Science.gov

Sample records for disseminate environmental measurements

  1. NIST Mechanisms for Disseminating Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gills, T. E.; Dittman, S.; Rumble, J. R.; Brickenkamp, C. S.; Harris, G. L.; Trahey, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    The national responsibilities assigned to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) early in the last century for providing measurement assistance and service are carried out today by the four programs that comprise the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Measurement Services (OMS). They are the Calibration Program (CP), the Standard Reference Materials Program (SRMP), the Standard Reference Data Program (SRDP), and the Weights and Measures Program (W&MP). Organized when the U.S. Congress changed the NBS name to NIST, the OMS facilitates access to the measurement and standards activities of NIST laboratories and programs through the dissemination of NIST products, data, and services. A brief historical introduction followed by a perspective of pivotal measurement developments from 1901 to the present and concluding with a look to the future of NIST measurement services in the next decade of the new millennium are presented for each OMS program. PMID:27500025

  2. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno and James Essex

    2007-04-30

    satellite. Once inside the FRMAC, this information is transferred to the pertinent divisions for review, data storage, and eventual display on map products. The internet is also a powerful communications tool being utilized by the FRMAC. Using a secure internet connection, field team location and data collection can be viewed live-time by any computer attached to the internet. Similarly, survey information from our fixed-wing aircraft can be viewed while the mission is being flown. All accumulated data and maps generated in the FRMAC are disseminated on a web page through the secure FRMAC web site. Several new data communication processes are being investigated to aid the FRMAC. Each of these provides an important tool to efficiently collect, record and disseminate environmental measurements to FRMAC scientists and decision makers. The ultimate goal of these processes is to improve the flow of protection decisions and information to the public.

  3. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:26356096

  4. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, AND DISSEMINATION OF EPA SCIENCE ON INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical Assistance, technology transfer, and dissemination of EPA science on maintenance of good indoor air quality, reducing exposure to radon, reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and the environmental management of asthma and asthma trigger reduction. This is a...

  5. Disseminating Policy and Environmental Change Interventions: Insights from Obesity Prevention and Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence-based interventions are increasingly called for as a way to improve health behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Numerous organizations are disseminating interventions that target individual-level behavioral change. Fewer are disseminating interventions that target the policy and environmental changes required to support healthier behaviors. This paper aims to describe the distinct features of policy and environmental change and the lessons learned by two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded dissemination projects, the Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) and Counter Tobacco. Methods Both Center TRT and Counter Tobacco have conducted formative research with their target audiences to customize dissemination to address practitioner-reported needs and preferences. The Centers’ have developed the following approach to disseminating policy and environmental change interventions: (1) Identify the best available evidence rather than waiting for the best possible evidence, (2) disseminate menus of broad intervention strategies, (3) provide implementation guidance, (4) incorporate stories from the field, (5) build practitioners’ capacity, and, (6) integrate dissemination into practitioners’ existing professional and social networks. In 2012, over 26,000 unique visitors accessed the Center TRT website and downloaded over 12,400 documents. The Counter Tobacco website has had 10,907 unique visitors since its launch in August 2011, and the number of visitors is increasing rapidly. Conclusions Both Centers have had success reaching their intended audiences. Research is now needed to assess the extent of practitioners’ use of disseminated recommendations, guidance, and tools in practice and the impact of the resulting interventions. PMID:25037977

  6. Staying Alive: Vibrio cholerae's Cycle of Environmental Survival, Transmission, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jenna G; Teschler, Jennifer K; Jones, Christopher J; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases kill nearly 9 million people annually. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for a large proportion of these diseases, and the bacterial agents of pneumonia, diarrhea, and tuberculosis are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Increasingly, the crucial role of nonhost environments in the life cycle of bacterial pathogens is being recognized. Heightened scrutiny has been given to the biological processes impacting pathogen dissemination and survival in the natural environment, because these processes are essential for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria to new hosts. This chapter focuses on the model environmental pathogen Vibrio cholerae to describe recent advances in our understanding of how pathogens survive between hosts and to highlight the processes necessary to support the cycle of environmental survival, transmission, and dissemination. We describe the physiological and molecular responses of V. cholerae to changing environmental conditions, focusing on its survival in aquatic reservoirs between hosts and its entry into and exit from human hosts. PMID:27227302

  7. Systems Antecedents for Dissemination and Implementation: A Review and Analysis of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Karen M.; Weiner, Bryan; Fernandez, Maria Eulalia; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the role of organizations as settings for dissemination and implementation. Only recently has the field begun to consider features of organizations that affect dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This manuscript identifies and evaluates available measures for five key…

  8. U.S. Stream Flow Measurement and Data Dissemination Improve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Costa, John E.

    2004-05-01

    Stream flow information is essential for many important uses across a broad range of scales, including global water balances, engineering design, flood forecasting, reservoir operations, navigation, water supply, recreation, and environmental management. Growing populations and competing priorities for water, including preservation and restoration of aquatic habitat, are spurring demand for more accurate, timely, and accessible water data. To be most useful, stream flow information must be collected in a standardized manner, with a known accuracy, and for a long and continuous time period. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates over 7000 stream gauges nationwide, which constitute over 90% of the nation's stream gauges that provide daily stream flow records, and that are accessible to the public. Most stream flow records are not based on direct measurement of river discharge, but are derived from continuous measurements of river elevations or stage. These stage data, recorded to 3-mm accuracy, are then converted into discharge by use of a stage/discharge relation (rating) that is unique for each stream gauging location. Because stream beds and banks are not static, neither is the stage discharge rating. Much of the effort and cost associated with stream gauging lies in establishing and updating this relation. Ten years ago, USGS personnel would visit stream gauging stations 8 to 10 times a year to make direct measurements of river depth, width, and velocity using mechanical instruments: a sounding rod or cable, a tagline, and a current meter. From these data, flow rates were computed. The range of measured flow and concurrent river stages were then used to build the rating curve for each site and to track changes to the rating curve.

  9. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in representative broiler feedlots environments: identification of indicator ARGs and correlations with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    He, Liang-Ying; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-11-18

    fexA, fexB, cfr, sul1, tetW, tetO, tetS: R = 0.52-0.71) and some environmental parameters (e.g., TOC, TN, TP, NH3-N with fexA, fexB, cfr, sul1, tetW, tetO, tetQ, tetS: R = 0.53-0.87) (p < 0.01). Further redundancy analysis demonstrated that the distribution and transportation of ARGs from the boiler feedlots to the receiving environments were correlated with environmental variables. The findings highlight the contribution of some chemicals such as antibiotics and metals to the development of ARGs in broiler feedlots environments; and the observed ARG dissemination mechanism in the broiler feedlots facilitates the development of effective mitigation measures. PMID:25338275

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of the relationship between WNV dissemination and environmental variables in Indianapolis, USA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Weng, Qihao; Gaines, David

    2008-01-01

    Background This study developed a multi-temporal analysis on the relationship between West Nile Virus (WNV) dissemination and environmental variables by using an integrated approach of remote sensing, GIS, and statistical techniques. WNV mosquito cases in seven months (April-October) of the six years (2002–2007) were collected in Indianapolis, USA. Epidemic curves were plotted to identify the temporal outbreaks of WNV. Spatial-temporal analysis and k-mean cluster analysis were further applied to determine the high-risk areas. Finally, the relationship between environmental variables and WNV outbreaks were examined by using Discriminant Analysis. Results The results show that the WNV epidemic curve reached its peak in August for all years in the study area except in 2007, where the peak was reached in July. WNV dissemination started from the central longitudinal corridor of the city and spread out to the east and west. Different years and seasons had different high-risk areas, but the southwest and southeast corners show the highest risk for WNV infection due to their high percentages of agriculture and water sources. Conclusion Major environmental factors contributing to the outbreak of WNV in Indianapolis were the percentages of agriculture and water, total length of streams, and total size of wetlands. This study provides important information for urban public health prevention and management. It also contributes to the optimization of mosquito control and arrangement of future sampling efforts. PMID:19094221

  11. A case study in serendipity: environmental researchers use of traditional and social media for dissemination.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Clare; Weitkamp, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In the face of demands for researchers to engage more actively with a wider range of publics and to capture different kinds of research impacts and engagements, we explored the ways a small number of environmental researchers use traditional and social media to disseminate research. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the impact of different media as a tool to broker contact between researchers and a variety of different stakeholders (for example, publics, other researchers, policymakers, journalists) as well as how researchers perceive that their use of these media has changed over the past five years. The questionnaire was sent to 504 researchers whose work had featured in a policy-oriented e-news service. 149 valid responses were received (29%). Coverage in traditional media (newspapers, broadcast) not only brokers contact with other journalists, but is a good source of contact from other researchers (n=47, 62%) and members of the public (n=36, 26%). Although the use of social media was limited amongst our sample, it did broker contact with other researchers (n=17, 47%) and the public (n=10, 28%). Nevertheless, few environmental researchers were actively using social media to disseminate their research findings, with many continuing to rely on academic journals and face-to-face communication to reach both academic and public audiences. PMID:24349571

  12. A Case Study in Serendipity: Environmental Researchers Use of Traditional and Social Media for Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Clare; Weitkamp, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In the face of demands for researchers to engage more actively with a wider range of publics and to capture different kinds of research impacts and engagements, we explored the ways a small number of environmental researchers use traditional and social media to disseminate research. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the impact of different media as a tool to broker contact between researchers and a variety of different stakeholders (for example, publics, other researchers, policymakers, journalists) as well as how researchers perceive that their use of these media has changed over the past five years. The questionnaire was sent to 504 researchers whose work had featured in a policy-oriented e-news service. 149 valid responses were received (29%). Coverage in traditional media (newspapers, broadcast) not only brokers contact with other journalists, but is a good source of contact from other researchers (n=47, 62%) and members of the public (n=36, 26%). Although the use of social media was limited amongst our sample, it did broker contact with other researchers (n=17, 47%) and the public (n=10, 28%). Nevertheless, few environmental researchers were actively using social media to disseminate their research findings, with many continuing to rely on academic journals and face-to-face communication to reach both academic and public audiences. PMID:24349571

  13. Environmental microbiota represents a natural reservoir for dissemination of clinically relevant metallo-beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Scotta, Claudia; Juan, Carlos; Cabot, Gabriel; Oliver, Antonio; Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antonio; Albertí, Sebastián

    2011-11-01

    A total of 10 metallo-β-lactamase-producing isolates of six different species, including Brevundimonas diminuta (n = 3), Rhizobium radiobacter (n = 2), Pseudomonas monteilii (n = 1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 2), Ochrobactrum anthropi (n = 1), and Enterobacter ludwigii (n = 1), were detected in the sewage water of a hospital. The presence of bla(VIM-13) associated with a Tn1721-class 1 integron structure was detected in all but one of the isolates (E. ludwigii, which produced VIM-2), and in two of them (R. radiobacter), this structure was located on a plasmid, suggesting that environmental bacteria represent a reservoir for the dissemination of clinically relevant metallo-β-lactamase genes. PMID:21859934

  14. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  15. Systems Antecedents for Dissemination and Implementation: A Review and Analysis of Measures

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Weiner, Bryan; Fernandez, Maria; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the role of organizations as settings for dissemination and implementation. Only recently has the field begun to consider features of organizations that impact on dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This manuscript identifies and evaluates available measures for 5 key organizational-level constructs: (1) leadership; (2) vision; (3) managerial relations; (4) climate; and (5) absorptive capacity. Overall the picture was the same across the five constructs—no measure was used in more than one study, many studies did not report the psychometric properties of the measures, some assessments were based on a single response per unit, and the level of the instrument and analysis did not always match. We must seriously consider the development and evaluation of a robust set of measures that will serve as the basis of building the field, allow for comparisons across organizational types and intervention topics, and allow a robust area of dissemination and implementation research to develop. PMID:21724933

  16. Environmental Measurements Session summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Emphasis was placed on data from payloads flown on the subject flights including results from the Induced Environment Contamination monitor (IECM). Brief summaries of the vibroacoustics, loads, electromagnetic and thermal aspects of the environment, as derived from Shuttle system measurements, were presented primarily to indicate where the environment was different than observed and, therefore, where specification changes may be forthcoming. In addition, brief summaries of two somewhat unexpected effects, the vehicle glow and interaction between the low Earth environment and Shuttle payload by materials were presented as an aid in interpreting other environmental data. Papers for each payload/experiment involved in Shuttle flights were presented essentially in flight related chronological order. A significant portion of time was allocated for presentation of IECM data since this payload was flown on STS-2, STS-3, and STS-4 and, therefore, represents the largest data base relative to the contamination environment. Summaries of papers are presented.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE TO INTENTIONAL DISSEMINATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORES IN THE UNITED STATES--2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores at multiple locations in the United States in the Fall of 2001 resulted not only in several deaths and illnesses (including psychological effects), but likely changed lifestyles and attitudes, and increased the ...

  18. Disseminated disease severity as a measure of virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Gopinath S; Smith, Erin E; Shanley, Crystal A; Ordway, Diane J; Orme, Ian M; Basaraba, Randall J

    2008-07-01

    Virulence is the measure of pathogenicity of a microorganism as determined by its ability to invade host tissues and to produce severe disease. In the low-dose aerosol guinea pig model the virulence of multiple strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was determined by measuring time of survival, bacterial loads in target organs, and the severity of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary lesions. Erdman K01, CSU93/CDC1551 and HN878 had shorter survival times compared to the common laboratory strain H37Rv. After 30 days of the infection bacilli had disseminated from the lungs resulting in microscopically visible lesions in peribronchial lymph nodes, peripancreatic lymph nodes, spleen, liver, pancreas, adrenal and heart. The extent of the lesion necrosis paralleled virulence when survival times were used as a measure as Erdman K01 and the two clinical isolates caused more necrosis and resulted in sooner death in infected animals than the H37Rv. The extent of extra-pulmonary lesion necrosis was a better predictor of virulence than the number of viable bacilli in the tissue. Overall, this study emphasizes the point that extra-pulmonary disease is a prominent feature of the guinea pig model and dissemination to organs not normally assayed such as the heart and adrenal glands should be taken into account in the assessment of the disease process. PMID:18321783

  19. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature. PMID:27410109

  20. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  1. Interdisciplinary Priorities for Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science: Frameworks, Mechanics, and Measures.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Julian W; Sankaré, Ibrahima C; Kahn, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Much of dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) science is conducted by social scientists, healthcare practitioners, and biomedical researchers. While each of these groups has its own venues for sharing methods and findings, forums that bring together the diverse DII science workforce provide important opportunities for cross-disciplinary collaboration and learning. In particular, such forums are uniquely positioned to foster the sharing of three important components of research. First: they allow the sharing of conceptual frameworks for DII science that focus on the use and spread of innovations. Second: they provide an opportunity to share strategies for initiating and governing DII research, including approaches for eliciting and incorporating the research priorities of patients, study participants, and healthcare practitioners, and decision-makers. Third: they allow the sharing of outcome measures well-suited to the goals of DII science, thereby helping to validate these outcomes in diverse contexts, improving the comparability of findings across settings, and elevating the study of the implementation process itself. PMID:26349456

  2. Measurement issues in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the area of environmental epidemiology involving measurement of exposure and dose, health outcomes, and important confounding and modifying variables (including genotype and psychosocial factors). Using examples, we illustrate strategies for increasing the accuracy of exposure and dose measurement that include dosimetry algorithms, pharmacokinetic models, biologic markers, and use of multiple measures. Some limitations of these methods are described and suggestions are made about where formal evaluation might be helpful. We go on to discuss methods for assessing the inaccuracies in exposure or dose measurements, including sensitivity analysis and validation studies. In relation to measurement of health outcomes, we discuss some definitional issues and cover, among other topics, biologic effect markers and other early indicators of disease. Because measurement error in covariates is also important, we consider the problems in measurement of common confounders and effect modifiers. Finally, we cite some general methodologic research needs. PMID:8206042

  3. Consistent Methodologies for Determining, Relating and Disseminating Light Stable Isotopic Measurement Results: The Carbon Dioxide Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinedinst, D. B.; Verkouteren, R. M.

    2001-05-01

    systems using proprietary data reduction algorithms, standardization procedures and uncertainty treatments. Furthermore, reporting the raw measurements rather than result-based data serves to negate the subtle effect of a priori knowledge of value assignments and over judicious use of outlier rejection schemes. The Web-based data processing interface provides a tool for consistent data processing using internationally accepted practices, procedures and reference materials. Taken in combination, the CO2 intercomparison exercise and the Web-based data processing system serve as a model for enabling traceability and consistency of IRMS data reporting and dissemination across laboratories, industries, nations, and international networks so that real progress can be made at understanding complex chemical systems of importance to the atmospheric, geologic and industrial communities.

  4. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  5. Comparison of Information Dissemination Methods in Inle Lake: A Lesson for Reconsidering Framework for Environmental Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oo, Htun Naing; Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the practice of information dissemination regarding pesticide usage in floating gardening in a rural area. The analysis reveals reasons why the current information dissemination methods employed by relevant stakeholders do not work. It then puts forward a proposition that information sharing within organizations of and among…

  6. Process Measurements for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This article presents discussions dealing with the latest analytical and bioassay methods for environmental assessment. Presented is a phased approach for the integration of methods in environmental assessment. (RE)

  7. Skylab 2 facilities and environmental measurements program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A list of the facilities and environmental measurements to be monitored in support of the Skylab 2 vehicle is presented. The data include measurement identification number, description, transducer operating range, recorder type, and drawings illustrating measurement location.

  8. Disseminating research.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-01

    THE THEME of this edition of Nurse Researcher, 'disseminating research', is pertinent to researchers across the career spectrum and tackles two important issues: open access publishing and originality in PhD research. In the first paper, Suzanne Fredericks examines and contrasts two models of open access publishing, revealing some notable advantages of 'green' open access, achieved through repositories, as opposed to the more well-known 'gold' open access offered by journals ( Fredericks 2015 ). In the second paper, Paul Gill and Gina Dolan discuss originality in PhD studies, exploring the nature of the concept and how doctoral students can demonstrate originality, which is an essential consideration in their research dissemination activities as well as their thesis preparation ( Gill and Dolan 2015 ). PMID:26168806

  9. Ant trophallactic networks: simultaneous measurement of interaction patterns and food dissemination.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Efrat; Segre, Enrico; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial societies and ants, in particular, maintain tight nutritional regulation at both individual and collective levels. The mechanisms that underlie this control are far from trivial since, in these distributed systems, information about the global supply and demand is not available to any single individual. Here we present a novel technique for non-intervening frequent measurement of the food load of all individuals in an ant colony, including during trophallactic events in which food is transferred by mouth-to-mouth feeding. Ants are imaged using a dual camera setup that produces both barcode-based identification and fluorescence measurement of labeled food. This system provides detailed measurements that enable one to quantitatively study the adaptive food distribution network. To demonstrate the capabilities of our method, we present sample observations that were unattainable using previous techniques, and could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying food exchange. PMID:26224025

  10. Ant trophallactic networks: simultaneous measurement of interaction patterns and food dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Efrat; Segre, Enrico; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial societies and ants, in particular, maintain tight nutritional regulation at both individual and collective levels. The mechanisms that underlie this control are far from trivial since, in these distributed systems, information about the global supply and demand is not available to any single individual. Here we present a novel technique for non-intervening frequent measurement of the food load of all individuals in an ant colony, including during trophallactic events in which food is transferred by mouth-to-mouth feeding. Ants are imaged using a dual camera setup that produces both barcode-based identification and fluorescence measurement of labeled food. This system provides detailed measurements that enable one to quantitatively study the adaptive food distribution network. To demonstrate the capabilities of our method, we present sample observations that were unattainable using previous techniques, and could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying food exchange. PMID:26224025

  11. Ant trophallactic networks: simultaneous measurement of interaction patterns and food dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Efrat; Segre, Enrico; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-07-01

    Eusocial societies and ants, in particular, maintain tight nutritional regulation at both individual and collective levels. The mechanisms that underlie this control are far from trivial since, in these distributed systems, information about the global supply and demand is not available to any single individual. Here we present a novel technique for non-intervening frequent measurement of the food load of all individuals in an ant colony, including during trophallactic events in which food is transferred by mouth-to-mouth feeding. Ants are imaged using a dual camera setup that produces both barcode-based identification and fluorescence measurement of labeled food. This system provides detailed measurements that enable one to quantitatively study the adaptive food distribution network. To demonstrate the capabilities of our method, we present sample observations that were unattainable using previous techniques, and could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying food exchange.

  12. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  13. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues.

  14. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Chieco, N.A.; Krey, P.W.; Beck, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1994 and it serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the manager and staff of the Chicago Field Office, and the authors colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven general program areas: environmental radiation and radioactivity; radiation transport and dosimetry; environmental radon, thoron, and related aerosols; atmospheric and surface pollutant studies related to global climate change; atmospheric chemistry; metrology, consultation, and emergency response; environmental management. EML`s mission is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants, and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues and related national security issues.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF CONTAMINATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of environmental samples and measurement system can be monitored through the systematic use of appropriate quality control (QC) blanks. uring the last decade, a proliferation of terms for these QC samples has taken place, making the specification of appropriate blan...

  16. The role of media in the dissemination of environmental and natural disaster information to the public: NPOESS: the future of earth observation and the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameller, Rafael; Cervone, Guido; Kafatos, M.; Jones, Dave

    TV broadcast news, part news and part entertainment, continuously transformed by new technology and driven by ratings, still remains the primary form of dissemination of real time information to the general public. Media coverage of environmental issues and natural disasters varies considerably, depending on the perceived interests of the audience. While some receive a lot of coverage with in depth scientific analysis, others receive almost no coverage at all, or are only superficially covered. Although the media is often criticized by scientists for the uneven coverage of events, scientists, agencies and NGOs, must rely on the media to quickly reach the general public. Public awareness and understanding of natural hazards can help save lives and reduce property damages and economic losses, particularly as global climate change and its connection to hazards is accelerating. Earth orbiting satellites provide an unprecedented access to high resolution data about the Earth and its environment. Although such data are readily available and provides excellent visuals for natural hazards, their use in media broadcast is still not widespread. The goal of this research is to bridge the gap between the scientific data available and the visuals currently used in media broadcast. In this work we analyze the media coverage of natural hazards and disasters and the impact on the public. We present examples of past cooperation that led to the dissemination of earth observation products through TV broadcasts, and discuss the different requirements which have to be met in order to transform high resolution satellite images and scientific data into a TV friendly format. Finally, we identify the potential use of future products from the upcoming NPOESS satellite platforms for the coverage of natural hazards and disasters.

  17. Disseminated pheohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Kanakapura N; Pradhan, Prashanth; Laxmisha, Chandrashekar; Thappa, Devinder M; Jayanthi, Soundararaghavan

    2007-03-01

    . 3). Fine needle aspiration cytology from one of the swellings showed the presence of filamentous fungi on KOH examination and brown-pigmented distorted filaments and yeast-like cells on Masson-Fontana staining (Fig. 4a,b). The positive Masson-Fontana stain was indicative of the presence of melanin in the fungal hyphae, even when the fungal hyphae were not pigmented in the hematoxylin and eosin-stained section. Periodic acid-Schiff reagent also stained the fungal elements, thus confirming our diagnosis of pheohyphomycosis and ruling out the possibility of hyalohyphomycosis. The culture for fungus from the swelling aspirate grew contaminants. The chest X-ray showed dense nodular shadows in the left lower and mid pulmonary lobes. Sputum for acid-fast bacilli and Mantoux test were negative. During the hospital stay, the patient developed high fever and showed altered behavior, for which a computed tomography scan of the brain was performed; this showed evidence of multiple ring enhancing lesions in both frontal lobes. Ultrasound of the abdomen was normal. On the basis of the above findings, a diagnosis of disseminated subcutaneous pheohyphomycosis was made. The patient was given itraconazole, 100 mg twice daily, and his diabetes was managed with insulin. The fever stopped within a week and the altered behavior also started to show an improvement. There was obvious improvement in neurologic signs and symptoms. His skin lesions, however, responded slowly to the treatment. The patient did not report for further follow-up after 1 month. PMID:17343584

  18. Modeling environmental changes from measures of spatial environmental structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Ciobanu, Mircea; Nicolae, Doina N.; Talianu, Camelia

    2004-10-01

    Change is intrinsic to ecosystems, but is also the essence of instability and the outgrowth of situations that lack sustainability. It must also be recognized that change can be associated with either restoration or degradation. Compressed multiband image data provides increased flexibility and practicality for systematic change detection on a regional basis. Combining such capability with conceptual extensions of spatial pattern analysis represents a methodology for systematically monitoring spatial structure of spectral change across landscapes in order to profile characteristic broad scale regimes of change and to indicate trends in those regimes. Sustainability and ecosystem health are watchwords of contemporary ecosystem management. To solve urgent needs in application of remote sensing data, environmental change must be detected based on monitoring spatial and temporal regimes across landscapes. Environmental landscape level indices are used to examine land cover transitions. Based on classified TM images for North-Western Black Sea, Constantza urban area, Romania, conditional probability matrices of land cover transition are compared to measures of landscape structure. Based on proper algorithms for structural composition modeling were defined landscape elements being estimated the probabilistic behavior of pixels. This approach suggests a means of linking the probabilistic behavior of the fine scale dynamics to the pattern observed at larger spatial scales.

  19. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume.

  20. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  1. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  2. Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.

    PubMed

    Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis. PMID:22076332

  3. Navigational and Environmental Measurement System (NEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    The NEMS concept and design were initiated from the need to measure and record positional and environmental information during aircraft flights of developmental science research instrumentation. The unit was designed as a stand-alone system which could serve the needs of instruments whose developmental nature did not justify the cost and complexity of including these measurements within the instrument data system. Initially, the system was comprised of a Loran-C receiver and a portable IBM compatible computer recording position and time. Later, the system was interfaced with the Wallops aircraft inertial navigation system (INS), and various other sensors were supplied and shared by the Goddard science users. Real-time position mapping on video monitors was added for investigator's use and information. In 1987, the use of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver was included in some missions. A total configuration of the system and the various sensors which can be incorporated are shown.

  4. Environmental audits -- Defining measurable value and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.

    1998-07-01

    It is well accepted that historically traditional find and fix environmental audits are at best, short-term solutions. Such reactive thinking does not effectively identify the cause(s), are often short-lived and when facilities are re-evaluated, tend to frustrate any serious environmental stewardship program. More proactive thinking embraces the identifying and aggressive follow-up toward closure of causes. In any organization where audits are a part of proactive environmental company policies, even the latter progressive approach may not be a high enough plateau. Progressive audit programs include also, the essential ingredient to evaluate program strengths, avoiding the disastrous perceptions that audit is an evaluation of job performances. Establishment of baseline trust emphasizing the positive as well as deficiencies reinforces cooperation and builds winning relationships. Assurances of the sustainability of compliance through employee efforts though, cannot be guaranteed no matter what the regulation or how strong the company policy. Guarantees are few, but a more assured reinforcement of sustained buy-in can be through the identification and communication of audit value and benefits. Value and benefits are often thought of in terms of helping facilities achieve and maintain compliance while avoiding notices of violation and fines. While these among other objectives are the foundation reasons for assessing, a deeper, big picture analysis of employee effort and measurable value is required. Skillful audit teams use their perspective to identify opportunities and take on non-traditional roles to assist facilities transcend corrective action toward and maintenance of compliance. A measurable value and benefits driven approach in association with compliance objectives, enhanced by strong communication, reinforces the very foundation of trust and stewardship within the organization.

  5. Measurement of environmental warmth in SI units

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, F. P.; Smith, F. E.; Walters, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Ellis, F. P., Smith, F. E., and Walters, J. D. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 361-377. Measurement of environmental warmth in SI units. Although `Environmental Warmth and Its Measurement' (Medical Research Council War Memorandum No. 17), written over 25 years ago for the Royal Navy, is still widely used and has not been revised, the validation and amplification of the methods proposed by the late Dr. Thomas Bedford have in the meantime been in hand continuously in the laboratory and in the Fleet under the auspices of the Council's Royal Naval Personnel Research Committee. While it was not considered appropriate by Council to replace or to rewrite the Memorandum at the present time, in view of the recent adoption of the metric system and the units of the International System (SI Units) it was thought that it would be helpful to publish metricated charts corresponding to those which appear in the Supplement to War Memorandum No. 17, together with two additional charts which are the result of work in the post-war years, to provide investigators with simple aids for use in the laboratory or the field and to provide a basis for considering the requirements for further research. PMID:4636658

  6. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Executive Order 12898, {open_quote}Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,{close_quote} directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies` incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping.

  7. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000573.htm Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a serious disorder in which the proteins ...

  9. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  10. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 282.28 Section 282.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.28 Environmental protection measures. (a)-(b) (c)(1)...

  11. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 282.28 Section 282.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.28 Environmental protection measures. (a)-(b) (c)(1)...

  12. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 282.28 Section 282.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.28 Environmental protection measures. (a)-(b) (c)(1)...

  13. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  14. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  15. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies. PMID:27253358

  17. Measuring Values-Based Environmental Concerns in Children: An Environmental Motives Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…

  18. REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOLUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of the recent literature on environmental applications of bioluminescence systems will focus on in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence methods that have been utilized to elucidate properties of chemicals, toxic and mutagenic effects, and to estimate biomass. he unifying...

  19. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 282.28 Section 282.28 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  20. The Role of Measuring in the Learning of Environmental Occupations and Some Aspects of Environmental Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    István, Lüko

    2016-01-01

    The methodology neglected area of pedagogy, within the environmental specialist teaching methodology cultivating the best part is incomplete. In this article I shall attempt to environmental methodology presented in one part of the University of West Environmental Education workshop, based on the measurement of experiential learning as an…

  1. Environmental Health Practice: Statistically Based Performance Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Enander, Richard T.; Gagnon, Ronald N.; Hanumara, R. Choudary; Park, Eugene; Armstrong, Thomas; Gute, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. State environmental and health protection agencies have traditionally relied on a facility-by-facility inspection-enforcement paradigm to achieve compliance with government regulations. We evaluated the effectiveness of a new approach that uses a self-certification random sampling design. Methods. Comprehensive environmental and occupational health data from a 3-year statewide industry self-certification initiative were collected from representative automotive refinishing facilities located in Rhode Island. Statistical comparisons between baseline and postintervention data facilitated a quantitative evaluation of statewide performance. Results. The analysis of field data collected from 82 randomly selected automotive refinishing facilities showed statistically significant improvements (P<.05, Fisher exact test) in 4 major performance categories: occupational health and safety, air pollution control, hazardous waste management, and wastewater discharge. Statistical significance was also shown when a modified Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the new self-certification approach to environmental and worker protection is effective and can be used as an adjunct to further enhance state and federal enforcement programs. PMID:17267709

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  3. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  4. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 2002 Unit Performance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    This EML Unit Performance Plan provides the key goals and performance measures for FY 2002 and continuing to FY 2003. The purpose of the Plan is to inform EML's stakeholders and customers of the Laboratory's products and services, and its accomplishments and future challenges. Also incorporated in the Unit Performance Plan is EML's Communication Plan for FY 2002.

  5. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  6. Probes Measure Gases for Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite will make the first space-based measurements of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. In support of the mission, Goddard Space Flight Center will fly air missions from Wallops Flight Facility to gather finer-grained data in areas of interest. Goddard started working with Blacksburg, Virginia-based Aeroprobe Corporation through the SBIR program in 2008 to develop sensors for such flights, and the company has since commercialized the resulting product.

  7. Environmental Measurement in Schools: Electronics in Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of environmental meters designed to measure conductivity, light level, oxygen, pH, sound, and temperature are discussed. Criteria for choosing suitable equipment are suggested and, where possible, cheaper alternatives are mentioned. (Author/BB)

  8. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  9. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-08-14

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends.

  10. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätjen, Uwe

    2008-08-01

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised 40K, 90Sr and 137Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends.

  11. Imported Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Clones in a Greek Hospital: Impact of Infection Control Measures for Restraining Their Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Poulou, Aggeliki; Voulgari, Evangelia; Vrioni, Georgia; Xidopoulos, Grigorios; Pliagkos, Aris; Chatzipantazi, Vassiliki; Markou, Fani

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains represents a major threat for hospitalized patients. We document the dissemination and control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a Greek hospital. During a 3-year study period (January 2009 to December 2011), carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical samples from 73 individual patients. Phenotyping and molecular testing confirmed that 52 patients were infected with K. pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2) producers, 12 were infected with VIM-1 producers, and the remaining 9 were infected with isolates producing both KPC-2 and VIM-1 enzymes. Twenty-eight of these clinical cases were characterized as imported health care associated, and 23 of these were attributed to KPC producers and 5 were attributed to KPC and VIM producers. The remaining 45 cases were deemed hospital acquired. In the second year of the study, intensified infection control intervention was implemented, followed by active surveillance and carrier isolation in the third year. The incidence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae patient cases decreased from 0.52/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.32/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.075). Following these additional infection control measures, the incidence fell to 0.21/1,000 patient days in 2011 and differed significantly from that in 2009 (P = 0.0028). Despite the fact that the imported cases of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae were equally distributed over this 3-year period, the incidence of hospital-acquired cases decreased from 0.36/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.19/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.058) and to 0.1/1,000 patient days in 2011 (P = 0.0012). Our findings suggest that rigorous infection control measures and active surveillance can effectively reduce the incidence of secondary transmission due to KPC-producing pathogens. PMID:22649010

  12. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  13. Measuring Health Information Dissemination and Identifying Target Interest Communities on Twitter: Methods Development and Case Study of the @SafetyMD Network

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the ability of individual stakeholder groups to achieve health information dissemination goals through Twitter. Objective This study aimed to develop and apply methods for the systematic evaluation and optimization of health information dissemination by stakeholders through Twitter. Methods Tweet content from 1790 followers of @SafetyMD (July-November 2012) was examined. User emphasis, a new indicator of Twitter information dissemination, was defined and applied to retweets across two levels of retweeters originating from @SafetyMD. User interest clusters were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of a random sample of 170 followers. Results User emphasis of keywords remained across levels but decreased by 9.5 percentage points. PCA and HCA identified 12 statistically unique clusters of followers within the @SafetyMD Twitter network. Conclusions This study is one of the first to develop methods for use by stakeholders to evaluate and optimize their use of Twitter to disseminate health information. Our new methods provide preliminary evidence that individual stakeholders can evaluate the effectiveness of health information dissemination and create content-specific clusters for more specific targeted messaging. PMID:27151100

  14. Analytic considerations for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Larry L; Wang, Richard Y

    2002-01-01

    The presence of environmental chemicals in human breast milk is of general concern because of the potential health consequence of these chemicals to the breast-fed infant and the mother. In addition to the mother's exposure, several features determine the presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk and their ability to be determined analytically. These include maternal factors and properties of the environmental chemical--both physical and chemical--such as its lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and molecular weight. Environmental chemicals with high lipid solubility are likely to be found in breast milk; they include polyhalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine insecticides, and polybrominated diphenylethers. These fat-soluble chemicals are incorporated into the milk as it is synthesized, and they must be measured in accordance with the fat content of the milk to allow for meaningful comparisons within an individual and among populations. Although the analytic approach selected to measure the environmental chemical is predominantly determined by the characteristics of the chemical, the concentration of the chemical in the milk sample and the existence of structurally similar chemicals (e.g., congeners) must be considered as well. In general, the analytic approach for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk is similar to the approach for measuring the same chemicals in other matrices, except special considerations must be given for the relatively high fat content of milk. The continued efforts of environmental scientists to measure environmental chemicals in breast milk is important for defining the true contribution of these chemicals to public health, especially to the health of the newborn. Work is needed for identifying and quantifying additional environmental chemicals in breast milk from the general population and for developing analytic

  15. Development of a Scale for Measuring Invasive Plant Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Dozier, Hallie

    2000-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure invasive plant environmentalism (knowledge and attitudes concerning non-native plant invasions). Scaled responses of 237 plant nursery customers to a 17-item standardized interview using the partial credit model. Results indicate that the instrument measured the construct of invasive plant environmentalism…

  16. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  17. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators...

  18. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  19. Validity, not Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Samindranath

    2015-03-01

    Science journals have been transformed by the internet. In particular, increasingly their role appears to be to validate research, not to disseminate it. How are journals, and the communities they interact with, adapting? In this context, are alternatives to peer review on the horizon? Are these challenges unique to physics journals, or also seen in other publication scenarios?

  20. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  1. Detection of mecC-Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in river water: a potential role for water in the environmental dissemination.

    PubMed

    Concepción Porrero, M; Harrison, Ewan M; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco; Paterson, Gavin K; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Holmes, Mark A; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern due to limited treatment options. The recent description of a mecA homologue, mecC in human and cattle, led to studies to detect this new variant in human and other animal species. Detection of mecC in wild boar and fallow deer in a Spanish game estate led us to further investigate the presence of mecC-MRSA at this location. Samples from cattle, wild animals, workers and river water were tested. A further three mecC-MRSA isolates were obtained from river water. Molecular characterization (multilocus sequence typing and spa typing) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (broth microdilution) showed that isolates were similar to those detected in wild animals. Whole genome sequencing confirmed that the isolates from the river water and wild animals in the same geographic area were all closely related isolates of ST425 mecC-MRSA. The presence of mecC-MRSA in the river water highlights the potential role of water in the dissemination of mecC-MRSA. PMID:25756123

  2. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Sam; Ruder, Eric; Roman, Henry A.; Geggel, Amelia; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest. PMID:23999551

  3. Challenges in quality of environmental measurements for compliance

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.G.

    1994-04-07

    Quality systems development in environmental measurements for compliance with regulatory requirements for nuclear and other contaminants in the environment is one of the major challenges in current technology disciplines. Efforts to fulfill the mission and objectives of funded projects will not be successful on a timely and cost-effective schedule without adequate plans and credible action for the protection of workers, facilities, and the public in environment, safety, and health aspects. This can be accomplished through quality assurance planning and implementation of an effective, controlled environmental measurements program.

  4. Standardized Emission Quantification and Control of Costs for Environmental Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Hustedt, M.; Wesling, V.; Barcikowski, S.

    Laser welding and soldering are important industrial joining processes. As is known, LGACs (Laser Generated Air Contaminants) cause costs for environmental measures during production of complex metallic components (steel, aluminium, magnesium, alloys). The hazardous potential of such processes has been assessed by analyzing the specific emissions with respect to relevant threshold limit values (TLVs). Avoiding and controlling emissions caused by laser processing of metals or metal composites is an important task. Using the experimental results, the planning of appropriate exhaust systems for laser processing is facilitated significantly. The costs quantified for environmental measures account for significant percentages of the total manufacturing costs.

  5. Optimizing environmental measures for landscape multifunctionality: effectiveness, efficiency and recommendations for agri-environmental programs.

    PubMed

    Galler, Carolin; von Haaren, Christina; Albert, Christian

    2015-03-15

    Agri-environmental measures differ in their capacity to simultaneously enhance the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Multifunctional approaches are hampered by funding schemes that are usually administered by individual administrative sectors that each predominantly focus on one single environmental objective. Developing integrative management strategies that exploit synergies from implementing multifunctional measures is challenged by the need to quantify expected management effects on different ecosystem services. The objective of this paper is to compare uncoordinated versus coordinated management strategies in their contribution to multiple environmental objectives. We developed and applied a method for quantifying effectiveness, as well as spatial and cost efficiency with respect to four key landscape functions: erosion prevention, water quality conservation, climate change mitigation and safeguarding biodiversity. The case study area was the county of Verden, Germany. The following findings can be drawn: Measures for safeguarding biodiversity and climate change mitigation have generally high multifunctional effects, which makes them suitable for integrative management strategies. To make use of the added value of potential multifunctional measures, a spatially targeted allocation of agri-environmental measures is necessary. Compared to uncoordinated strategies, coordinated integrative management strategies either allow the optimization of the ratio of costs to environmental effects or an increase in the effects that can be achieved within an area unit. This is however, usually not simultaneous. Future research should seek to refine the assessment and valuation indicators. PMID:25577703

  6. Who Makes the Most? Measuring the "Urban Environmental Virtuosity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Oriana; Ercolano, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a composite indicator called urban environmental virtuosity index (UEVI), in order to measure the efforts made by public local bodies in applying an ecosystem approach to urban management. UEVI employs the less exploited process-based selection criteria for representing the original concept of virtuosity, providing makes a…

  7. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation of the approved Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Director's review of the air quality consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow the practices and procedures specified in 30 CFR 250.194... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  8. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation of the approved Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Director's review of the air quality consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow the practices and procedures specified in 30 CFR 250.194... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  9. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation of the approved Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Director's review of the air quality consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow the practices and procedures specified in 30 CFR 250.194... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  10. USE OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental measurements often produce values below the method detection limit (MDL). Because low or zero values may be used in determining compliance with regulatory limits, in determining emission factors (typical concentrations emitted by a given type of source), or in model...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR BIOMARKERS TO MEASURE ENVIRONMENTALLY INDUCED IMMUNE RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will generate a panel of sensitive molecular biomarkers to measure environmentally induced changes in systemic and local immune responses within small biological samples. Once tested and characterized, these reagents can be immediately incorporated as a part of the...

  12. QUALITY CONTROL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS USING GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the quality control procedures, calibration, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in measuring the activity of gamma ray-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. Included in the appendices are basic data for selected gamma ray-emitting ra...

  13. Introducing a sensor to measure budburst and its environmental drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kleinknecht, George J.; Lintz, Heather E.; Kruger, Anton; Niemeier, James J.; Salino-Hugg, Michael J.; Thomas, Christoph K.; Still, Christopher J.; Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    Budburst is a key adaptive trait that can help us understand how plants respond to a changing climate from the molecular to landscape scale. Despite this, acquisition of budburst data is constrained by a lack of information at the plant scale on the environmental stimuli associated with the release of bud dormancy. Additionally, to date, little effort has been devoted to phenotyping plants in natural populations due to the challenge of accounting for the effect of environmental variation. Nonetheless, natural selection operates on natural populations, and investigation of adaptive phenotypes in situ is warranted and can validate results from controlled laboratory experiments. To identify genomic effects on individual plant phenotypes in nature, environmental drivers must be concurrently measured, and characterized. Here, we designed and evaluated a sensor to meet these requirements for temperate woody plants. It was designed for use on a tree branch to measure the timing of budburst together with its key environmental drivers; temperature, and photoperiod. Specifically, we evaluated the sensor through independent corroboration with time-lapse photography and a suite of environmental sampling instruments. We also tested whether the presence of the device on a branch influenced the timing of budburst. Our results indicated the following: the temperatures measured by the budburst sensor’s digital thermometer closely approximated the temperatures measured using a thermocouple touching plant tissue; the photoperiod detector measured ambient light with the same accuracy as did time lapse photography; the budburst sensor accurately detected the timing of budburst; and the sensor itself did not influence the budburst timing of Populus clones. Among other potential applications, future use of the sensor may provide plant phenotyping at the landscape level for integration with landscape genomics. PMID:25806035

  14. The measure of environmental sensitivity in detection performance degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-wei; Sun, Chao; Xiang, Long-feng

    2012-11-01

    It is known that environmental mismatch in an uncertain ocean can cause performance degradation to sonar detection algorithms. However, there has been relatively little work in defining practical quantitative measures of environmental sensitivity. In previous studies, mismatch analysis was mainly performed on matched field processing for target localization. Environmental sensitivity for ocean acoustic propagation has also been studied where the acoustic field's pressure amplitude variation was considered. Based on these facts, this paper defines a measure of environmental sensitivity in the degradation of detection performance, in order to account for realistic uncertainties in various environmental parameters. Sensitivity is here defined for two detectors. One is the optimum detector in the deterministic ocean environment and another is the optimum Bayesian detector in the uncertain ocean environment. The Malta Plateau, a well-studied shallow-water region of the Mediterranean Sea, is used to perform the detection performance degradation sensitivity analysis. The result shows that (1) the sensitivity is range-and depth-dependent, and its value in the sound channel is much smaller compared to other regions of the ocean; (2) the optimum detector derived for the deterministic environment may suffer a great detection performance degradation when applied to the uncertain environment; and (3) the water-column sound-speed profile and the upper seabed layer are the most sensitive parameters for the degradation of detection performance.

  15. Development of a scale for measuring invasive plant environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E W; Dozier, H

    2000-01-01

    The ecological impact of invasive plant species is a serious concern among environmental scientists and conservationists. Educating the public about invasive plant issues is a major hurdle, given that several invaders come into the environment through ornamental gardening. An important first step in planning an educational program concerning invasive plant issues is to assess public knowledge and attitudes concerning these issues. This paper describes the development of an instrument that measures invasive plant environmentalism. Responses from 237 nursery customers from the southeastern U.S. to a 17-item standardized interview were scaled using the partial credit model, a member of the family of Rasch (1960) measurement models. Our results indicate that the instrument adequately measures this construct. Substantive interpretations of the results are also discussed. PMID:12029169

  16. New Concepts for Radiometric Measurements of Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    There is a long history of using radioisotopes to study a variety of environmental processes. The recent release of radioisotopes from the nuclear power facilities in Fukushima, Japan, prompted a review at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of the current measurement practices applied to the measurement of actinides and radioactive fission products in the environment. The objective of this review is to identify gaps in measurement capability that might be addressed through research and development. The scope is limited to man-made radioisotopes in the environment related to nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The focus rests on actinides and fission products. This report presents the preliminary findings of the review.

  17. Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

  18. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  19. Measuring the accuracy of agro-environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Makowski, David; Tichit, Muriel; Guichard, Laurence; Van Keulen, Herman; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    Numerous agro-environmental indicators have been developed by agronomists and ecologists during the last 20 years to assess the environmental impact of farmers' practices, and to monitor effects of agro-environmental policies. The objectives of this paper were (i) to measure the accuracy of a wide range of agro-environmental indicators from experimental data and (ii) to discuss the value of different information typically used by these indicators, i.e. information on farmers' practices, and on plant and soil characteristics. Four series of indicators were considered in this paper: indicators of habitat quality for grassland bird species, indicators of risk of disease in oilseed rape crops, indicators of risk of pollution by nitrogen fertilizer, and indicators of weed infestation. Several datasets were used to measure their accuracy in cultivated plots and in grasslands. The sensitivity, specificity, and probability of correctly ranking plots were estimated for each indicator. Our results showed that the indicators had widely varying levels of accuracy. Some show very poor performance and had no discriminatory ability. Other indicators were informative and performed better than random decisions. Among the tested indicators, the best ones were those using information on plant characteristics such as grass height, fraction of diseased flowers, or crop yield. The statistical method applied in this paper could support researchers, farm advisers, and decision makers in comparing various indicators. PMID:19128870

  20. IAEA's ALMERA network: Supporting the quality of environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Tarjan, S; Pitois, A; Groening, M; Osborn, D

    2016-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency coordinates and provides methodological and analytical quality support to the network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA), comprising 150 laboratories in 84 countries. Annual proficiency tests (PTs) are organized for the network laboratories using sets of different samples typically encountered in environmental and food monitoring laboratories. The PT system is designed to respond to the needs of the network for rapid response and reliable measurement results, and to metrological principles and international standards and guides. Comparison of performance of ALMERA and non-ALMERA laboratories in PTs indicates that the "PT - method development - training - PT" strategy adopted for capability building is beneficial to the network. PMID:26810873

  1. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance. PMID:25610675

  2. Need for expanded environmental measurement capabilities in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico P.

    1991-01-01

    The proliferation of environmental satellites in low altitude earth orbit (LEO) has demonstrated the usefulness of earth remote sensing from space. As use of the technology grows, the limitations of LEO missions become more apparent. Many inadequacies can be met by remote sensing from geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) that can provide high temporal resolution, consistent viewing of specific earth targets, long sensing dwell times with varying sun angles, stereoscopic coverage, and correlative measurements with ground and LEO observations. An environmental platform in GEO is being studied by NASA. Small research satellite missions in GEO were studied (1990) at GSFC. Some recent independent assessments of NASA Earth Science Programs recommend accelerating the earlier deployment of smaller missions.

  3. TRANSFORMATION FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTION IN IIDA CITY RESIDENTS - ATTEITION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobuo; Higuchi, Kazukiyo; Tokai, Akihiro

    Iida City in Nagano Prefecture is a town with an advanced environmental strategy including citizenry participation in the town's environment plan, a network of EMS (Environmental Management system) businesses, and a citizens' solar power system. In this study, a questionnaire of Iida residents was carried out to determine their environmental consciousness, and the effect on their actions. It also examined the influence of current environmental measures on the residents, and the relation between the level of social capital and residents' environmental considerations. The results indicate that the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is higher than that of the entire Japan in Iida City, and environmental measures has improved the residents' environmental consciousness. And it is thought the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is related to the level of social capital.

  4. Interlaboratory Comparison of Organically Bound Tritium Measurements in Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, W.J.G.; Kim, S.B.; Kotzer, T.G.

    2005-07-15

    The measurement of organically bound tritium in environmental samples is essential for assessing the impact of tritium releases in terms of doses to the general public and a growing number of laboratories are now required to make them. Interlaboratory comparisons provide one way for laboratories to practice and check their analytical methods and procedures. At AECL's Chalk River Laboratories, two organic matrices with tritium concentrations less than 1.5 kBq/g were developed and distributed to seven laboratories in Canada, Europe and Russia for measurement. Some participants experienced difficulties in analysing the samples, especially with the lower concentrations, where results varied by more than an order of magnitude. Laboratories incorporating procedures such as rinsing to remove tritium from exchangeable sites, using standardized combustion methods and purifying the combustion water obtained more reliable, consistent results. The preparation of the standard reference material must be carefully executed in order to produce a homogeneous sample of uniform size. The tritium measurement community would benefit if standard reference materials in the environmental concentration range were available.

  5. Development of Nondestructive Measuring Technique of Environmental Radioactive Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    The Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the Japanese big earthquake in 2011. The main radioactivity concerned after the accident are I-131 (half-life 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years) and 137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days) and 90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new detection technique which enables us to realize quantitative evaluation of the strontium radioactivity by means of nondestructive measurement without chemical separation processing, which is concerned to be included inside foods, environmental water and soil around us, in order to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to the radiation.

  6. Measurement error caused by spatial misalignment in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Gryparis, Alexandros; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Zeka, Ariana; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.

    2009-01-01

    In many environmental epidemiology studies, the locations and/or times of exposure measurements and health assessments do not match. In such settings, health effects analyses often use the predictions from an exposure model as a covariate in a regression model. Such exposure predictions contain some measurement error as the predicted values do not equal the true exposures. We provide a framework for spatial measurement error modeling, showing that smoothing induces a Berkson-type measurement error with nondiagonal error structure. From this viewpoint, we review the existing approaches to estimation in a linear regression health model, including direct use of the spatial predictions and exposure simulation, and explore some modified approaches, including Bayesian models and out-of-sample regression calibration, motivated by measurement error principles. We then extend this work to the generalized linear model framework for health outcomes. Based on analytical considerations and simulation results, we compare the performance of all these approaches under several spatial models for exposure. Our comparisons underscore several important points. First, exposure simulation can perform very poorly under certain realistic scenarios. Second, the relative performance of the different methods depends on the nature of the underlying exposure surface. Third, traditional measurement error concepts can help to explain the relative practical performance of the different methods. We apply the methods to data on the association between levels of particulate matter and birth weight in the greater Boston area. PMID:18927119

  7. Correlation of environmental data measurements with polarimetric LWIR sensor measurements of manmade objects in natural clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, James; Woolley, Mark; Roth, Luz

    2010-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in using polarimetric imaging sensors for terrestrial remote sensing applications because of their ability to discriminate manmade objects in a natural clutter background. However, adverse weather limits the performance of these sensors. Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) polarimetric sensor data of a scene containing manmade objects in a natural clutter background is compared with simultaneously collected environmental data. In this paper, a metric is constructed from the Stokes parameter S1 and is correlated with some environmental channels. There are differences in the correlation outputs, with the sensor data metric positively correlated with some environmental channels, negatively correlated with some channels and uncorrelated with other channels. Results from real data measurements are presented and interpreted. An uncooled LWIR sensor using an achromatic retarder to capture the polarimetric states performed the data collection. The environmental channels include various meteorological channels, radiation loading and soil properties.

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Gando, Satoshi; Levi, Marcel; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular activation of coagulation that can be caused by infectious insults (such as sepsis) and non-infectious insults (such as trauma). The main pathophysiological mechanisms of DIC are inflammatory cytokine-initiated activation of tissue factor-dependent coagulation, insufficient control of anticoagulant pathways and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-mediated suppression of fibrinolysis. Together, these changes give rise to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular thrombosis, which can cause organ dysfunction and seriously affect patient prognosis. Recent observations have pointed to an important role for extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, in the pathogenesis of DIC. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) established a DIC diagnostic scoring system consisting of global haemostatic test parameters. This scoring system has now been well validated in diverse clinical settings. The theoretical cornerstone of DIC management is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying conditions, and DIC should be simultaneously managed to improve patient outcomes. The ISTH guidance for the treatment of DIC recommends treatment strategies that are based on current evidence. In this Primer, we provide an updated overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of DIC and discuss the future directions of basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:27250996

  9. Program Evaluation: Strategies for Assessing How Information Dissemination Contributes to Agency Goals. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Nancy

    Federal agencies use information dissemination programs as one of several tools to achieve various social or environmental goals. Evaluations of five federal information dissemination program cases were examined to assist agency efforts in evaluating and improving the effectiveness of such programs. These cases were: Environmental Protection…

  10. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental report, September 1, 1980-March 1, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents current information from the EML environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in India, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes dealing with global movement of radioactive debris from nuclear tests, vertical distribution of short-lived radionuclides in the lower stratosphere at the end of 1980, stratospheric radionuclide and trace gas inventories, plutonium isotopes in stratospheric filtered air, sulfur dioxide measurements in New York City, estimates of lead, manganese, aluminum and iron in atmospheric deposition at American Samoa, chemical composition of deposition at seven US locations, intercomparison of trace element analyses of commercially available reference materials, evaluation of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, and quality control assessments of radionuclide analyses of surface air filters, biological and deposition samples and of chemical analyses of precipitation. Subsequent sections include tabulations of Sr-90 fallout, chemical constituents of wet and dry deposition, radionuclides and trace metals in surface air, radioactivity and trace gases sampled in the stratosphere by aircraft and balloons, Sr-90 in San Francisco and New York diet, milk and tap water, and Cs-137 in Chicago foods. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  11. Measurement of Environmental NO2 by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxuan; Yi, Hongming; Fertein, Eric; Sigrist, Markus W.; Chen, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The most widely used technique for the measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the chemiluminescence technique. However this indirect NO2 measurement method is affected by positive or negative interferences due to the use of non selective catalyzer molybdenum or photolytic converter [1]. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) offers the capability of interference-free direct NO2 measurement without any sample preparation or/and chemical conversion [2,3]. In this paper, we report on the development and applications of a photoacoustic spectroscopy-based NO2 sensor for continuous measurement of NO2 in air with a sensitivity of about 0.5 ppb (SNR=1) and 1 min time resolution. Time series measurements of environmental NO2 concentrations were carried out and compared with side-by-side measurements by a NOx analyzer (AC-31 M). Good agreement has been observed. Experimental detail and preliminary results will be presented. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge financial supports from the CaPPA project (ANR-10-LABX-005) and the CPER CLIMIBIO program. G. W. thanks the "Pôle Métropolitain de la Côte d'Opale" (PMCO) and the Région Nord Pas de Calais for the PhD fellowship support. References [1] G. Villena, I. Bejan, R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, "Interferences of Commercial NO2 instruments in the urban atmosphere and in a smog chamber", Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5 (2012) 149. [2] M. Lassen, D. B. Clsusen, A. Brusch, J. C. Petersen, "A versatil integrating sphere based photoacoustic sensor for trace gas monitoring", Opt. Express 22 (2014) 11660. [3] C. Haisch, R. Niessner, "Photoacoustic analyzer for the artifact-free parallel detection of soot and NO2 in engin exhaut", Anal. Chem. 84 (2012) 7292.

  12. Measurement of the Infection and Dissemination of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides Biting Midges Using a Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR Assay and Isolation of Infectious Virus

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, Eva; Antony, Frank; Gubbins, Simon; Golding, Nick; Blackwell, Alison; Mertens, Peter PC.; Brownlie, Joe; Darpel, Karin E.; Mellor, Philip S.; Carpenter, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of globally significant arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). From 2006–2009 outbreaks of BTV in northern Europe inflicted major disruption and economic losses to farmers and several attempts were made to implicate Palaearctic Culicoides species as vectors. Results from these studies were difficult to interpret as they used semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR) assays as the major diagnostic tool, a technique that had not been validated for use in this role. In this study we validate the use of these assays by carrying out time-series detection of BTV RNA in two colony species of Culicoides and compare the results with the more traditional isolation of infectious BTV on cell culture. Methodology/Principal Findings A BTV serotype 1 strain mixed with horse blood was fed to several hundred individuals of Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) and C. nubeculosus (Mg.) using a membrane-based assay and replete individuals were then incubated at 25°C. At daily intervals 25 Culicoides of each species were removed from incubation, homogenised and BTV quantified in each individual using sqPCR (Cq values) and virus isolation on a KC-C. sonorensis embryonic cell line, followed by antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, comparisons were also drawn between the results obtained with whole C. sonorensis and with individually dissected individuals to determine the level of BTV dissemination. Conclusions/Significance Cq values generated from time-series infection experiments in both C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus confirmed previous studies that relied upon the isolation and detection of infectious BTV. Implications on the testing of field-collected Culicoides as potential virus vectors by PCR assays and the use of such assays as front-line tools for use in

  13. Application of clinical laboratory measurements to issues of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Rej, R; Silkworth, J B; DeCaprio, A P

    1992-03-13

    Monitoring of biochemical constituents in serum is an important component in revealing potential toxicity in humans and experimental animals due to exposure to a variety of xenobiotic agents. The relative toxicity of pure compounds, usually at large doses, has helped elucidate the mode of action of these compounds and their relative risk. However, most actual cases of environmental exposure present an extensive range of components and the potential for synergistic or inhibitory interactions. In this paper we review two such environmental cases: The Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, NY, and the transformer fire at the State Office Building in Binghamton, NY. We focus on the clinical laboratory measurements obtained in these studies (including serum glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium and potassium), their usefulness, limitations, and application to such cases. Significant alterations in serum triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase levels were found in guinea pigs due to exposure to dioxins. These two tests were useful in estimating the 'equivalent' concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in complex chemical mixtures. PMID:1572081

  14. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  15. A Model for Measurements of Lognormally Distributed Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Charles B. Davis, Danny Field, Thomas E. Gran

    2009-05-21

    This paper proposes a more nearly reasonable model for the actual measurement distribution, called here the “Davis Mixed Model” (DMM). The DMM is derived by multiplying the probability density function of unobservable actual concentrations (assumed LN) by the conditional density of measurements given the concentrations (assumed heteroscedastic normal), and then integrating to obtain the marginal distribution of the observable measurements. The DMM is complicated and analytically intractable; its probability density function (PDF) is itself an integral, for example, and closed-form expressions for percentiles, let alone estimators, do not exist. The DMM can be fit to data via Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), however, and a fitted model can be used to generate data for evaluating the actual performance of candidate UTL or other estimation procedures. The Industrial Hygiene application motivating this work involves surface sampling surveys for removable beryllium (Be) contamination, with data from Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses. Similar issues will arise quite generally with censored environmental data for other contaminants and analytical methods. The conclusions presented in this paper focus on the regions of the DMM parameter space arising in surveying numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities associated with the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  16. Response of Sap-Flow Measurements on Environmental Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, J. A.; Dragoni, D.; Schmid, H.

    2005-05-01

    The exchange of water between the atmosphere and biosphere is an important determinant of climate and the productivity of vegetation. Both evaporation and transpiration involve substantial amounts of energy exchange at the interface of the biosphere and atmosphere. Knowing how transpiration changes throughout the seasonal and diurnal cycles can help increase the understanding of how a forest reacts to changes in the biosphere and atmosphere. A common way to estimate transpiration is by measuring the sap flowing through the living tissues of trees. A study was conducted at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, a mixed deciduous forest in south central Indiana (USA), to investigate how sap flow in trees responds to changes in meteorological and environmental conditions. The heat -dissipation technique was used to estimate sap velocities from two Big Tooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) and two Tulip Poplars (Liriodendron tulipifera). Sap velocity patterns (normalized by a reference potential evapo-transpiration) were directly compared with meteorological and ecological measurements, such as vapor pressure deficits, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), rain fall, and soil moisture content. In this study, we also investigated the uncertainties and problems that arise in using the heat dissipation technique to extrapolate the single-tree measurements to the forest scale.

  17. NOAA Environmental Satellite Measurements of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For over 40 years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has continuously monitored the near-earth space environment in support of space weather operations. Data from this period have covered a wide range of geophysical conditions including periods of extreme space weather such as the great geomagnetic March 1989, the 2003 Halloween storm and the more recent St Patrick's Day storm of 2015. While not specifically addressed here, these storms have stressed our technology infrastructure in unexpected and surprising ways. Space weather data from NOAA geostationary (GOES) and polar (POES) satellites along with supporting data from the Air Force are presented to compare and contrast the space environmental conditions measured during extreme events.

  18. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  19. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  20. [Cancer cell plasticity and metastatic dissemination].

    PubMed

    Moyret-Lalle, Caroline; Pommier, Roxane; Bouard, Charlotte; Nouri, Ebticem; Richard, Geoffrey; Puisieux, Alain

    Metastatic dissemination consists of a sequence of events resulting in the invasion by cancer cells of tissues located away from the primary tumour. This process is highly inefficient, since each event represents an obstacle that only a limited number of cells can overcome. However, two biological phenomena intrinsically linked with tumour development facilitate the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the body and promote the formation of metastases, namely the genetic diversity of cancer cells within a given tumour, which arises from their genetic instability and from successive clonal expansions, and cellular plasticity conveyed to the cells by micro-environmental signals. Genetic diversity increases the probability of selecting cells that are intrinsically resistant to biological and physical constraints encountered during metastatic dissemination, whereas cellular plasticity provides cells with the capacity to adapt to stressful conditions and to changes in the microenvironment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an embryonic trans-differentiation process frequently reactivated during tumour development, plays an important role in that context by endowing tumor cells with a unique capacity of motility, survival and adaptability to the novel environments and stresses encountered during the invasion-metastasis cascade. PMID:27615180

  1. Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  2. Environmental Measurements in an Emergency: This is not a Drill

    SciTech Connect

    Musolino, Stephen V.; Clark, Harvey; McCullough, Thomas; Pemberton, Wendy

    2012-05-01

    A real-world event such as the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant presented unique challenges in data collection, analysis, and assessment. While emergency responders from the Department of Energy (DOE) are trained regularly to assess the environmental consequences of a radiological or nuclear incident, real-world complexities are difficult or impossible to simulate in such training. The Japan event sharply deviated in several ways and in the very early stages, accurate plume and deposition model predictions were difficult to produce due to the lack of field monitoring data and other information. In addition, there was much less plant monitoring data, essentially no reactor state information, and the meteorological conditions and releases were much more complex. Inevitably, the measurements in Japan presented technical challenges to assessors tasked with ensuring the quality of the finished assessments and data products for government officials, the responder community, and the public. This paper addresses some of the operational real-world complexities; procedures, measurements, or radiological assessments from the Fukushima response are not in the purview of this paper.

  3. Environmental measurements in an emergency: this is not a drill.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Stephen V; Clark, Harvey; McCullough, Thomas; Pemberton, Wendy

    2012-05-01

    Emergency responders from the Department of Energy are trained regularly to assess the environmental consequences of a radiological or nuclear incident. While drills and exercises are highly effective tools in rehearsing for an emergency, the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants presented real-world complexities that are difficult or impossible to simulate in such training. Customarily, the modeled hypothetical event used to create a drill or exercise data set is simple, well defined, and closely resembles conventional assumptions about the type of that event. Consequently, the modeling performed by players from the outset closely resembles the planner's hypothetical event. This approach also entails idealized, uniform data in the simulated plume and ground deposition scenarios created for the drill that match the modeling closely. The real-world event that occurred in Japan sharply deviated from the simple picture ordinarily created for drills and exercises that typically involve a release of radioactivity that is of short duration, a single puff with constant meteorology, or simple deviation such as a wind shift to bifurcate the plume. In the very early stages, accurate plume and deposition model predictions were difficult to produce due to the lack of field monitoring data and other information. In contrast to drills and exercises where plant monitoring data is available, there was much less plant monitoring data, essentially no reactor state information, and the meteorological conditions and releases were much more complex. Inevitably, the measurements in Japan were not homogeneous, thus presenting technical challenges to assessors tasked with ensuring the quality of the finished assessments and data products for government officials, the responder community, and the public. In this paper, examples of some operational real-world complexities are considered. Procedures, measurements, or radiological assessments from the Fukushima response are

  4. An empirical determination of the minimum number of measurements needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance of disseminated organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    In coal samples, published recommendations based on statistical methods suggest 100 measurements are needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rv-r) to within ??2%. Our survey of published thermal maturation studies indicates that those using dispersed organic matter (DOM) mostly have an objective of acquiring 50 reflectance measurements. This smaller objective size in DOM versus that for coal samples poses a statistical contradiction because the standard deviations of DOM reflectance distributions are typically larger indicating a greater sample size is needed to accurately estimate Rv-r in DOM. However, in studies of thermal maturation using DOM, even 50 measurements can be an unrealistic requirement given the small amount of vitrinite often found in such samples. Furthermore, there is generally a reduced need for assuring precision like that needed for coal applications. Therefore, a key question in thermal maturation studies using DOM is how many measurements of Rv-r are needed to adequately estimate the mean. Our empirical approach to this problem is to compute the reflectance distribution statistics: mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis in increments of 10 measurements. This study compares these intermediate computations of Rv-r statistics with a final one computed using all measurements for that sample. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on mudstone and sandstone samples taken from borehole M-25 in the Cerro Prieto, Mexico geothermal system which was selected because the rocks have a wide range of thermal maturation and a comparable humic DOM with depth. The results of this study suggest that after only 20-30 measurements the mean Rv-r is generally known to within 5% and always to within 12% of the mean Rv-r calculated using all of the measured particles. Thus, even in the worst case, the precision after measuring only 20-30 particles is in good agreement with the general precision of one decimal place recommended for mean Rv

  5. Report and Recommendations, Interstate Project on Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    An extensive study was made of information dissemination by a compact of seven state education agencies which formed the Interstate Project on Dissemination. First an historical perspective for information dissemination was developed, followed by an examination of legislation and regulations pertaining to dissemination. Suggestions were formulated…

  6. 78 FR 25079 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... AGENCY Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance... Agency-funded assistance agreements to submit documentation of their competency prior to award of...

  7. Evaluating the dissemination of Body & Soul, an evidence-based fruit and vegetable intake intervention: challenges for dissemination and implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Allicock, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K.; Valle, Carmina G.; Carr, Carol; Resnicow, Ken; Gizlice, Ziya

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the evidence-based Body & Soul program, when disseminated and implemented without researcher or agency involvement and support, would achieve similar results to earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials. Design Prospective group randomized trial. Setting Churches with predominantly African American membership. Participants A total of 1033 members from the fifteen churches completed baseline surveys. Of these, 562 (54.4%) completed the follow-up survey six months later. Intervention Church-based nutrition program for African Americans that included pastoral involvement, educational activities, church environmental changes, and peer counseling. Main Outcome Measure Daily fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was assessed at pre- and post-test. Analysis Mixed-effects linear models. Results At posttest, there was no statistically significant difference in daily servings of FV between the early intervention group participants compared to control group participants (4.7 vs, 4.4, P=0.38). Process evaluation suggested that added resources such as technical assistance could improve program implementation. Conclusions and Implications The disseminated program may not produce improvements in FV intake equal to those in the earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials, primarily due to lack of program implementation. Program dissemination may not achieve public health impact unless support systems are strengthened for adequate implementation at the church level. PMID:22406012

  8. Detection of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients using multiplex gene expression measurements identifies new therapeutic targets in patients at high risk for the development of metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Chidananda M.; Watson, Mark A.; Pillai, Sreeraj; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Fleming, Timothy; Aft, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) detected in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients identifies women at high risk of recurrence. DTCs are traditionally detected by immunocytochemical staining for cytokeratins or single gene expression measurements, which limit both specificity and sensitivity. We evaluated the Nanostring nCounter™ (NC) platform for multi-marker, gene expression-based detection and classification of DTCs in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients. Experimental Design Candidate genes exhibiting tumor cell specific expression were identified from microarray data sets and validated by qRT-PCR analysis in non-malignant human BM and identical samples spiked with predefined numbers of molecularly diverse breast tumor cell lines. Thirty-eight validated transcripts were designed for the nCounter™ platform and a subset of these transcripts was technically validated against qRT-PCR measurements using identical spiked bone marrow controls. Bilateral iliac crest bone marrow aspirates were collected and analyzed from twenty breast cancer patients, prior to neoadjuvant therapy, using the full 38 gene nCounter™ code set. Results Tumor cell specific gene expression by nCounter™ was detected with a sensitivity of one cancer cell per 1×106 nucleated bone marrow cells after optimization. Measurements were quantitative, log linear over a twenty-fold range, and correlated with qRT-PCR measurements. Using the nCounter™ 38-gene panel, 6 of 8 patients (75%) who developed metastatic disease had detectable expression of at least one transcript. Notably, three of these patients had detectable expression of ERBB2 in their bone marrow, despite the fact that their corresponding primary tumors were HER2/ERBB2 negative and therefore did not receive trastuzumab therapy. Four of these patients also expressed the PTCH1 receptor, a newly recognized therapeutic target based on hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition. Conclusions The presumptive detection and

  9. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  10. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  11. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  12. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  13. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  14. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman*

    PubMed Central

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient. PMID:23539012

  15. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2002-08-01

    This report covers the following topics: Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; Environmental Control Device Testing; and Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  16. Disseminating and Using Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overs, Robert P.; Trotter, Ann B.

    The authors offer some practical guidelines in four areas of rehabilitation research information dissemination: (1) filing and retrieval problems; (2) level and styles of writing, listing, abstracting, summarizing, and reconceptualizing; (3) profiling the average practitioner-consumers; and (4) leveling attitudinal barriers. Filing and retrieval…

  17. Disseminating Educational Research with IT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki

    Teachers and researchers need to use the research produced in education to improve their practice. However, the current modes of dissemination through journals and papers are often written for the expert community. The Telematics Centre at the University of Exeter (United Kingdom), School of Education provides creative solutions for the effective…

  18. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  19. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  20. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  1. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  2. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  3. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  4. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 2, 28. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This report contains environmental sampling and analytical chemistry procedures that are performed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The purpose of environmental sampling and analysis is to obtain data that describe a particular site at a specific point in time from which an evaluation can be made as a basis for possible action.

  5. Modernisation of the system of measurement, storage, transmission and dissemination of hydrological data to decision makers at various levels (EC MOSYM Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, M. J.; Amafteesei, R.; Corbus, C.; Ghioca, M.; Stanescu, V. Al.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the LIFE-MOSYM Project was to provide a demonstration, promotion and technical assistance actions for Romanian local and central authorities in reconsidering the concept of the hydrological network, using an automatically hydrological informational system (AHIS) integrated with a specialized database. Since a few years, and following one of the main priorities in environment, new synthetic approaches have been developed in water sciences and its management. One reason of such evolution is the importance of the links between climates, hydrological regimes and land users. As the floods are important processes in the water bodies, they have to be deemed in priority. The activities during the LIFE-MOSYM Project were implied in flood management and damage mitigation. Thus the MOSYM Project was conceived to build the entire chain of information system in case of water disasters starting from the automatization and the optimisation of the observing and measuring system of the flood triggering factors and of the flood characteristics, continuing with the automatic procedures of primary processing and hydrological modelling for flood forecasting. The first branch of the system allowed for the timely and quantitative cognisance of the inherent danger. On the second branch of the system, the flooding risk maps aimed to help decision-makers to develop solutions to their specific problems in flood risk preparedness and prevention. Both branches converged towards the achievement of a useful tool for decision support for flood management and damage mitigation with accepted European standards. The activities during the LIFE-MOSYM Project was implied in building an automatic informational system in Mures, Arges and Siret Basins. Also, the Project provided a methodology and the local adequate instruments to assess the vulnerability and hazard for the risk maps development.

  6. Influence of environmental thoron on radon measurements and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Tokonami, Shinji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Kovacs, Tibor; Kavasi, Norbert; Sugino, Masato

    2008-08-07

    Recently importance of thoron measurements has also been recognized from the viewpoint of accurate radon measurements. The present study covers specification of the NIRS thoron chamber, passive measurement technique of radon and thoron and thoron interference on radon measurements from both experimental studies and field experiences on epidemiological study area.

  7. Heat Map Visualization of Complex Environmental and Biomarker Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, the assessment of human systems interactions with the environment has permeated all phases of environmental and public health research. We are invoking lessons learned from the broad discipline of Systems Biology research that focuses primarily on molecular ...

  8. Is the Environmental Literacy of University Students Measurable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Harraway, John; Lovelock, Brent; Skeaff, Sheila; Slooten, Liz; Strack, Mick; Furnari, Mary; Jowett, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We report the development and piloting of an evaluative instrument and process for monitoring the environmental literacy (EL) of undergraduate students in one large research-led university in New Zealand. The instrument addresses knowledge, affect and competencies in the general area of EL in line with this institution's adoption of EL as a…

  9. Rats' Novel Object Interaction as a Measure of Environmental Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Herrman, Laura; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental familiarization is a learning phenomenon embedded within most tasks used to study learning and motivation. Given its prevalence there is surprisingly little systematic behavioral research on factors affecting familiarization. The six experiments reported in the present report used rats' tendency to interact more with a novel object…

  10. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-01

    This report covers the following 5 tasks: (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; (2) Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; (3) Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; (4) Environmental Control Device Testing; and (5) Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  11. Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

  12. The Reliability of Environmental Measures of the College Alcohol Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Whitney, Mike; Shillington, Audrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the inter-rater reliability of two environmental scanning tools designed to identify alcohol-related advertisements targeting college students. Inter-rater reliability for these forms varied across different rating categories and ranged from poor to excellent. Suggestions for future research are addressed. (Contains 26 references and 6…

  13. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-01

    This report covers the following four tasks: (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications, Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  14. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOLUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of the recent literature on environmental applications of bioluminescence systems will focus on in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence methods that have been utilized to elucidate properties of chemicals, toxic and mutagenic effects, and to estimate biomass. The unifyin...

  15. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  16. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  17. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with <10% of the resistance genes found outside the WWTP environment. Our data highlight that, despite an abundance of functional resistance genes within WWTPs, only few genes are found in other environments, suggesting that the overall dissemination of the WWTP resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome. PMID:26419330

  18. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome.

    PubMed

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with <10% of the resistance genes found outside the WWTP environment. Our data highlight that, despite an abundance of functional resistance genes within WWTPs, only few genes are found in other environments, suggesting that the overall dissemination of the WWTP resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome. PMID:26419330

  19. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What environmental protection measures... What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? (a) Describe, at a... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  20. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What environmental protection measures... What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? (a) Describe, at a... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  1. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: sidestream cigarette smoke review

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods, and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2001-04-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  3. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  4. Creating new realities: program development and dissemination.

    PubMed Central

    Fixsen, D L; Blase, K A

    1993-01-01

    Program development and dissemination in human services present challenges and opportunities for social scientists. Over the past 27 years the Teaching-Family Model of group home treatment has moved from prototype development to widespread dissemination across North America. Reviewing concepts in industry related to product development and dissemination, the application of these concepts to a human services delivery system, and program replication and dissemination data offer information about how innovative human services can be widely adapted and adopted. PMID:8307838

  5. Disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Tony A; Holcomb, Maura J; Motaparthi, Kiran; Grekin, Sarah J; Hsu, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    A 34-year-old, HIV-positive man living in Texas presented with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, myalgias, oral ulcers, and papules on his chest, back, face, and extremities, including the palms. Initially secondary syphilis was suspected. However, RPR was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous intra-histiocytic fungal organisms. GMS and PAS stains were positive, consistent with the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis clinically mimicking secondary syphilis. PMID:22136866

  6. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  7. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169–diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph. PMID:25872742

  8. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination.

    PubMed

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph. PMID:25872742

  9. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  10. Dissemination Manual for Enhancing Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Earl B.; And Others

    This manual is intended for use by all involved in dissemination of program improvement products--users, linkers, developers, and funders--in Illinois. Section 1 provides guidelines for content usage by dissemination group and usage of charts, forms, and samples. Section 2, Conceptual Framework, defines dissemination, discusses the dissemination…

  11. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.

  12. Portable apparatus for the measurement of environmental radon and thoron

    DOEpatents

    Negro, Vincent C.

    2001-01-01

    The radometer is a portable instrument for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric radon/thoron in a test area. A constant velocity pump pulls the air from the outside at a constant flow rate. If the air is too moist, some or all of the sample is passed through a desiccant filter prior to encountering an electrostatic filter. The electrostatic filter prevents any charged particles from entering the sampling chamber. Once the sample has entered the chamber, the progeny of the decay of radon/thoron are collected on a detector and measured. The measured data is compiled by a computer and displayed.

  13. Portable Apparatus for the Measurement of Environmental Radon and Thoron

    SciTech Connect

    Negro, Vincent

    1999-08-19

    The radometer is a portable instrument for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric radon/thoron in a test area. A constant velocity pump pulls the air from the outside at a constant flow rate. If the air is too moist, some or all of the sample is passed through a desiccant filter prior to encountering an electrostatic filter. The electrostatic filter prevents any charged particles from entering the sampling chamber. Once the sample has entered the chamber, the progeny of the decay of radon/thoron are collected on a detector and measured. The measured data is compiled by a computer and displayed.

  14. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental report, September 1, 1981-March 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jr, E P; Toonkel, L E

    1982-05-01

    This report presents current information from the EML environmental programs, the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two reports on radionuclide data quality assurance are presented in the initial section: one dealing with fallout and biological samples and the other with filtered air samples. These are followed by a report on stratospheric tritium injection by the October 1980 Chinese test. The second section presents recent data from EML progams strontium-90 fallout, radionuclides and trace metals in surface air, radioactivity and trace gases sampled in the stratosphere by aircraft and balloons, strontium-90 in San Francisco and New York diet, milk, and tap water, and cesium-137 in tap water. The third section presents data from Argonne National Laboratory on cesium-137 in Chicago food and from Los Alamos National Laboratory on tritium in the stratosphere. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is presented. Each section has been abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB.

  15. Measures for environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    With putting a focus on the balance among the nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) developed the Action Plan for Healthy Material Circulation in Ocean (just called the Healthy Plan). The plan aims to facilitate the healthy and smooth circulation of the nutrients with an integrated management over land and sea as a package in respective sea areas. The Healthy Plan is now in a pilot phase and is to be implemented for some selected model regions. Meanwhile, devastating tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011 severely damaged the natural environments in the affected regions. In the affected bays, seaweed beds and spawning grounds disappeared in a blink. MOE has launched on the recovery activities of Zostera (eelgrass) beds, using the concepts and the methods used in the "Sato-umi Creation" activity which is a purposeful environmental recovery project. PMID:26969298

  16. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of intervention dissemination (i.e., what is the best approach to disseminate an intervention). Rather, the paper discusses the challenges specific to finding pathways to disseminate an intervention and describes federal opportunities to support intervention dissemination. Three specific mechanisms are discussed: Federal Registries of Evidence-Based Programs, the Tiered Evidence Grant Programs, and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and the Small Technology Transfer Research (STTR) programs. The article presents some limitations associated with federal mechanisms for dissemination of effective interventions, but is intended to highlight current and future opportunities they may offer. PMID:26375192

  17. Laboratory measurements on Radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Tomasz Solecki, Andrzej; Eulalia Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification or evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on earth's surface have also been measured by satellite techniques able to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes thus satellite techniques are widely utilized in researches on the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations on SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes like the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or by Radon. In particular ionization processes due to Radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of Radon in thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory controlled atmospheric volume. Samples of highly radioactive granite powder containing 600 Bq/kg of Radium that is 20 times higher than the average continental lithosphere content has been stored in a desiccator of 0,005 m3 volume for 30 days to accumulate radon 222Rn in the desiccator air. After radon accumulation the desiccator was placed inside a styrofoam chamber of 1x0.5x0.5 m size and the cover removed. The relative humidity of chamber air was 72% and temperature 24 oC. Experiment was monitored by an infrared camera Flir Therma CAM PM695 operating in the spectrum band 7,5-13 µm with thermal resolution 0,01ºC and a RadStar RS300-I Radon Detector/Monitor with 1 hour time resolution. Air temperature and humidity were monitored by a digital Terdens thermohygrometer. No significant thermal or humidity effects were observed.

  18. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI. PMID:25227181

  19. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  20. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including... best practices. (c) Specific target audiences must be identified for dissemination activities and... Affiliated Programs, and State service systems to disseminate information to target audiences. (e)...

  1. Disseminating best practice through workshops.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    This article, the fourth in a five-part series, explores the ways in which best practice might be successfully disseminated through workshops. A workshop provides an exciting opportunity to engage nurses in new ways of thinking and the exploration of ideas applied to practice. It involves the nurse innovator in managing a learning experience that enables colleagues to explore their current and possible future practice. The article describes the different types of workshops available, the role of the workshop leader and the sorts of activities that might be used to encourage participation and practice development. PMID:20391674

  2. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development, production, and processing activities proposed to be... prepared in association with the review and evaluation of the approved Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Director's review of the air quality consequences of proposed OCS activities will follow...

  3. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2: SUBSAMPLING ERROR MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling can be a significant source of error in the measurement process. The characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites require data that meet site-specific levels of acceptable quality if scientifically supportable decisions are to be made. In support of this effort,...

  4. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  5. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  6. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Environmental Orientations in a Diverse Group of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lincoln R.; Green, Gary T.; Castleberry, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of children's environmental orientations is of critical importance as opportunities for authentic contact with nature diminish. Current instruments for measuring children's environmental attitudes are complex, and few have been tested across diverse audiences. This study employed a mixed-methods approach that included pilot tests,…

  7. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Environmental Responsibility, Character Development, and Attitudes toward School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Robert Baxter; Stern, Marc J.; Krohn, Brian D.; Ardoin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures to develop and validate scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development and leadership, and attitudes toward school for environmental education programs servicing middle school children. The scales represent outcomes commonly of interest to…

  8. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  9. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  10. Measured space environmental effects to LDEF during retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Linder, W. Kelly

    1992-01-01

    On the STS-32 shuttle mission, a space flight experiment provided an understanding of the effects of the space environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) from rendezvous with the shuttle until removal from the payload bay at the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC. The Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) is an attached shuttle payload that has been used on two earlier flights (STS 51C and STS 28) to quantify the contamination deposited during the course of the mission. The IOCM can characterize by direct measurement, the deposition of molecular and particulate contamination during any phase of flight. In addition to these principal measurements, the IOCM actively measures the thermophysical properties of thermal control surfaces by calorimetry, the flux of the ambient atomic oxygen environment, the incident solar flux, and the absolute ambient pressure in the payload bay. The IOCM also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g. thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and micrometeoroids and/or orbital debris, etc. One of the more salient results from the STS-32 flight suggests that the LDEF emitted a large number of particulates after berthing into the shuttle. The mission atomic oxygen fluence was also calculated. Although the fluence was low by normal standards, the Kapton passive samples exhibited the onset of erosion. Orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts also occurred during the retrieval mission. The average perforation diameter was approximately 12.5 microns. The largest perforation diameter was measured at 65 microns.

  11. MEASURING THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER REDUCTIONS BY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OUTCOME INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifiable indicators will measure the progress of local and national PM reduction strategies in lowering population exposure to PM and positively impacting public health. These environmental health outcome indicators will ultimately serve to inform and evaluate environmen...

  12. The Hospice Environmental Survey (HES): Pilot Test of a New Measurement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jean H.; Perrill, Norman K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of the Hospice Environmental Survey (HES) to measure user's perception of the homelike atmosphere provided by a hospital inpatient unit called Hospice House. Presents the HES instrument, methodology, and pilot study data. (Author/NB)

  13. Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH): An Instrument to Measure Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Health in Five Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clara K.; Lock, Karen; Madhavan, Manisha; Corsi, Daniel J.; Gilmore, Anna B.; Subramanian, S. V.; Li, Wei; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Lear, Scott A.; Dagenais, Gilles; Teo, Koon; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2010-01-01

    Background The environment in which people live is known to be important in influencing diet, physical activity, smoking, psychosocial and other risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. However no instrument exists that evaluates communities for these multiple environmental factors and is suitable for use across different communities, regions and countries. This report describes the design and reliability of an instrument to measure environmental determinants of CV risk factors. Method/Principal Findings The Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) instrument comprises two parts: (I) an assessment of the physical environment, and (II) an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect residents' perceptions of their community. We examined the inter-rater reliability amongst 3 observers from each region of the direct observation component of the instrument (EPOCH I) in 93 rural and urban communities in 5 countries (Canada, Colombia, Brazil, China and India). Data collection using the EPOCH instrument was feasible in all communities. Reliability of the instrument was excellent (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient - ICC>0.75) for 24 of 38 items and fair to good (ICC 0.4–0.75) for 14 of 38 items. Conclusion This report shows data collection with the EPOCH instrument is feasible and direct observation of community measures reliable. The EPOCH instrument will enable further research on environmental determinants of health for population studies from a broad range of settings. PMID:21170320

  14. In-Situ Environmental Measurements Needed for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Wilson, G. R.; Murphy, J. R.; Banfield, D.; Barnes, J. R.; Farrell, W. M.; Haberle, R. M.; Magalhaes, J.; Paige, D. A.; Tillman, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Existing measurements and modeling studies indicate that the climate and general circulation of the thin, predominately CO2 Martian atmosphere are characterized by large-amplitude variations with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Remote sensing observations from Earth-based telescopes and the Mariner 9, Viking, Phobos, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiters show that the prevailing climate includes large-scale seasonal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures (140 to 300 K), dust optical depth (0.15 to 1), and water vapor (10 to 100 precipitable microns). These observations also provided the first evidence for episodic regional and global dust storms that produce even larger perturbations in the atmospheric thermal structure and general circulation. In-situ measurements by the Viking and Mars Pathfinder Landers reinforced these conclusions, documenting changes in the atmospheric pressure on diurnal (5%) and seasonal (>20%) time scales, as well as large diurnal variations in the near-surface temperature (40 to 70 K), wind velocity (0 to 35 m/s), and dust optical depth (0.3 to 6). These in-situ measurements also reveal phenomena with temporal and spatial scales that cannot be resolved from orbit, including rapid changes in near-surface temperatures (+/- 10 K in 10 seconds), large near-surface vertical temperature gradients (+/- 15 K/meter), diurnally-varying slope winds, and dust devils . Modeling studies indicate that these changes are forced primarily by diurnal and seasonal variations in solar insolation, but they also include contributions from atmospheric thermal tides, baroclinic waves (fronts), Kelvin waves, slope winds, and monsoonal flows from the polar caps.

  15. Smart measurement system for an environmental radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wanno; Kim, Hee-Reyoung; Chung, Kun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Han; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A smart measurement system for an on-line gamma monitoring has been developed to overcome the problems of a conventional system which cannot automatically restore the previous-lost data of several posts by a radio telemetry. It is similar to the conventional system except for a new electronic circuit board and an integrated operation program. The new electronic circuit board is able to store the radiation data with a time tag of 6 or more months if the recording interval time is 10 s. The operation program automatically sends the time correction command to the six monitoring posts for a daily synchronization between the monitoring posts and the central control computer as a Korean mean time. The previous-lost radiation data for 6 or more months could be restored by using two components with the functions of a time tag and a daily synchronization without any additional equipment. It was tested for more than 1 year, from which the test results, the data collection rate was dramatically improved without any tedious manual work, which was almost about 100% for 1 year. The smart measurement system has been applied for an effective gamma monitoring around the nuclear facilities at KAERI since it was developed and tested in 2003.

  16. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements for Cankiri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kapdan, Enis; Taskin, Halim; Kam, Erol; Osmanlioglu, A Erdal; Karahan, Gursel; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2012-07-01

    This study is the first to assess the level of background radiation for the Cankiri province of Turkey. Indoor air radon concentrations were determined using Columbia Resin-39 nuclear track detectors and the average (222)Rn activity was found to be 44 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 1.1 mSv). Measurements of gamma doses in outdoor air were performed using a portable plastic scintillation detector and the average gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be 8 μR h(-1) (corresponding to an annual effective dose of 87.7 μSv). Radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 17.7, 22.3, 357 and 4.1 Bq kg(-1) for the radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The average annual effective dose from the natural radioactivity sources ((238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K) was calculated to be 44.4 μSv. Radioactivity levels of drinking water samples were carried out using a low-background proportional counter and the average gross alpha and beta activities were obtained as 0.25 and 0.26 Bq l(-1), respectively (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 184 μSv). The average radon concentrations in indoor air and the average radionuclide activities in soil were found to be lower than most Turkish cities while higher levels of outdoor gamma dose rate and water radioactivity were observed. The results of this study showed that the region's background radioactivity level differs considerably from the reported data for Turkish cities. PMID:22069234

  17. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  18. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): evaluation of 114 measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, A. C. Jr; Carter, R. C.; Kennedy, R. S.; Harbeson, M. M.; Krause, M.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Program was to identify a set of measures of human capabilities for use in the study of environmental and other time-course effects. 114 measures studied in the PETER Program were evaluated and categorized into four groups based upon task stability and task definition. The Recommended category contained 30 measures that clearly obtained total stabilization and had an acceptable level of reliability efficiency. The Acceptable-But-Redundant category contained 15 measures. The 37 measures in the Marginal category, which included an inordinate number of slope and other derived measures, usually had desirable features which were outweighed by faults. The 32 measures in the Unacceptable category had either differential instability or weak reliability efficiency. It is our opinion that the 30 measures in the Recommended category should be given first consideration for environmental research applications. Further, it is recommended that information pertaining to preexperimental practice requirements and stabilized reliabilities should be utilized in repeated-measures environmental studies.

  19. Weather dissemination and public usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The existing public usage of weather information was examined. A survey was conducted to substantiate the general public's needs for dissemination of current (0-12 hours) weather information, needs which, in a previous study, were found to be extensive and urgent. The goal of the study was to discover how the general public obtains weather information, what information they seek and why they seek it, to what use this information is put, and to further ascertain the public's attitudes and beliefs regarding weather reporting and the diffusion of weather information. Major findings from the study include: 1. The public has a real need for weather information in the 0-6 hour bracket. 2. The visual medium is preferred but due to the lack of frequent (0-6 hours) forecasts, the audio media only, i.e., telephone recordings and radio weathercasts, were more frequently used. 3. Weather information usage is sporadic.

  20. Long-term epidemiological study of disseminated neoplasia of cockles in Galicia (NW Spain): temporal patterns at individual and population levels, influence of environmental and cockle-based factors and lethality.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Iglesias, D; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of disseminated neoplasia (DN) affecting cockles Cerastoderma edule (L.) in Galicia was addressed at individual and population levels. Early stage of DN was characterized by isolated neoplastic cells occurring in branchial vessels or in the connective tissue of gills, mantle, gonad or digestive gland. As disease progressed, the neoplastic cells appeared loose in foci and became widely distributed throughout the organs. In advanced stages, the connective tissue of most organs was infiltrated by neoplastic cells, which displaced normal cells, leading to the loss of the normal tissue/organ architecture. Host defence reaction was occasionally observed. A field survey performed for 7 years, in two cockle beds located in different Galician Rías, showed that DN is a hyperendemic disease usually present all year-round at high prevalence in adult cockles but with annual prevalence minima in spring likely due to the death of heavily affected cockles, concurrently with gonad ripeness-spawning. DN was detected in the cockles ranging from 10 to 39 mm in size; the highest DN prevalence and severity corresponded to the cockles of intermediate size/age (22-29 mm/0.7-1 year old). Sex did not appear to influence DN occurrence. An inhibitory effect of DN on cockle gametogenesis was detected. PMID:26813312

  1. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications.

  2. Measurement of actinides in environmental samples by Photo-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Cadieux, J.R.; Clark, S.; Fjeld, R.A.; Reboul, S.; Sowder, A.

    1994-05-01

    This work describes the adaptation of extractive scintillation with a Photo-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) (ORDELA, Inc.) spectrometer to the analysis of actinides in environmental samples from the Savannah River Site (SRS). Environmental quality assurance standards and actual water samples were treated by one of two methods; either a two step direct extraction, or for more complex samples, pretreatment by an extraction chromatographic separation prior to measurement of the alpha activity by PERALS.

  3. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  4. Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M.; Nicholls, A.K.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.

  5. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  6. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  7. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  8. The Effectiveness of Selected Dissemination Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Johnson, Russell H.

    1981-01-01

    The dissemination activities through which college admissions officers heard about Project CHOICE, a three-year project to help colleges improve the information they provided to prospective students, were investigated. The study involved determining how well various dissemination methods (newsletter, journal articles, conference presentations,…

  9. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  11. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  12. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which...

  13. Disseminated Scopulariopsis-culture is required to distinguish from other disseminated mould infections.

    PubMed

    Swick, Brian L; Reddy, Sindhura C; Friedrichs, Amanda; Stone, Mary Seabury

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in severely immunocompromised bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. Scopulariopsis is a soil saprophytic mould that is typically associated with onychomycosis and only rarely associated with disseminated infection with cutaneous findings. We describe a case of fatal disseminated Scopulariopsis infection in a 56-year-old neutropenic male with chronic myelogenous leukemia status post peripheral blood stem cell transplant that was clinically and histologically indistinguishable from disseminated Aspergillus, Fusarium or zygomycosis infection. Distinguishing the above listed fungi by tissue culture is crucial because disseminated Scopulariopsis is difficult to eradicate and associated with a high mortality rate in the immunocompromised BMT patient population. PMID:19615008

  14. [Respiratory failure in disseminated sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Popova, L M; Avdiunina, I A; Alferova, V P

    2000-01-01

    The development and patterns of respiratory failure (RF) are analyzed in 9 patients with disseminated sclerosis (DS). Forced ventilation of the lungs was carried out with consideration for main location of the process. Relationship between patterns of respiratory disorders and neuroanatomy of respiratory regulation is discussed. Involvement of the corticospinal routes is paralleled by dissociation during functional pulmonary tests: spontaneous volumes are less than controlled inspirations. The most severe symptom complexes were observed in RF of predominantly bulbar localization: respiratory anarchy, blocking of airways caused by impaired swallowing, impaired mechanism of coughing reflex, loss of spontaneous respiration, sometimes apnea during sleeping. Involvement of the respiratory nuclei of medullary respiratory center and airways and of the corticonuclear routes of caudal cranial nerves causes the development of a triad of symptoms: glossopharyngolaryngeal paralysis, dysfunction of respiratory nuclei of medulla oblongata, and decreased sensitivity of respiratory center to CO2. Aspiration complications caused by dysphagia are characteristic of bulbar DS. Respiratory function in 5 patients without clinical picture of RF are specially discussed. The authors emphasize unfavorable prognostic significance of signs of extracorporeal obstruction indicating the probability of RF long before its manifestation. Special attention is paid to early diagnosis of symptoms of coming RF when evaluating the status of patients with DS during treatment. Timely use of respiratory resuscitation methods reduces the mortality and ensures a good chance for remissions with recovery of respiratory function, which are characteristic of RF. PMID:11014001

  15. GOES satellite time code dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The GOES time code system, the performance achieved to date, and some potential improvements in the future are discussed. The disseminated time code is originated from a triply redundant set of atomic standards, time code generators and related equipment maintained by NBS at NOAA's Wallops Island, VA satellite control facility. It is relayed by two GOES satellites located at 75 W and 135 W longitude on a continuous basis to users within North and South America (with overlapping coverage) and well out into the Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas. Downlink frequencies are near 468 MHz. The signals from both satellites are monitored and controlled from the NBS labs at Boulder, CO with additional monitoring input from geographically separated receivers in Washington, D.C. and Hawaii. Performance experience with the received time codes for periods ranging from several years to one day is discussed. Results are also presented for simultaneous, common-view reception by co-located receivers and by receivers separated by several thousand kilometers.

  16. The dissemination of pedagogical patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-06-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns—they think pedagogical patterns can be used for capturing and transferring knowledge of teaching within the community. In this article, I analyse the results of a questionnaire and try to answer whether the creators of the pedagogical patterns have reached their vision among computer science teachers at universities around the world. The results indicate a rather high familiarity with pedagogical patterns. The attitude towards pedagogical patterns is positive among both teachers with knowledge and teachers without knowledge of pedagogical patterns. The attitude towards pedagogical patterns as a tool for further development of teaching is to some extent positive. The results show that the group with knowledge of pedagogical patterns, as well as the group with a positive attitude towards pedagogical patterns, is difficult to describe.

  17. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

  18. A guide to the measurement of environmental gamma-ray dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, F. W.; Gibson, J. A. B.; Thompson, I. M. G.

    The performance of Geiger counters, ionization chambers, scintillators, gamma-ray spectrometers and thermoluminescence dosimeters is discussed. Cosmic, man made, and natural environmental gamma radiation is considered. Dosimeter calibration, measurement procedures, precautions which reduce errors, accuracy assessment, and the interpretation of results are covered. The calculation of dose equivalent to body organs is outlined. Levels of the annual dose equivalent received by the UK population are given. The minimum change in measured dose rate significant at the 95% confidence level as an estimate of the mean environmental dose rate is 12mrad/yr.

  19. Active Self-Testing Noise Measurement Sensors for Large-Scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10. PMID:24351634

  20. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  1. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors. PMID:25662420

  2. Transbronchial Dissemination of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Tomoya; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Bandoh, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung cancer with transbronchial dissemination in a 73-year-old man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple bronchial mucosal nodules that existed independently of one another. We reviewed 16 previous cases of endobronchial metastasis in lung cancer. All patients were men. Among the reports that described the smoking history, most patients were smokers (6/7), and the most frequent histological type of cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (11/17). Although hematogenous and lymphogenous routes have been reported as metastatic mechanisms, no previous cases involving transbronchial dissemination have been described. Transbronchial dissemination may be an alternative pathway of endobronchial metastasis. PMID:26672760

  3. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  4. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? 3272.12 Section 3272.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  5. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  6. Operating Sound-Measuring Equipment. Module 1. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating sound-measuring equipment. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) selecting decibel ranges,…

  7. Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures by Organic Farmers: The Role of Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…

  8. 78 FR 39283 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements... Implementation Extension for Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements. SUMMARY: As published in the Federal... Agency-funded assistance agreements to submit documentation of their competency prior to award of...

  9. Obtaining Heat Stress Measurements. Module 15. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on obtaining heat stress measurements. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming and describing the…

  10. Application of a CZT detector to in situ environmental radioactivity measurement in the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Kubota, T; Shibahara, Y; Fujii, T; Fukutani, S; Takamiya, K; Mizuno, S; Yamana, H

    2015-11-01

    Instead of conventional Ge semiconductor detectors and NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers, an application of a CdZnTe semiconductor (CZT) whose crystal has the dimension of 1 cm cubic to the in situ environmental radioactivity measurement was attempted in deeply affected areas in Fukushima region. Results of deposition density on soil for (134)Cs/(137)Cs obtained seemed consistent, comparing obtained results with those measured by the Japanese government. PMID:25953790

  11. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  12. RACER: dynamic use of environmental measurement data for decision making and communication.

    PubMed

    Mohler, H Justin; Grogan, Helen A; Rocco, James R; Kiefer, Ryan F; Till, John E

    2012-02-01

    To facilitate access to and use of environmental measurement data, Risk Assessment Corporation has developed a data management system as part of its Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction process. The concepts of data consistency are not new, but many data management applications are developed around managing the entire data life cycle, rather than on using the data to reach meaningful conclusions. The RACER process is specifically focused on the efficient use of available data to promote sound decision making. The RACER data management system provides a means of understanding trends in data, comparing data to frequently referenced comparison values, and organizing environmental measurement data for use by other components of the RACER process that evaluate human health impacts. Data transfers to the system can be automated to occur frequently for facilities collecting large volumes of data to achieve a dynamic point of access to measurement data that reflects the most recently available information. Because the RACER process is designed around the most common uses of data, its utility spans a broad range of potential applications, from routine monitoring and reporting to emergency response decision making based on potential human health impacts. Because it is portable and flexible, the elements of the system can be used in any situation where there is a need to efficiently access and interpret environmental measurement data. Its output and functions are equally relevant for small datasets with hundreds of measurements or large and complex datasets with millions of measurements. PMID:22249468

  13. Disseminated intravascular coagulation after multiple honeybee stings.

    PubMed

    V, Dharma Rao; Bodepudi, Sravan Kumar; Krishna, Murali

    2014-01-01

    Honeybee venom contains apitoxin which can cause anaphylaxis, cardiovascular collapse and death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is rare following honeybee stings. We describe the case of a farmer who developed this complication. PMID:25668084

  14. [Combined chemotherapy of disseminated skin melanoma].

    PubMed

    Dement'eva, N P; Voznyĭ, E K; Koroleva, L A

    1978-01-01

    The author's experience with nitrosomethylurea+prospidine treatment in 37 patients having disseminated melanoma is described. The mentioned scheme of the combination therapy is proved to be effective. PMID:741699

  15. Disseminated Trichosporonosis Caused by Trichosporon loubieri

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Francisco M.; Barouch, Dan H.; Coakley, Eoin P.; Baden, Lindsey R.

    2003-01-01

    Trichosporonosis is an emerging invasive fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients; a case of disseminated infection caused by Trichosporon loubieri presented confirms its role as a human pathogen. PMID:14605194

  16. Ambient intelligence application based on environmental measurements performed with an assistant mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile. PMID:24681671

  17. Ambient Intelligence Application Based on Environmental Measurements Performed with an Assistant Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile. PMID:24681671

  18. Functional genomics identifies drivers of medulloblastoma dissemination.

    PubMed

    Mumert, Michael; Dubuc, Adrian; Wu, Xiaochong; Northcott, Paul A; Chin, Steven S; Pedone, Carolyn A; Taylor, Michael D; Fults, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise in the cerebellum in children and disseminate via the cerebrospinal fluid to the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. Challenged by the poor prognosis for patients with metastatic dissemination, pediatric oncologists have developed aggressive treatment protocols, combining surgery, craniospinal radiation, and high-dose chemotherapy, that often cause disabling neurotoxic effects in long-term survivors. Insights into the genetic control of medulloblastoma dissemination have come from transposon insertion mutagenesis studies. Mobilizing the Sleeping Beauty transposon in cerebellar neural progenitor cells caused widespread dissemination of typically nonmetastatic medulloblastomas in Patched(+/-) mice, in which Shh signaling is hyperactive. Candidate metastasis genes were identified by sequencing the insertion sites and then mapping these sequences back to the mouse genome. To determine whether genes located at transposon insertion sites directly caused medulloblastomas to disseminate, we overexpressed candidate genes in Nestin(+) neural progenitors in the cerebella of mice by retroviral transfer in combination with Shh. We show here that ectopic expression of Eras, Lhx1, Ccrk, and Akt shifted the in vivo growth characteristics of Shh-induced medulloblastomas from a localized pattern to a disseminated pattern in which tumor cells seeded the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. PMID:22875024

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF REPAIR OF HIGHWAY BRI DGE BASED ON EXAMPLES AND MEASURES OF IMPACT REDUCTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Kenji; Aoki, Yusuke; Iwatani, Yuta; Honjo, Kiyoshi; Nakano, Masahiro; Fukui, Seiji

    In this study, the environm ental impact evaluation for CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate matter emissions was performed based on repair examples of highway bridges. It was shown that the amount of CO2 emission derived from constituent materials, execution and transportation accounts for 40 to 60%, 40 to 60 % and about 5%, respectively, which is different from newly constructed structures. Within this study, in the integrated life-cycle evaluation of the above 4 environmental impact factors, it was found that the environmental impact for repair using pr ecast concrete slabs is smaller than that using reinforced concrete slabs. It was also shown that about 23% of CO2 emission, about 7% of NOx emission, about 39% of SOx emission and about 20% of particulate matter emission can be reduced when a type of binding material and a curing method are changed as a measure for reducing the environmental impact for repair using precast concrete slabs.

  20. Measurement of Actinides in Environmental Samples at Micro-Becquerel Levels by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Knezovich, J P; Marchetti, A A; Hamilton, T F

    2002-09-03

    The need for ultra-sensitive actinide measurements continues to expand in the fields of environmental stewardship, nuclear isotope forensics, radiobioassay and environmental research. We have developed a heavy isotope accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS). The system was designed particularly for the measurement of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. A fast isotope switching capability has been incorporated in the system, allowing flexibility in isotope selection and for the quasi-continuous normalization to a reference isotope spike. Initially, our utilization of the system has concentrated on the measurement of Pu isotopes. Under current operating conditions, background levels equivalent to <10{sup 6} atoms are observed during routine {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu measurements. Measurements of samples containing 10{sup 13} {sup 238}U atoms demonstrate that the system provides a {sup 238}U rejection factor of >10{sup 7}. Recently, we have utilized the high dynamic range of the AMS system in measuring samples whose Pu contents ranged from <10{sup 6} (background) to >10{sup 11} Pu atoms. Measurements of known materials, combined with results from an externally organized intercomparison program, indicate that our {sup 239}Pu measurements are accurate and precise down to the {mu}Bq level ({approx}10{sup 6} atoms). The development of the heavy isotope system was undertaken with particular interest in the measurement of environmental samples, including soils, sediments, waters, air filters, tissue samples, and human urine. The high rejection of interferences, including molecular interferences, and low susceptibility to matrix components, provided by the AMS technique are of particular relevance for such complex samples. These two factors significantly reduce demands on sample preparation chemistry for Pu analyses, allowing relatively simple, cost-effective procedures

  1. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Mel W.; Grab, Denise A.; Livermore, Michael A.; Vossler, Christian A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods—including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services—provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically “nonmarket” goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  2. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Mel W; Grab, Denise A; Livermore, Michael A; Vossler, Christian A; Glimcher, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods--including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services--provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically "nonmarket" goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  3. Measuring the Environmental Burden of Disease in South Korea: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Hyeong-Su; Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Eun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to measure the environmental burden of disease by examining mortality and disability rates in South Korea, permitting international comparisons. Methods: Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) was used to analyze data from public records. Years of life lost (YLL) and years lost to disability (YLD) were measured in terms of incidence rate and number of deaths. Attributable risks were based on those for WHO Western Pacific Regions. For air pollution, attributable risk was calculated using local PM10 levels and relative risk. Results: The total Korean environmental burden of disease was 17.98 per 1000 persons and the most serious risk factor was air pollution, at 6.89per1000 persons. Occupation was the second highest contributing factor, at 3.29 per 1000 persons, followed by indoor air pollution at 2.91 per 1000 persons. The DALY of air-pollution (indoor and outdoor) was 9.80 per 1000 persons, accounting for more than half of the total environmental burden of disease. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and asthma were 4.07, 3.16, and 1.96 per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: Respiratory illnesses comprised most of the disease burden, the majority of which was linked to air pollution. The present results are important as they could be used to make evidence-based decisions regarding the management of diseases and environmental-risk factors. PMID:26184265

  4. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  5. Measuring the Environmental Dimensions of Human Migration: The Demographer’s Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Gray, Clark L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the empirical literature linking environmental factors and human migration has grown rapidly and gained increasing visibility among scholars and the policy community. Still, this body of research uses a wide range of methodological approaches for assessing environment-migration relationships. Without comparable data and measures across a range of contexts, it is impossible to make generalizations that would facilitate the development of future migration scenarios. Demographic researchers have a large methodological toolkit for measuring migration as well as modeling its drivers. This toolkit includes population censuses, household surveys, survival analysis and multi-level modeling. This paper’s purpose is to introduce climate change researchers to demographic data and methods and to review exemplary studies of the environmental dimensions of human migration. Our intention is to foster interdisciplinary understanding and scholarship, and to promote high quality research on environment and migration that will lead toward broader knowledge of this association. PMID:25177108

  6. Studies on Agri-environmental Measures: A Survey of the Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthes, Sandra; Matzdorf, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Agri-environmental measures (AEM) are incentive-based instruments in the European Union (EU) that provide payments to farmers for voluntary environmental commitments related to preserving and enhancing the environment and maintaining the cultural landscape. We review the AEM literature and provide an overview of important research topics, major research results and future challenges as discussed in the available literature concerning these measures. This review contributes to the existing literature by attempting to equally consider ecological and economic perspectives. The reviewed articles are analyzed regarding their regional focus, topics and methods. The analytical section of the article seeks to discuss commonly asked questions about AEM on the basis of results from reviewed studies. The vast amount of available literature provides valuable insights into specific cases and reveals a complex picture with few general conclusions. The existing research is usually either biased toward ecological or economic perspectives and fails to provide a holistic picture of the problems and challenges within agri-environmental programming (e.g., multiple measures, multiple target areas, legal aspects, financial constraints, transaction costs). Most empirical studies provide detailed insights into selected individual measures but are incapable of providing results at a level relevant to decision-making, as they neglect the role of farmers and the available AEM budget. Predominantly economic approaches often only consider rough assumptions of ecological and economic processes and are also not suitable for decision-making. Decision-support tools that build on these disciplinary results and simultaneously consider scheme factors and environmental conditions at high spatial resolution for application by the responsible authorities are rare and require further research.

  7. Inefficiency of sanitation measures aboard commercial aircraft: environmental pollution and disease.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, R

    1977-07-01

    Recent investigations at Tokyo International Airport have proven that environmental pollution resulting from the inefficient disposal of human excretion aboard aircraft is an important problem from the standpoint of quarantine. It is, therefore, recommended that the worldwide aviation industry take immediate measures to improve conditions and eliminate this problem, which has thus far been ignored by aircraft designers, airport administration, and CAB personnel. PMID:329830

  8. EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).

  9. Development of novel sol-gel indicators (SGI`s) for in-situ environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.R.; Wicks, G.G.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Organic indicator molecules have been incorporated in a porous sol- gel matrix coated on the end of a fiber-optic lens assembly to create sensors for in situ environmental measurements. Probes have been made that are sensitive to pH and uranyl concentration. The use of fiber optics allows the probe to be lowered into a well or bore hole, while support equipment such as a spectrophotometer and computer may be situated hundreds of meters away.

  10. SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems

    PubMed Central

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Johnstone, Ron; Chiffings, Tony; Atkinson, Ian; Bergmann, Neil; Read, Wayne; Theiss, Susan; Myers, Trina; Stevens, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT's goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments. PMID:23012567

  11. SEMAT--the next generation of inexpensive marine environmental monitoring and measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Johnstone, Ron; Chiffings, Tony; Atkinson, Ian; Bergmann, Neil; Read, Wayne; Theiss, Susan; Myers, Trina; Stevens, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a "smart" wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT's goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments. PMID:23012567

  12. Environmental management performance for Brazilian industrials: measuring with the item response theory.

    PubMed

    Trierweiller, Andréa Cristina; Peixe, Blênio César Severo; Tezza, Rafael; Bornia, Antonio Cezar; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Campos, Lucila Maria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Growing challenges with respect to preserving the environment have forced changes in company operational structures. Thus, the objective of this article is to measure the evidence of Environmental Management using the Item Response Theory, based on website analysis from Brazilian industrial companies from sectors defined through the scope of the research. This is a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study related to an information collection and analysis instrument. The general view of the research problem with respect to the phenomenon under study in based on multi-case studies, with the methodological outline based on the theoretical reference used. Primary data was gathered from 270 company websites from 7 different Brazilian sectors and led to the creation of 26 items approved by environmental specialists. The results were attained with the measuring of Environmental Management evidence via the Item Response Theory, providing a clear order of the items involved based on each item's level of difficulty, quality, and propriety. This permitted the measurement of each item's quality and propriety, as well as that of the respondents, placing them on the same analysis scale. Increasing the number of items and companies involved is suggested fEor future research in order to permit broader sector analysis. PMID:22317039

  13. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, BURGE ENVIRONMENTAL INC. MULTIPROBE 100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES - QED ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS INC. WELL WIZARD DEDICATED SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  16. Public information, dissemination, and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysts have become increasingly concerned about inaccuracies and misconceptions in the public, educational, and professional information portraying their activities, but have done little to correct these views. The present paper has two purposes in this regard. First, the paper describes some of the conditions that have given rise to these concerns. Second, and more important, the paper surveys various procedures and programs for the dissemination of public information that may correct inaccuracies and misconceptions. Special consideration is also given to issues involving (a) the assessment of the problem, (b) the content and means of dissemination, (c) the possible contributions of behavior analysts to current misunderstandings, and (d) relationships between behavior analysts and the media. The dissemination of accurate and unbiased information constitutes an important new undertaking for behavior analysis. The future of the field may depend in part on such activity. PMID:22478623

  17. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  18. Measurement and Analysis of Narrow-Band Surface Acoustic Waves in Ceramic Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, T. L.; Basu, S. N.; Sarin, V. K.; Murray, T. W.

    2008-02-01

    A laser-based ultrasonic system is used to measure the mechanical properties and thickness of mullite environmental barrier coatings deposited on SiC substrates. Narrow-band surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are generated with an amplitude modulated laser source, and a photorefractive crystal based interferometer coupled to a lock-in amplifier is used to detect the resulting surface displacement. The complex displacement field is mapped over a source-to-receiver distance of approximately 500 μm in order to extract the wavelength of the SAW at a given excitation frequency, from which the phase velocity is determined. Dispersion curves measured over a frequency range of 100-180 MHz are used to extract mean values for the elastic modulus and thickness of the coating over the measurement region. These values are compared to the mean elastic modulus and thickness of the coating measured using nanoindentation and optical microscopy, respectively. It is shown that porosity in the substrate can have a significant impact on the experimental results, particularly over short measurement distances. Experiments on SiC with 1-4% porosity show a linear increase of the mean SAW velocity with decreasing porosity. Additionally, measurements made on a sample with a given bulk porosity indicate that the SAW velocity varies locally, leading to additional error in the measurement of coating properties. This error can be reduced through spatially averaging the velocity measurements.

  19. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2011-08-15

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.

  20. Measuring the environmental efficiency of countries: a directional distance function metafrontier approach.

    PubMed

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-04-15

    This paper measures environmental efficiency (EE) in 63 countries over the period 1981-2005 and analyzes whether the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol is accompanied by an increase in environmental efficiency during the same period. Differences in EE across countries under distinct country-specific production frontiers are measured using a directional distance function model, which incorporates a desirable output (GDP) and an undesirable output (CO2 emissions). It is further assumed that a stochastic meta-technology-frontier exists and represents potential outputs available to all countries given inputs. The metafrontier for four country groups, high income countries, upper-middle income countries, low-middle income countries, and low income countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. The overall results indicate that the four country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that high income countries achieved the highest progress in their average environmental efficiency relative to the metafrontier, while lower-middle income countries and low income countries recorded negative growth in their average EE relative to the metafrontier. PMID:23474337

  1. Disseminated Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Boamah, H; Puranam, P; Sandre, R M

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram-positive, partially acid-fast, methenamine silver-positive aerobic actinomycete that is infrequently associated with nocardiosis. The relative frequency of Nocardia farcinica isolates in nocardiosis is unknown but thought to be under diagnosis. It is increasingly been recognized in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated Nocardia farcinica causing brain abscess in 55 year old immunocompetent man who was successfully treated with long term antibiotics. The present report illustrates that early detection and treatment of disseminated Nocardia farcinica can lead to a good outcome. PMID:27617207

  2. Measurement error in environmental epidemiology and the shape of exposure-response curves.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Chandalia, Juhi K; Long, Christopher M; Goodman, Julie E

    2011-09-01

    Both classical and Berkson exposure measurement errors as encountered in environmental epidemiology data can result in biases in fitted exposure-response relationships that are large enough to affect the interpretation and use of the apparent exposure-response shapes in risk assessment applications. A variety of sources of potential measurement error exist in the process of estimating individual exposures to environmental contaminants, and the authors review the evaluation in the literature of the magnitudes and patterns of exposure measurement errors that prevail in actual practice. It is well known among statisticians that random errors in the values of independent variables (such as exposure in exposure-response curves) may tend to bias regression results. For increasing curves, this effect tends to flatten and apparently linearize what is in truth a steeper and perhaps more curvilinear or even threshold-bearing relationship. The degree of bias is tied to the magnitude of the measurement error in the independent variables. It has been shown that the degree of bias known to apply to actual studies is sufficient to produce a false linear result, and that although nonparametric smoothing and other error-mitigating techniques may assist in identifying a threshold, they do not guarantee detection of a threshold. The consequences of this could be great, as it could lead to a misallocation of resources towards regulations that do not offer any benefit to public health. PMID:21823979

  3. High-throughput measurement and classification of organic P in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas R; Hill, Jane E

    2011-01-01

    Many types of organic phosphorus (P) molecules exist in environmental samples. Traditional P measurements do not detect these organic P compounds since they do not react with colorimetric reagents. Enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) is an emerging method for accurately characterizing organic P forms in environmental samples. This method is only trumped in accuracy by Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-NMR)--a method that is expensive and requires specialized technical training. We have adapted an enzymatic hydrolysis method capable of measuring three classes of phosphorus (monoester P, diester P and inorganic P) to a microplate reader system. This method provides researchers with a fast, accurate, affordable and user-friendly means to measure P species in soils, sediments, manures and, if concentrated, aquatic samples. This is the only high-throughput method for measuring the forms and enzyme-lability of organic P that can be performed in a standard laboratory. The resulting data provides insight to scientists studying system nutrient content and eutrophication potential. PMID:21694686

  4. An equilibrium-based model for measuring environmental radon using charcoal canisters.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, A L; Kearfott, K J

    2010-08-01

    Radon in indoor air is often measured using canisters of activated charcoal that function by adsorbing radon gas. The use of a diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) minimizes the effects of environmental humidity and extends the useful exposure time by several days. Many DBCC protocols model charcoal canisters as simple integrating detectors, which introduces errors due to the fact that radon uptake changes over the exposure period. Errors are compensated for by calculating a calibration factor that is nonlinear with respect to exposure time. This study involves the development and testing of an equilibrium-based model and corresponding measurement protocol that treats the charcoal canisters as a system coming into equilibrium with the surrounding radon environment. This model applies to both constant and temporally varying radon concentration situations, which was essential, as efforts are currently underway using a temporally varying radon chamber. It was found that the DBCCs equilibrate following the relationship E = (1 - e) where E is a measure of how close the DBCC is to equilibrium, t is exposure time, and q is the equilibration constant. This equilibration constant was empirically determined to be 0.019 h. The proposed model was tested in a blind test as well as compared with the currently accepted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) model. Comparisons between the two methods showed a slight decrease in measurement error when using the equilibrium-based method as compared to the U.S. EPA method. PMID:20622564

  5. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  6. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  7. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  8. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  9. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  10. Diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis by measurement of antibodies against environmental antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Dewair, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), an immunologically mediated chronic pulmonary disease, is the result of an inflammatory response of the lung initiated by the inhalation of environmental organic dusts. These organic dusts usually contain substances (antigens) capable of eliciting immune responses in humans. The symptoms of HP generally present as recurrent flu-like episodes which makes it difficult to establish the proper diagnosis. However, detection in patients' sera of high-titer antibodies against the environmental antigens could be of great help in identifying those materials causing the disease and which must be avoided. A highly specific and sensitive serodiagnostic test, a radioimmuno assay (RIA), was developed for measurement of antibodies against antigens relevant to Farmer's Lung Disease (FLD), a type of HP affecting farmers.

  11. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development.

  12. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup programs

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.

    1993-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental clean up is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not just controlled, concentrated, and moved from one media to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in waste water sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over two billion dollars has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy for fiscal year 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to manage and dispose of these wastes.

  13. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a north american perspective.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Fernandez, Ivan J; Richter, Daniel D; Ross, Donald S; Hazlett, Paul W; Bailey, Scott W; Ouimet, Rock; Warby, Richard A F; Johnson, Arthur H; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M; Lapenis, Andrew G; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced. PMID:23673928

  14. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  15. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott

    2012-07-01

    comes to the public domain, Federal government agencies are spearheading the development of software tools to measure and report emissions of air pollutants (e.g., carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants); consumption of energy, water and natural resources; accident and safety risks; project costs and other economic metrics. Most of the tools developed for the Government are available to environmental practitioners without charge, so they are growing in usage and popularity. The key features and metrics calculated by the available public-domain tools for measuring the sustainability of environmental remediation projects share some commonalities but there are differences amongst the tools. The SiteWise{sup TM} sustainability tool developed for the Navy and US Army will be compared with the Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT{sup TM}) developed for the US Air Force (USAF). In addition, the USAF's Clean Solar and Wind Energy in Environmental Programs (CleanSWEEP), a soon-to-be-released tool for evaluating the economic feasibility of utilizing renewal energy for powering remediation systems will be described in the paper. (authors)

  16. Repeated-measures regression designs and analysis for environmental effects monitoring programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Michael D.; Skinner, Marc A.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Tracy, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides a general overview of repeated-measures (RM) regression designs and analysis for marine monitoring programs, in support of sediment chemistry, particle size and benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses provided as part of this series. In RM regression designs, the same n replicates (usually stations in monitoring programs) are re-sampled (i.e., repeatedly measured) at t>1 Times (usually years). The stations provide variation in the predictor, or X variables. In the Terra Nova environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program, n=48 stations were sampled in each of t=7 years from 2000 to 2010. Two distance measures from five drill centres (sources of drilling wastes) were fixed predictor variables. RM regression designs are rarely used in environmental monitoring programs, but are often suitable and would be appropriate if applied to data from many monitoring programs. For the Terra Nova EEM program, carry-over effects, or persistent and usually small-scale variations among stations unrelated to distance, were strong for most sediment quality variables. Whenever natural carry-over effects are strong, RM designs and analysis will usually be more powerful and suitable than alternative approaches to the analysis.

  17. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools. PMID:26296310

  18. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  19. Factors that Influence Dissemination in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, B. T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational materials and methods in engineering education is increasing, the process of disseminating (making target groups become aware of, accept, and use) these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. The purpose of this article is to identify…

  20. Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Arielle; Branch, Andrea D

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key components of the innate immune system yet they are often the victims of attack by infectious agents. This review examines the significance of viral infection of macrophages. The central hypothesis is that macrophage tropism enhances viral dissemination and persistence, but these changes may come at the cost of reduced replication in cells other than macrophages. PMID:26949751

  1. Active Tools for Better Knowledge Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Peter; Mikulecka, Jaroslava

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a solution to the inadequacy and passivity problems with push and pull technologies could be in a combination of both, with an active component, adding more intelligence to the whole process of information and knowledge dissemination and supply. Describes basic principles of activity components in intelligent systems, and some…

  2. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY... of intended dissemination, use of the information and whether the end purpose to be served renders effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  3. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  4. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M.; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab. PMID:26291712

  5. Groupware: Improving Group Communication and Information Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Thomas; Shiigi, Clyde

    1996-01-01

    Faced with increased public expectations and decreased funding, the Hawaii Department of Education chose Lotus Notes groupware technology as an efficient means to support statewide collaboration and information dissemination among 4,200 users in 231 schools. Although initially resistant, respondents to a year-end evaluation of the project in one…

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Following Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Shoichi; Sekiya, Noritaka; Takizawa, Yasunobu; Morioka, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirofumi; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Mitarai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Kamei, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found mainly in patients with respiratory or cutaneous infections, but it rarely causes disseminated infections. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of disseminated M abscessus infection. A 75-year-old Japanese woman who had been treated for 17 years with a corticosteroid for antisynthetase syndrome with antithreonyl-tRNA synthetase antibody developed swelling of her right elbow. X-ray of her right elbow joint showed osteolysis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed fluid in her right elbow joint. M abscessus grew in joint fluid and blood cultures. She was diagnosed with a disseminated M abscessus infection following septic arthritis. Antimicrobial treatment by clarithromycin, amikacin, and imipenem/cilastatin combined with surgical debridement was administered. Although blood and joint fluid cultures became negative 1 week later, the patient died at 6 weeks from starting antimicrobial treatment. We reviewed 34 cases of disseminated M abscessus infections from the literature. Most of the patients had immunosuppressive backgrounds such as transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents, hematological malignancy, and end stage renal disease. The duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was over 3 months in half of the cases. All fatal cases had positive blood cultures or use of immunosuppressive agents. Clinicians should bear in mind that mycobacterial infections including M abscessus are one of the differential diagnoses in patients with subacute arthritis and soft tissue infections. PMID:26020393

  7. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  8. CHRONIC DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS WITH PROLONGED LATENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in an ex-serviceman is described. Evidence is presented to support a latency period of over sixty years between acquisition of infection and clinical manifestation. This is the longest latency period for histoplasmosis described in the medical literature...

  9. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV.

    PubMed

    Soza, Gabriela M; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison; Ryan, Caitriona

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4(+) count of 3 cells/µL. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed. PMID:26722169

  10. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Rimtepathip, Parin P; Erickson, Alex; Katner, Harold; Bakri, Younes

    2016-01-01

    A 39-year-old female patient was presented with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed extensive granulomas throughout the abdomen. Disseminated TB was suspected, but the biopsies were negative. Due to a high degree of suspicion, a urine antigen test was performed and was strongly positive for histoplasmosis. PMID:26783441

  11. ADHD as Sequel to Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Investigators from Ruth Children's Hospital, Haifa, and Schneider Medical Center, Petah Tikuah, Israel, evaluated the long-term motor and neurocognitive outcome of 43 children hospitalized during 2002-2012 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and identified prognostic risk factors. PMID:27053911

  12. Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Ernest W.

    This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

  13. Computer software management, evaluation, and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center involving the collection, processing, and distribution of software developed under the auspices of NASA and certain other federal agencies are reported. Program checkout and evaluation, inventory control, customer services and marketing, dissemination, program maintenance, and special development tasks are discussed.

  14. Disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact, female miniature Doberman pinscher was evaluated for lethargy, intermittent back pain, and unstable gait. Physical and neurological findings included bradycardia, hypothermia, hyperesthesia, progressive and ascending ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits in all limbs. Laboratory findings and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, confirmed later by microscopy. PMID:11802671

  15. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  16. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV

    PubMed Central

    Soza, Gabriela M.; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4+ count of 3 cells/µL. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed. PMID:26722169

  17. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE.

  18. Monitoring the Dissemination of the Broad-Host-Range Plasmid pB10 in Sediment Microcosms by Quantitative PCR▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bonot, Sébastien; Merlin, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Studying the transfer of specific mobile genetic elements in complex environmental matrices remains difficult because suitable molecular tools are not yet available to back up classical culture-dependent approaches. In this report, we show that quantitative PCR could be used to monitor the dissemination of the broad-host-range plasmid pB10 in sediment microcosms. This approach lies in the differential measurement of the host and plasmid DNAs used to inoculate the microcosms, using a particular design of quantitative PCR primers/probes where we took advantage of the mosaic aspect of the bacterial genomes to achieve a highly specific quantitative PCR detection system. PMID:19897757

  19. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF TWO CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS (CEMS) FOR MEASURING AMMONIA EMISSIONS: SIEMENS AG LDS 3000, AND OPSIS AB LD500

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, beginning as an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1995, verifies the performance of commercially available, innovative technologies that can be used to measure environmental quality. The ETV ...

  20. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  1. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  2. Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

  3. Reconceptualizing 'effectiveness' in environmental projects: can we measure values-related achievements?

    PubMed

    Harder, Marie K; Velasco, Ismael; Burford, Gemma; Podger, Dimity; Janoušková, Svatava; Piggot, Georgia; Hoover, Elona

    2014-06-15

    There have been recent calls for a shift to an evidence-based paradigm in environmental management, grounded in systematic monitoring and evaluation, but achieving this will be complex and difficult. Evaluating the educational components of environmental initiatives presents particular challenges, because these programs often have multiple concurrent goals and may value 'human outcomes', such as value change, which are intangible and difficult to quantify. This paper describes a fresh approach based on co-creating an entirely new values-based assessment framework with expert practitioners worldwide. We first discuss the development of a generic framework of 'Proto-Indicators' (reference criteria constituting prototypes for measurable indicators), and then demonstrate its application within a reforestation project in Mexico where indicators and assessment tools were localized to enhance context-relevance. Rigorously derived using unitary validity, with an emphasis on relevance, practicability and logical consistency from user perspectives, this framework represents a step-wise advance in the evaluation of non-formal EE/ESD programs. This article also highlights three important principles with broader implications for evaluation, valuation and assessment processes within environmental management: namely peer-elicitation, localizability, and an explicit focus on ethical values. We discuss these principles in relation to the development of sustainability indicators at local and global levels, especially in relation to post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:24681651

  4. Environmental measurement while drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide-thallium activated crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT goes to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The MCA data is transmitted to the surface via a signal conditioning and transmitter board similar to that used with the GMT. The EMWD system is described and the results of the GRS field tests and field demonstration are presented.

  5. A Cuvette Design for Measurement of Ethylene Production and Carbon Dioxide Exchange by Intact Shoots under Controlled Environmental Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Pawan K.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1979-01-01

    A cuvette is described for simultaneous measurement of ethylene production and CO2 fixation by intact shoots under controlled environmental conditions. This design overcomes potential problems associated with closed systems conventionally used for studies on ethylene production, allowing accurate determination of rates of ethylene production in plants exposed to different environmental conditions. PMID:16660994

  6. Octanol-water partition coefficient of benzo(a)pyrene: measurement, calculation, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Harrison, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a potent carcinogen produced in significant quantities during pyrolysis of such substances as coal, wood, and cigarettes. Several researchers have shown that the lipophilic storage and soil sediment accumulation of many organic solutes is proportional to the partitioning between octanol-1 and water. The octanol-water partition coefficient (P) is defined as P = C/sub o//C/sub w/, where C/sub o/ and C/sub w/ are the concentration of the solute in n-octanol and water. Considerable data are available demonstrating that P values measured in the laboratory can be used to predict the environmental behavior of organic pollutants. Literature searches reveal that calculated, but not measured, log P values are reported for BaP. This laboratory study was initiated to define better the log P of BaP.

  7. A New Acquisition and Imaging System for Environmental Measurements: An Experience on the Italian Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Calogero, Andrea; Trinca, Daniele; di Pasquale, Stefano; Giarnetti, Sabino; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up. PMID:24859030

  8. A new acquisition and imaging system for environmental measurements: an experience on the Italian cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Calogero, Andrea; Trinca, Daniele; di Pasquale, Stefano; Giarnetti, Sabino; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up. PMID:24859030

  9. The Expanding Reach of Environmental Radiotracers - New Chronometers And More Sensitive Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalseth, C.

    2015-12-01

    Radiotracers in the environment provide powerful tools for understanding environmental processes. Viewed as an age continuum, methods using shorter-lived radionuclides (<100 y) like 3H, 7Be, 85Kr, 134Cs, and 137Cs generally rely on measurements of radioactive decay in samples. Methods using longer-lived radionuclides (>1,000 y) like 10Be, 14C, 36Cl, and 81Kr generally rely on atom-counting measurements such as accelerator mass spectrometry. Significant challenges exist in the age range between 100 and 1,000 years where useful radiotracers are difficult to measure by either method and can have very low abundance. These challenges are being addressed with more sensitive measurements using both atom counting and radioactive decay, extending the reach of established radiotracers as well as adding new chronometers. Improvements in atom-counting methods will be reviewed; the practicality of using 81Kr (abundance ~5×10-13 in atmospheric krypton) for age-dating old aquifers has been established and current work focuses on improving sample utilization efficiency to allow smaller samples to be measured. Better efficiency also brings lower-abundance isotopes within reach, for example 39Ar. Improvements in radioactive decay counting will be reviewed; these take advantage of ultra-pure materials to achieve lower backgrounds and are adding new age-dating reach to the environmental science tool-set with intermediate half-life radionuclides, for example 32Si for sediment cores. These methods also improve sensitivity for established radiotracers like 3H and will allow smaller samples to be measured, allowing specific processes to be traced. For example, using 3H as an indicator of carbon cycling through organic compounds in soil systems. Progress in both atom counting and decay counting is expanding the use of 39Ar for age-dating aquifers, measuring ocean mixing, and age-dating younger glacial ice. Argon-39 is a challenging intermediate-age radiotracer (269-year half-life) with

  10. Regression calibration for classical exposure measurement error in environmental epidemiology studies using multiple local surrogate exposures.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Wright, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    Environmental epidemiologic studies are often hierarchical in nature if they estimate individuals' personal exposures using ambient metrics. Local samples are indirect surrogate measures of true local pollutant concentrations which estimate true personal exposures. These ambient metrics include classical-type nondifferential measurement error. The authors simulated subjects' true exposures and their corresponding surrogate exposures as the mean of local samples and assessed the amount of bias attributable to classical and Berkson measurement error on odds ratios, assuming that the logit of risk depends on true individual-level exposure. The authors calibrated surrogate exposures using scalar transformation functions based on observed within- and between-locality variances and compared regression-calibrated results with naive results using surrogate exposures. The authors further assessed the performance of regression calibration in the presence of Berkson-type error. Following calibration, bias due to classical-type measurement error, resulting in as much as 50% attenuation in naive regression estimates, was eliminated. Berkson-type error appeared to attenuate logistic regression results less than 1%. This regression calibration method reduces effects of classical measurement error that are typical of epidemiologic studies using multiple local surrogate exposures as indirect surrogate exposures for unobserved individual exposures. Berkson-type error did not alter the performance of regression calibration. This regression calibration method does not require a supplemental validation study to compute an attenuation factor. PMID:20573838

  11. Uncertainty analysis in environmental radioactivity measurements using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Ortiz, J.; Ródenas, J.; Verdú, G.; Villanueva, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors are widely used for environmental radioactivity measurements due to their excellent energy resolution. Monte Carlo (MC) codes are a useful tool to complement experimental measurements in calibration procedures at the laboratory. However, the efficiency curve of the detector can vary due to uncertainties associated with measurements. These uncertainties can be classified into some categories: geometrical parameters of the measurement (distance source-detector, volume of the source), properties of the radiation source (radionuclide activity, branching ratio), and detector characteristics (Ge dead layer, active volume, end cap thickness). The Monte Carlo simulation can be also affected by other kind of uncertainties mainly related to cross sections and to the calculation itself. Normally, all these uncertainties are not well known and it required a deep analysis to determine their effect on the detector efficiency. In this work, the Noether-Wilks formula is used to carry out the uncertainty analysis. A Probability Density Function (PDF) is assigned to each variable involved in the sampling process. The size of the sampling is determined from the characteristics of the tolerance intervals by applying the Noether-Wilks formula. Results of the analysis transform the efficiency curve into a region of possible values into the tolerance intervals. Results show a good agreement between experimental measurements and simulations for two different matrices (water and sand).

  12. Review of Measures of Worksite Environmental and Policy Supports for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; van Bakergem, Margaret A.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Pamulapati, Surya C.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Methods We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Results Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. Conclusion This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development. PMID:25950572

  13. Sequential nonideal measurements of quantum oscillators: Statistical characterization with and without environmental coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Vincenzo; Pierro, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional quantum oscillator is monitored by taking repeated position measurements. As a first contribution, it is shown that, under a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme applied to a system initially at the ground state, (i) the observed sequence of measurements (quantum tracks) corresponding to a single experiment converges to a limit point, and that (ii) the limit point is random over the ensemble of the experiments, being distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable with a variance at most equal to the ground-state variance. As a second contribution, the richer scenario where the oscillator is coupled with a frozen (i.e., at the ground state) ensemble of independent quantum oscillators is considered. A sharply different behavior emerges: under the same measurement scheme, here we observe that the measurement sequences are essentially divergent. Such a rigorous statistical analysis of the sequential measurement process might be useful for characterizing the main quantities that are currently used for inference, manipulation, and monitoring of many quantum systems. Several interesting properties of the quantum tracks evolution, as well as of the associated (quantum) threshold crossing times, are discussed and the dependence upon the main system parameters (e.g., the choice of the measurement sampling time, the degree of interaction with the environment, the measurement device accuracy) is elucidated. At a more fundamental level, it is seen that, as an application of basic quantum mechanics principles, a sharp difference exists between the intrinsic randomness unavoidably present in any quantum system, and the extrinsic randomness arising from the environmental coupling, i.e., the randomness induced by an external source of disturbance.

  14. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  15. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  16. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  17. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  18. Does environmental enrichment reduce stress? An integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers provides a novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Frey, Matthew D; Reichert, James F; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  19. Heart and ventilatory measures in crayfish during environmental disturbances and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Schapker, Heidi; Breithaupt, Thomas; Shuranova, Zhanna; Burmistrov, Yuri; Cooper, Robin L

    2002-02-01

    Most animals assess the environment in which they live and alter their behavior according to various stimuli. When the animal does not make significant behavioral changes, as measured by bodily movements, the animal may be characterized as unresponsive to a given stimulus. This study demonstrates that when behavioral movements of crayfish cannot be observed, physiological measures of heart rate (HR) and ventilatory rate (VR) show dramatic changes in response to defined sensory stimuli. In the majority of cases, upon anticipation of a social interaction with another crayfish both HR and VR will increase. During an agonistic encounter between two crayfish, the level of HR and VR correlate with the intensity of the interaction. Such rapid responses in cardiac and respiratory systems to environmental disturbances and anticipation of a social interaction suggest an autonomic-like regulation associated with fear, flight or fight. Since behavioral observations do not allow an internal status to be readily assessed, we suggest that HR and VR may serve as a useful bioindex in crustaceans to their internal drive or possibly an awareness level to environmental cues. PMID:11818228

  20. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  1. Information, Vol. 1, Number 4. Teacher Corps Dissemination Project Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenau, Fred S., Ed.

    Guidelines are provided for disseminating information on teacher corps projects. Information is given on experienced disseminators such as existing networks that are available to help in planning. Suggestions are made on targeting information and marketing. (JD)

  2. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    A nonintrusive laser-based measurement system has been applied for the first time in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of 0.5km/s were measured.

  3. Speciation and Bioavailability Measurements of Environmental Plutonium Using Diffusion in Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Christl, Marcus; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The biological uptake of plutonium (Pu) in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern since it is an alpha-particle emitter with long half-life which can potentially contribute to the exposure of biota and humans. The diffusive gradients in thin films technique is introduced here for in-situ measurements of Pu bioavailability and speciation. A diffusion cell constructed for laboratory experiments with Pu and the newly developed protocol make it possible to simulate the environmental behavior of Pu in model solutions of various chemical compositions. Adjustment of the oxidation states to Pu(IV) and Pu(V) described in this protocol is essential in order to investigate the complex redox chemistry of plutonium in the environment. The calibration of this technique and the results obtained in the laboratory experiments enable to develop a specific DGT device for in-situ Pu measurements in freshwaters. Accelerator-based mass-spectrometry measurements of Pu accumulated by DGTs in a karst spring allowed determining the bioavailability of Pu in a mineral freshwater environment. Application of this protocol for Pu measurements using DGT devices has a large potential to improve our understanding of the speciation and the biological transfer of Pu in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26574673

  4. Speciation and Bioavailability Measurements of Environmental Plutonium Using Diffusion in Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Christl, Marcus; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The biological uptake of plutonium (Pu) in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern since it is an alpha-particle emitter with long half-life which can potentially contribute to the exposure of biota and humans. The diffusive gradients in thin films technique is introduced here for in-situ measurements of Pu bioavailability and speciation. A diffusion cell constructed for laboratory experiments with Pu and the newly developed protocol make it possible to simulate the environmental behavior of Pu in model solutions of various chemical compositions. Adjustment of the oxidation states to Pu(IV) and Pu(V) described in this protocol is essential in order to investigate the complex redox chemistry of plutonium in the environment. The calibration of this technique and the results obtained in the laboratory experiments enable to develop a specific DGT device for in-situ Pu measurements in freshwaters. Accelerator-based mass-spectrometry measurements of Pu accumulated by DGTs in a karst spring allowed determining the bioavailability of Pu in a mineral freshwater environment. Application of this protocol for Pu measurements using DGT devices has a large potential to improve our understanding of the speciation and the biological transfer of Pu in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26574673

  5. Measuring bacterial adhesion at environmental interfaces with single-cell and single-molecule techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camesano, Terri A.; Liu, Yatao; Datta, Meera

    2007-06-01

    A synopsis is provided of techniques currently used to quantify the interactions between bacterial cells and surfaces. Focus is placed on techniques which allow for direct probing of nano, pico, or femto-scale interaction forces between bacteria and surfaces of relevance for environmental science and engineering. We focus on bacterial adhesion measurements and surface characterizations via techniques that measure forces on individual bacterial cells or cellular macromolecules, particularly atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related force spectroscopy. However, we also include overviews of other techniques useful for evaluating cellular forces, such as optical tweezers, evanescent wave scattering-based techniques (i.e. total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) and total internal reflection aqueous fluorescence (TIRAF) microscopy) and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). These latter techniques, while most are not providing direct measurements of forces of adhesion, can be used to explain adhesion and interaction forces in bacterial systems. We review the operating principles, advantages and limitations of each technique, and key bacterial adhesion studies from each area are presented. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies for relating force measurements to bacterial attachment, particularly to bacterial retention in porous media, are discussed.

  6. Dissemination to research subjects: operationalizing investigator accountability.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik Shaul, Randi; Reid, Lynette; Essue, Beverley; Gibson, Julie; Marzinotto, Velma; Daneman, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent articles have argued from principles of bioethics for the right of research subjects to receive the results of the studies in which they have participated. We argue that accountability is a powerful tool of meso-level analysis appropriate to reasoning about answerability in research ethics, and that it captures the responsibility of researchers to disseminate study results to research subjects. We offer the following features of the research situation as relevant to the manner of dissemination to study subject, in addition to factors already proposed in the literature (risk and impact on health outcome): (a) features of the research subject in relation to identity, personal investment, disease, and community; (b) characteristics of the research study and field of inquiry in relation to certainty and significance; and (c) relationships among the research subjects and the healthcare workers involved in their care and in the research. PMID:16021788

  7. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Induced with Leukocyte Procoagulant

    PubMed Central

    Kociba, Gary J.; Griesemer, Richard A.

    1972-01-01

    The procoagulant activity of rabbit peritoneal leukocytes significantly increased when the leukocytes were incubated in suspension cultures at 37 C for 24 hours. Intravenous infusions of Iysates of 232 × 106 rabbit leukocytes which had been incubated in cultures at 37 C for 24 hours produced disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis involving the pulmonary arteries in normal rabbits. Intraaortic infusions of lysates of 230 × 106 similarly incubated leukocytes produced renal thrombosis and renal cortical necrosis in normal rabbits. These observations suggest that the procoagulant of granulocytic leukocytes could play a role in the generalized Shwartzman reaction and other syndromes of disseminated intravascular coagulation. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2 PMID:5086898

  8. Cutaneous Cryptococcus: marker for disseminated infection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G N; Tilak, Ragini; Yadav, Jyoti; Bansal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the encapsulated yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, a dimorphic fungus recovered from pigeon excreta, soil, dust and human skin. After a primary infection in the lungs, the disease can disseminate via a haematogenous route to various organs, including the central nervous system and skin, in susceptible individuals. Cryptococcosis can present with a variety of skin and soft tissue manifestations including acneiform lesions, purpura, vesicles, nodules, abscesses, ulcers, granulomas, pustules, draining sinuses and cellulitis. We present a case of a young man with HIV infection who developed molluscum-like cutaneous lesions secondary to pulmonary cryptococcosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by Indian ink preparation of the cutaneous lesions. Primary cutaneous infection occurs rarely due to direct inoculation. Cutaneous lesions are usually secondary and act as a key marker of disseminated infection, especially in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, such as those infected with HIV, solid-organ transplant recipients, and those on chronic corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26199299

  9. Multifocal brain radionecrosis masquerading as tumor dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Safdari, H.; Boluix, B.; Gros, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on an autopsy-proven case of multifocal widespread radionecrosis involving both cerebral hemispheres and masquerading as tumor dissemination on a CT scan done 13 months after complete resection of an oligodendroglioma followed by radiation therapy. This case demonstrates that radiation damage may be present in a CT scan as a multifocal, disseminated lesion. Since the survival of brain-tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy is prolonged by aggressive therapy, the incidence and variability of radiation-induced complications in such cases is likely to increase. For similar reasons, the radionecrosis in such cases should be taken into consideration. A short review of the CT scan findings and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in a case of widespread radionecrosis is presented. The need for appropriate diagnosis and subsequent life-saving management is emphasized.

  10. [Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with anthralin].

    PubMed

    Jantke, M E; Bertsch, H-P; Schön, M P; Fuchs, T

    2011-12-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, often asymptomatic and self-limiting granulomatous skin disease. In cases of disseminated granuloma annulare, spontaneous regression is considerably less frequent than in localized forms so that therapy is often desired. Systemic treatments should always be assessed critically and reserved for patients who are severely affected and in whom treatment approaches with few side effects such as local application of anthralin do not suffice to achieve a satisfactory effect. PMID:21656108

  11. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Shital; Khatu, Swapna

    2014-08-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that typically presents in immunocompromised patients, most commonly in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It rarely has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Defects in the host defense mechanisms due to hyperglycemia predispose diabetic patients to opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis. We present a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a 48-year-old HIV-negative man with DM. PMID:25184644

  12. Time dissemination in the Hydro Quebec network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Lefrancois, W.; Laroche, L.

    1979-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of electrical networks combined with the increasing cost of power losses during a network failure has led public utilities to become equipped with more powerful and precise tools for pinpointing the causes of such a fault. Hydro Quebec has developed and is now using a time dissemination system which uses a modified IRIG B code transmitted on its own telecommunication network. The reasons for using such a system and the way it was carried out are discrete.

  13. Disseminated nocardiosis masquerading as metastatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Rajalakshmi; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Reddy Attunuru, Bhanu Prakash; Gupta, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. It can be localized or systemic and is regarded as an opportunistic infection that is commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a patient with underlying malignancy in whom the clinical presentation was highly suggestive of a metastatic disease. PMID:27578940

  14. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  15. Measures of the environmental footprint of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Previous estimates of environmental impacts associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (FEFC) have focused primarily on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Results have varied widely. This work builds upon reports from operating facilities and other primary data sources to build a database of front end environmental impacts. This work also addresses land transformation and water withdrawals associated with the processes of the FEFC. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, depleted uranium disposition, and transportation. To allow summing the impacts across processes, all impacts were normalized per tonne of natural uranium mined as well as per MWh(e) of electricity produced, a more conventional unit for measuring environmental impacts that facilitates comparison with other studies. This conversion was based on mass balances and process efficiencies associated with the current once-through LWR fuel cycle. Total energy input is calculated at 8.7 x 10- 3 GJ(e)/MWh(e) of electricity and 5.9 x 10- 3 GJ(t)/MWh(e) of thermal energy. It is dominated by the energy required for uranium extraction, conversion to fluoride compound for subsequent enrichment, and enrichment. An estimate of the carbon footprint is made from the direct energy consumption at 1.7 kg CO2/MWh(e). Water use is likewise dominated by requirements of uranium extraction, totaling 154 L/MWh(e). Land use is calculated at 8 x 10- 3 m2/MWh(e), over 90% of which is due to uranium extraction. Quantified impacts are limited to those resulting from activities performed within the FEFC process facilities (i.e. within the plant gates). Energy embodied in material inputs such as process chemicals and fuel cladding is identified but not explicitly quantified in this study. Inclusion of indirect energy associated with embodied energy as well as construction and decommissioning of facilities could increase the FEFC energy intensity estimate by a factor of up

  16. State Dissemination Planning as Part of Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, James E.

    Knowing and understanding the principles and tenets underlying dissemination, utilization, and impact collection facilitate the "how." Dissemination is a communication process involving interactional relationships among individuals. Involvement of multiple agencies gives rise to networking. Disseminating is also a major facet of planned change,…

  17. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20 Dissemination of information. DOE shall disseminate to the public, in an appropriate manner, information of...

  18. 48 CFR 5.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 5.101 Methods of disseminating... various methods of satisfying the requirements of 5.207(c). For example, the contracting officer may...

  19. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance... (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators of... to disseminate policy and guidance. They shall distribute material under foregoing systems to...

  20. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  1. Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-02-01

    Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ∼ 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (∼ 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings. PMID:24290729

  2. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  3. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.; McRae, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represents the first application of NO PLIF flow visualization in HYMETS. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in a simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for specific bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of +/- 0.5 km/s were measured.

  4. Environmental integration of measures to reduce railway noise in the Brussels Capital Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doninck, N.; Schillemans, L.

    2003-10-01

    The Brussels Capital Region is a densely populated area with a surface area of 63 square miles and a total of 40 miles of railway lines. Earlier studies have already registered a large number of problems regarding railway noise. Moreover, the transport policy of the federal government aims to increase train travel and plans an expansion of the railway network. In order to be able to control railway noise, the Brussels authority needs an instrument that provides technical and practical information concerning: minimizing the noise produced by railways (both existing and new); the environmental integration of noise abatement measures. This paper discusses the objectives of the study, the methodology that was applied, and the main conclusions reached.

  5. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  6. Environmental measurements at the Savannah River Site with Underwater gamma detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1994-12-31

    Underwater NAI(Tl) and HPGe detectors are used in the environmental measurements programs at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A 22.9 cm {times} 10.2 cm NAI(Tl) detector on the Savannah River continuously monitors effluent releases from both SRS (DOE) and Plant Vogtle (Georgia Power). Correlations with known releases indicate a sensitivity of 4 mBq/l for {sup 58}Co with 1500 min spectra; such levels are well below those of hazardous or legal concern. A 30%-efficient HPGE detector has appraised radionuclides in SRS cooling pond sediments; the dominant gamma-emitting radionuclide detected was {sup 137}Cs, at levels ranging up to 2.0 MBq/m{sup 2}. The pond activities were adequately quantified by 1 min counts with the HPGE detector; resulting contour maps of sediment {sup 137}Cs provided guidance for partially draining the ponds for dam repairs.

  7. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  8. United States Environmental Protection Agency Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test program for emissions measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) November 15, 1990. Title 3 of the CAA amendments included a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for which emission test procedures must be established. An extractive emission test method, using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, is being developed for measuring HAP compounds. The FTIR procedure has the potential to detect over 100 of the listed compounds plus additional compounds such as criteria pollutants. This procedure has the ability to detect multiple compounds simultaneously and will provide near real-time data. Since the development of the extractive FTIR procedure, many source categories have been screened for HAP emissions using this technique. Modifications to the procedure have been made and validation testing has been performed. Currently, this technique is being used to collect data for maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard development.

  9. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site. PMID:25982445

  11. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  12. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  13. Uncertainty in Measured Data and Model Predictions: Essential Components for Mobilizing Environmental Data and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    In spite of pleas for uncertainty analysis - such as Beven's (2006) "Should it not be required that every paper in both field and modeling studies attempt to evaluate the uncertainty in the results?" - the uncertainty associated with hydrology and water quality data is rarely quantified and rarely considered in model evaluation. This oversight, justified in the past by mainly tenuous philosophical concerns, diminishes the value of measured data and ignores the environmental and socio-economic benefits of improved decisions and policies based on data with estimated uncertainty. This oversight extends to researchers, who typically fail to estimate uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data because of additional effort required, lack of adequate scientific understanding on the subject, and fear of negative perception if data with "high" uncertainty are reported; however, the benefits are certain. Furthermore, researchers have a responsibility for scientific integrity in reporting what is known and what is unknown, including the quality of measured data. In response we produced an uncertainty estimation framework and the first cumulative uncertainty estimates for measured water quality data (Harmel et al., 2006). From that framework, DUET-H/WQ was developed (Harmel et al., 2009). Application to several real-world data sets indicated that substantial uncertainty can be contributed by each data collection procedural category and that uncertainties typically occur in order discharge < sediment < dissolved N and P < total N and P. Similarly, modelers address certain aspects of model uncertainty but ignore others, such as the impact of uncertainty in discharge and water quality data. Thus, we developed methods to incorporate prediction uncertainty as well as calibration/validation data uncertainty into model goodness-of-fit evaluation (Harmel and Smith, 2007; Harmel et al., 2010). These enhance model evaluation by: appropriately sharing burden with "data

  14. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator`s success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures.

    PubMed

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Nicoletti, Monica; Ciacci, Luca; Vassura, Ivano; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on analysing the evolution of environmental impacts caused by a medium-large Italian WtE plant before and after revamping and maintenance operations, with the aim of providing an evaluation of how much these structural upgrade measures may affect the total environmental performance. LCA methodology was applied for the modelling and comparison of six WtE scenarios, each describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996-2011. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. carcinogens, respiratory inorganics and organics, climate change, damage to human health). Lastly, the "Pedigree quality matrix" was applied to verify the reliability and robustness of the model created. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. However, while a net reduction of air emissions seems to be achievable through dedicated flue gas treatment technologies, outcomes underscored potentials for improving the management of bottom ash through the adoption of alternative options aimed to use that solid residue mainly as filler, and to decrease risks from its current disposal in landfill. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The study confirmed the expected improvements

  16. Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windows{trademark}-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. )

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  18. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  19. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  20. Summary - National Dissemination and the Five Target States, Part 3, Final Report for Phase II--Dissemination, Rural Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    The dissemination phase (Phase II) of the Rural Shared Services Project is reported in this document. Efforts of the dissemination phase were concentrated in 5 target states: Vermont, Georgia, Wyoming, Montana, and New Mexico; national dissemination was limited to attendance at national conferences, the U. S. Office of Education PREP materials for…

  1. Applications of radiocarbon measurements in environmental studies at INFN-LABEC, Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.; Álvarez-Iglesias, P.; Caforio, L.; Calzolai, G.; Bernardoni, V.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Taccetti, F.; Vecchi, R.

    2012-04-01

    be contaminated by heterogeneous materials, including organic matter too. Pre-treatment should thus remove all the possible contaminations without losing too much mass of the samples. Here we present an overview of the environmental radiocarbon applications the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence is involved in. 14C is measured by AMS, using the dedicated beam line installed at the 3 MV Tandem accelerator. In particular, details about the hardware and the experimental procedures are given.

  2. Study of Disseminating Landslide Early Warning Information in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Lateh, Habibah; Tien Tay, Lea; Ahamd, Jamilah; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Jamaludin, Suhaimi

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, rain induced landslides are occurring more often than before. The Malaysian Government allocates millions of Malaysian Ringgit for slope monitoring and slope failure remedial measures in the budget every year. In rural areas, local authorities also play a major role in monitoring the slope to prevent casualty by giving information to the residents who are staying near to the slopes. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as high risk slopes in Malaysia. Implementing site monitoring system in these slopes to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes, predicting the occurrence of slopes failure and establishing early warning system are too costly and almost impossible. In our study, we propose Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity prediction method to predict the slope failure by referring to the predicted rainfall data from radar and the rain volume from rain gauges. The critical line which determines if the slope is in danger, is generated by simulator with well-surveyed the soil property in the slope and compared with historical data. By establishing such predicting system, the slope failure warning information can be obtained and disseminated to the surroundings via SMS, internet and siren. However, establishing the early warning dissemination system is not enough in disaster prevention, educating school children and the community by giving knowledge on landslides, such as landslide's definition, how and why does the slope failure happen and when will it fail, to raise the risk awareness on landslides will reduce landslides casualty, especially in rural area. Moreover, showing video on the risk and symptom of landslides in school will also help the school children gaining the knowledge of landslides. Generating hazard map and landslides historical data provides further information on the occurrence of the slope failure. In future, further study on fine tuning of landslides prediction method, applying IT technology to

  3. A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

  4. Assessment of Environmental Intention of Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of environmental education (EE) is that citizens develop a responsible environmental behavior. Environmental awareness constitutes an important factor for the shaping of a responsible environmental behavior. The mass media can strengthen the degree of environmental awareness of the public, through the dissemination of…

  5. Restoring Detailed Geomagnetic and Environmental Information from Continuous Sediment Paleomagnetic Measurement through Optimised Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, C.; Oda, H.

    2013-12-01

    in UDECON is achieved by searching for the minimum ABIC while shifting the sensor response (to account for possible mispositioning of the sample on the tray) and a smoothness parameter in ranges defined by user. Comparison of deconvolution results using sensor response estimated from integrated point source measurements and other methods suggest that the integrated point source estimate yields better results (smaller ABIC). The noise characteristics of magnetometer measurements and the reliability of the UDECON algorithm were tested using repeated (a total of 400 times) natural remanence measurement of a u-channel sample before and after stepwise alternating field demagnetizations. Using a series of synthetic data constructed based on real paleomagnetic record, we demonstrate that optimized deconvolution using UDECON can greatly help revealing detailed paleomagnetic information such as excursions that may be smoothed out during pass-through measurement. Application of UDECON to the vast amount of existing and future pass-through paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements on sediments recovered especially through ocean drilling programs will contribute to our understanding of the geodynamo and paleo-environment by providing more detailed records of geomagnetic and environmental changes.

  6. Mini-UAV Based Sensory System for Measuring Environmental Variables in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Joossen, Guillaume; Sanz, David; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and validation of a mobile sensory platform for greenhouse monitoring. The complete system consists of a sensory system on board a small quadrotor (i.e., a four rotor mini-UAV). The goals of this system include taking measures of temperature, humidity, luminosity and CO2 concentration and plotting maps of these variables. These features could potentially allow for climate control, crop monitoring or failure detection (e.g., a break in a plastic cover). The sensors have been selected by considering the climate and plant growth models and the requirements for their integration onboard the quadrotor. The sensors layout and placement have been determined through a study of quadrotor aerodynamics and the influence of the airflows from its rotors. All components of the system have been developed, integrated and tested through a set of field experiments in a real greenhouse. The primary contributions of this paper are the validation of the quadrotor as a platform for measuring environmental variables and the determination of the optimal location of sensors on a quadrotor. PMID:25648713

  7. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  8. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  9. Mini-UAV based sensory system for measuring environmental variables in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Joossen, Guillaume; Sanz, David; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and validation of a mobile sensory platform for greenhouse monitoring. The complete system consists of a sensory system on board a small quadrotor (i.e., a four rotor mini-UAV). The goals of this system include taking measures of temperature, humidity, luminosity and CO2 concentration and plotting maps of these variables. These features could potentially allow for climate control, crop monitoring or failure detection (e.g., a break in a plastic cover). The sensors have been selected by considering the climate and plant growth models and the requirements for their integration onboard the quadrotor. The sensors layout and placement have been determined through a study of quadrotor aerodynamics and the influence of the airflows from its rotors. All components of the system have been developed, integrated and tested through a set of field experiments in a real greenhouse. The primary contributions of this paper are the validation of the quadrotor as a platform for measuring environmental variables and the determination of the optimal location of sensors on a quadrotor. PMID:25648713

  10. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  11. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  12. STUDY ON THE REDUCTION MEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS AT THE DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION STAGES OF THE RIVER WORKS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tetsuya; Amano, Kunihiko; Kishida, Hiroyuki

    In the field of infrastructure construction including river works, construction materials such as concrete are used, and it needs to transport them for the long distance. Due to recent growth of public awareness on the environmental issues, it becomes more important to estimate and reduce the environmental loads brought by the infrastructure construction. In the infrastructure construction, it is necessary to take notice of carbon dioxide and waste materials as the broad-based and long-range environmental loads. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct the quantitative evaluation on these environmental loads and to investigate the reduction measures by considering the actual situation of construction. Focusing on the river works, this paper estimates the cost of construction, the carbon dioxide emission and final disposal volume on the several alternative plans at the designing stage, compares the significance of different environmental loads by using the integrated factors of LIME2, and analyzes the effectiveness of reduction measures. It also establishes the reduction scenarios of the environmental loads, and analyzes the effectiveness compared to the base-line scenario in which the materials are newly extracted and produced. Based on the results, it establishes the procedure intending to reduce the environmental loads at the time of river planning and construction, which will be referentialized by river managers, construction consultants and constructors nationwide.

  13. The future of time and frequency dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1994-01-01

    I will try to extrapolate the changes in the dissemination of time and frequency information that have taken place during the last 25 years to predict the future developments both in the methods of disseminating time and frequency and in the kinds of customers we will be asked to serve. Two important developments are likely to play pivotal roles in driving the evolution of dissemination. The first is the commercial availability of very high quality clocks -- devices whose performance may eventually rival that of the current generation of primary frequency standards. The widespread use of these devices may blur the traditional distinction between client and server, and may replace it with a more symmetrical interchange of data among peers. The second is the increasing demand for digital time and frequency information driven by the increasing sophistication of everything from traffic lights to electric power meters. The needs of these individual users may not tax the state of the art of primary frequency standards in principle, but their large numbers and wide geographical distribution present a technological challenge that is difficult to meet at a reasonable price using existing methods. Some of these problems may be solved (or at least addressed) using developments in communications and consumer electronics such as the increasing use of fiber-optic telephone circuits and the increasing bandwidth and sophistication of the cable network used to transmit television pictures. To be useful, these advances in hardware must stimulate parallel advances in software algorithms and methods. These advances are more difficult to predict with great confidence, but the developments of the last few years will be examined to provide some indications of the future.

  14. Predicting and measuring environmental concentration of pesticides in air after soil application.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides can volatilize into the atmosphere, which affects the air quality. The ability to predict pesticide volatilization is an essential tool for human risk and environmental assessment. Even though there are several mathematical models to assess and predict the fate of pesticides in different compartments of the environment, there is no reliable model to predict volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate pesticide volatilization under agricultural conditions using malathion [ O,O-dimethyl-S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)-dithiophosphate], ethoprophos (O-ethyl S,S-dipropylphosphorodithioate), and procymidone [N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1,2-dicarboximide] as test compounds and to evaluate the ability of the Pesticide Leaching Model (PELMO) to calculate the predicted environmental concentrations of pesticides in air under field conditions. The volatilization rate of procymidone, malathion, and ethoprophos was determined in a field study during two different periods (December 1998 and September 1999) using the Theoretical Profile Shape (TPS) method. The experiments were performed on bare silty soil in the Bologna province, Italy. Residues in the air were continuously monitored for 2 to 3 wk after the pesticide applications. The amount of pesticide volatilized was 16, 5, and 11% in December 1998 and 41, 23, and 19% in September 1999 for procymidone, malathion, and ethoprophos, respectively. In both these experiments, the PELMO simulations of the concentration of ethoprophos and procymidone were in good agreement with the measured data (factor +/- 1.1 on average). The volatilization of malathion was underestimated by a factor of 30 on average. These results suggest that volatilization described by PELMO may be reliable for volatile substances, but PELMO may underpredict volatilization for less-volatile substances. PMID:14535302

  15. Sustaining a Pediatric Injury Prevention Program Through Educational Curriculum Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Vayssier, Nicole; Solomon, Rachele; Severyn, Josette; Hurley, Erin; Greenberg, Jayne; Hotz, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    Objective To examine the process of implementing, disseminating, and sustaining a pediatric pedestrian safety program in Miami-Dade County Public Schools as well as its utilization by education practitioners. Method A review of the programmatic phases, grant funding, publications, partnerships, curriculum completion data, teacher trainings, and 31 WalkSafe Curriculum Dissemination Surveys. Results The program has maintained partnerships with the school district, trauma centers, and other important stakeholders since the program's inception while grant funding has enabled the development, growth, and continuation of the program. Survey responses indicated the curriculum is easy to use and age-appropriate for learning, as well as identified sustainable measures for the future. Conclusion A multicomponent approach is essential for piloting, implementing, and sustaining an evidence-based pedestrian safety program in South Florida's public schools. Sustainable partnerships, policy through school board support, continued grant funding, community involvement, and evolving with the needs of schools and their communities are vital to sustaining program presence in the community. PMID:26315033

  16. Disseminated Pleural Siliconoma Mimicking Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiki; Tao, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Kumiko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a 3-month history of back pain was admitted for further examination of multiple left pleural nodules. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 10 years previously. Nine years after the operation, both ruptured implants were removed, and autologous fat was injected. Computed tomography revealed multiple pleural nodules suggestive of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thoracoscopic exploration revealed multiple pleural nodules with massive pleural adhesions. The nodules were filled with viscous liquid and were histologically determined to be siliconomas. Disseminated pleural siliconoma should be recognized as a late adverse event of silicone breast implantation. PMID:26652527

  17. Disseminated cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophialophora bantiana.

    PubMed

    Khader, Anza; Ambooken, Betsy; Binitha, Manikoth Payyanadan; Francis, Saji; Kuttiyil, Ashokan K; Sureshan, Deepthi Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Cladophialophora bantiana is a neurotropic dematiaceous fungus which only rarely affects the skin. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompromised female who presented with multiple pyogenic granuloma-like nodules, dermatophytosis-like plaque, and subcutaneous cysts on the upper and lower extremities without systemic involvement. Biopsy revealed black yeasts resembling sclerotic bodies and culture yielded irregular, velvety, grey colonies with black reverse. Excision of the nodules and treatment with oral itraconazole 100 mg twice daily resulted in complete clinical resolution within two months, following which itraconazole was administered for another 4 months. PMID:26261143

  18. Virulence, persistence and dissemination of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Sibylle; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola

    2015-08-31

    Bovine mycoplasmosis due to Mycoplasma bovis causes several important bovine diseases such as pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis, genital disorders or keratoconjunctivitis. Variable surface lipoproteins, adhesion, invasion of host cells, modulation of the host immune system, biofilm formation and the release of secondary metabolites like hydrogen peroxide, as well as synergistic infections with other bacterial or viral pathogens are among the more significantly studied characteristics of the bacterium. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the virulence of M. bovis and additionally, factors contributing to the dissemination and persistence of this pathogen in the bovine host will be discussed. PMID:25824130

  19. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. PMID:26595281

  20. What environmental transmission electron microscopy measures and how this links to diffusivity: thermodynamics versus kinetics.

    PubMed

    Walther, T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental or in situ electron microscopy means the observation of material in its native environment, which can be gaseous or liquid, as compared to more traditional post-mortem electron microscopy carried out under (ultra) high vacuum conditions. Experiments can be performed on bulk samples in scanning electron microscopes or on thinned samples in transmission (scanning) electron microscopes. In the latter, the movement, in real time and in situ, of nanoparticles, clusters or even single atoms on the surfaces of thinned material or within a liquid can be observed. It is argued here that due to the changes that a specimen typically undergoes during in situ observation, electron irradiation effects are difficult to evaluate and so thermodynamic parameters, such as activation energies for diffusion and segregation, which are governed by movements of only a minority of atoms in the specimen, cannot be reliably determined because of the potentially high energy transfer by the irradiating electron beam to some atoms in the sample. In order to measure diffusivities reliably, radiation effects and surface diffusion need to be excluded or kept minimal so as not to disturb the measurements, which can be checked by repeating experiments and comparing results as function of time and dose for the same position, at different positions or for different specimen thicknesses. Kinetic measurements of nucleation and growth phenomena, such as Ostwald ripening, are possibly influenced to a far lesser degree by irradiation effects, as a majority of atoms actively participate in these processes and if a small fraction of them will get extra energy from the irradiation process then their influence on the overall kinetics may be rather minor. PMID:25401262

  1. Worksite Tobacco Prevention: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Adoption, Dissemination Strategies, and Aggregated Health-Related Outcomes across Companies

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Verena; Brügger, Adrian; Bauer, Georg F.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based public health requires knowledge about successful dissemination of public health measures. This study analyses (a) the changes in worksite tobacco prevention (TP) in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, between 2007 and 2009; (b1) the results of a multistep versus a “brochure only” dissemination strategy; (b2) the results of a monothematic versus a comprehensive dissemination strategy that aim to get companies to adopt TP measures; and (c) whether worksite TP is associated with health-related outcomes. A longitudinal design with randomized control groups was applied. Data on worksite TP and health-related outcomes were gathered by a written questionnaire (baseline n = 1627; follow-up n = 1452) and analysed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric procedures, and ordinal regression models. TP measures at worksites improved slightly between 2007 and 2009. The multistep dissemination was superior to the “brochure only” condition. No significant differences between the monothematic and the comprehensive dissemination strategies were observed. However, improvements in TP measures at worksites were associated with improvements in health-related outcomes. Although dissemination was approached at a mass scale, little change in the advocated adoption of TP measures was observed, suggesting the need for even more aggressive outreach or an acceptance that these channels do not seem to be sufficiently effective. PMID:26504778

  2. Worksite Tobacco Prevention: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Adoption, Dissemination Strategies, and Aggregated Health-Related Outcomes across Companies.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Verena; Brügger, Adrian; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based public health requires knowledge about successful dissemination of public health measures. This study analyses (a) the changes in worksite tobacco prevention (TP) in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, between 2007 and 2009; (b1) the results of a multistep versus a "brochure only" dissemination strategy; (b2) the results of a monothematic versus a comprehensive dissemination strategy that aim to get companies to adopt TP measures; and (c) whether worksite TP is associated with health-related outcomes. A longitudinal design with randomized control groups was applied. Data on worksite TP and health-related outcomes were gathered by a written questionnaire (baseline n = 1627; follow-up n = 1452) and analysed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric procedures, and ordinal regression models. TP measures at worksites improved slightly between 2007 and 2009. The multistep dissemination was superior to the "brochure only" condition. No significant differences between the monothematic and the comprehensive dissemination strategies were observed. However, improvements in TP measures at worksites were associated with improvements in health-related outcomes. Although dissemination was approached at a mass scale, little change in the advocated adoption of TP measures was observed, suggesting the need for even more aggressive outreach or an acceptance that these channels do not seem to be sufficiently effective. PMID:26504778

  3. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has sensors recording air and ground temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided, daily, during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. The capability of multiple, consistent, and simultaneous data is essential for meaningful interpretation of near-surface processes including the characterization of soil thermal properties. The Martian atmosphere is generally transparent to solar radiation, but atmospheric dust absorbs solar radiation and heats the atmosphere, while UV radiation ionizes atmospheric gases and is harmful to any potential Martian organisms (past or present). For this reason, knowledge of the UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars is important for the understanding habitability conditions, one of the main goals of the MSL mission. Moreover UV radiation is a significant driver in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and surface. In this paper we present a first analysis of REMS measurements, the status of the different sensors and the potential of REMS for Mars environmental studies. REMS Team: C. Armiens, I. Carrasco, F. Gómez, A. Lepinette, J. Martín, J. Martínez-Frías, L. Mora, S. Navarro, V. Peinado, J. Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. Romeral, E. Sebastián, J. Torres, J. Verdasca (Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km. 4, 28850 Torrej

  4. Risk of CNS dissemination in extranodal lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2014-04-01

    Extranodal lymphomas constitute a heterogeneous group of malignancies, accounting for roughly 60% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The extranodal organ where lymphomas arise is an important determining factor of biological, molecular, and aetio-pathogenic features, and of presentation, dissemination pattern, and outcome. An increased risk of CNS involvement, an uncommon but lethal event, has been suggested in some extranodal lymphomas, but the absolute risk is still debatable for most of these malignancies. This debate is because of the presence of selection biases and other confounding factors in related literature, which inevitably has led to conflicting recommendations. The identification of extranodal lymphomas at increased risk of CNS dissemination is an important unmet clinical need; affected patients could benefit from early CNS assessment by neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis and adequate CNS prophylaxis, avoiding unnecessary prophylaxis and related toxicity in low-risk patients. This Review discusses relevant confounding factors and identifies high-risk extranodal lymphomas analysing histopathological category, involved organ, and other specific risk factors, which could be helpful for result interpretation and patient stratification in future clinical trials. Finally, a recommendation is provided for CNS-directed management of high-risk extranodal lymphoma patients in daily practice. PMID:24694639

  5. Statewide dissemination of a rural, non-chain restaurant intervention: adoption, implementation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Nothwehr, F.; Haines, H.; Chrisman, M.; Schultz, U.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic calls for greater dissemination of nutrition-related programs, yet there remain few studies of the dissemination process. This study, guided by elements of the RE-AIM model, describes the statewide dissemination of a simple, point-of-purchase restaurant intervention. Conducted in rural counties of the Midwest, United States, the study targeted randomly selected, non-chain, family-style restaurants. Owners were recruited through mail, then telephone follow-up. Data were collected through telephone at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post-adoption. Using mixed methods, measures captured the program adoption rate, characteristics of adopters and non-adopters, program implementation and maintenance issues, and owner and customer satisfaction. Analyses involved descriptive statistics and summaries of qualitative data. The program adoption rate was 28%. Adopters were similar to responding non-adopters demographically, but varied in attitudes. The majority of restaurants maintained the program for at least 12 months. Adopters and their customers expressed satisfaction with the program. With some adjustments, the RE-AIM model was helpful in guiding evaluation of this process. Results provide implications for future dissemination of this and other programs with regard to research procedures and potential barriers that may be encountered. Research on alternative strategies for widespread dissemination of such programs is needed in this and other settings. PMID:24650944

  6. Statewide dissemination of a rural, non-chain restaurant intervention: adoption, implementation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, F; Haines, H; Chrisman, M; Schultz, U

    2014-06-01

    The obesity epidemic calls for greater dissemination of nutrition-related programs, yet there remain few studies of the dissemination process. This study, guided by elements of the RE-AIM model, describes the statewide dissemination of a simple, point-of-purchase restaurant intervention. Conducted in rural counties of the Midwest, United States, the study targeted randomly selected, non-chain, family-style restaurants. Owners were recruited through mail, then telephone follow-up. Data were collected through telephone at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post-adoption. Using mixed methods, measures captured the program adoption rate, characteristics of adopters and non-adopters, program implementation and maintenance issues, and owner and customer satisfaction. Analyses involved descriptive statistics and summaries of qualitative data. The program adoption rate was 28%. Adopters were similar to responding non-adopters demographically, but varied in attitudes. The majority of restaurants maintained the program for at least 12 months. Adopters and their customers expressed satisfaction with the program. With some adjustments, the RE-AIM model was helpful in guiding evaluation of this process. Results provide implications for future dissemination of this and other programs with regard to research procedures and potential barriers that may be encountered. Research on alternative strategies for widespread dissemination of such programs is needed in this and other settings. PMID:24650944

  7. Collection and dissemination of TES system information for the paper and pulp industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Edde, H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and international paper and pulp mills using thermal energy storage (TES) systems as a part of their production processes was conducted to obtain sufficient operating data to conduct a benefits analysis encompassing: (1) an energy conservation assessment, (2) an economic benefits analysis, and (3) an environmental impact assessment. An information dissemination plan was then proposed to effectively present the benefits of TES to the U.S. paper and pulp industry.

  8. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Model for Soil Bioengineering Measures on Infrastructure Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil bioengineering techniques can be a helpful instrument for civil engineers taking into account not only technical but also ecological, socio-economic and sustainability aspects. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models can serve as supplementary evaluation methods to economic analyses, taking into account the resource demand and environmental burdens of engineering structures. The presented LCA model includes the functional grade of structures in addition to environmental aspects. When using vegetation as living construction material, several factors have to be considered. There is the provision of ecosystem services of plants, such as the stabilization of the slope through its root-system, CO2 sequestration through biomass production et cetera. However, it must be noted that vegetation can cause security issues on infrastructure facilities and entail costs through the necessity of maintenance works. For this reason, it is necessary to already define the target systems during the planning phase of a soil bioengineering structure. In this way, necessary measures can be adapted in all life cycles of a structure. The objective of the presented LCA model is to serve as a basis for the definition of target systems. In the designed LCA model the soil bioengineering structures are divided into four life phases; construction phase, operational phase, end of life phase and subsequent use phase. A main objective of the LCA model is the understanding of the "Cumulative Energy Demand" (CED) and "Global Warming Potential" (GWP) of soil bioengineering structures during all life cycle phases. Additionally, the biomass production and the CO2 sequestration potential of the used plants are regarded as well as the functional integrity of the soil bioengineering system. In the life phase of soil bioengineering structures, a major part of the energy input is required during the construction phase. This is mainly due to the cumulative energy demand of the inert materials

  9. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  10. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  11. Measuring environmental impact by real time laser differential displacement technique in simulated climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Bernikola, Eirini; Tsigarida, Nota; Hatzigiannakis, Kostas; Andrianakis, Michalis; Leissner, Johanna

    2015-06-01

    Environmental impact on artworks has always been a big issues for preservation of Cultural Heritage. Nowadays with the climate change it is experienced a slow but steady process of temperature increase affecting relative humidity which fluctuates while materials attempt to keep moisture balance. During repetitive equilibrium courses fatigue accumulates endangering the structural integrity prior to fracture. Assessing the risk imposed by the fluctuation allow preventive actions to take place and avoid interventive restoration action after fracture. A methodology is presented employing full-field interferometry by surface probing illumination based on direct realtime recording of surface images from delicate hygroscopic surfaces as they deform to dimensionally respond to relative humidity (RH) changes. The developed methodology aims to develop an early stage risk indicator tool to allow preventive measures directly through surface readings. The presented study1 aiming to experimentally highlight acclimatisation structural phenomena and to verify assumed standards in RH safety range based on the newly introduced concept of deformation threshold value is described and demonstrated with indicative results.

  12. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D D), and surveillance and maintenance (S M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  13. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), and surveillance and maintenance (S&M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  14. Environmental measurements and inspections on imported foods and feedstuffs in Greece after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Potiriadis, C; Anagnostakis, M J; Clouvas, A; Eleftheriadis, K; Florou, E; Housiadas, C; Ioannides, K; Ioannidou, A; Karangelos, D I; Karfopoulos, K L; Kehagia, K; Kolovou, M; Kritidis, P; Manolopoulou, M; Papastefanou, K; Savva, M I; Simopoulos, S E; Stamoulis, K; Stoulos, S; Xanthos, S; Xarchoulakos, D

    2013-10-01

    The radionuclides released during the accident at the Fukushima Daichii nuclear power plant following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 were dispersed in the whole north hemisphere. Traces of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs reached Greece and were detected in air, grass, sheep milk, ground deposition, rainwater and drainage water. Members of Six Greek laboratories of the national network for environmental radioactivity monitoring have collaborated with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and carried out measurements during the time period between 11 March 2011 and 10 May 2011 and reported their results to GAEC. These laboratories are sited in three Greek cities, Athens, Thessaloniki and Ioannina, covering a large part of the Greek territory. The concentrations of the radionuclides were studied as a function of time. The first indication for the arrival of the radionuclides in Greece originating from Fukushima accident took place on 24 March 2011. After 28 April 2011', concentrations of all the radionuclides were below the minimum detectable activities (<10 μBq m(-3) for (131)I). The range of concentration values in aerosol particles was 10-520 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, 10-200 μBq m(-3) for (134)Cs and 10-200 μBq m(-3) for (137)Cs and was 10-2200 μBq m(-3) for (131)I in gaseous phase. The ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs concentrations are also presented. For (131)I, the maximum concentration detected in grass was 2.2 Bq kg(-1). In the case of sheep milk, the maximum concentration detected for (131)I was 2 Bq l(-1). Furthermore, more than 200 samples of imported foodstuff have been measured in Greece, following the EC directives on the inspection of food and feeding stuffs. PMID:23604742

  15. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of historical vegetation iodine-131 for measurements in 1945--1947; Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Mart, E.I.; Strenge, D.L.; Miley, T.B.

    1994-03-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is developing environmental transport and dose models to estimate the doses to individuals and populations from exposure to radionuclides released from Hanford nuclear facilities since 1944. The validity of these models will be assessed in part by comparing model predictions with environmental measurements of radionuclides. One potentially important set of environmental radionuclide measurements is those made on vegetation samples that, beginning in 1945, were collected on and around the Hanford Site. However, from October 1945 through mid-1948, the available technology permitted the vegetation samples to be measured only for total radioactivity rather than for specific radionuclides. At that time, the factors needed to convert total radioactivities to concentrations ({mu}Ci/kg) of iodine-131, the predominant radionuclide that was released into the air from Hanford stacks in the mid-1940s, were not well known or accurately quantified. A search of historical Hanford records by HEDR Project staff uncovered the original background-corrected radiation measurements, made using a Geiger-Mueller (GM) detector system, for vegetation samples that were collected from October 1945 through early August 1946. HEDR Project staff have developed a model that can be used to convert these radiation measurements to iodine-131 concentrations ({mu}Ci/kg). It is anticipated that this equation will be used to obtain more accurate concentrations of iodine-131 for vegetation for the purpose of validating vegetation iodine-131 concentrations that will be estimated by HEDR Project air-pathway transport models.

  16. The Dissemination of Federal Government Information: Prospects for the Immediate Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gary T.

    1996-01-01

    The Government Printing Office (GPO) is undertaking a study to "identify measures necessary for a successful transition to a more electronic Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP)." The ability of the GPO to secure agency dissemination of electronic information through the FDLP and the willingness of depository libraries to remain in the…

  17. Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program annual report for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program was authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 as a near-term effort to expand and accelerate the research needed to address the EMF issue. As required by this legislation, the EMF Interagency Committee, the National EMF Advisory Committee (NEMFAC), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) are providing valued input and advice for the direction of this program. With this input and advice, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) have developed and are implementing five-year program plans. Multi-year health effects research projects and related EMF measurement and exposure assessment projects are underway using funds appropriated in fiscal years 1994, 1995, and 1996 together with voluntary non-Federal contributions. The results of these research projects, along with the results of other EMF research, will be used as input to the hazard evaluation effort, which is the focus of the EMF RAPID Program. A coordinated interagency program is underway to communicate needed information on the EMF issue in a clear manner to the public and other decision makers.

  18. The Operational Utility of Space Environmental Measurements From Polar-Orbiting, Sun-Synchronous Satellites in AFWA Models and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citrone, P. J.; Bonadonna, M. F.; Cade, T.; Nobis, T. E.; Denig, W. F.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the space environment provide vital data inputs to advanced space weather models and applications used by the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to generate mission-tailored space weather intelligence in support of U.S. military operations. Since the 1970's, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) has provided in-situ measurements of the topside ionosphere and of the differential energy flux of precipitating electrons and ions into the auroral and polar regions. Recently, DMSP has deployed a new class of ultraviolet remote sensors which offer opportunities for improved space environmental monitoring. The DMSP polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous satellite measurements provide critical data inputs for current and future AFWA space weather models that specify and forecast the global thermosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. The AFWA Space Weather Technology Branch is pursuing an ongoing effort to transition to operations advanced research technologies associated with space environmental forecasting, to include related software applications used by AFWA to generate mission-tailored visualization products that depict space weather impacts on military systems. The Space Environmental Sensor Suite (SESS) on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will offer improved capabilities in terms of characterization and timeliness for space environmental data required by AFWA to meet new and emerging Department of Defense space weather operational requirements.

  19. Detection of disseminated peritoneal tumors by fluorescein diacrylate in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yoshinori; Furuta, Hirokazu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Dai, Ping; Fujikawa, Yuta; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Morishita, Koki; Hasegawa, Akira; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    Tumor invasion to the peritoneum is a poor prognostic factor in cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal tumors is essential to accurate cancer staging. To date, peritoneal washing cytology during laparotomy has been used for diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer, but its sensitivity has not been satisfactory. Thus, a more direct approach is indispensable to detect peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Fluorescein diacrylate (FDAcr) is an esterase-sensitive fluorescent probe derived from fluorescein. In cancer cells, fluorescent fluorescein generated by exogenous application of FDAcr selectively deposits owing to its stronger hydrolytic enzyme activity and its lower leakage rate. We examined whether FDAcr can specifically detect disseminated peritoneal tumors in athymic nude mouse models. Intraperitoneally administered FDAcr revealed disseminated peritoneal microscopic tumors not readily recognized on white-light imaging. These results suggest that FDAcr is a useful probe for detecting disseminated peritoneal tumors.

  20. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  1. Standards of evidence: criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony; Boruch, Robert F; Castro, Felipe González; Gottfredson, Denise; Kellam, Sheppard; Mościcki, Eve K; Schinke, Steven; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Ji, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Ever increasing demands for accountability, together with the proliferation of lists of evidence-based prevention programs and policies, led the Society for Prevention Research to charge a committee with establishing standards for identifying effective prevention programs and policies. Recognizing that interventions that are effective and ready for dissemination are a subset of effective programs and policies, and that effective programs and policies are a subset of efficacious interventions, SPR's Standards Committee developed overlapping sets of standards. We designed these Standards to assist practitioners, policy makers, and administrators to determine which interventions are efficacious, which are effective, and which are ready for dissemination. Under these Standards, an efficacious intervention will have been tested in at least two rigorous trials that (1) involved defined samples from defined populations, (2) used psychometrically sound measures and data collection procedures; (3) analyzed their data with rigorous statistical approaches; (4) showed consistent positive effects (without serious iatrogenic effects); and (5) reported at least one significant long-term follow-up. An effective intervention under these Standards will not only meet all standards for efficacious interventions, but also will have (1) manuals, appropriate training, and technical support available to allow third parties to adopt and implement the intervention; (2) been evaluated under real-world conditions in studies that included sound measurement of the level of implementation and engagement of the target audience (in both the intervention and control conditions); (3) indicated the practical importance of intervention outcome effects; and (4) clearly demonstrated to whom intervention findings can be generalized. An intervention recognized as ready for broad dissemination under these Standards will not only meet all standards for efficacious and effective interventions, but will also

  2. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  3. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Sonavane, Amey Dilip; Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-03-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  4. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  5. MEASUREMENT OF ON-THE-FLY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED REFERENCE SPECTRA OF ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires reference spectra to support its gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared (GC/FT-IR) routine environmental monitoring program. Although on-the-fly (OTF) techniques are needed to satisfy the Agency's high s...

  6. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  7. Approaches to Measuring the Extent and Impact of Environmental Change in Three California Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L.; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions. PMID:20935262

  8. Development of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) to Measure Organizational Physical and Social Support for Worksite Obesity Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Wang, Shaohung; Baker, Kristin M.; Bowen, Heather M.; Tully, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, reliability, and validity of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) for assessing worksite physical and social environmental support for obesity prevention. Methods The EAT was developed using a multi-step process. Inter-rater reliability was estimated via Kappa and other measures. Concurrent and predictive validity were estimated using site-level correlations and person-level multiple regression analyses comparing EAT scores and employee absenteeism and healthcare expenditures. Results Results show high inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity for many measures and predictive validity for absenteeism expenditures. Conclusions The primary use of the EAT is as a physical and social environment assessment tool for worksite obesity prevention efforts. It can be used as a reliable and valid means to estimate relationships between environmental interventions and absenteeism and medical expenditures, provided those expenditures are for the same year that the EAT is administered. PMID:18301169

  9. Dissemination of Research: Your Interface with the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, S.; Scotchmoor, J. G.; Lindberg, D.; Kissack, A.

    2011-12-01

    In January 2011, something very special happened on the UC Berkley campus as a result of a unique partnership between two organizations - KQED, a San Francisco public broadcaster and a public university, UC Berkeley. Nineteen graduate students from the UCB Department of Integrative Biology (IB) and Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management participated in a pilot project in which they were trained by media professionals in communicating their science to broader audiences. The class, called Dissemination of Research: Your Interface with the Public, was a two unit, seven week course on making media for science communication, a hands-on approach to the dos and don'ts of social media, blogging, photo collections, web media, video/audio interviews, visualizing data, and a survey of types of science media and journalism. The partnership itself was an extension of a project initiated by KQED in 2007. At that time, KQED launched QUEST, with the goal of contributing much needed reporting on science and the environment to Northern California audiences. The project combined an interdisciplinary media staff to create radio reports, television programming, original online media, and educator resources. Further supporting this innovative editorial framework were 16 partners including Northern California's leading science centers, museums, parks, and community-based groups. Among those partners were representatives from UC Berkeley's Natural History Museums and the Integrative Biology Department. The very name - Integrative Biology - reflects the focus of the department which brings together a diversity of disciplines that complement one another to unravel the complexity of biology thus a perfect match for the QUEST project. Building on the model developed for QUEST partner media making trainings, KQED and UC Berkeley decided to pilot a new venture by co-teaching a course, specifically aimed at helping graduate students communicate their science. Unlike similar

  10. Using a Swinging Vane Anemometer to Measure Airflow. Module 14. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using a swinging vane anemometer to measure airflow. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  11. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  12. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  13. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  14. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  15. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Abed, Firas; Baniya, Ramkaji; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  16. Neuroborreliosis presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ruben; Lisboa, Lurdes; Neves, João; García López, Milagros; Santos, Elsa; Ribeiro, Augusto

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the initial presentation of neuroborreliosis. Parents report an upper-airway infection a few days before the development of acute encephalopathy, mild facial palsy, and seizures. The patient needed mechanical ventilation for 10 days, and after extubation, he presented hypotonia, ataxia, dysarthria, as well as weak gag and cough reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions on T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences on the right subcortical occipital and parietal region, left posterior arm of the internal capsule, and in the medulla oblongata. Borrelia burgdorferi was identified in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction and in the plasma by Western blotting. He was treated with ceftriaxone, methylprednisolone, and human immunoglobulin. Recovery was partial. PMID:23222106

  17. Multilocular Disseminated Tarlov Cysts: Importance of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management. PMID:25191117

  18. Multilocular disseminated tarlov cysts: importance of imaging.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management. PMID:25191117

  19. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Tachamo, Niranjan; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity. PMID:27406461

  20. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Tachamo, Niranjan; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity. PMID:27406461

  1. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  2. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  4. Design and clinical feasibility of personal wearable monitor for measurement of activity and environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Robinson, Alyssa I

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to specific environmental factors (e.g. air quality, lighting, and sound) is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases (e.g. asthma) and mental health disorders (e.g. anxiety). However, conventional fixed environmental monitoring stations are sparsely located and, despite environmental models, cannot adequately assess individual exposure levels. New forms of low-cost portable monitors have begun to emerge that enable the collection of higher spatial density "crowd sourced" data; however, the first generation of these low-cost environmental monitors have generally not been suitable for clinical environmental health studies due to practical challenges such as calibration, reproducibility, form factor, and battery life. In this paper, we present a wearable environmental monitor that overcomes these challenges and can be used in clinical studies The new device, called "Eco-Mini," can be used without a smart phone and is capable of locally sampling and recording a variety of environmental parameters (Ozone, Sulfur Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, humidity, temperature, ambient light color balance, and sound level) as well as individual activity (3-axis accelerometer) and location (GPS). In this paper, we also report findings and discuss lessons learned from a feasibility study conducted for one week with pediatric patients as part of an ongoing asthma research study. PMID:25570098

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM. NERL-LV PILOT FOR MONITORING AND CHARACTERIZATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES - QED ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS INC. WELL WIZARD DEDICATED SAMPLING SYSTEM-PUBLISHED REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  6. Direct Measurement of Quantum Confinement and Environmental Pinning Effects on Metal/Nanostructure Schottky Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivarus, Cristian

    2005-03-01

    I will discuss direct nm-resolution measurements of metal/quantum well (QW) Schottky contacts made using Cross- sectional Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (XBEEM), in order to quantify the influence of small-size effects on hot- carrier injection into semiconductor nanostructures. Molecular Beam Epitaxy was used to grow a sequence of GaAs QWs with width varying from 1nm to 15 nm, separated by thick Al0.3Ga0.7As barrier layers. The samples were cleaved ex-situ and polycrystalline Au contacts were electron-beam evaporated on the cleaved edge using shadow mask or photo-lithography. Samples were studied in ultra-high vacuum using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and XBEEM. The Schottky barrier height over the QWs was found to systematically increase with decreasing QW width, by up to ˜140 meV for the 1 nm QW. This is mostly due to a large quantum-confinement increase ( up to ˜200 meV) of the QW conduction band minimum (CBM), as estimated by a simple 1D QW model. We also did finite element electrostatic modeling to estimate the ``environmental" effects of the surrounding metal/Al0.3Ga0.7As interface on the QW CBM. Excellent quantitative agreement over the full QW width range is obtained when both quantum confinement and electrostatic effects are considered.I will also discuss on-going measurements to use the metal/QW nanocontacts as unique ``nano-apertures" to directly image and quantify the lateral hot-electron spreading profile in the metal film. This profile is surprisingly large, with a FWHM of ˜15nm (˜21nm) for a 4nm (7nm) thick Au film. XBEEM images directly show that hot-electron spreading is strongly modified by the grain structure in the metal film. In collaboration with J.P. Pelz, M.K. Hudait, and S.A. Ringel. Work supported by NSF and ONR

  7. Design rules for successful governmental payments for ecosystem services: Taking agri-environmental measures in Germany as an example.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Claas; Reutter, Michaela; Matzdorf, Bettina; Sattler, Claudia; Schomers, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to financial environmental policy instruments that have played important roles in solving agri-environmental problems throughout the world, particularly in the European Union and the United States. The ample and increasing literature on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and agri-environmental measures (AEMs), generally understood as governmental PES, shows that certain single design rules may have an impact on the success of a particular measure. Based on this research, we focused on the interplay of several design rules and conducted a comparative analysis of AEMs' institutional arrangements by examining 49 German cases. We analyzed the effects of the design rules and certain rule combinations on the success of AEMs. Compliance and noncompliance with the hypothesized design rules and the success of the AEMs were surveyed by questioning the responsible agricultural administration and the AEMs' mid-term evaluators. The different rules were evaluated in regard to their necessity and sufficiency for success using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Our results show that combinations of certain design rules such as environmental goal targeting and area targeting conditioned the success of the AEMs. Hence, we generalize design principles for AEMs and discuss implications for the general advancement of ecosystem services and the PES approach in agri-environmental policies. Moreover, we highlight the relevance of the results for governmental PES program research and design worldwide. PMID:25909439

  8. Environmental Modifications and 2-Year Measured and Self-reported Stair-Use: A Worksite Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Cousins, Julie M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental modifications have been shown to increase short-term stair use, longer-term success is unclear. This study assessed the 2-year effectiveness of an environmental intervention promoting worksite stair use. We assessed stair use at work by means of self-reports and infrared beam counters (which send a safe and invisible beam of infrared light from one side of a stairwell to a reflector on the other side; when an individual uses the stairs, the infrared beam is disrupted and an instance of stair use is recorded) at six worksites (three intervention, three control) in a group randomized, controlled worksite weight-gain prevention trial in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Intervention modifications were signs encouraging stair use, music, and art posters in stairwells. We collected data before environmental modifications (2006–2007) and at the end of the 2-year intervention (2008–2009). The intervention had a significant positive effect on stair use measured both objectively and via self-report, with greatest increases reported among those participants who used the stairs least at baseline. Following 2-years of continuously-maintained stairwell modifications, increases in both objectively-measured and self-reported stair use were significantly larger at intervention than control worksites. Study findings suggest that the positive impact of environmental modifications on stair use persist over a longer time period than has been previously demonstrated. Results also indicate that infrequent stair users may be most amenable to the behavior changes encouraged by these environmental enhancements. PMID:23979097

  9. ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perchlorate anion has been implicated as a potentially serious environmental pollutant, being found in drinking water and irrigated crops. Commercial fertilizers have recently been shown to contain high levels of Perchlorate impurities and thus be potentially important source...

  10. Using energetic budgets to assess the effects of environmental stress on corals: are we measuring the right things?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the response of marine invertebrates to their environment, and environmentally induced stress, has included some measurement of their physiology or metabolism. Eventually, this approach developed into comparative energetics and the construction of energetic budgets. More recently, coral reefs, and scleractinian corals in particular, have suffered significant declines due to climate change-related environmental stress. In addition to a number of physiological, biophysical and molecular measurements to assess "coral health," there has been increased use of energetic approaches that have included the measurement of specific biochemical constituents (i.e., lipid concentrations) as a proxy for energy available to assess the potential outcomes of environmental stress on corals. In reading these studies, there appears to be some confusion between energy budgets and carbon budgets. Additionally, many assumptions regarding proximate biochemical composition, metabolic fuel preferences and metabolic quotients have been made, all of which are essential to construct accurate energy budgets and to convert elemental composition (i.e., carbon) to energy equivalents. Additionally, models of energetics such as the metabolic theory of ecology or dynamic energy budgets are being applied to coral physiology and include several assumptions that are not appropriate for scleractinian corals. As we assess the independent and interactive effects of multiple stressors on corals, efforts to construct quantitative energetic budgets should be a priority component of realistic multifactor experiments that would then improve the use of models as predictors of outcomes related to the effects of environmental change on corals.

  11. Method for ultra-trace cesium isotope ratio measurements from environmental samples using thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Mann, Nick R.; White, Byron M.

    2015-05-01

    135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can provide the age, origin and history of environmental Cs contamination. Relatively high precision 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratio measurements from samples containing femtogram quantities of 137Cs are needed to accurately track contamination resuspension and redistribution following environmental 137Cs releases; however, mass spectrometric analyses of environmental samples are limited by the large quantities of ionization inhibitors and isobaric interferences which are present at relatively high concentrations in the environment. We report a new approach for Cs purification from environmental samples. An initial ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) column provides a robust method for extracting Cs under a wide variety of sample matrices and mass loads. Cation exchange separations using a second AMP-PAN column result in more than two orders of magnitude greater Cs/Rb separation factors than commercially available strong cation exchangers. Coupling an AMP-PAN cation exchanging step to a microcation column (AG50W resin) enables consistent 2-4% (2σ) measurement errors for samples containing 3-6,000 fg 137Cs, representing the highest precision 135Cs/137Cs ratio measurements currently reported for soil samples at the femtogram level.

  12. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  13. Hypothesis: disseminated intravascular inflammation as the inflammatory counterpart to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Bull, B S; Bull, M H

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances--such as erythrocyte salvage--in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality. Images PMID:8058778

  14. Randomized Trial of Two Dissemination Strategies for a Skin Cancer Prevention Program in Aquatic Settings

    PubMed Central

    Escoffery, Cam; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We compared 2 strategies for disseminating an evidence-based skin cancer prevention program. Methods. We evaluated the effects of 2 strategies (basic vs enhanced) for dissemination of the Pool Cool skin cancer prevention program in outdoor swimming pools on (1) program implementation, maintenance, and sustainability and (2) improvements in organizational and environmental supports for sun protection. The trial used a cluster-randomized design with pools as the unit of intervention and outcome. The enhanced group received extra incentives, reinforcement, feedback, and skill-building guidance. Surveys were collected in successive years (2003–2006) from managers of 435 pools in 33 metropolitan areas across the United States participating in the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial. Results. Both treatment groups improved their implementation of the program, but pools in the enhanced condition had significantly greater overall maintenance of the program over 3 summers of participation. Furthermore, pools in the enhanced condition established and maintained significantly greater sun-safety policies and supportive environments over time. Conclusions. This study found that more intensive, theory-driven dissemination strategies can significantly enhance program implementation and maintenance of health-promoting environmental and policy changes. Future research is warranted through longitudinal follow-up to examine sustainability. PMID:25521872

  15. Ultra-stable radio frequency dissemination in free space.

    PubMed

    Miao, J; Wang, B; Gao, C; Bai, Y; Zhu, X; Wang, L J

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-stable radio frequency (RF) dissemination scheme over 80 m free space. The frequency dissemination stability is 3.2 × 10(-13)/s and 4.4 × 10(-17)/day, which can be applied to transfer frequency signal without compromising its stability in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) or radio astronomy. PMID:24182140

  16. New Jersey Curriculum Management Center: Curriculum Dissemination Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F., Jr.

    A description of the curriculum dissemination system of the New Jersey Curriculum Management Center (NJCMC) is provided for the use of educators needing these services and for other states who wish to establish similar curriculum dissemination systems. As a curriculum management center in the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in…

  17. 49 CFR 25.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 25.140 Section 25.140 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 25.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1)...

  18. 29 CFR 36.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of policy. 36.140 Section 36.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall...

  19. 43 CFR 41.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 41.140 Section 41.140 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 41.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  20. 29 CFR 34.23 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of policy. 34.23 Section 34.23 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) Recordkeeping and Other Affirmative Obligations of Recipients § 34.23 Dissemination...

  1. 10 CFR 1009.6 - Dissemination of prices and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of prices and charges. 1009.6 Section 1009.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.6 Dissemination of prices and charges. Current prices and charges...

  2. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20 Dissemination... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed...

  3. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  4. 15 CFR 8a.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 8a.140 Section 8a.140 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 8a.140 Dissemination of policy. (a)...

  5. 43 CFR 41.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dissemination of policy. 41.140 Section 41.140 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 41.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  6. 10 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall...

  7. 6 CFR 17.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 17.140 Section 17.140 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 17.140 Dissemination of policy. (a)...

  8. 22 CFR 146.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dissemination of policy. 146.140 Section 146.140 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 146.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1)...

  9. 22 CFR 229.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dissemination of policy. 229.140 Section 229.140 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 229.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy....

  10. 47 CFR 11.53 - Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53 Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. Initiation...

  11. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION... dissemination of information concerning procurement actions. The Division of Acquisition Management...

  12. 36 CFR 1211.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 1211... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1211.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each... prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each...

  13. 28 CFR 54.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 54.140 Section... Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing...) Publications. (1) Each recipient shall prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph...

  14. 31 CFR 28.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 28.140... Introduction § 28.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement...) Publications. (1) Each recipient shall prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph...

  15. 14 CFR 1253.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 1253.140 Section... § 1253.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement... policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each announcement, bulletin, catalog, or...

  16. 32 CFR 196.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 196.140 Section 196.140... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 196.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each... prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each...

  17. 44 CFR 19.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 19... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing steps to notify...

  18. 47 CFR 11.53 - Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53 Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. Initiation...

  19. 13 CFR 113.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 113.140 Section 113.140 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Introduction § 113.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall...

  20. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.28 Dissemination of classified information. Heads of OSTP offices... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information....

  1. A Dissemination Model for New Technical Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    The Technical Education Research Center-SW has conceived, tested, and refined a model for disseminating newly developed programs and materials throughout the nation. The model performed successfully in the dissemination of more than 50,000 educational units (modules) of Laser/Electro-Optics Technician (LEOT) materials during a four-year period…

  2. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments." The…

  3. 29 CFR 34.23 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 34.23 Section 34.23 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) Recordkeeping and Other Affirmative Obligations of Recipients § 34.23 Dissemination...

  4. Disseminated Candida tropicalis presenting with Ecthyma-Gangrenosum-like Lesions.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Knox; Panach, Kamaldeep; Dominguez, Arturo R

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis in immunosuppressed patients has been classically associated with an erythematous papular eruption, however more severe presentations are possible. We present a patient who developed disseminated Candida tropicalis that presented with hemorrhagic bullae that progressed to large necrotic ulcers. PMID:26990472

  5. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 2905.101 Methods of...

  6. 48 CFR 3052.242-71 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3042.202-70, insert the following clause: Dissemination of Contract Information... performance of this contract, without the prior written consent of the Contracting Officer. An electronic or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of...

  7. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K

    2013-03-30

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease. PMID:23580913

  8. Quantifying environmental stress induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Sabolis, A.; Reed, R.; Kamykowski, D.

    2014-09-01

    We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains - Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana; prymnesiophyte strains - Pleurochrysis carterae; dinoflagellate strains - Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum; cryptophyte strains - Rhodomonas salina, while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains - Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m-2s-1) and temperature (18 to 30 °C) regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~2x1017g (cell)-1h-1 (~35 μg (g Chl a)-1h-1) for isoprene and ~5x10-19 g (cell)-1h-1 (~1μg (g Chl a)-1) h-1) for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~70% from α-pinene, ~20% for d-limonene, and <10% for camphene and β -pinene. Phytoplankton species showed a rapid increase in production rates at low (<150 μmol m-2s-1) and a gradual increase at high (>250 μmol m-2s-1) irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day most of the species showed distinct increase in production rates within the first four hours, while on the second day the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause disbalance in chloroplasts and forces primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable

  9. Quantifying environmental stress-induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Sabolis, A.; Reed, R.; Kamykowski, D.

    2015-02-01

    We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana), prymnesiophyte strains (Pleurochrysis carterae), dinoflagellate strains (Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum), and cryptophyte strains (Rhodomonas salina), while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana). Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m-2 s-1) and temperature (18 to 30 °C) regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~ 2 × 10-17 g(cell)-1h-1 (~ 35 μg (g Chl a)-1 h-1) for isoprene and ~ 5 × 10-19 g (cell)-1 h-1 (~ 1 μg (g Chl a)-1) h-1) for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~ 70% from α-pinene, ~ 20% for d-limonene, and < 10% for camphene and β-pinene. Phytoplankton species showed a rapid increase in production rates at low irradiance (< 150 μmol m-2 s-1) and a gradual increase at high (> 250 μmol m-2 s-1) irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day, most of the species showed a distinct increase in production rates within the first 4 h while, on the second day, the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause imbalance in chloroplasts and force primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This

  10. The Impact of Social Media on Dissemination and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gronseth, Gary; Dubinsky, Richard; Penfold-Murray, Rebecca; Cox, Julie; Bever Jr, Christopher; Martins, Yolanda; Rheaume, Carol; Shouse, Denise; Getchius, Thomas SD

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are statements that provide recommendations to optimize patient care for a specific clinical problem or question. Merely reading a guideline rarely leads to implementation of recommendations. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has a formal process of guideline development and dissemination. The last few years have seen a burgeoning of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, and newer methods of dissemination such as podcasts and webinars. The role of these media in guideline dissemination has not been studied. Systematic evaluation of dissemination methods and comparison of the effectiveness of newer methods with traditional methods is not available. It is also not known whether specific dissemination methods may be more effectively targeted to specific audiences. Objective Our aim was to (1) develop an innovative dissemination strategy by adding social media-based dissemination methods to traditional methods for the AAN clinical practice guidelines “Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis” (“CAM in MS”) and (2) evaluate whether the addition of social media outreach improves awareness of the CPG and knowledge of CPG recommendations, and affects implementation of those recommendations. Methods Outcomes were measured by four surveys in each of the two target populations: patients and physicians/clinicians (“physicians”). The primary outcome was the difference in participants’ intent to discuss use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with their physicians or patients, respectively, after novel dissemination, as compared with that after traditional dissemination. Secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of the CPG, knowledge of CPG content, and behavior regarding CAM use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Results Response rates were 25.08% (622/2480) for physicians and 43.5% (348/800) for patients. Awareness of the CPG increased after traditional

  11. DDDRC: decentralised data dissemination in VANET using raptor codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    The design of data dissemination protocol has been a great challenge due to the highly dynamic and unreliable wireless channel in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). In literature, several interesting solutions are proposed to perform data dissemination for this environment. But these solutions either use architectures requiring centralised coordination or global network knowledge or large intermediate buffers. In this paper, we propose a decentralised technique that overcomes above requirements and provides reliable and scalable communication in both dense and sparse traffic for VANET. Random walks are used in the proposed technique to disseminate data from one vehicle to other vehicles in the network. We use raptor codes to provide low decoding complexity and more scalability for data dissemination. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique has better fault tolerance with lower complexity than general random-walk-based dissemination process and more scalability as compared to the other protocols.

  12. Method and application of ocean environmental awareness measurement: Lessons learnt from university students of China.

    PubMed

    Umuhire, Marie Louise; Fang, Qinhua

    2016-01-30

    Different studies have proved that enhancing public Ocean Environmental Awareness (OEA) will lead to increased public support for ocean environmental protection. Our study develops a questionnaire to investigate current levels of students' OEA from three aspects including ocean environmental concerns, ocean environment knowledge and willingness to participate in ocean related activities. This questionnaire was applied to students from Xiamen University to understand the OEA of university students in China, of which there are few studies. Using data gathered from a random purposive sample, the OEA level of students in Xiamen University was investigated and then the influencing factors (education, geographical situation, age and gender etc.) were further analyzed. Findings suggest that most students are concerned about the ocean environment but their knowledge is not enough that makes the willingness to participate in ocean related actions limited as well. The results show there is an urgent need to improve students' OEA. PMID:26242972

  13. Developing Agency Dissemination Policy. Washington State Dissemination Conference, Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (Olympia, Washington, January 22, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Building upon groundwork established by previous meetings, this session of the Washington Dissemination Task Force focused on the preparation and intensive study of a policy and guidelines on dissemination for the Office of the State Department of Public Instruction (OSPI), and the identification of future responsibilities of the group. Conference…

  14. Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System: An Action Report. Hawaii State Dissemination Conference, Hawaii Department of Education (Honolulu, Hawaii, October 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The first intensive exposure to organized dissemination at the state, regional, and national level for many of the participants, this 2-day conference consisted of a series of sessions held in Honolulu and neighboring islands. Explanations of how these dissemination efforts are organized and operated were followed by detailed information on the…

  15. The problem of dissemination: evidence and ideology.

    PubMed

    Traynor, M

    1999-09-01

    This paper recontextualises research evidence as an example of textually-based social control. It does this by drawing on two areas of theoretical literature; feminist literary theory and the sociology of scientific knowledge. Accounts of literary works as ideological instruments of social control suggest that (at least some kinds of) research literature may fulfil a similar role among a clinical readership. There have also been compelling accounts of scientific writing as expressions of desire on the part of one group to 'act at a distance' upon others. In the light of this literature, it becomes less tenable to see research dissemination as the simple transfer of information, supplemented by organisational work. Research is implicated in the attempt by one group to enrol others in its own project and in the (self-)construction of the identities of the healthcare worker. The accounts that literary theory can provide do not remain focused upon the text, but draw links between the reading process and the experience and place in society, for example the gender, of the writer and reader. As such their explanations create a space for the resisting reader. PMID:10795272

  16. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndromes in Obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, F Gary; Nelson, David B

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that can be initiated by a myriad of medical, surgical, and obstetric disorders. Also known as consumptive coagulopathy, DIC is a common contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality and is associated with up to 25% of maternal deaths. The etiopathogenesis of DIC is complex and currently thought to be initiated by tissue factor or thromboplastin, which is released from trophoblastic or fetal tissue, or maternal decidua or endothelium. Tissue factor activates the coagulation sequence to cause fibrin clotting and its dissolution by the fibrinolysin system. The result of this process can range from mild, clinically insignificant laboratory derangements to marked coagulopathy with bleeding at sites of minimal trauma. Although clinical recognition varies by disease severity, several organizations have attempted to standardize the diagnosis through development of scoring systems. Several important--albeit not necessarily common--obstetric disorders associated with DIC include placental abruption, amniotic fluid embolism, sepsis syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. More common disorders include severe preeclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, and massive obstetric hemorrhage. Importantly, many of these disorders either cause or are associated with substantive obstetric hemorrhage. Treatment of DIC is centered on two principles. The first is identification and treatment of the underlying disorder. Because many women with consumptive coagulopathy also have massive hemorrhage, the second tenet of treatment is that obstetric complications such as uterine atony or lacerations must be controlled simultaneously with prompt blood and component replacement for a salutary outcome. PMID:26444122

  17. User data dissemination concepts for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.

    1976-01-01

    Domestic data dissemination networks for earth-resources data in the 1985-1995 time frame were evaluated. The following topics were addressed: (1) earth-resources data sources and expected data volumes, (2) future user demand in terms of data volume and timeliness, (3) space-to-space and earth point-to-point transmission link requirements and implementation, (4) preprocessing requirements and implementation, (5) network costs, and (6) technological development to support this implementation. This study was parametric in that the data input (supply) was varied by a factor of about fifteen while the user request (demand) was varied by a factor of about nineteen. Correspondingly, the time from observation to delivery to the user was varied. This parametric evaluation was performed by a computer simulation that was based on network alternatives and resulted in preliminary transmission and preprocessing requirements. The earth-resource data sources considered were: shuttle sorties, synchronous satellites (e.g., SEOS), aircraft, and satellites in polar orbits.

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulation following administration of sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    OLIVO, ANAËLLE; NOËL, NICOLAS; BESSE, BENJAMIN; TABURET, ANNE-MARIE; LAMBOTTE, OLIVIER

    2016-01-01

    Sunitinib is an increasingly used, orally administered targeted therapy, approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of various types of cancer, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor unresectable or metastatic disease, following disease progression or intolerance to imatinib, and advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma, progressive well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease. Sunitinib inhibits several tyrosine kinases, including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Tyrosine kinases inhibitor therapies are generally well-tolerated; nonetheless, they are not void of side effects. The majority of patients reported are grade 1 or 2, and include common and unspecific adverse events, including fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, skin discoloration, altered taste, cough and dyspnea. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, including bleeding and hemorrhage, are less frequent. The present study presented the first case of disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with the administration of sunitinib, shortly following the increase of sunitinib dosage. PMID:27330781

  19. Environmental Technology Verification Report - NATCO Group, Inc. – Paques THIOPAQ Gas Purification Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  20. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF STORMWATER TREATMENT DEVICES UNDER EPA�S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was created to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The program�s goal is to further environmental protection by a...

  1. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF ANIMAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to further environmental protection by accelerating the commercialization of new and innovative technology through independent performance verification and dissemination of in...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, CLEAN ENVIRONMENT EQUIPMENT, SAMPLEASE BLADDER PUMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, GEOLOG, INC., MICRO-FLO BLADDER PUMP MODEL 57400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ETV Program...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, TNT DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, SPREETA TM SENSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  5. HIGHER ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIVE MOLDINESS INDEX (ERMISM) VALUES MEASURED IN DETROIT HOMES OF SEVERELY ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sieved vacuum bag dust from the homes of 143 children in Detroit was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMIsm) was calculated for each home. Children living in these homes were categorized into non-asthmatic (n=8...

  6. MUSSEL WATCH--MEASUREMENTS OF CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS IN BIVALVES AS ONE INDICATOR OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of the bivalve sentinel organism approach to monitoring for some chemicals of environmental concern in coastal and estuarine areas has been evaluated by regional and national programs and by smaller scale research efforts during the past 15 years. The extent and sever...

  7. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

  8. Measuring New Environmental Paradigm Based on Students' Knowledge about Ecosystem and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putrawan, I. Made

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed at obtaining information related to instrument development of Students' New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) based on their knowledge about ecosystem and Locus of Control (LOC). A survey method has been carried out by selecting senior high school students randomly with n = 362 (first stage 2013) and n = 722 (2014). Data analysed…

  9. Measurement and Associations of Pregnancy Risk Factors with Genetic Influences, Postnatal Environmental Influences, and Toddler Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Hajal, Nastassia; Leve, Leslie D.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Mayes, Linda C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations among genetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal…

  10. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of the dissemination of road de-icers in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durickovic, Ivana; Marchetti, Mario; Suaire, Remi; Derombise, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is nowadays a well established technique for the investigation of the molecular structure of a substance (solid, liquid or gas) through the study of its vibrational properties. This technique has been shown as particularly adapted for the characterization of water and aqueous solutions. The ERA 31 of the CÉTÉ de l'Est is developing methods based on that technique for domains such as water pollution detection and pollutant dissemination, mainly linked to transport infrastructures. A specific application of the Raman spectroscopy is the monitoring of the road de-icing materials' evolution after application on the road's surface. Indeed, in order to avoid traffic disruption during winter, roads and airports are the subject of a specific maintenance based on the application of de-icing materials. However, these chemicals are transported out of the roads, and end up either in the surrounding environment (splashed out by the vehicles or blown away by the wind) or in ponds used for road water runoff remediation and flow control (by flows after precipitations). The first aspect of the road de-icing surveillance is therefore their follow-up in the transport infrastructure's surrounding environment. A spectroscopic tool was hence developed for the measurement of these products on roads and in water located next to transport infrastructures, and adapted for the measurement on soils. The second aspect concerns the tracking of the de-icing material in the detention ponds. The instrumentation of a specific pond has been set in order to determine the road de-icing material's evolution and influence on the pond's environmental media (water, soil and vegetation). The goal is to evaluate in what way and how long, the road de-icer will spread in a detention pond. It will permit us to estimate the pond retention period, as well as its remediation efficiency.

  11. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  12. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  13. Comparative pathway analysis of radiocesium in the Hudson River Estuary: environmental measurements and regulatory dose assessment models.

    PubMed

    Linsalata, P; Hickman, D; Cohen, N

    1986-09-01

    This work summarizes the measurements and associated environmental dosimetry of reactor-released 137Cs and 134Cs and weapons-produced 137Cs in samples of water, shoreline sediment and fish collected from 1971 to 1980 in the Hudson River Estuary. Trends observed in annual mean concentrations and the resultant dose implications for man from each source are discussed. The human exposure pathways examined are: fish consumption, water consumption, swimming and recreational use of the shoreline. Based on environmental measurements, a maximum, adult, whole-body, 50-y committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) of 0.79 mu Sv (79 mu rem) is estimated from fish consumption in 1971, the year of maximum reactor discharge of the radiocesiums. For comparison, during the period 1974-79, mean estimates (+/- 1 SD) of the CEDE based on environmental measurements and attributed to other pathways are as follows: consumption of indigenous fish species caught downstream of the reactor outfall, 0.05 +/- 0.02 mu Sv (5 +/- 2 mu rem); consumption of fresh water sampled upstream of the reactors, 0.02 +/- 0.03 mu Sv (2 +/- 3 mu rem); and swimming, 10(-4) +/- 10(-4) mu Sv (0.01 +/- 0.01 mu rem). In addition, external, whole-body exposure resulting from recreational use of the shoreline 1.6 km downstream of the reactors is estimated to be 1.2 X 10(-8) C kg-1 (46 +/- 11 mu R yr-1). The above dose estimates are based on consumption factors of 3.9 and 803 kg y-1 (fish and water, respectively) and on usage factors of 50 and 140 h y-1 (swimming and shoreline recreation, respectively). Differences in dose estimates obtained from these long-term environmental measurements and from assessment models currently recommended for use by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are discussed. PMID:3744830

  14. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  15. Measurement Properties of Psychosocial and Environmental Measures Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Middle School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the measurement properties of several scales modified or created to assess factors related to fruit and vegetable intake within a young adolescent population. Design: Cross-sectional with data collected via self-report. Setting: Data were collected in regularly scheduled classes in the school setting. Participants: African…

  16. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Skelton, Eliza; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Williams, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Chai, Li Kheng; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications. Of the 1648 publications examined, 216 were original data-based research or literature reviews focusing on dissemination and implementation research. Of these 72% were classified as descriptive/epidemiological, 26% were intervention and just 1.9% were measurement research. Cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (47%). Reviews, randomized trials, non-randomized trials and decision/cost-effectiveness studies each represented between 6 and 10% of all output. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates) made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output. PMID:27583203

  17. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  18. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  19. Sustained use of an occupational sun safety program in a recreation industry: follow-up to a randomized trial on dissemination strategies.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara J; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Cutter, Gary R

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of evidence-based programs is needed to obtain long-term benefits. To assess sustainability of Go Sun Smart (GSS), an occupational skin cancer prevention program disseminated to the North American ski industry. Fifty-three of the 68 ski areas from the original dissemination trial participated in 2012 and 2013, 5 to 7 years after program distribution by enhanced or basic dissemination strategies. Sustained use was measured by: (1) on-site observation of sun protection communication and (2) an online survey with senior managers. In the sustainability assessment, sun safety communication had declined, and dissemination strategy did not affect continued use. Managers held weaker attitudes about skin cancer importance and program fit, but more managers provided free/reduced-cost sunscreen than in the dissemination trial. Manager turnover was a key factor in program discontinuance. Sustainability remains a challenge. Additional research is needed to determine the best strategies for sustainability. PMID:26622909

  20. Theoretical foundations for the measurement of environmental factors and their impact on participation among people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Magasi, Susan; Wong, Alex; Gray, David B; Hammel, Joy; Baum, Carolyn; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Heinemann, Allen W

    2015-04-01

    The ascendance of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Heath (ICF) as the global standard for describing and characterizing aspects of disability has refocused attention on the role that environmental factors (EFs) have on the health and participation of people with disabilities, both as individuals and as a group. There has been a rise in the development of instruments designed to measure EFs alone and in relation to participation. Some instrument developers have used the ICF as a theoretical base for instrument development and to substantiate content validity claims. We contend that this is a misapplication of the ICF. There is a need to step back and reexamine the role that environmental theories can play in developing a conceptually driven approach to measuring the interaction between EFs and participation. For this review, we draw on the fields of social, community, and developmental psychology; disability studies; gerontology; public health; and rehabilitation. We discuss different approaches to the measurement of EFs. We suggest that given the complex nature of EFs and their influence on participation, there is a need for a fresh approach to EF measurement. The thoughtful application of theories and the use of advanced psychometric, measurement, and e-technologies and data visualization methods may enable researchers and clinicians to better quantify, document, and communicate the dynamic interrelationship between EFs and participation and health outcomes for people with disabilities at the individual, group, and population levels. PMID:25813889