are the role of Islam in Saudi Arabia, the concept of honor, and the practices of segregation and veiling. THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE OF SAUDI ARABIA Saudi Arabia dominates an area known...- ing the status and role of Saudi women, however. An inter- nal source of resistance is Wahhabism, the Saudi sect of Islam, and the official interpretation of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is an indigenious puritanical religious movement...

Quintanilla, Linda Jean



Urinary incontinence in women.  


Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T



Women in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women in development refers to the needs and problems of women in developing countries and the responsibility of industrialized countries to ensure that aid programs serve the best interests of these women. A concern of adult educators is the relationship between adult education and the challenges facing women in the development of their…

Cassara, Beverly Benner


NYU Women's Health Study

For more than 25 years, the NYU Women’s Health Study has been committed to studying the potential causes of serious diseases in women in the United States. When the study began in 1985, its goal was to identify the role of hormones and diet in the development of the most common cancers in women, especially breast cancer.


CAM and Women's Health  


... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Women’s Health and Complementary Approaches Some health and wellness issues ... about external links womenshealth.jpg Related Topics MedlinePlus Women's Health Resources NIH Office of Research on Women's Health ...


Women in Science Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on women readers and authors indicated that: (1) women write more heroic fantasy and politically liberal science fiction than hard science fiction (physical science and technology), (2) women readers like hard science fiction less than men, and (3) many women authors use their fiction to advocate social change from a feminist perspective.…

Bainbridge, William Sims



Women's Studies Intellectually stimulating,  

E-print Network

of disciplines such as Women's Studies, Psychology and Sociology · Correctional services · Women's sheltersWomen's Studies Intellectually stimulating, personally fulfilling, and more practical than you might think. The breadth and depth of Women's Studies will amaze you. Our goal is to help you "find your


Women as Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As increasing numbers of women make the transition from the household sector into the labor market, dramatic changes in household composition have occurred that have thrust many women into the role of provider. This new role for women has led to dramatic and rapid changes in attitudes, as well as in the institutions and laws relating to women's…

Barrett, Nancy S.


National Women's History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1980, the National Women's History Project (NWHP) was created by a group of women committed to recognizing women's historical achievements. The organization was responsible for lobbying Congress to designate March as National Women's History Month, and today, they provide information and training in multicultural women's history for educators, community organizers, and parents. On the site, visitors can learn about the NWHP's many outreach efforts, or explore by clicking on the Women's History Month tab. Here, interested parties will find materials on the annual Women's History Month celebration, along with some fun quizzes and press releases. The Resource Center contains essays about prominent women, along with an archive of Great Speeches by women and resources for teachers. Finally, the site is rounded out by a News and Events area that contains updates about other events the NWHP supports, such as National Nurses Week and Women's Equality Day.



Integrated women’s health program  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem addressed Residents in family medicine residency programs require comprehensive training in women’s health best practices and resources. Objective of program To provide a framework for the development and implementation of an integrated women’s health curriculum for family medicine residency programs. Program description Objectives for each element of the program were the basis for planning the curriculum. Residents experienced primary care obstetrics clinic and on-call shifts, 24-hour off-service on-call shifts, women’s health horizontals, and a women’s health workshop, all of which were integrated into a 6-month family medicine block time. Residents worked with family physicians, obstetricians and gynecologists, and multidisciplinary health care team members in clinical settings. Teaching objectives were aligned with CanMEDS–Family Medicine core competencies. Creation of this program and its implementation were accomplished by dedicated teachers, administrators, and faculty members involved in curriculum planning. Conclusion The program design and implementation resulted in an improved comprehensive women’s health training experience for residents, which was integrated into a family medicine context. Ongoing evaluation and innovation will serve to continually improve this program. PMID:25642486

Koppula, Sudha



Preparation of ultrafine jet-milled powders for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets using hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination and hydrogen decrepitation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dy addition is used to increase the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. Given that Dy is rare and expensive, a method is needed for reducing the Dy content in such magnets without decreasing their coercivity. Refining Nd2Fe14B grains is a prospective method for increasing the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B magnets. Conventional jet milling, however, cannot crush strip-casted Nd-Fe-B alloys into powders less than 1 ?m in size. We report a process for preparing ultrafine jet-milled powders with an average size of 0.33 ?m for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets: a combination of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination, hydrogen decrepitation, and He jet milling.

Nakamura, Michihide; Matsuura, Masashi; Tezuka, Nobuki; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Une, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Sagawa, Masato



Reproductive decision-making among HIV-Infected women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe factors related to reproductive decision-making among HIV-infected women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of HIV-infected women (N=104) who received care at an HIV clinic in the southern United States were interviewed about their reproductive decision-making. Women who became pregnant subsequent to HIV diagnosis were compared to women who did not become pregnant, and women who underwent a sterilization procedure subsequent to HIV diagnosis were compared to women who did not get sterilized. RESULTS: Compared to women who did not get pregnant after receiving an HIV diagnosis, women who became pregnant were more likely to be young, single, diagnosed earlier in the epidemic and to have more recently used a noninjecting drug. Among women who did not get pregnant, 63% reported their diagnosis greatly affected that decision. Having a partner who wants more children was not associated with pregnancy. Compared to women who did not get sterilized after learning their HIV status, women who did get sterilized tended to be Baptist and already had a prior live birth. Neither a woman's desire nor her partner's desire for more children was associated with sterilization. CONCLUSIONS: HIV is an important influence on HIV-infected women's reproductive choices, regardless of the decision being made. Reproductive counseling by HIV care providers needs to be sensitive to all the issues faced by these women. PMID:16353661

Bedimo-Rung, Ariane Lisann; Clark, A. Rebecca; Dumestre, Jeanne; Rice, Janet; Kissinger, Patricia



Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.  


In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation. PMID:16893271

Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia



Violence against women.  


This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives. PMID:12290444

Keizire, J



Women and tuberculosis.  


Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death in women worldwide. The disease poses a major threat to women's health security. Population growth, the HIV epidemic, increasing poverty and rising levels of drug resistance will inevitably increase the burden of this disease in women. Women are at increased risk of progression to disease during their reproductive years. However, in most low-income countries, twice as many men are notified with tuberculosis as women. Biological mechanisms may account for most of this difference but socioeconomic and cultural factors leading to barriers in accessing health care may cause under-notification in women. Tuberculosis control programmes should be sensitive to the constraints faced by women in accessing health care, in order to empower women to commence and complete treatment. The fear and stigma associated with tuberculosis have a greater impact on women than on men, often leaving them in a more precarious social and economic position. Tuberculosis in women creates orphans, impoverished families and reduces the economic development of society. Tuberculosis is a major cause of preventable suffering and death in women. WHO's recommended tuberculosis control strategy, DOTS, represents a cost-effective response to the problem of tuberculosis in women. Tuberculosis is a major women's health issue. It is a global health priority that tuberculosis treatment be made available to women, particularly to those in low-income countries who are bearing the brunt of this epidemic. PMID:9050189

Connolly, M; Nunn, P



Women and sustainable development.  


Gender issues in sustainable development focuses on constraints, the policy environment, land rights, the division of labor, reproductive rights, human resource development, productive energy, care of children, education, politics, security, social norms, and women's initiatives. African women's participation in the development process has been limited by the policy environment, sociocultural setting, and women's initiatives. African policy has not recognized the different roles that men and women play. There is unequal division of labor, legal discrimination against women, and abuse of women's basic human rights. Women's subordinate position in society and their concrete needs are ignored. Land tenure and credit systems are based on discriminatory policies. Women share a major portion and in some cases all of the agricultural labor with few tools or equipment. The operating assumption is that women's labor supply is inelastic. In order to fully participate in the development process, women need to be able to determine the number of children needed, the spacing between children, and the timing and the method of contraception. Human resource development in Africa has focused on training men. Women must contribute a major portion of time and labor to processing and cooking food in addition to caring for children. Access to higher education is limited. Political accords have been reached without women when women have contributed significantly to political struggles. Social security is compromised during violence and civil strife. There is sexual harassment in the work place. Culture can subordinate women. Women have been unable to change policy making, planning, and patriarchal ideology. Women are marginal contributors to the labor force. Income-generating projects are primarily confined to the informal sector. The governments impose the women's programs. Political influence is highly desired if change in women's stature is to be accomplished. PMID:12285818

Meena, R



Seasonality of workload of women in rural areas of Bangladesh: some male-female comparison.  


This paper discusses sex differences in the seasonality of domestic and productive work among males and females in Bangladesh. The greater fluctuation in productive work done by women is most likely due to the seasonal demand by agricultural processing activities rather than by voluntary withdrawal of women from work. In the case of housework, the amount of work done by men is more variable. This again may be understood in terms of the type of work performed by each. Women are engaged in the essential chores like cooking, cleaning, and in the essential part of child care such as feeding. Housework done by men consists mostly of shopping, some maintenance of the house and household goods, and looking after children, which mainly consists of playing with them. Given such a division of work, which is always to the advantage of men, they have more flexibility in being able to postpone housework when productive work peaks. In periods without employment, men spend longer hours at the market. Women from the richer classes work more hours than do women from the poorer classes, while the opposite is true for men. This study suggests that women's seasonal workload deserves attention because it creates a greater pressure on them than it does on men. Moreover, the pressure of the seasonal workload falls disproportionately on women from various landholding groups. Women from large landholding groups are overburdened in the peak season, whereas males in this group are comfortably underemployed even in the busy season. The structural factors which hinder the lowering of the wealthier women's workload by hiring women from landless and land-poor groups need to be studied carefully. PMID:12342042

Rahman, R I



Gender Differences in Affective Reactions to First Coitus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 87 college men's and 122 college women's affective reactions to first sexual intercourse. Results show that women were significantly more likely to report less pleasure, satisfaction, and excitement than men, and more sadness, guilt, nervousness, tension, embarrassment, and fear. Used factor analysis to group emotions into coherent…

Guggino, Julie M.; Ponzetti, James J., Jr.



A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among African American Women: The Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program  

PubMed Central

Background African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer (BC) mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. Methods African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of BC education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of BC early detection. Posters and literature about BC early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how BC lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and six month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women’s BC knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Results This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with, or prolong, the client’s salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Conclusions Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women’s BC knowledge and adherence to BC screening guidelines. PMID:22046851

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Kelly, Colleen



Diagnosing and managing seasonal affective disorder.  


Mood and behavior changes that have a seasonal pattern were first called seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in 1984. SAD, which affects about 5% of Americans, is most common among reproductive-age women. Afflicted patients typically experience debilitating somatic complaints of fatigue, discomfort, lethargy and atypical depressive complaints of hypersomnia, increased appetite, carbohydrate craving, and weight gain. This article presents current issues in the clinical assessment and management of SAD. PMID:10971935

Johnson, R M



Timing of Kidney Transplants Doesn't Affect Pregnancy Chances  


... this page, please enable JavaScript. Timing of Kidney Transplants Doesn't Affect Pregnancy Chances Study finds results ... are similar for women who received a kidney transplant whether they were a child or an adult ...


Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64  


Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...


Women and Parasitic Diseases  


... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries are at increased risk for adverse effects of malaria infection (for example, miscarriage, low birth weight). Women ...


Cholesterol and Women's Health  


... This type of dyslipidemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease . FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ101 WOMEN’S HEALTH The American ... having a high LDL cholesterol level lead to cardiovascular disease? • Besides abnormal cholesterol, what are other risk factors ...


Heart disease and women  


... not consider heart disease a woman's disease.Yet cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of women over age ... al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women--2011 update: A guideline from the ...


Women's Studies Librarian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian offers a web page that provides exhaustive lists of bibliographies of monographs and scholarly articles in women's studies. The site also offers core lists of women's studies books in print on subjects from aging to women of color, compiled by the Association of College and Research Libraries Women's Studies Section. These core lists are intended to aid librarians in building women's collections, as well as guide teaching faculty in selecting course materials. Publishers and prices are provided. The page also points to selected women's Internet subject resources, e-zines and newsletters, and syllabi and course materials.


Women's Heart Foundation  


... Click for e-News archive The Women's Heart Foundation is a 501c3 dedicated to prevention, survival and ... the spectacular Women's Heart display window at 10 Rockefeller Plaza, gifted by EHE International - Go to our ...


Women's Mental Health  


... P.A.,Director, Office of Minority Health; Adrienne Smith , Ph.D., Public Health Advisor, Office on Women’s ... by the Federal government. All helpline numbers and web sites were verified in March 2008. Detachable Resource ...


Infertility and Women  


... the way certain hormones are released from the pituitary gland (a gland at the base of the brain). ... released from the ovary. & infertility Women Ovary uterus Pituitary Gland infertility and Women fact sheet ...


HIV among Women  


... in the United States were women. a Black/African American* and Hispanic/Latino b women continue to be ... and 42% had viral suppression. * Referred to as African American in this fact sheet. The Numbers New HIV ...


Women in Portugal.  


Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy are restricted and organized around specific causes, such as abortion. The liberation of women is evolving slowly. PMID:12285938

Barbosa, M



Women of Color Health Data Book: Adolescents to Seniors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication recognizes the importance of women's health, and more specifically, the role of culture, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic background, geographic location, and other social and economic factors in contributing to health status. After a section that highlights important issues, section 1, "Factors Affecting the Health of Women of…

Leigh, Wilhelmina A.; Lindquist, Malinda A.


"Chwuech": Sustained Art Education among Luo Women of Western Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on the "Bang' jomariek," a women's group in West Reru in Western Kenya who engage in the production of indigenous arts and crafts (pots, baskets, and architecture) to generate income and explore politics, medicine, and other matters that affect them and their community. The women shared…

Wadende, Akinyi



Facts and Myths of AIDS and Native American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses risk factors for AIDS among Native women: rates of infected male partners, biological factors affecting vulnerability, other sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, access to health services, relationships with partners, lack of trust in health care providers, and intravenous drug use. Describes the work of the Native American Women's…

Vernon, Irene S.



Women Teachers in Hong Kong: Stories of Changing Gendered Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the "woman primary teacher" is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other (Western) contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings. This…

Luk-Fong, Yuk Yee Pattie; Brennan, Marie



Research and Support Strategies For Women's Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inadequate support is presently offered for the study of certain important questions which have serious implications for educational policies affecting women. Priority should be given to the support of those areas of research and program development and evaluation that have the most critical implications for both the higher education of women and…

Babbitt, Samuel F.; And Others


The Women Embracing Life and Living (WELL) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the relational model of women's development, WELL Project interventions include Integrated Care Facilitators providing resource coordination and advocacy services, Seeking Safety trauma groups, Nurturing Families Affected by Substance Abuse, Mental Illness and Trauma parenting groups, and WELL Recovery, a self\\/mutual help group for women with co-occurring disorders and trauma. Interventions were delivered at three agencies licensed to provide

Norma Finkelstein; Laurie S. Markoff



Factors Related to Eating Attitudes of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered attitudes toward eating held by pregnant women can affect the nutritional status of the mother and fetus. This retrospective study consisted of 264 pregnant women who attended an obstetrics clinic during their first prenatal visit. Data from their medical records and nutritional evaluations including the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26) were used to pursue the objective. Mean EAT-26

C. M. Bowen; E. S. Parham; E. Applegate



The Financial Well-Being of Women and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial insecurity can affect family life at all income levels across all races. Hardships resulting from financial insecurity fall most heavily upon women--directly through inferior wages and income opportunities, or indirectly through abusive actions by discontented spouses. Empowering women in the financial arena can stabilize families and…

Dickinson, Amy



The Image of Women in American Government Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey undertaken to determine quality and quantity of presentation of women's political history, political behavior and public policy affecting women in 20 introductory textbboks used in college level American government courses. Findings indicated that little change has occurred since 1970. Suggestions are offered for enhancing the…

Boneparth, Ellen




Microsoft Academic Search

The field of Entrepreneurship is experiencing worldwide not only a renaissance but a revolution in which women tend to play an important role. Are women entrepreneurs good for the economic development? What is their contribution to a healthier economy? Is Entrepreneurship more suitable for males than females? How strong the gender stereotypes are and how can they affect business success?

Dianne Welsh; Mariana Dragusin



African American women's safer sexual practices: the influence of ethnic-racial socialisation and body esteem.  


African American women are disproportionately at risk for sexually transmitted infections (e.g., HIV and gonorrhoea). It is important therefore to explore cultural factors that may influence their sexual practices. The present study examined the relationship between safer sexual practices (i.e., using condoms and inquiring about partner sexual history), participants' ethnic-racial socialisation experiences with maternal and paternal caregivers, and body esteem. Participants were 262, largely middle-class, African American women (ages 18 to 78) from a Midwestern US city who completed an online questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences on measures of safer sexual practice based on relationship status. Regression results suggested that certain paternal cultural practices were negatively related to inquiring about a partner's sexual history. However, body esteem was positively associated with inquiry regarding partner's previous sexual history. Implications for intervention efforts and research are discussed. PMID:24654840

Brown, Danice L; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Cobb, Pamela Denise; Spaw, Devon; Aldridge, Kacee N



Alcoholism and women's health.  


There are a variety of reasons why women are believed to be more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Physical factors, such as body water content and hereditary predisposition to alcoholism, differentiate women from men. Social factors include secretive drinking, role model in the family, and a perceived increase in promiscuity. Societal stigmas make it difficult for alcoholic women to seek help, yet the mortality rates are high for those women who continue to drink. PMID:3120219

Blume, S B



Factors Influencing Persistence/Achievement in the Sciences and Health Professions by Black High School and College Women. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study which investigated socioeconomic, academic, and psychosocial factors that might affect enrollment and persistence rates of black women in science and health careers. An overview is presented of women in science, black women's status in science, role models and support groups, other factors affecting persistence, and…

Turner, Henrie M.; And Others


Women's Rights and Health: The Case of Oromo Women in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired immunodefi-ciency syndrome (AIDS), for which we have no cure or vaccination, is the major health problem in Ethiopia. This epidemic generally has affected poor communities and women. To contain this epidemic, the empowerment of women is essential. In fact, the current working definition of health by the World Health Organization (WHO) makes social well-being a part




Women NGOs and rural women empowerment activities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempted to document beneficiaries’ perceptions on the contributions of Women NGOs (WNGOs) to the socio-economic\\u000a empowerment of rural women in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study included: an assessment of WNGOs\\u000a contributions to improvements’ in beneficiaries’ socio-economic activities and constraints affecting beneficiaries’ participation\\u000a in WNGOs activities. An attempt was also made to determine the

Iniobong Aniefiok Akpabio



Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women’s physiological sexual arousal  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that women’s physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Literature also suggests that the level of SNS activation may play a role in the degree to which SNS activity affects sexual arousal. We provide the first empirical examination of a possible curvilinear relationship between SNS activity and women’s genital arousal using a direct measure of SNS activation in 52 sexually functional women. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV), a specific and sensitive marker of SNS activation, and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), a measure of genital arousal, was analyzed. Moderate increases in SNS activity were associated with higher genital arousal, while very low or very high SNS activation was associated with lower genital arousal. These findings imply that there is an optimal level of SNS activation for women’s physiological sexual arousal. PMID:22092348

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Harte, Christopher B.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.



Public health consequences of global climate change in the United States--some regions may suffer disproportionately.  

PubMed Central

Current risk assessments of the likely regional health impacts of global climate change (GCC) are hindered by two factors. First, dose-response relationships between weather parameters and many of the likely health effects have not been developed, and second, reliable estimates of future regional climates across the United States are still beyond the scope of current modeling efforts. Consequently, probabilistic risk estimates of most of the likely regional health impacts of GCC have such a high degree of uncertainty that their usefulness to health officials dealing with regional issues is very limited. With the numerous pressures on today's health care systems, it is understandable that the possible consequences of GCC have received scant attention from regional health care decision makers. Indeed, the consensus among this community appears to be that any increases in health effects associated with GCC will be easily handled by the current health care system. However, such a position may be naive as the potential exists that an unequal distribution of such effects could overwhelm some regions, whereas others may feel little or no impact. This review of the likely regional impacts of GCC has been structured as a semianalytical look at this issue of distributional effects. Because of the lack of dose-response information and reliable estimates of future regional climates, however, it takes a historical perspective. That is, it assumes that the quality and quantity of health risks a region faces under GCC will be directly related to its recent history of health risks from warm weather/climate-related diseases as well as to the size, characteristics, and distribution of the sensitive subpopulations currently residing within its borders. The approach is semiquantitative; however, it uses national data gathered on a regional level and as such should only be used to generate a hypothesis rather than test it. When applied to the United States, its outcome leads to the hypothesis that if indeed history repeats itself, some states or regions may be more greatly affected by GCC than others, not only because historically they are more prone to summer weather/climate-related diseases, but also because they contain a greater proportion of the sensitive subpopulations in the United States. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10229716

Longstreth, J



The National Women's Health Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to provide women with authoritative and timely knowledge of a host of womens health issues, the National Womens Health Information Center site (sponsored by the US Department of Health and Human Services) offers a reliable and thorough overview of hundreds of topics and current news briefs. Health topics on the site (which range from abstinence to yellow fever) are alphabetically listed or can also be located by entering keywords. Visitors to the site can also sign up here to receive weekly health tips via email. Along with featuring information on health topics, other issues affecting women are well-represented here, including domestic violence awareness and body image. Also helpful is the fact that the site is also available in Spanish, which will be useful to Spanish-speaking persons and health professionals working with Spanish speakers.


Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  


We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M



Community structure affects behavior.  


AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected. PMID:12316890

Jaenson, C



Women's Health Initiative

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) is a long-term national health study that has focused on strategies for preventing heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. These chronic diseases are the major causes of death, disability, and frailty in older women of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds.


Senior Women's Fitness Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the special exercise needs of older, overweight women and the effects of gentle progressive exercise on physical fitness and psychological parameters, we recruited 30 sedentary women aged 60 to 72 years old to participate in an 11-week-long exercise study. The women were assigned to either a low-impact aerobic dance exercise class (N = 20) who exercised for 1

Patricia A. Gillett



Alcoholic Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism awarded contracts to assemble information about practices which identify, refer, and treat employed women alcoholics. In Phase I data were collected on the frequency of use of employee assistance programs by women alcoholics. Findings indicated no great differences between men and women.…

Blai, Boris, Jr.


Women's and Gender Studies  

E-print Network

and interpretations of the roles of women and men in society, as well as analyze the multiple ways in which genderWomen's and Gender Studies #12;Women's and Gender Studies at Carleton University provides you with a unique and exciting opportunity to examine the diverse ways in which gender shapes our lives

Dawson, Jeff W.


So Few Women Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present sobering findings of a study about women and leadership in higher education. The findings of the authors' study are based on the experiences of a small group of women faculty at Johns Hopkins University. The study found that, despite good intentions and occasional interventions by leaders in higher education, women are still …

Dominici, Francesca; Fried, Linda P.; Zeger, Scott L.



Women and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of women and leadership focuses on women in librarianship. Highlights include the evolution of thought about women and leadership; feminist research and theory; Margaret McIntosh's model for leadership, including womanless leadership, problems in leadership, and leadership redefined; equity in leadership; and implications for…

Turock, Betty J.



Women and Peace  

Microsoft Academic Search

DEDICATED TO THE GREAT WOMAN PEACE BUILDER: WANGARI MAATHAI, KENYA, NOBEL PEACE PRIZE, 2004Three points are made in this paper: (1) Both peace and war are gendered; (2) The participation of women in building peace and in military processes in society is often evidence of women's commitment to societal peace and justice; and (3) Women's involvement in other societal processes

Ethel Tobach



Women in Information Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…

Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.



Women and Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary course on women and identity for college-level women's studies instructors is presented. Materials for the course are taken from myth, psychology, sociology, feminism, art, and other disciplines. It is divided into seven units: sexuality, fertility, work and family, fear and envy, women's networks, individuality, and social…

Coleman, Ann; And Others


Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

Towns, Kathryn; And Others


Women's Rhetoric as Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If feminist values are to penetrate and undermine the masculine systems which contain them, it is essential to believe that any serious writing that women do is literature. Only in the last few years has scholarship in women's studies begun to address women in the history of rhetoric. The contemporary woman rhetorician faces the tendency of the…

Bannister, Linda


Women, Work, and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines causes of women's disadvantage in the workplace and the inadequacies of career development models for women. Addresses themes related to women's learning at work: hidden curriculum in the work context, identity development, relationships and connection, and mentoring. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

Bierema, Laura L.



Women in Medicine. Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication consists solely of statistical data with respect to women in medicine. Seven tables and three figures are presented. The tables are organized as follows: (1) Women Applicants, Enrollees and Graduates, Selected Years 1949-50 through 1990-91; (2) Comparative Acceptance Data for Men and Women Applicants, 1973-74 through 1990-91; (3)…

Bickel, Janet; Quinnie, Renee


Women in Medicine: Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication consists solely of statistical data about women in medicine. Eight tables and three figures are presented. The tables are organized as follows: (1) Women Applicants, Enrollees and Graduates--Selected Years 1949-50 through 1991-92; (2) Comparative Acceptance Data for Men and Women Applicants 1973-74 through 1990-91; (3) Acceptance…

Bickel, Janet; Quinnie, Renne


Rural Prairie Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is explored, as is…

Conrad, Kari


Acne in hirsute women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mild forms of acne, including: whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. Only 3 women had moderate to severe acne, including nodules. In a group of women with hirsutism and acne, 6 (9.5%) were obese. In our study we found a high prevalence of androgen excess among hirsute women with acne: total testosterone was increased in 79%, free testosterone in 20.6%, androstenedione in 69.8%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in 30.1%, 17-OH-progesterone 68.2% and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in 33.3% of women. Women with hirsutism and acne have received oral contraceptives for a year, without or in a combination with other medication. Thirty-four (53.9%) women have shown improvement in hirsutism and acne. Conclusions In this study we found a high prevalence of acne in hirsute women. The prevalence of acne was higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Since these women have associated endocrine changes it is important to correct them with hormonal therapy. PMID:25610349

Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona



Women and Physical Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the promotion of health, sports, and physical fitness are pervasive themes as well as part of federal U.S. policy, women lag behind their male counterparts in the areas of health and physical fitness. And, although there is a general trend toward increased participation of women in sports and physical activity across a life span, a large number of women

Diana J. Cunningham; Janet A. Ohles



Women as pastoral counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, it has been woman's function to nurture; that is, to promote well-being. In view of this, it is fitting to consider the extent to which women may succeed as counselors in the pastoral context. Although possibly hindered by prejudicial attitudes in professional relations with male counselees, women pastors can be uniquely effective in their outreach to other women as

Ruth M. Armstrong



Women's Health Informational Handout  

E-print Network

Women's Health Informational Handout 9-19-13 Next Choice One Dose Request Form Students may now normal. Return to Women's Health for a pregnancy test if you do not get a NORMAL period in 3 weeks transmitted infection testing in Women's Health in 10-14 days Condoms must be used for the rest of the month

Bushman, Frederic



EPA Science Inventory

This survey was first conducted in 1983 to document the reproductive behaviors of unmarried women in their twenties. A follow-up survey of the 1983 sample was conducted in 1991 when the women were 28-35 years of age. Also in 1991, a new sample of married and unmarried women age 2...


Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530



Women: medicine, their kidneys, and nephrology.  


As an act of compassion, the art of caring for the sick has always depended on women. As a practical tradition of healing skills, the "wise" and "old" women of antiquity were the original founders of what would ultimately become medicine. Throughout the subsequent millennia that it took for the gradual transformation of the healing skills from a craft to a profession, women continued to contribute to its progress and development. Unfortunately, recorded history has marginalized much of their fundamental contributions because most extant and investigated medical texts of the past were authored by men. As medicine began to embrace the basic sciences and became a university-based and regulated profession, rules excluding women from entry into the profession were made stricter and more rigorously enforced. It is only in the latter half of the 19th century that, in the footsteps of the growing feminine movement, women were admitted to medical schools, and in the 20th century that they began to contribute in earnest to the science of medicine. This article recounts this progress and highlights how it affected our knowledge of kidney disease in women and the enlarging role of women in the relatively new discipline of nephrology. PMID:23978542

Eknoyan, Garabed



Women of Color Health Data Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC), this new data book is intended to help policymakers and women's health advocates understand the health status of women of color and assist them in addressing their needs. The first of the three sections, Factors Affecting the Health of Women of Color, provides an overview of health factors as they relate to ethnic and racial heritage (Native Americans, Hispanics, Black Americans, and Asian Americans), as well as special health issues facing adolescent females and elderly women of color. The second portion of the report, Health Assessment of Women of Color, contains a collection of data on a wide variety of topics illustrated with tables and graphs. These include life expectancy; major causes of death; body weight; tobacco, alcohol, and drug use; preventive health care services; access to health care; morbidity and mortality of various specific diseases; and many others. The final section addresses the issues related to improving the health of women of color, such as research and treatment needs, facilities, and the need for more minority physicians and health care providers.


Women & Cancer: Pregnancy, Contraceptives, and Menopausal Hormone Use

Information about breast cancer treatment options for pregnant women, risk of breast and other cancers in relation to reproductive history, and how oral contraceptives and hormone therapy affect cancer risk.


Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women  


... services national institutes of health Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you ... affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what changes you may have. Talk with your doctor or ...


The unlocked home: new women, new novels, new spaces  

E-print Network

The Victorian ideology of separate spheres made an evident separation according to gender. The principle not only affected the interaction between men and women but also the spaces that they occupied. While men had access to universities and a...

Fleming, Erin Elise



Thyroid Trouble May Harm Women's Fertility, Study Finds  


... on reproductive function before, during and after conception. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) affects about 0.5 percent of ... maturity, according to the researchers. In adult women, hypothyroidism is linked with menstrual problems and a lack ...


Radical Reactivity of the Fe(III)/(II) Tetramesitylporphyrin Couple: Hydrogen Atom Transfer, Oxyl Radical Dissociation, and Catalytic Disproportionation of a Hydroxylamine.  


The chemistry of low-valent iron porphyrin complexes with oxyl radical reagents has been explored. (Meso-tetramesityl porphyrinato) iron(III) hydroxide, (TMP)Fe(III)(OH) reacts with the hydroxylamine TEMPO-H (1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine) to yield the ferrous porphyrin, (TMP)Fe(II), together with H2O and TEMPO. This reaction has a second order rate constant k 1 = 76 ± 5 M(-1) 1 s(-1) and likely occurs by concerted e (-)/H(+) transfer. Hydrazines PhNHNHPh and PhNHNH2 similarly yield (TMP)Fe(II). A subsequent reaction between TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdinyl radical) and (TMP)Fe(II) is observed to reversibly form the TEMPO-ligated ferric porphyrin, (TMP)Fe(III)(TEMPO). A combination of (1)H NMR and optical spectroscopies were used to determine the thermodynamic parameters for TEMPO binding: K 4 (25°C) = 535 ± 20 M(-1), ?H°4 = -7.0 ± 1.5 kcal mol(-1), ?S°4= -11 ± 5 cal mol(-1) K(-1), ?G (‡) 4(235K) = 21.3 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1), ?G (‡) -4(235K) = 16.9 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1). The Fe-O bond is remarkably weak. The stable phenoxyl radical 2,4,6- (t) Bu3C6H2O(•) (ArO(•)) forms a stronger bond to (TMP)Fe(II) to irreversibly make a similar Fe(III)(OR) complex. Both (TMP)Fe(II) and (TMP)Fe(III)(OH) are catalysts for the disproportionation of excess TEMPO-H to TEMPO and TEMP-H (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine). The lack of reactivity between (TMP)Fe(II) and the alkylated TEMPO-H analogue, TEMPO-CH3, suggests that the disproportionation involves a hydrogen atom transfer step. These results highlight the importance and versatility of the heme Fe(III/II) couple that is often overshadowed by its higher-valent counterparts. PMID:24729854

Porter, Thomas R; Mayer, James M



Women in Physics in Latin America: why so few in leadership positions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women are greatly under-represented in physics in Latin America. Among all sciences, physics is the field where the increase in the number of women has been particularly slow. Because of this imbalance, many bright young people do not receive the opportunity to learn about physics and to prepare themselves for a physics career, and others are discouraged from doing so. However, the problems is not only that girls are not attracted to go to physics, they few ones that decide to follow the career find difficulties in funding and in promotions. We show that women in Latin America leave physics disproportionately with each step of career advance. Moreover, we also show that in many cases the promotion process exclude women with the same abilities of men. But, why should we care about this problem? Why should women be in physics after all? Women that have a passion for physics should be able to make a living and have a successful career in this field. But, the need of gender balance in science, it is not only a equal opportunity issue. Physics need a greater participation of female researchers in order to survive. Science is changing and it is becoming more interdisciplinary. This evolution is only possible through diversity of thought and of strategies to approach problems. Therefore, excluding women more than limiting the available pool of talented people to half of humanity, we are limiting diversity. Finally, in a society where technology is becoming quite important and is governing our everyday life and where women are highly involved in the educational process, exposing women to science generates a more scientific literate public. We show that the implementation of a few affirmative action strategies bring more balance to the promotion process.

Barbosa, Marcia



Divorced women's sexual and contraceptive issues.  


This work attempts to answer the question: could divorce create a feeling of alienation in women which causes one to feel vulnerable and detached and thus making sexual decision-making and planning difficult? When a women is married her sexuality is taken for granted because she is expected to have children; however, after a divorce, she must face many of the conflicts she felt as a young single woman. Guilt, planning contraceptive use, and coming to terms with her sexual behavior all present themselves again. 1 factor that must be considered is that contraceptive use is always assumed to be the function of the married women. Very little research has gone into the contraceptive use habits of unmarried women. This is primarily due to the societal assumption that unmarried woman don't have sex. This work contains the clinical observation of the author in which 28% of 459 prenatal patients were interviewed specifically because they were divorced. The conclusion is that divorced women are being neglected by the health care profession and are in great need of contraceptive counseling. This work primarily discusses a study done to expand and examine the conclusions of the clinical research. The study consisted of 101 sexually active, legally divorced, single women between the ages of 18-44 and physiologically capable of becoming pregnant. 53 of these women had experienced post-divorce pregnancies. Each woman was interviewed and given 3 standard tests: the Rosenberg Self-Acceptance Scale, the Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale and Beckham's Coping Strategies Scale. The conclusion of the author is that divorce and its associated psychological problems may temporarily or permanently affect one's thoughts, feelings, and life course. Sexual and contraceptive use decision-making are both directly both directly affected by these changes. Some divorced women may be experiencing inadequate self-esteem, identity, and self-awareness. PMID:12283880

Leslie, N J



Women and Girls Prepared by  

E-print Network

women and girls today. We know that when women and girls prosper, entire communities succeed. OurWomen and Girls Prepared by: Daphne Kenyon, Ph.D, D.A. Kenyon and Associates Jennifer Frizzell, New Hampshire Women's Policy Institute June, 2011 The New Hampshire Institute WOMEN'S POLICY The Women's Fund


[Fact Sheets on Working Women].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four fact sheets address a number of issues relating to women in the work force. The first, "An Overview of Women in the Work Force," offers a look at the numbers of women in the labor force, the occupational categories represented by women workers, women in professional and nonprofessional occupations, and women in nontraditional…

National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.


Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David



Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

Lyman, Linda L.



Funtionalism, Darwinism, and the psychology of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the psychology of women as it was studied from the middle of the 19th century to the 1st 3rd of the 20th century. During that period 3 topics received the most attention: sex differences in brain size and complexity and their implications for cognitive and affective behavior; the hypothesis of greater male variability (a corollary of evolutionary theory) and

Stephanie Shields



Management of Androgenetic Alopecia in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female androgenetic alopecia or female-pattern alopecia is one of the most common causes of hair loss, affecting 50% of women over their lifetime. The appearance of this condition is the cause of significant stress and psychological problems, making appropriate management important. Cases exist in which it is associated with hyperandrogenism. Here, we review the different clinical forms (diffuse, male-pattern, and

R. Rivera; A. Guerra-Tapia



Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women. PMID:22427070

Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F.



What Women Think: Cancer Causal Attributions in a Diverse Sample of Women.  


Abstract Women hold diverse beliefs about cancer etiology, potentially affecting their use of cancer preventive behaviors. To date, research has greatly focused on the causal attributions cancer patients and survivors hold about cancer, and studies have been conducted primarily with White participants. Less is known about causal attributions held by women with and without a family history of cancer from a diverse community sample. This study sought to identify cancer causal attributions of women with and without a family history of cancer, and explore its relation to socio-cultural factors. Diverse women (60% African-American) recruited at an urban, safety-net women's health clinic (N = 471) reported factors they believed cause cancer. Responses were coded into nine attributions and analyzed using chi-squares and logistic regressions. Lifestyle-choices (63%), genetics/heredity (34%), and environmental-exposures (19%) were the top causal attributions identified. Women without a family history of cancer were more likely to identify genetics/heredity as an attribution for cancer than women with a history of cancer in their families. Women who identified as White, who had a higher educational attainment, and had commercial insurance were more likely to report genetics/heredity as a causal attribution for cancer. These findings suggest that socio-cultural factors may play a role in the causal attributions individuals make about cancer, which can, in turn, inform cancer awareness and prevention messages. PMID:25398057

Rodríguez, Vivian M; Gyure, Maria E; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M



Peripheral arterial disease in women.  


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects a significant portion of the United States population, and much research has been conducted on identifying populations at risk for PAD, evaluating appropriate diagnostic modalities for PAD, studying the effect of risk factor reduction on PAD progression, and determining the best method of treatment for symptomatic PAD. However, most PAD research and clinical trials have focused on whole populations, or populations consisting mostly of men. Little data exist with respect to PAD in women. The goal of this review is to highlight what is known about gender-related differences for PAD. PMID:23522713

Teodorescu, Victoria J; Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R



Women's Satisfaction with Their Breast Prosthesis: What Determines a Quality Prosthesis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine what factors constitute a quality prosthesis and ascertain which factors affect prosthesis satisfaction. Sixty-four women who received full funding for their prosthesis and 38 women who received their hospital's usual funding were recruited. Women rated the information provided about breast prostheses very…

Livingston, Patricia M.; White, Victoria M.; Roberts, Susan B.; Pritchard, Emma; Hayman, Jane; Gibbs, Anne; Hill, David J.



Effects of Salient Multiple Identities on Women's Performance Under Mathematics Stereotype Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on affective extremity and social identity complexity suggested that women's mathematics stereotype threat might be alleviated by reminding individual women of their multiple roles and identities, most of which would presumably be unrelated and thus impervious to negative stereotypes regarding math performance. To test this hypothesis, we primed the relevant stereotype and then asked men and women college

Dana M. Gresky; Laura L. Ten Eyck; Charles G. Lord; Rusty B. McIntyre



Solitude in Old Age: Effects of Female Headship on Elderly Women's Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of demographic shifts and because of increasing rates of divorce and nonmarriage among women, it is anticipated that more women will live alone in coming decades. How these women will cope with others' demands for care and with their own need for care will be affected by their life-styles before they reach their old age. This article

Martha N. Ozawa



Female Solitude and Patrilineage: Unmarried Women and Widows During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, little historical work has been done on the lives of women who lived apart from their kin. This article, examining family life in eighteenth and nineteenth- century Italy, focuses on such women, both those who never married and widows. Factors affecting the lives of these women, including prevailing patrilineal norms and changing legal rules regarding inheritance and the

Maura Palazzi



American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues Which Relate to Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the sparse literature concerning the mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native women. Suggests research into various sources of stress experienced by Native women and related to drug and alcohol abuse. Discusses coping mechanisms and the particular stress factors affecting professional Native women. (SV)

Medicine, Beatrice



Analyses of the number of times married: U.S. women 1995-1996  

E-print Network

This thesis will analyze the number of times U.S. women marry. My hypotheses ask whether race, education, age, and metropolitan status affect the number of times women marry. If these variables differ across women, this will show that society does...

Melick, Emily A



Women's status and fertility transition in China in the 1980's: integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes how women's status, and change in status, affect fertility in the 1980s across the provinces of China. Women's status in this study refers to female autonomy. The four aspects of female autonomy are examined by measuring women...

Liu, Peihang



Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.


The Role of Mentoring in the Success of Women Leaders of Color in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While numerous scholars have investigated the role of mentoring in the success of women of color in faculty positions, few have examined how mentoring affects the development of women leaders of color in higher education. Using qualitative data gathered from interviews with women leaders of color at Hispanic-serving institution, this study…

Tran, Natalie A.



Behind the Veil: An In-Depth Exploration of Egyptian Muslim Women's Lives through Dance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Muslim women in Arabic countries have unique experiences that are shaped in large part by their cultures' beliefs regarding the female body. Mandated behaviors and men's attitudes towards women's role in society have likewise created oppressive situations which have affected women's sense of self. Because many of those experiences are body-based,…

Toncy, Nancy



FALL/SPRING SEMESTER This is the Jean Nidetch Women's Center's  

E-print Network

know of someone I will direct them to the women's center " #12;FALL/SPRING SEMESTER 2009-2013 TRAININGFALL/SPRING SEMESTER 2009-2013 ADVOCACY This is the Jean Nidetch Women's Center's (JNWC) third year stalking Sexual assault affects 1 in 5 women For men, 75% of all sexual assaults occur before age 18 Sexual

Hemmers, Oliver


Exploring Efficacy in Negotiating Support: Women Re-Entry Students in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing literature on women re-entry students reveals that women students concurrently struggle with family, work, and sometimes health issues. Women students often do not receive adequate support from their partners or from other sources in helping manage the multiple roles that compete for their time, and often face constraints that affect

Filipponi-Berardinelli, Josephine Oriana



Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.



Therapeutic advances in women’s cancers  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic therapy and surgery have improved outcomes for patients with gynecologic malignancies over the last twenty years, but women’s cancers still account for over ten percent of cancer related deaths annually. Insights into the pathogenesis of cancer have led to the development of drugs that target molecular pathways essential to tumor survival including angiogenesis, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This review outlines several of the promising new biologically targeted drugs currently being tested to treat gynecologic malignancies. PMID:21196359

Carroll, Amy R.; Coleman, Robert L.; Sood, Anil K.



Dyspareunia in women.  


Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal conflict. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia can have a significant impact on a woman's mental and physical health, body image, relationships with partners, and efforts to conceive. The patient history should be taken in a nonjudgmental way and progress from a general medical history to a focused sexual history. An educational pelvic examination allows the patient to participate by holding a mirror while the physician explains normal and abnormal findings. This examination can increase the patient's perception of control, improve self-image, and clarify findings and how they relate to discomfort. The history and physical examination are usually sufficient to make a specific diagnosis. Common diagnoses include provoked vulvodynia, inadequate lubrication, postpartum dyspareunia, and vaginal atrophy. Vaginismus may be identified as a contributing factor. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause of dyspareunia. Depending on the diagnosis, pelvic floor physical therapy, lubricants, or surgical intervention may be included in the treatment plan. PMID:25369624

Seehusen, Dean A; Baird, Drew C; Bode, David V



Factors Affecting Older Women's Adherence to Medication and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 years, there has been a growing interest in why many patients do not take prescribed medications or fail to follow medical advice. As many as 50% of all patients fail to adhere adequately to therapeutic advice or engage in inappropriate use of prescribed medications. Additionally, there has been a struggle over how best to describe this

Shawn A. Lawrence; Barbara Rittner



Vaginitis: How Many Women Are Affected/at Risk?  


... research & planning reports, strategic planning Scientific Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories Research Research networks, center programs, career development programs Grants & Funding About Research Grants, ...


Postpartum Depression in Women with the FMR1 Premutation  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric disorders in women with the FMR1 premutation are common and include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and eating disorders. This pilot study explored the risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) in women with the premutation. Methods We conducted a chart review of 50 women premutation carriers with major depressive disorder who had children. Of these, 7 women had a history of major depressive episodes in the postpartum period. The PPD and non-PPD groups were characterized descriptively based on women’s age at the time of the psychiatric evaluation, race, ethnicity, education level, IQ, CGG repeat size, comorbid psychiatric conditions, parity, and number of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Exact logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the number of children with FXS and the risk of PPD. Results The PPD and non-PPD groups were similar on all variables examined, with the exception of the number of affected children. Each of the 7 women with PPD had at least one child with FXS, whereas a third of the women without PPD had no affected children. For each additional affected child, the risk of PPD increased by 158% (exact odds ratio 2.58, 95% CI 0.99–7.59). Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to better characterize PPD in female premutation carriers.

Obadia, Roberta W.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Seritan, Andreea L.



Health Risk Factors and Mental Health Among US Women with and without Chronic Physical Disabilities by Whether Women are Currently Pregnant.  


Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ? 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:25421328

Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L



Women's experiences of managing mastitis.  


The first paper in this series (last month), discussed study methodology and the measurement of the incidence of mastitis, which was shown to peak at four and 12 weeks. It concluded that the reporting pattern by women experiencing mastitis affects the measurement of reported incidence. This paper presents the qualitative data generated through interviews with 56 women. It analyses their theories of causation that may account for the two peaks in incidence. Factors most likely to contribute to the risk of developing mastitis were identified by women as incorrect positioning and incomplete emptying. Expressing by hand or pump, and hurried or infrequent feeding patterns, were also thought to be practices associated with mastitis. They considered that these practices were associated with social pressures such as the care of older children. The study concluded that respondents' theories about causation illustrate the interactive nature of anatomical, physiological, pathological and social risk factors. The two peaks in incidence occur at times when the intensity of this interaction increases. Existing research findings support these theories and present opportunities to change and develop professional practice. PMID:15984560

Potter, Barbara