Science.gov

Sample records for disseminated synovial chondromatosis

  1. SYNOVIAL CHONDROMATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Lasmar, Neylor Pace; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Rosa, Juraci de Oliveira; Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace; Scarpa, André Campos

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient presented severe pain in his left knee in association with functional incapacitation, with no apparent triggering factor. He sought medical attention in December 2006, at which time he was prescribed NSAIDs. After a year, he reported increased swelling and pain at the site. He was referred to a knee specialist with a suspected meniscal injury. Upon examination, severe swelling of the joint, with movement limitation, severe pain and negative joint aspiration, was found. Since the simple radiographic results were normal, an MRI of the knee was requested. The MRI revealed a large accumulation of fluid inside the joint, together with marked synovial proliferation, especially focal thickening in clumps with an intermediate signal in T1 and T2, and a discrete hyposignal in T2 that was suggestive of pigmented villonodular synovitis with intact meniscus and ligaments. The patient underwent arthroscopy on the left knee, which revealed whitish irregular fragments, and then underwent arthrotomy with removal of the lesion and extensive synovectomy. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination, which showed the presence of synovial chondromatosis. Eight months after the surgery, the patient does not have any complaints, with a range of motion of 130° in the left knee without joint effusion or signs of inflammation. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign type of metaplasia of the synovial membrane that leads to the formation of cartilaginous free bodies in the joint space. It is difficult to diagnose because 95% of the nodules, when not calcified, can be overlooked radiologically. PMID:27047814

  2. Disseminated synovial chondromatosis of the knee treated by open radical synovectomy using combined anterior and posterior approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra; Neelakandan, Karthik; Sood, Chetan; Krishnan, Jeganath

    2014-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the knee is a rare benign neoplasm of the synovium. Likewise, uncertainty on management still prevails. Though rare, it nevertheless warrants greater emphasis than it receives in the literature to allow correct diagnosis and accurate early surgical intervention. It predominantly involves the anterior compartment of the knee and disseminated disease is extremely rare. The optimal approach for surgical treatment of such an extensive synovial chondromatosis of knee remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case of extensive generalized synovial chondromatosis of the knee extending into the Baker's cyst in a 30 years old female. A diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis was made by clinical evaluation and MR imaging and confirmed by histopathological examination. Patient was successfully treated by open radical synovectomy of knee using both anterior and posterior approaches in a single step procedure. PMID:25983490

  3. Synovial chondromatosis in raptors.

    PubMed

    Stone, E G; Walser, M M; Redig, P T; Rings, B; Howard, D J

    1999-01-01

    Fourteen raptors, consisting of 13 great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and one red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), from central and north central Minnesota, western Wisconsin, and eastern South Dakota (USA) were admitted to a raptor rehabilitation center between June 1992 and June 1995, with perisynovial and synovial chondromatosis affecting multiple joints. Birds were severely debilitated primarily due to loss of shoulder motion. The etiology of these lesions in raptors is unknown. PMID:10073365

  4. Glenohumeral Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Robert

    2016-09-01

    A 20-year-old, right hand-dominant man reported to physical therapy with a history of deep anterior left shoulder pain. Radiographs, which were obtained after physical therapy was initiated, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of numerous radio-opaque loose bodies that followed bone signal characteristics dispersed throughout the glenohumeral joint, leading to a diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):809. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0414. PMID:27581180

  5. Secondary synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Jeong, Dong-Seok

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is classified as either primary or secondary. Primary synovial chondromatosis results from a proliferation of chondrocytes in the synovial membrane leading to the formation of cartilaginous loose bodies. Secondary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition characterized by the growth of separated particles from the articular cartilage or osteophytes in joint diseases. The present article aims to report the secondary chondromatosis of the shoulder and to discuss the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histological findings and management of this condition. PMID:24803015

  6. Extra and Intra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Banskota, B; Rijal, S; Banskota, A K

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is not so rare intra-articular condition secondary to synovial metaplasia, that affects the knee joint. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis however is an extremely rare condition that usually involves the synovial sheath or bursa of the foot or hand. We present two cases of synovial chondromatosis, one intra and one extra-articular. The first case was a 25 year old lady who presented with pain, swelling and restricted range of motion of left knee and was found to have an intra-articular synovial chondromatosis which was treated successfully by joint debridement. The second case was that of a 22 year old man who presented with right knee pain and was diagnosed to have an extra-articular synovial chondromatosis of his right medial hamstring tendon sheath, excision of which resulted in complete relief of symptoms. PMID:27549506

  7. Bone scintigraphic demonstration of synovial chondromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Hulsey, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Markedly increased periarticular Tc-99m diphosphonate uptake around the knee is described in a patient found to have synovial chondromatosis. The pathophysiology and possible causes of bone tracer uptake in this cartilaginous disorder are discussed.

  8. Uncalcified Synovial Chondromatosis in the Pisotriquetral Joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Kon; Ha, Sung-Han; Lee, Gi-Jun; Yu, Sun-O; Kim, Jung-Rae

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare lesion in the wrist, but some cases in the distal radioulnar joint have been reported and previous case reports emphasize joint calcifications, shown on preoperative plain radiographs. We report an extremely uncommon case of synovial chondromatosis in the pisotriquetral joint, in which radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging did not demonstrate apparent calcified bodies. In our case, for the accurate diagnosis and treatment, surgical exploration of the joint and synovectomy with removal of loose bodies was performed. PMID:26330969

  9. Odyssey of an elbow synovial chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Sachinis, Nikolaos P; Sinopidis, Chris; Baliaka, Aggeliki; Givissis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the elbow is an uncommon condition. However, a chondrosarcoma arising from the former is remarkably rare. The authors report a case of an elbow chondrosarcoma secondary to synovial chondromatosis in a 38-year-old woman. Before the development of chondrosarcoma, the patient underwent 3 operations and 3 sessions of radiosynovectomy because of continuous recurrence of synovial chondromatosis on the left elbow. After the last radiosynovectomy, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy showed a grade II chondrosarcoma secondary to synovial chondromatosis. The patient underwent further surgery and custom-made arthroplasty because of aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. Four months after the last intervention, 3 subcutaneous nodes appeared on the patient's elbow and were histologically found to be a recurrence of chondrosarcoma (grade III). Amputation by disarticulation of the shoulder was performed in addition to biopsy of another subcutaneous node on the abdomen. The biopsy showed metastasis of chondrosarcoma. At final follow-up, the patient had lung metastasis 7 years after the initial diagnosis. A reason for the manifestation of primary synovial chondromatosis and its progression to chondrosarcoma has not been found. Synovial chondromatosis progressing to chondrosarcoma in the elbow was reported in only 1 case, with no clear initial diagnosis. The role of radiosynovectomy in the development of chondrosarcoma is unknown, and no reports have described the treatment of elbow synovial chondromatosis. Although synovial chondromatosis is benign, its metaplastic nature is a marker of possible malignancy, especially with signs of recurrence and aggression. The role of radiosynovectomy in malignant changes should be examined in future studies. PMID:25611422

  10. Articular synovial chondromatosis of the finger.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazufumi; Hashimoto, Tomohisa; Kimura, Kazumasa; Ozeki, Satoru

    2014-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of synovial chondromatosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right ring finger, which was resected through both dorsal and volar incisions. To our knowledge there have been only 17 reported cases of articular synovial chondromatosis of the digital joint so far. We present a case affecting the metacarpophalangeal joint with a review of scattered information found in other 17 reports. PMID:23596991

  11. Uncalcified Synovial Chondromatosis in the Pisotriquetral Joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Kon; Lee, Gi-Jun; Yu, Sun-O; Kim, Jung-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare lesion in the wrist, but some cases in the distal radioulnar joint have been reported and previous case reports emphasize joint calcifications, shown on preoperative plain radiographs. We report an extremely uncommon case of synovial chondromatosis in the pisotriquetral joint, in which radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging did not demonstrate apparent calcified bodies. In our case, for the accurate diagnosis and treatment, surgical exploration of the joint and synovectomy with removal of loose bodies was performed. PMID:26330969

  12. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome, Associated With Synovial Chondromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Min-Soo; Chang, Chul-Hoon

    2008-01-01

    A 62-year-old female patient suffered from numbness and resting pain in the right ring and little fingers for 3 years. We confirmed cubital tunnel syndrome with electrodiagnostic study and performed the operation. We found seven firm consistent nodules, compressing the overlying the ulnar nerve, proximal to the medial epicondyle in the operation field. Histological finding showed synovial chondromatosis. We report a rare case of a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by synovial chondromatosis. PMID:19096614

  13. Bursal synovial chondromatosis formation following osteochondroma resection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Gebhardt, Mark G; Wu, Jim S

    2014-07-01

    Osteochondroma is a common tumor of the bone and can be complicated by adventitial bursa formation and malignant transformation of the cartilaginous cap. Synovial chondromatosis formation within these bursae is extremely rare and can be confused with malignant transformation of the osteochondroma cap to a chondrosarcoma. We describe a case of extra-articular synovial chondromatosis formation several years following osteochondroma resection. Cartilage nodule formation within the bursal synovial lining and proliferation of cartilage debris shed from the cartilaginous cap during surgery or biopsy are potential etiologies of this rare complication of osteochondromas. PMID:24453028

  14. Synovial chondromatosis caused mechanical snapping elbow: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Guney, Ahmet; Dogar, Fatih; Oner, Mithat; Bılal, Okkes

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare and benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane in joints and bursae. Herein, we present the case of a 34-year-old male with synovial chondromatosis that caused limitation in the elbow joint in terms of mechanical function. PMID:26185473

  15. Synovial chondromatosis caused mechanical snapping elbow: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Guney, Ahmet; Dogar, Fatih; Oner, Mithat; Bılal, Okkes

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare and benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane in joints and bursae. Herein, we present the case of a 34-year-old male with synovial chondromatosis that caused limitation in the elbow joint in terms of mechanical function. PMID:26185473

  16. Recurrent synovial chondromatosis of the distal interphalangeal joint: case report.

    PubMed

    Craft, Randall O; Smith, Anthony A; Duncan, Scott F M

    2009-02-01

    A 59-year-old woman presented with recurrent synovial chondromatosis of the distal interphalangeal joint at the site of removal of what was thought to be a ganglion cyst in 2003 and the subsequent excision of a recurrent synovial chondromatosis in 2005. Although synovial chondromatosis is typically described as a benign, self-limiting process, recurrent disease and local erosion of the joint of this patient required wide excision with bone grafting and arthrodesis for definitive treatment. PMID:19181231

  17. Synovial chondromatosis presenting as an epidural mass

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Ratnesh Nandan; Grigorov, Marat; Pieper, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the facet joint. It most commonly affects large joints such as hip or shoulder. Commonly seen features are bony erosion and calcifications. Synovial chondromatosis is rare in the spine and there are few previous reports of extension into the spinal canal. Case Description: A 58-year-old man presented with a 2 year history of progressive numbness in the right upper extremity without objective weakness. A several month course of conservative management, including physical therapy, failed to alleviate symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated the erosion of the right facet C5–C6 joint with listhesis and foraminal enlargement secondary to a lesion. Treatment was offered to the patient in the form of surgical resection. The lesion was removed in piecemeal fashion using curettes and Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator. Histological examination demonstrated atypical well-differentiated cartilaginous proliferation. Conclusion: This patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced complete resolution of right upper extremity sensory symptoms. Synovial chondromatosis may compromise cervical spinal cord and nerve roots if it extends into the spinal canal. Although it remains rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for upper extremity radiculopathy and myelopathy. Surgical resection is a viable treatment option for symptomatic patients with this pathology. In some cases, adequate resection may necessitate stabilization with instrumentation. PMID:26425399

  18. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion

    PubMed Central

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  19. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion.

    PubMed

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  20. A neglected case of giant synovial chondromatosis in knee joint.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Tiftikçi, Ugur; Karaaslan, Fatih; Tosun, Haci Bayram; Sevinç, Hüseyin Fatih; Balci, Mahi

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare synovial pathology, which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. In our case, the biggest sized SOC was 20x19x6 cm, although there were many joint mice. Our case had the biggest SOC ever extracted, which to the best of my knowledge has not been reported earlier. PMID:26600905

  1. A neglected case of giant synovial chondromatosis in knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Serbest, Sancar; Tiftikçi, Ugur; Karaaslan, Fatih; Tosun, Haci Bayram; Sevinç, Hüseyin Fatih; Balci, Mahi

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare synovial pathology, which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. In our case, the biggest sized SOC was 20x19x6 cm, although there were many joint mice. Our case had the biggest SOC ever extracted, which to the best of my knowledge has not been reported earlier. PMID:26600905

  2. Osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Li, Lingzhi; Chen, Minjie; Yang, Chi

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis is rare in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), so we retrospectively reviewed 210 such patients who presented to our hospital from 2001-2013. The final sample included 3 patients with secondary synovial chondromatosis (mean (SD) age 40 (??) years), all of whom had symptoms of disorders of the TMJ. Condylar neoplasms and loose bodies were found during operation. Histopathological examination showed a bony growth capped with hyaline cartilage and clustering chondrocytes, with partial calcification and ossification of the loose bodies, and primary osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis was diagnosed. There were no recurrences during a follow-up that ranged from 3 months to 5 years. The presence of loose calcified bodies in osteochondroma is a possible sign of secondary synovial chondromatosis. PMID:26320566

  3. Synovial chondromatosis of pes anserine bursa secondary to osteochondroma.

    PubMed

    Shallop, Brandon; Abraham, John A

    2014-08-01

    Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign cartilaginous metaplasia that occurs in the synovium. The authors describe a unique case of synovial chondromatosis developing in the pes anserine bursa secondary to an underlying osteochondroma of the proximal medial tibia. It is unusual to see both of these processes occurring simultaneously in 1 location. After appropriate consent was obtained, the patient's case was reviewed. A 17-year-old boy presented with a painless mass in the medial aspect of the right leg. Initial imaging of the right leg showed a cartilaginous-appearing lesion arising from the tibia and several distinct additional cartilaginous masses in the adjacent soft tissue. After 16 months of observation, the patient began to have increasing pain in the region of the lesion. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected synovial chondromatosis of the right pes anserine bursa and osteochondroma of the proximal right tibia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete resolution of symptoms and regained full range of motion of the knee. He returned to full activities, including walking and running. Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign synovial metaplastic cartilaginous proliferation that occurs primarily in joints, but can occur in any synovial-lined space. In this case report, the authors describe a unique occurrence of both of these lesions simultaneously. The treatment was excision of the osteochondroma and resection of the chondromatosis lesions, which resulted in an excellent outcome. PMID:25102510

  4. Uncommon Primary Synovial Chondromatosis Involving Only the Infrapatellar Fat Pad in an Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Tae-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition of idiopathic synovial chondrometaplasia and usually occurs during the third to fifth decades of life. Conversely, secondary synovial chondromatosis results from the growth of separated particles from articular cartilage or osteophytes in patients with joint diseases, such as degenerative osteoarthritis, and occurs mostly in elderly people. We describe here a 76-year-old male histopathologically confirmed as having primary synovial chondromatosis with no calcification of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of primary synovial chondromatosis of the knee joint confined to the IFP in a patient >60 years old. PMID:26955617

  5. Uncommon Primary Synovial Chondromatosis Involving Only the Infrapatellar Fat Pad in an Elderly Patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Tae-Wan

    2016-03-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition of idiopathic synovial chondrometaplasia and usually occurs during the third to fifth decades of life. Conversely, secondary synovial chondromatosis results from the growth of separated particles from articular cartilage or osteophytes in patients with joint diseases, such as degenerative osteoarthritis, and occurs mostly in elderly people. We describe here a 76-year-old male histopathologically confirmed as having primary synovial chondromatosis with no calcification of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of primary synovial chondromatosis of the knee joint confined to the IFP in a patient >60 years old. PMID:26955617

  6. [Synovial chondromatosis of the right temporomandibular joint: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui-xian; Zhang, Kui-hong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Yan-ling

    2016-04-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is an extremely rare condition. A case of synovial chondromatosis with postoperative recurrence and involvement of base of skull was reported. The clinic pathological features, diagnosis and treatment were discussed with literature review. PMID:27329898

  7. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis Mimicking Chondrosarcoma: Report of a Rare Histologic Presentation and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Khodamorad; Barbuto, Richard; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abolghasemian, Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign lesion of the synovium, and giant solitary synovial chondromatosis (GSSCM) is a rare presentation of it. In this article, we describe clinical, imaging, and pathologic features of a hip GSSCM with an unusual histologic presentation. PMID:26251946

  8. Bakers Cyst with Synovial Chondromatosis of Knee - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Daivesh P; Diwakar, Manish; Dargar, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare intraarticular benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life, although involvement of smaller joints and presentation in younger age group is also documented. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare extra articular synovial pathology present inside the baker’s cyst which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. Case Report: A 43 yearold male presented with a two year history of pain, swelling and restriction of right knee joint. After the clinical and radiological assessment, open synovectomy, removal of cyst and thorough joint debridement procedure was performed. Histopathological study confirmed the findings of synovial chondromatosis. Conclusion: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition. Complete synovectomy offers reliable cure rate. PMID:27299117

  9. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  10. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint Successfully Treated by Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Aécio Abner Campos; Ferreira e Costa, Rafael; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Chagas, Marcelo Roncalli Pinheiro; do Carmo, Maria Auxiliadora Vieira; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos

    2015-12-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a chronic process, defined as a reactive cartilaginous proliferation, characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules, usually loose in the joint space of the synovial membrane. It mainly affects large joints such as knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow, commonly in male patients. However, its manifestation in the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), is a rare finding, occurring predominantly in females. This paper reports a case of a woman who presented to the service of Stomatology complaining of mouth opening limitations and pain in her left pre-auricular region. After clinical and radiographic analyses, the condition was diagnosed as SC of the TMJ. The loose bodies within the TMJ were removed under general anesthesia. Histological and follow-up features of this lesion are also discussed. To our knowledge, this is the second report of SC of the TMJ in Brazil. PMID:25912648

  11. Synovial chondromatosis of the spine in the skeletally immature: case report and updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Hsun; Grigoriou, Emmanouil; Dormans, John P

    2015-05-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of large joints. Synovial chondromatosis of the spine is very rare; this is the first reported case in the skeletally immature pediatric spine. A 12-year-old female presented with a posteriolateral neck mass and discomfort. A two-stage surgical resection of the mass was performed. This case shows that synovial chondromatosis can occur in the immature pediatric spine. Synovial chondromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a calcified paravertebral or lateral neck mass in children. PMID:25493704

  12. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  13. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  14. Hip Arthroscopy for Synovial Chondromatosis: Tips and Tricks.

    PubMed

    Rath, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Doron, Ran; Matsuda, Dean K

    2014-12-01

    Hip arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of synovial chondromatosis. Removal of osteochondral fragments (OCFs) from the central and peripheral compartments is crucial for the relief of mechanical symptoms and subsequent joint destruction. Direct access to the central compartment is often limited because of the ball-and-socket morphology and limitation of traction. We present our surgical technique for removing OCFs and a new method for the removal of a large loose body using a nitinol stone retrieval basket. The technique facilitates removal of difficult-to-access fragments from the central compartment. Moreover, this technique allows removal of far-medial OCFs from the peripheral compartment. PMID:25685679

  15. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Ankle Joint: Clinical, Radiological, and Intraoperative Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sedeek, Sedeek Mohamed; Choudry, Q.; Garg, S.

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis, also termed synovial osteochondromatosis, is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It most commonly involves large joints, such as the knee, hip, and shoulder, but its presence in smaller joints has also been reported. Nevertheless, ankle involvement is unusual. The diagnosis is commonly made following a thorough history, clinical, physical, and radiographic examination. We report a case of a young patient with primary synovial chondromatosis of the ankle joint and present the clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings. PMID:26177002

  16. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Ankle Joint: Clinical, Radiological, and Intraoperative Findings.

    PubMed

    Sedeek, Sedeek Mohamed; Choudry, Q; Garg, S

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis, also termed synovial osteochondromatosis, is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It most commonly involves large joints, such as the knee, hip, and shoulder, but its presence in smaller joints has also been reported. Nevertheless, ankle involvement is unusual. The diagnosis is commonly made following a thorough history, clinical, physical, and radiographic examination. We report a case of a young patient with primary synovial chondromatosis of the ankle joint and present the clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings. PMID:26177002

  17. A Case Report of Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee Joint arising from the Marginal Synovium

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life, although involvement of smaller joints and presentation in younger age group is also documented. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare synovial pathology especially in an adolescent age group, which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. Metaplastic growth from the marginal synovium fixed to the adjacent cartilage was atypical feature in this case, which to the best of my knowledge has not been reported earlier. Case Report: A sixteen year old boy presented with one year history of pain, swelling and restriction of left knee joint. After the clinical and radiological assessment open synovectomy, removal of loose bodies and thorough joint debridement procedure was performed. Histopathological study confirmed the findings of synovial chondromatosis. Conclusion: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition very rarely seen in adolescent age group. Metaplastic growth arising from marginal synovium was an atypical feature which is occasionally seen. Complete synovectomy offers reliable cure rate. PMID:27298888

  18. Patellar Subluxation With Early-Phase Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon M

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, monoarticular disease process that affects the synovial membrane of the joint, the synovial sheath, or the bursa around the joint. The etiology is unknown, but it has been associated with trauma in some cases. Although it is a benign lesion, if left untreated, it may lead to early secondary osteoarthritis of the joint. The knee joint is affected in 50% to 65% of cases, followed by the elbow and the hip. This article reports a 30-year-old active woman who presented to the author's clinic with a large infrapatellar mass that caused lateral subluxation of the patella, swelling, and episodic pain with crepitations 14 months after direct trauma to the knee. Clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy revealed a large infrapatellar mass causing lateral subluxation of the patella with no loose bodies. Hoffa's disease, para-articular osteochondroma, and early-phase synovial chondromatosis were considered in the differential diagnosis. The histopathologic and clinical features were consistent with early synovial chondromatosis. The patient underwent local excision of the mass through a medial parapatellar arthrotomy. At 5 years of follow-up, she had no recurrence of the lesion or progression of the disease. Early diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis with local excision offers a reliable cure. However, long-term follow-up is advised because of the high recurrence rates as well as the risk of metaplastic transformation. PMID:26726983

  19. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Yucel, Bulent; Mutlu, Serhat; Tuna, Serkan; Mutlu, Harun; Komur, Baran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Synovial chondromatosis is a mono-articular arthropathy rarely seen in diarthrodial joints. The classic treatment for synovial chondromatosis is open arthrotomy, synovectomy and complete removal of the free fragments. With recent advances in arthroscopic techniques and methods, the indications for arthroscopic treatment have been extended. Presentation of case A 33-year old female presented with complaints of pain in the right shoulder. On the radiological examination, there were seen to be multiple calcified radio-opaque lesions filling all area of the glenohumeral joint. On computed tomography (CT) examination, again multiple radio-opaque free fragments were determined. Arthroscopy was applied to the right shoulder. The free fragments were completely removed. Approximately 33 free fragments, ranging in size from 0.5 to 1.3 cm, were removed. Discussion Cases of synovial chondromatosis in the shoulder have been rarely reported in literature. Generally the disease is self-limiting. Clinically, symptoms are generally not specific. Restrictions in the joint range of movement occur associated with the mechanical effect of the free fragments and in periods of active use, local pain and swelling may be seen in the shoulder. Simple removal of the free fragments, others have stated that removal with synovectomy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the cartilaginous metaplastic focus. Recurrence rates vary from 0 to 31%. Conclusion Arthroscopic surgery can be successfully applied in the treatment of synovial chondromatosis. The advantages of the method include good visualisation during surgery, low morbidity and early healing. PMID:26005571

  20. Bilateral generalised synovial chondromatosis of the knee: Bone scintigraphic demonstration with radiologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Elri, Tarik; Cabuk, Mehmet; Salihoglu, Yavuz Sami; Erdemir, Rabiye Uslu; Serifoglu, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with a history of bilateral progressive knee pain and swelling was referred for 99mTc-methyl diphosphonate bone scintigraphy. Flow and blood pool images showed bilateral heterogeneous increased uptake and delayed phase revealed mass-looking lobulated heterogeneous increased activity in both of knees extending distal part of the femoral shaft, but no other pathologic uptake was found in rest of the body. A diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis was made when correlated with X-ray and computed tomography.(CT) images. This is a rare presentation of generalized synovial chondromatosis involving both knees which demonstrated on bone scintigraphy with X-ray and CT correlation. PMID:27385904

  1. Bilateral generalised synovial chondromatosis of the knee: Bone scintigraphic demonstration with radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Elri, Tarik; Cabuk, Mehmet; Salihoglu, Yavuz Sami; Erdemir, Rabiye Uslu; Serifoglu, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with a history of bilateral progressive knee pain and swelling was referred for (99m)Tc-methyl diphosphonate bone scintigraphy. Flow and blood pool images showed bilateral heterogeneous increased uptake and delayed phase revealed mass-looking lobulated heterogeneous increased activity in both of knees extending distal part of the femoral shaft, but no other pathologic uptake was found in rest of the body. A diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis was made when correlated with X-ray and computed tomography.(CT) images. This is a rare presentation of generalized synovial chondromatosis involving both knees which demonstrated on bone scintigraphy with X-ray and CT correlation. PMID:27385904

  2. SYNOVIAL CHONDROMATOSIS OF THE POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE KNEE: A Case Report & Literature Review Focusing on Arthroscopic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Amer; Maalouf, Ghassan; Bayyoud, Wael; Bachour, Falah

    2016-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare panarticular synovial disease affecting large joints and especially the knee. When the disease is localized in the knee, it affects the anterior compartment. We report the case of a posterior localized disease with a review of the literature focusing on arthroscopic treatment. PMID:27169166

  3. A rare case of synovial chondromatosis of the inferior TMJ compartment. Diagnosis and treatment aspect

    PubMed Central

    Sozzi, Davide; Bocchialini, Gabriele; Novelli, Giorgio; Valente, Maria Gabriella; Moltrasio, Francesca; Bozzetti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Synovial Chondromatosis (SC) is a rare, benign non neoplastic arthopathy characterized by the metaplastic development of cartilaginous nodules within the synovial membrane. In only 3% of all cases does it affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and cases that arise from the lower compartment are rarely found in literature. The aim of this paper is to report a new case of SC of the inferior TMJ compartment with the description of the clinical, therapeutic and histopathological findings. Case report This article presents a 68-year-old woman with preauricular swelling on the right side, pain, crepitus and limited joint motion. This patient was evaluated by preoperative clinical manifestation, CT scan and MR images. Both showed multiple, calcified loose bodies in the inferior compartment. Based on these images as well as the patient’s signs and symptoms, a surgical intervention was performed. A good functional recovery with no signs of recurrence at 36 months of follow up was obtained. Conclusion Among cases of synovial chondromatosis in literature, only twelve originating in the lower compartment have been reported, this one included. In all the cases treated for SC in the lower compartment, both in literature and in our case report, surgical treatment led to healing. PMID:26941895

  4. Bilateral Synovial Knee Chondromatosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Case-report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi, M.N; Bashti, Kaveh; Sobhan, MR; Ghorbani, GH

    2014-01-01

    We presented a female patient with RA complaining of progressive pain, swelling, and crepitation of the knee joints that was diagnosed with bilateral synovial chondromatosis (SC) of both knees. Radiographies revealed characteristic findings of SC including multiple calcified multifaceted loose bodies within both knees. Removal of cartilaginous segments as well as total synovectomy was performed arthroscopically on the left side and via open surgery on the right side. Short-term postoperative follow-up of our patient revealed improved knee function and resolution of all symptoms. PMID:25692156

  5. Bilateral Synovial Knee Chondromatosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Case-report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, M N; Bashti, Kaveh; Sobhan, Mr; Ghorbani, Gh

    2014-10-01

    We presented a female patient with RA complaining of progressive pain, swelling, and crepitation of the knee joints that was diagnosed with bilateral synovial chondromatosis (SC) of both knees. Radiographies revealed characteristic findings of SC including multiple calcified multifaceted loose bodies within both knees. Removal of cartilaginous segments as well as total synovectomy was performed arthroscopically on the left side and via open surgery on the right side. Short-term postoperative follow-up of our patient revealed improved knee function and resolution of all symptoms. PMID:25692156

  6. Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint: case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ivask, Oksana; Leibur, Edvitar; Voog-Oras, Ülle

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare benign condition characterized by the formation of metaplastic cartilage in the synovium resulting in numerous attached and unattached osteocartilagenous (calcified) loose bodies within the joint. The purpose of this article is to present a case of SC of the TMJ and to discuss current diagnostic approaches, treatment options and relevant follow-up data. We present a case of SC in the TMJ that was confirmed by histopathological analysis and treated via arthrotomy, and present the typical imaging findings, including Computed Tomography (CT) and orthopantomography (OPTG) findings. PMID:26879402

  7. Rapid malignant transformation of primary synovial chondromatosis into chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, J; Shahabpour, M; Willekens, I; Pouliart, N; Dezillie, M; Vanhoenacker, F; De Mey, J

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the synovium is rare. It may arise de novo from the synovium or pre-existing synovial chondro- matosis may undergo malignant transformation into chondrosarcoma. Diagnosing a malignant transformation of the synovium remains a big challenge. It is based on the correlation of clinical findings, imaging and histology, as illustrated in this case report. PMID:25597214

  8. Pediatric Subtalar Joint Synovial Chondromatosis Report of a Case and an Up-to-date Review.

    PubMed

    Saibaba, Balaji; Sudesh, Pebam; Govindan, Gokul; Prakash, Mahesh

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, usually benign disorder affecting the population predominantly in the third and fourth decades of life and mainly involving the large weightbearing joints of the lower limb-the knees and the hip. In this report, we highlight an unusual pediatric clinical presentation of synovial osteochondromatosis involving the subtalar joint and discuss its surgical management; we also provide a comprehensive up-to-date literature review of the disorder. This patient was successfully treated with en masse surgical excision. He has been doing well, with complete pain relief and improved range of motion at 1-year follow-up. An exceptional involvement of the subtalar joint and an unusual presentation in the pediatric age group makes this case unique. PMID:26429614

  9. Innovative Surgical Management of the Synovial Chondromatosis of Temporo-Mandibular Joints: Highly Conservative Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease. PMID:27300457

  10. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Subacromial Bursa Causing a Bursal-Sided Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Julie A.; Garrigues, Grant E.

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon condition, and involvement of the shoulder is even more rare. We report on a 39-year-old female who presented with symptoms, radiographic features, and intraoperative findings consistent with multiple subacromial loose bodies resulting in a partial-thickness, bursal-sided rotator cuff tear of the supraspinatus muscle. She was treated with an arthroscopic removal of loose bodies, complete excision of the subacromial/subdeltoid bursa, acromioplasty, and rotator cuff repair. To our knowledge, this is the first report of arthroscopic treatment for a bursal-sided, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear treated with greater than two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up. We utilized shoulder scores, preoperative and postoperative range of motion, and imaging to assess the results of treatment and surveillance for recurrence in our patient after two-year follow-up. PMID:25861500

  11. Synovial chondromatosis of the subacromial bursa causing a bursal-sided rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julie A; Garrigues, Grant E

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon condition, and involvement of the shoulder is even more rare. We report on a 39-year-old female who presented with symptoms, radiographic features, and intraoperative findings consistent with multiple subacromial loose bodies resulting in a partial-thickness, bursal-sided rotator cuff tear of the supraspinatus muscle. She was treated with an arthroscopic removal of loose bodies, complete excision of the subacromial/subdeltoid bursa, acromioplasty, and rotator cuff repair. To our knowledge, this is the first report of arthroscopic treatment for a bursal-sided, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear treated with greater than two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up. We utilized shoulder scores, preoperative and postoperative range of motion, and imaging to assess the results of treatment and surveillance for recurrence in our patient after two-year follow-up. PMID:25861500

  12. Coxa saltans caused by extraarticular synovial chondromatosis overlying an isolated osteochondroma of the greater trochanter: A rare aetiology.

    PubMed

    Gopisankar Balaji, G; Patil, Naveen Kumar; Menon, Jagdish

    2015-06-01

    Snapping hip is produced by intraarticular and extraarticular pathology. We describe a rare case of extraarticular snapping hip caused by bursal synovial chondromatosis overlying an osteochondroma. A 32-year-old male presented with swelling in his right gluteal region for 6 years associated with pain and snapping on movements since three months. On examination, he had an ill-defined 10 × 6 cm swelling over the posterolateral aspect of the greater trochanter. Plain radiographs revealed an osteochondroma arising from the greater trochanter. Further imaging showed exostosis with possible haemangioma, lipoma or liquefied haematoma overlying it. We proceeded with excision biopsy and intraoperatively found a bursa with synovial chondromatosis overlying the exostosis. At the end of ten months follow up, patient was asymptomatic and had no snapping. We present this case for its rarity, clinical and radiological diagnostic challenges and for its unique presentation. PMID:25983520

  13. Biceps tenoscopy in arthroscopic treatment of primary synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Maier, Dirk; Izadpanah, Kaywan; Jaeger, Martin; Ogon, Peter; Südkamp, Norbert P

    2014-08-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis (PSC) of the shoulder is a rare condition and usually necessitates operative therapy. Arthroscopic partial synovectomy with removal of loose osteochondromas may be regarded as the current surgical treatment of choice. However, involvement of the biceps tendon sheath (BTS) occurs in almost half of the patients and required additional open surgery in all previously reported cases. We successfully performed tenoscopy of the BTS and long head of the biceps tendon during arthroscopic treatment of PSC in a 26-year-old male competitive wrestler. Biceps tenoscopy enabled minimally invasive partial (teno)synovectomy and removal of all osteochondromas within the BTS. The symptoms of PSC fully subsided within 2 postoperative weeks. There were no functional restrictions at the 3-month follow-up examination. These preliminary results support the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of biceps tenoscopy as a complement in arthroscopic treatment of PSC of the shoulder, dispensing with the need for additional open surgery. The spectrum of indications for biceps tenoscopy has still to be defined. Conceivable indications are proposed. This first report of a diagnostic and interventional biceps tenoscopy entails a detailed step-by-step description of the surgical technique. PMID:25264517

  14. Transforming growth factor beta 3 involved in the pathogenesis of synovial chondromatosis of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingjie; El.Mozen, Loaye Abdelaziz; Cai, Hengxing; Fang, Wei; Meng, Qinggong; Li, Jian; Deng, Mohong; Long, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of temporomandibular joint is rare proliferative disorder featured by the formation of cartilaginous nodules in synovium and joint space. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) is closely related to chondrogenic differentiation, and might participate in pathogenesis of SC. We discovered that increased quantity of synoviocytes and blood vessels were observed in SC synovium. The vessel wall and sublining fibroblasts were stained positively by the antibodies against TGF-β3, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and CD34. In loose bodies (LBs), TGF-β3 was mainly expressed in chondrocytes and FGF-2 was expressed in chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and vessel walls. Expressions of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, FGF-2, Sox9, Wnt-4, Foxc2, and VEGF-A mRNA were significantly higher in SC synovium. Stimulation of TGF-β3 on synoviocytes increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expressions of chondrogenic genes (Sox9, Col2α1, Aggrecan, Wnt-4, and Wnt-11), osteogenic genes (Runx2, Foxc2, osteocalcin, and Col1α1), and VEGF-A, but failed to influence FGF-2 expression. However, the addition of FGF-2 increased TGF-β3 expression. In conclusion, TGF-β3 existed in synovium and LBs of SC, and was responsible for the pathogenesis of SC. PMID:25742744

  15. Transforming growth factor beta 3 involved in the pathogenesis of synovial chondromatosis of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; El Mozen, Loaye Abdelaziz; Cai, Hengxing; Fang, Wei; Meng, Qinggong; Li, Jian; Deng, Mohong; Long, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of temporomandibular joint is rare proliferative disorder featured by the formation of cartilaginous nodules in synovium and joint space. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) is closely related to chondrogenic differentiation, and might participate in pathogenesis of SC. We discovered that increased quantity of synoviocytes and blood vessels were observed in SC synovium. The vessel wall and sublining fibroblasts were stained positively by the antibodies against TGF-β3, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and CD34. In loose bodies (LBs), TGF-β3 was mainly expressed in chondrocytes and FGF-2 was expressed in chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and vessel walls. Expressions of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, FGF-2, Sox9, Wnt-4, Foxc2, and VEGF-A mRNA were significantly higher in SC synovium. Stimulation of TGF-β3 on synoviocytes increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expressions of chondrogenic genes (Sox9, Col2α1, Aggrecan, Wnt-4, and Wnt-11), osteogenic genes (Runx2, Foxc2, osteocalcin, and Col1α1), and VEGF-A, but failed to influence FGF-2 expression. However, the addition of FGF-2 increased TGF-β3 expression. In conclusion, TGF-β3 existed in synovium and LBs of SC, and was responsible for the pathogenesis of SC. PMID:25742744

  16. Arthroscopy provides symptom relief and good functional outcomes in patients with hip synovial chondromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Fernando P.; Philippon, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical presentation, associated pathology and clinical outcomes after arthroscopic treatment of hip synovial chondromatosis (SC). A prospective data registry was queried for patients with SC diagnosis from 2005 to 2012. Surgical indications were intra-articular pain after failure of conservative treatment, labral pathology, chondral damage or loose bodies. All patients had femoroacetabular impingement based on radiographic findings. Patient-centered outcomes were collected before and after surgery. Standard hip arthroscopy techniques were used to address associated pathology. Twenty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. Eleven were males. Mean age was 43.7 years. Mean center-edge angle was 33.7 and alpha angle 73. Radiographs were diagnostic in five patients (23.8%). Magnetic resonance imaging identified loose bodies in 14 (66%). Most patients had an uncountable amount of loose bodies in the central and peripheral compartments. The most common associated pathology was a labral tear (100%) and acetabular cartilage injury (85%). All patients had improvement in range of motion. The average Modified Harris Hip score improved from 62 (pre-op) to 84.8 (post-op). Short-Form 12-PCS improved from 41 to 53. Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index improved from 27.1 to 7.2. Median overall satisfaction was 9.5 (out of 10). Hip arthroscopy with thorough removal of loose bodies and subtotal synovectomy, coupled with an aggressive and early rehabilitation program, was effective in ameliorating symptoms associated with from hip SC, yielding high levels of patient satisfaction and functional outcomes, in a 2.5 year follow-up time. Level of evidence: IV (case series) PMID:27011848

  17. Rare Case of Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis of Biceps Tendon Sheath in 8 years Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Dwidmuthe, Samir Chandrakant; Nemade, Amit S; Agrawal, Sandeep; Pathak, Amol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Primary synovial osteo chondromatosis (PSOC) is chondroid metaplasia with multi¬nodular proliferation of the synovial lining of a diarthrodial joint, bursa, or tendon sheath. It usually occurs in third-fifth decade and shoulder joint involvement is infrequent. It is very rare in children and primary extraarticular PSOC of the shoulder has been reported very rarely in children. Case Report: We present a case of primary PSOC of the long head of biceps in 8year child. It presented as painful swelling in proximal arm. The pain radiograph was showing multiple calcified loose bodies on anteromedial aspect of humerus. MRI scan showed fluid filled cysts with calcified wall. The lesion was excised through deltopectoral approach. He had complete resolution of symptoms without recurrence at 1 year.The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathological examination. Conclusion: We want to emphasize that one should keep a differential diagnosis of this rare condition in patients presenting with cystic swelling with calcified wall. We further emphasize the need to follow these patients to detect recurrence or malignant transformation. PMID:27298998

  18. Removal of a Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint Using Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Gabriel Pires; Goulart, Douglas Rangel; Pastore, Patrícia Radaic; Prati, Alexandre Javaroni

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis of synovial chrondromatosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) requires a combined assessment consisting of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic examinations. The purpose of this study is to report in 1 patient the removal of a single large cartilaginous nodule floating in the upper joint compartment using arthroscopy. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our department complaining about pain in preauricular area and restricted mouth opening. Imaging of magnetic resonance reveals anterior disc displacement and right joint effusion. Arthroscopy of TMJ was performed for diagnosis and treatment. During the arthroscopy a large loose body was identified and removed with a biopsy forceps; lavage was conducted with ringer solution. Hyaluronic acid was injected in TMJ at surgery, 1 and 3 months after surgery. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed articular disc on position and no effusion. The patient was followed up of 1 year without sign and symptoms. Arthroscopic procedure of TMJ was effective in diagnosis and removal of a solitary loose body of synovial chrondromatosis. Viscosupplementation appers to offer benefits in controlling pain and functional improvements. PMID:27244213

  19. Synovial chondromatosis of the right side temporomandibular joint extending to the middle cranial fossa: A case report with 7-year postoperative follow up and expression of a biomarker of cell proliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Hiroyuki; Kayamori, Kou; Wake, So; Sato, Fumiaki; Kino, Koji; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with cranial extension is rare. Here, we report 7-year follow-up of a case with immunohistochemical examination of cell proliferative activity. Presentation of case The patient was a 72-year-old man. Severe bone resorption of the glenoid fossa was apparent on CT images. Pathological findings by biopsy led to diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis of the right side TMJ. Extirpation of the tumor was performed via temporopreauricular incision under general anesthesia. PCNA expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion had penetrated into the middle cranial fossa, but the cranial dura mater was intact. Expression of PCNA was confirmed. Discussion The PCNA expression suggested that growth activity caused expansion of the lesion to the skull base. Conclusion We were able to follow up this case for a long period without recurrence postoperatively. PMID:26855075

  20. Scintigraphic detection of a disseminated synovial lymphoma in a postrenal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Bagga, S; Gupta, S M; Johns, W

    1996-08-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is a recognized complication of immunosuppressive therapy, however, articular lymphomas involving the synovlum are very rare. Disseminated synovial lymphoma of the knee with hepatic involvement in a patient after renal transplant was suggested on bone/gallium scintigraphy and confirmed by synovial biopsy. Gallium scanning thus was instrumental in the evaluation, staging, and proper treatment of this rare condition. PMID:8853913

  1. Melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Samet, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon, sporadic, sclerosing bone lesion that may affect the adjacent soft tissues. It has been associated with many entities such as osteopoikilosis, soft tissue vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue tumors, nephrotic syndrome, segmental limb contractures, osteosarcoma, desmoid tumor, and mesenteric fibromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplasia of the hyaline cartilage presenting as nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint or tendon sheath. The intra-articular extension of melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis has not been reported before. In this article, the authors describe an unusual case mimicking synovial chondromatosis arising as a result of melorheostosis and their characteristic imaging findings. PMID:25971832

  2. [Synovial lipoma arborescens].

    PubMed

    Semenova, L A; Radenska-Lopovok, S G; Khaplinin, A P; Malakhova, S O

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of synovial lipoma arborescens (tree-forming lipoma) of the knee joint. This tumor is a variety of lipomas--a benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue without signs of atypia. Most investigators regard lipoma as a reactive rather than neoplastic process. X-ray and histological studies should be performed for its differential diagnosis with pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, synovial hemangioma, xanthoma, a group of chronic synovitis in rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, amyloid arthropathy, psoriatic arthritis). Its final diagnosis is possible only after morphological study. PMID:25306627

  3. Extra-articular tenosynovial chondromatosis of the left ring finger in a 23-year-old man: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YU-XIAN; LU, YUN-XIANG; ZHUANG, ZE; LI, ZHI-YONG

    2015-01-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis is an extra-articular version of articular synovial chondromatosis and a relatively rare condition that can affect the tendon sheath, bursa, or joint synovial tissue. Tenosynovial chondromatosis is rarely reported in the literature and is often misdiagnosed. In the present study, a case of extra-articular tenosynovial chondromatosis of the left ring finger in a 23-year-old man is reported. Three different-sized nodules were identified upon surgery and all were removed via synovectomy. The patient was symptom free 6 months postoperatively, and there were no signs of recurrence after 1.5 years of follow-up. The literature describing tenosynovial chondromatosis in the fingers is also reviewed. PMID:26622530

  4. Tenosynovial chondromatosis of the flexor hallucis longus in a 17-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Winters, Nichelle I; Thomson, A Brian; Flores, Raina R; Jordanov, Martin I

    2015-11-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis is a benign chondrogenic metaplasia of extra-articular synovial tissue. The most common locations for tenosynovial chondromatosis to develop are the hands and feet. The condition has rarely been reported in children. We present a case of tenosynovial chondromatosis of the flexor hallucis longus in a 17-year-old girl. The presentation was unusual not only due to the location and young age of the patient but also the absence of any palpable mass on physical exam and complete lack of calcification of the cartilage bodies. Initial diagnosis was made by MRI. The patient underwent tenosynovectomy with an excellent postoperative recovery at 6-month follow-up. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of tenosynovial chondromatosis. PMID:26008872

  5. Synovial chondrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Synovial chondrosarcoma (SCH) is a very rare tumor arising in the intra-articular cavity. In the majority of literature reports it is described as a malignant transformation of a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis (SC). We reported a systematic review of primary and secondary SCH described in the literature with the aim to recollect data from different case-reports and case-series, trying to summarize general aspects of this very rare disease. Methods We collected 42 abstracts in the form of case series and case reports, which reported 67 cases of SCH. Studies were taken into account only if they proved a histological diagnosis of SCH, either primary or secondary, with or without evidence of pre-existing SC. Results The average age of SCH was 56.9 years, with prevalence for male sex. The average time of malignant transformation was 11.2 years. The most affected joint was the knee (47.7%), followed by hip (34.3%) and ankle (5.9%). SCH was described as de novo sarcoma only in 13 cases (19%). Surgery ended up with amputation in 59.7% of cases. Local recurrence rate was 28.3%. Conclusions We concluded that prognosis of SCH is worse than conventional one and we speculated this is due to the difficult site of the tumor (intraarticular), diagnostic delay and inappropriate previous treatments. We consider that a rapid deterioration of a SC or rapid recurrence after synoviectomy should be considered suspicious of malignant transformation and should be treated in a reference center.

  6. Extra-articular Tenosynovial Chondromatosis Mimicking a Neoplastic Disease in the First Web Space of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Cebesoy, Oguz; Isik, Mustafa; Subasi, Mehmet; Karsli, Burcin; Pamukcu, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis is a very rare disease. The most common symptom is a slowly enlarging soft tissue mass, which may be painful or cause limitation of joint motion. Plain radiograph may appear normal during early phases of the disease, but subsequent imaging may be necessary to exclude other pathologies. Nonoperative treatment may be elected for some patients, but a synovectomy and the removal of loose bodies are indicated for persistent symptoms. This report describe a case with a multinodular cartilaginous proliferation and rice body in the first web space of the hand, similar to synovial chondromatosis, but arising in the tenosynovial membranes. PMID:23071886

  7. A popliteal giant synovial osteochondroma mimicking a parosteal osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Both giant synovial osteochondroma and parosteal osteosarcoma are rare musculo-skeletal tumors, often localized in the vicinity of the knee. Misdiagnosis of a malignant bone tumor can entail fatal consequences. Etiology of giant synovial osteochondroma is widely unsolved but is believed to originate from synovial chondromatosis, a mostly benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane. Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade surface osteosarcoma with a propensity of local recurrence and the potential of distant metastasis and therefore requiring a different therapeutical approach. We report the case of a popliteal giant osteochondroma mimicking a parosteal osteosarcoma. Relevant facts of this rare entity regarding pathogenesis, treatment, and differential diagnoses will be discussed. PMID:24066980

  8. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr., et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 48.

  9. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Test is Performed Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout and bacterial infections, or rule out other infections. ... Chronic synovitis Coccidioidomycosis (a fungal infection) Fungal arthritis Gout Hemochromatosis (abnormal buildup of iron deposits) Tuberculosis Synovial ...

  10. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  11. Intra-Articular Giant Synovial Osteochondroma: Case Reports of the Ankle and Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Fornaciari, Paolo; Schai, Pascal A.; Niehaus, Richard; Exner, Ulrich G.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of giant intra-articular osteochondromas (knee and ankle joint) are reported; pathologically they are rare representations of synovial chondromatosis. A 17-year-old man presented with a tumorous mass which had been localized in his left ankle for many years, increasing in volume during the last months. The lesion was removed by posteromedial ankle arthrotomy. The second case was observed in a 39-year-old woman with a slow-growing mass in her right knee joint. The lesion was removed from the Hoffa fat pad by open anteromedial arthrotomy. PMID:25785214

  12. Intra-articular giant synovial osteochondroma: case reports of the ankle and knee joint.

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Paolo; Schai, Pascal A; Niehaus, Richard; Exner, Ulrich G

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of giant intra-articular osteochondromas (knee and ankle joint) are reported; pathologically they are rare representations of synovial chondromatosis. A 17-year-old man presented with a tumorous mass which had been localized in his left ankle for many years, increasing in volume during the last months. The lesion was removed by posteromedial ankle arthrotomy. The second case was observed in a 39-year-old woman with a slow-growing mass in her right knee joint. The lesion was removed from the Hoffa fat pad by open anteromedial arthrotomy. PMID:25785214

  13. Utility of synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Synovial biopsies, gained either by blind needle biopsy or minimally invasive arthroscopy, offer additional information in certain clinical situations where routine assessment has not permitted a certain diagnosis. In research settings, synovial histology and modern applications of molecular biology increase our insight into pathogenesis and enable responses to treatment with new therapeutic agents to be assessed directly at the pathophysiological level. This review focuses on the diagnostic usefulness of synovial biopsies in the light of actual developments. PMID:19951395

  14. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  15. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. PMID:24467958

  16. Juxtafacet Spinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This was a retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine through posterior laminectomy in combination with transpedicular screw fixation. Overview of Literature Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine contribute significantly to narrowing of the spinal canal and lateral thecal sac and nerve root compression. Cysts form as a result of arthrotic disruption of the facet joint, leading to degenerative spondylolisthesis in up to 40% of patients. Methods Retrospective data from 6 patients, treated during the period of March 2007 to February 2011, were analyzed. All preoperative and postoperative manifestations, extension/flexion radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography records were reviewed. All underwent surgery for synovial cysts with excision and decompression combined with posterior fixation. The result of surgery was evaluated with Macnab's classification. An excellent or good outcome was considered as satisfactory. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale was used for evaluation of back pain. Results All patients included in this study had excellent outcomes as regarding to improvement of all preoperative manifestations and returning to normal daily activities. Only 2 cases developed postoperative transient cerebro-spinal fluid leak and were treated conservatively and improved during the follow up period. Conclusions Although this study included a small number of cases and we could not have statistically significant results, the good outcome of decompression of synovial cysts combined with posterior fixation and fusion encouraged us to recommend this approach for patients with juxtafacet synovial cysts. PMID:26949457

  17. Synovial sarcoma: laryngopharynx a challenge.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ravinder; Verma, Ravneet Ravinder; Verma, Rohan Ravinder; Sardana, N K

    2014-06-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. It derives from a mesenchymal precursor stem cell that is unrelated to mature synovial tissue. Synovial sarcoma classically affects lower limbs between the ages of 15 and 40 years and the proportion of male-to-female patients is 3:2. It is very rare in the head and neck region especially in laryngopharynx. Till date, only six cases of synovial sarcoma involving laryngopharynx have been reported in the English literature. Painless mass, hoarseness, upper respiratory distress, and dysphagia characterize the original complaints in laryngopharyngeal synovial sarcoma. Because head and neck synovial sarcoma in clinical practice is so uncommon, early diagnosis is difficult and the treatment protocol is unclear. Therefore, every case report should include complete information on presentation and management. Also, long-term prognostic indices need to be evaluated. We hereby report a case of large laryngopharyngeal synovial sarcoma confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry with review of literature. PMID:24822167

  18. Primary Intracranial Synovial Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Nguyen, Ha Son; Doan, Ninh; Sinson, Grant; Mueller, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with uncertain histological origin. The pathology frequently presents as a localized disease, especially near large joints around the knee and thigh. Intracranial disease, which is rare, has been reported as metastasis from synovial sarcoma. We report a case with no obvious primary extracranial pathology, suggesting primary intracranial disease; this has not been reported in the literature. Case Description. A 21-year-old male, with a prior right skull lesion resection for atypical spindle cell neoplasm, presented with headaches, gait instability, left arm weakness, and left homonymous hemianopsia. CT of head demonstrated a right parietal hemorrhagic lesion with mass effect, requiring surgical decompression. Histopathology revealed synovial sarcoma. FISH analysis noted the existence of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation. PET scan did not show other metastatic disease. He underwent stereotactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, he remained nonfocal without recurrence. Conclusion. We report the first known case of primary intracranial synovial sarcoma. Moreover, we stress that intracranial lesions may have a tendency for hemorrhage, requiring urgent lifesaving decompression. PMID:27247811

  19. Primary Intracranial Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luyuan; Sinson, Grant; Mueller, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with uncertain histological origin. The pathology frequently presents as a localized disease, especially near large joints around the knee and thigh. Intracranial disease, which is rare, has been reported as metastasis from synovial sarcoma. We report a case with no obvious primary extracranial pathology, suggesting primary intracranial disease; this has not been reported in the literature. Case Description. A 21-year-old male, with a prior right skull lesion resection for atypical spindle cell neoplasm, presented with headaches, gait instability, left arm weakness, and left homonymous hemianopsia. CT of head demonstrated a right parietal hemorrhagic lesion with mass effect, requiring surgical decompression. Histopathology revealed synovial sarcoma. FISH analysis noted the existence of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation. PET scan did not show other metastatic disease. He underwent stereotactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, he remained nonfocal without recurrence. Conclusion. We report the first known case of primary intracranial synovial sarcoma. Moreover, we stress that intracranial lesions may have a tendency for hemorrhage, requiring urgent lifesaving decompression. PMID:27247811

  20. [Synovial sarcoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Deme, Dániel; Abdulfatah, Bishr; Telekes, András

    2016-02-01

    In 2013 there were 94,770 new cancer patients reported in Hungary. Synovial sarcoma accounts for 0.05-0.1% of all cancers and, therefore its incidence is predicted to be 47-94 patients/year in Hungary. The authors report the history of a 18-year-old man who was operated on a right upper abdominal wall tumor with R1 resection. During the next 5 months the tumor grew up to 8 cm in largest diameter. Histology revealed monophasic synovial sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed bcl2, focal CD99 and high molecular weight cytokeratin positivity, while smooth muscle actin, S100 and CD34 immunostainings were negative. Becose of this reoperation was not possible, curative six cycles of doxorubicine and ifosfamide with granulocyte colony stimulating factor support and 60 Gy radiotherapy was given to the tumor bed. After these treatments computed tomography scan was negative and the patient attended regular imaging every 3 months. At the age of 20 years the patient developed two neoplastic lesions in the surgical scar measuring 10 mm and 45 × 10 mm in size. R0 resection, partial rib resection and abdominal wall reconstruction were performed. Histology confirmed residual monophasic synovial sarcoma. Radiotherapy was not given because of a risk of intestinal wall perforation. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography proved to be negative. At the age of 22 years magnetic resonance imaging scans indicated no tumor recurrence, but after one month a rapidly growing tumorous lesion was found on ultrasound in the surgical scar measuring 20 × 20 × 12 mm in size. Cytology confirmed local recurrence and fluorescence in situ hibridization indicated t(x;18). R0 exstirpation and partial mesh resection were performed and histology showed the same monophasic synovial sarcoma. Because of the presence of vascular invasion and a close resection margin (1 mm) the patient underwent 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (doxorubicine and ifosfamide) with granulocyte colony stimulating

  1. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  2. Synovial sarcoma in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Israels, S.J.; Chan, H.S.L.; Daneman, A.; Weitzman, S.S.

    1984-04-01

    The clinical and radiologic findings in seven children with synovial sarcoma are described. The five boys and two girls had a mean age at presentation of 4.4 years. All seven had the lesion situated in an extremity. Plain radiographs in four revealed the presence of a soft-tissue mass with no calcification or bone and joint involvement. In two patients studied with computed tomography (CT), the primary lesions had peripheral irregular areas of enhancement with central areas of poor enhancement, reflecting the necrotic, cystic, and hemorrhagic changes found in the centers of these tumors. Although the exact margins of these lesions were difficult to define accurately even with intravenous contrast enhancement, CT is still recommended as the best imaging method for assessing the local extent of the primary tumor and is a useful tool in the planning of appropriate therapy as well as the gauging of the tumor response to ongoing treatment.

  3. Pericardial Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Joshua; Saxena, Pankaj; McGiffin, David C; Zimmet, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare form of primary malignancy of the pericardium. We present a case of primary synovial sarcoma of the pericardium followed by a review of the literature. PMID:26347295

  4. Synovial Sarcoma With Myoid Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Qassid, Omar; Ali, Ahmed; Thway, Khin

    2016-09-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor with variable epithelial differentiation, which is defined by the presence of a specific t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation that generates SS18-SSX fusion oncogenes. Synovial sarcoma typically arises within extremity deep soft tissue (particularly around large joints) of young adults, but has been shown to occur at almost any location. When it arises in more unusual sites, such as the abdomen, it can present a significant diagnostic challenge. We describe a case of intraabdominal monophasic synovial sarcoma that immunohistochemically showed strong expression of smooth muscle actin and calponin but only very scanty cytokeratin, and which showed morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with other spindle cell neoplasms that can arise at this site, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor and myofibrosarcoma. As correct diagnosis is of clinical and prognostic importance, surgical pathologists should be aware of the potential for synovial sarcoma to occur at a variety of anatomic sites and of its spectrum of immunoreactivity. Synovial sarcoma should be in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms with myoid differentiation that do not fall into any definite tumor category, for which there should be a relatively low threshold for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess for the specific SS18 gene rearrangement or SS18-SSX fusion transcripts, which remain the diagnostic gold standard. PMID:27106779

  5. Synovial plicae of the knee

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Daffner, R.H.; Gehweiler, J.A.; Hardaker, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the anatomy, patho-physiology, clinical, and radiographic findings, and treatment of the synovial plicae of the knee joint. The suprapatellar plica is a synovial fold present in the suprapatellar pouch of the knee joint in approximately 20% of the population. This fold may become symptomatic after injury and cause symptoms similar to other common internal derangements of the knee. Double contrast arthrography of the knee can be used to identify the presence of plicae. Although arthrography can identify the presence of a plica, its clinical significance requires close correlation with symptoms and an accurate clinical examination.

  6. Disseminating research.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-01

    THE THEME of this edition of Nurse Researcher, 'disseminating research', is pertinent to researchers across the career spectrum and tackles two important issues: open access publishing and originality in PhD research. In the first paper, Suzanne Fredericks examines and contrasts two models of open access publishing, revealing some notable advantages of 'green' open access, achieved through repositories, as opposed to the more well-known 'gold' open access offered by journals ( Fredericks 2015 ). In the second paper, Paul Gill and Gina Dolan discuss originality in PhD studies, exploring the nature of the concept and how doctoral students can demonstrate originality, which is an essential consideration in their research dissemination activities as well as their thesis preparation ( Gill and Dolan 2015 ). PMID:26168806

  7. Synovial fluid analysis by ferrography.

    PubMed

    Evans, C H; Bowen, E R; Bowen, J; Tew, W P; Westcott, V C

    1980-01-01

    Ferrography is a technique for magnetically harvesting and separating metallic particles from aqueous and non-aqueous suspensions. We have adapted this method of analysis to the study of cartilaginous and osseous wear particles, as well as fragments of soft tissue, found in the synovial fluid of human joints. As ferrography employes magnetism to harvest particles and arrange them in an orderly fashion, it is first necessary to impart a positive magnetic susceptibility to the biological materials. The trivalent paramagnetic cation of the rare earth element erbium is used for this purpose. Based on this principle, a method for the ferrographic analysis of synovial fluid has been devised, which is presently being employed in the study of human joint disease. Using this technique, improved diagnosis of arthritis may be possible. In addition, it may lead to a deeper understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of degenerative arthritis and other destructive joint diseases. PMID:7419857

  8. [Therapeutic options for synovial sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Deme, Dániel; Telekes, András

    2015-05-31

    Synovial sarcomas account for approximately 5 to 10% of soft tissue sarcomas and 0.05 to 0.1% of all malignant neoplasms. They predominantly affect the extremities but can occur in any part of the body. More than 50% of the patients are expected to develop metastatic disease within 3-5 years. In some patients disease recurrence may develop after 20 years. The 5-year overall survival rate is 10% for patients with metastatic disease and 76% for patients with localized one. Age, tumour size, histological subtype, and adjuvant radiotherapy influence prognosis. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy has not been proven yet. There are several ongoing clinical trials to determine the efficacy of active agents used for therapy of locally advanced, relapsed/refractory or metastatic disease. Better understanding of the biological behaviour of synovial sarcomas would provide the future way for the targeted therapy in combination with conventional treatments. PMID:26004546

  9. Synovial sarcoma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Bekarev, Mikhail; Elsinger, Elisabeth C; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Borzykowski, Ross M; Geller, David S

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old male who underwent lung lobectomy for presumed lung cancer. Thereafter, he presented with a painful mass between the third and fourth metatarsal heads in the foot that was assumed to be Morton's neuroma. After extensive oncologic evaluation, the foot mass was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma. In retrospect, his lung lesion was understood to be metastatic disease. PMID:23632071

  10. [Synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Meurer, A

    2015-10-01

    Synovial tumors comprise a variety of lesions, including those with benign and aggressive neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory causes. In this article we focus on neoplastic tumors. Synovial tumors with other etiologies, such as sarcoidosis, granuloma, synovitis, or gouty arthritis, are not dealt with here. Through a precise differentiation between these disease entities can an optimization of treatment be achieved. PMID:26370407

  11. Synovial Sarcoma Mimicking Myositis Ossificans

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yılmaz; Bedir, Recep

    2016-01-01

    A calcification mass was incidentally found in the soft tissue of a patient who had a history of trauma to the extremity during examination. The patient had no symptom. The pathological analysis of the mass revealed it was an early-phase synovial sarcoma (SS). The diagnosis was made before the onset of symptoms and proper surgical intervention was performed. Therefore, in case of a <1 cm lesion clinically suspicious of myositis ossificans, SS should be taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis. PMID:27595081

  12. Synovial Sarcoma Mimicking Myositis Ossificans.

    PubMed

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yılmaz; Bedir, Recep

    2016-09-01

    A calcification mass was incidentally found in the soft tissue of a patient who had a history of trauma to the extremity during examination. The patient had no symptom. The pathological analysis of the mass revealed it was an early-phase synovial sarcoma (SS). The diagnosis was made before the onset of symptoms and proper surgical intervention was performed. Therefore, in case of a <1 cm lesion clinically suspicious of myositis ossificans, SS should be taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis. PMID:27595081

  13. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  14. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debasis; Datta, Samadarshi; Das, Anirban; Halder, Khokan Chand; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a very rare, but highly aggressive tumor. Metastatic pulmonary sarcoma due to hematogenous dissemination is much more common. Hence why in any case of pulmonary sarcoma, whole body survey is necessary to exclude a primary tumor elsewhere. No clinical or radiological presentations are specific for pulmonary sarcoma hence; it is often confused with bronchogenic carcinoma. On the other hand, image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is very much helpful in diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma, whereas, it may be inclusive in cases pulmonary sarcomas including primary synovial sarcoma, especially in cases of huge pulmonary masses. So why image-guided tru-cut core biopsy or open lung biopsy and their histopathological examination, supplemented by immunohistochemistry are preferable for the tissue diagnosis of pulmonary synovial sarcoma, although FNAC and immunocytochemistry may be used for the diagnosis. Surgical resection is treatment of choice, if it is not possible, palliative chemotherapy may be an option. Here, we report a rare case of primary synovial sarcoma which occupied almost whole of the right hemithorax in a 60-year-old male farmer. PMID:26958527

  15. Disseminated pheohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Kanakapura N; Pradhan, Prashanth; Laxmisha, Chandrashekar; Thappa, Devinder M; Jayanthi, Soundararaghavan

    2007-03-01

    . 3). Fine needle aspiration cytology from one of the swellings showed the presence of filamentous fungi on KOH examination and brown-pigmented distorted filaments and yeast-like cells on Masson-Fontana staining (Fig. 4a,b). The positive Masson-Fontana stain was indicative of the presence of melanin in the fungal hyphae, even when the fungal hyphae were not pigmented in the hematoxylin and eosin-stained section. Periodic acid-Schiff reagent also stained the fungal elements, thus confirming our diagnosis of pheohyphomycosis and ruling out the possibility of hyalohyphomycosis. The culture for fungus from the swelling aspirate grew contaminants. The chest X-ray showed dense nodular shadows in the left lower and mid pulmonary lobes. Sputum for acid-fast bacilli and Mantoux test were negative. During the hospital stay, the patient developed high fever and showed altered behavior, for which a computed tomography scan of the brain was performed; this showed evidence of multiple ring enhancing lesions in both frontal lobes. Ultrasound of the abdomen was normal. On the basis of the above findings, a diagnosis of disseminated subcutaneous pheohyphomycosis was made. The patient was given itraconazole, 100 mg twice daily, and his diabetes was managed with insulin. The fever stopped within a week and the altered behavior also started to show an improvement. There was obvious improvement in neurologic signs and symptoms. His skin lesions, however, responded slowly to the treatment. The patient did not report for further follow-up after 1 month. PMID:17343584

  16. Cytolytic activity in T cell clones derived from human synovial rheumatoid membrane: inhibition by synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Van Laar, J M; De Kuiper, P; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C

    1990-01-01

    A panel of T cell clones was derived from the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether T cell clones with cytolytic properties were present and whether T cell cytotoxicity was influenced by the presence of synovial fluid. These issues were studied using anti-CD3 and lectin-induced cytotoxicity assays. The majority of the T cell clones derived from the synovial membrane showed cytotoxic properties although non-cytotoxic clones were also found. Three clones (N11, N6 and N15) showed strong cytotoxicity (more than 40% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1) whereas three clones (N16, N4 and N14) were non-cytotoxic (less than 20% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1). The induction of cytotoxicity in the anti-CD3-driven system was shown to be dependent on the dose of anti-CD3 present. When synovial fluid was added to these assays a strong inhibition of cytotoxicity was found. This inhibition of cytotoxicity was found with synovial fluid samples of RA patients, as well as with non-RA synovial fluids. Both anti-CD3 and lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays were strongly inhibited. In conclusion, T cell clones with cytotoxic activity can be isolated from rheumatoid synovial membrane. In the presence of synovial fluid these cytotoxic cells are inhibited to exert their cytotoxic function. PMID:2148285

  17. A chemotactic inhibitor in synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Matzner, Y; Partridge, R E; Babior, B M

    1983-01-01

    Synovial fluid was found to contain an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis. The activity of this inhibitor was masked in native synovial fluid, but could be detected in fluid in which complement had been deactivated by mild heating. The inhibitor was most effective against the chemotactic activity of zymosan-activated serum (C5ades arg). It had little effect when N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine served as chemoattractant. Inhibition was not the result of a direct effect on the neutrophils, since incubation of cells with synovial fluid did not alter their chemotactic response. The inhibitory activity was destroyed by boiling the synovial fluid or treating it with trypsin, suggesting that it is a protein (or proteins); it was not affected by hyaluronidase treatment. Gel filtration revealed that the inhibitor was present in native as well as decomplemented synovial fluid, and that its molecular weight was in the vicinity of 25,000. It is proposed that this inhibitory activity plays a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in joints. PMID:6840801

  18. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  19. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000573.htm Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a serious disorder in which the proteins ...

  20. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  1. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Raj, Prince; Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  2. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  3. Extradural spinal synovial cysts in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Sturges, B K; Berry, W L; Vernau, K M; Koblik, P D; Lecouteur, R A

    2001-10-01

    Nine dogs presenting for investigation of cervical or thoracolumbar myelopathies were diagnosed with extradural spinal synovial cysts. Degenerative disease affecting the articular facets or intervertebral discs was present on plain spinal radiographs in all cases. Myelography was consistent with dorsolateral, extradural spinal cord compression. Two groups of dogs were identified: (1) young, giant breed dogs with multiple cysts involving one or more levels of the cervical spinal cord; and (2) older, large breed dogs with solitary cysts involving the thoracolumbar spinal cord. The synovial cysts constituted the major compressive lesions in four of the dogs. Analysis of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminocytological dissociation, consistent with chronic compressive myelopathy, in six dogs. All dogs underwent decompressive surgery and the diagnosis of synovial cysts was confirmed histologically. The mean follow-up period was 17 months (range four to 36 months). At the time of follow-up, all dogs were fully ambulatory with improved neurological function compared with that at initial presentation. PMID:11688527

  4. Primary pulmonary monophasic synovial sarcoma: Evading diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Abid, Qamar

    2016-02-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a very rare tumor, thus there is no consensus as to the most appropriate management. A 78-year-old man presented with nonspecific symptoms of weight loss and shortness of breath. Imaging confirmed a large right-sided mass and accompanying pleural effusion. Strong 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was found on positron-emission tomography. The preoperative work-up and intraoperative frozen section were inconclusive. Immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of primary pulmonary monophasic synovial sarcoma. PMID:26612959

  5. Synovial Lipomatosis of the Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Ori

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis (also known as lipoma arborescens) is a rare and benign lesion affecting synovium-lined cavities. It is characterized by hyperplasia of mature fat tissue in the subsynovial layer. Although the most commonly affected site is the knee joint, rarely additional locations such as tendon sheath and other joints are involved. We present a case of synovial lipomatosis of the glenohumeral joint in a 44-year-old man. The clinical data radiological studies and histopathologic results are described, as well as a review of the current literature. PMID:27563476

  6. Hyaluronan and synovial joint: function, distribution and healing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a viscous solution found in the cavities of synovial joints. The principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilages of synovial joints during movement. The presence of high molar mass hyaluronan (HA) in this fluid gives it the required viscosity for its function as lubricant solution. Inflammation oxidation stress enhances normal degradation of hyaluronan causing several diseases related to joints. This review describes hyaluronan properties and distribution, applications and its function in synovial joints, with short review for using thiol compounds as antioxidants preventing HA degradations under inflammation conditions. PMID:24678248

  7. Proteomic analysis of human osteoarthritis synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized mainly by progressive degradation of the hyaline cartilage. Patients with osteoarthritis often postpone seeking medical help, which results in the diagnosis being made at an advanced stage of cartilage destruction. Sustained efforts are needed to identify specific markers that might help in early diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and in improving therapeutic outcomes. We employed a multipronged proteomic approach, which included multiple fractionation strategies followed by high resolution mass spectrometry analysis to explore the proteome of synovial fluid obtained from osteoarthritis patients. In addition to the total proteome, we also enriched glycoproteins from synovial fluid using lectin affinity chromatography. Results We identified 677 proteins from synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis of which 545 proteins have not been previously reported. These novel proteins included ADAM-like decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1), alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP), CD84, fibulin 1 (FBLN1), matrix remodelling associated 5 (MXRA5), secreted phosphoprotein 2 (SPP2) and spondin 2 (SPON2). We identified 300 proteins using lectin affinity chromatography, including the glycoproteins afamin (AFM), attractin (ATRN), fibrillin 1 (FBN1), transferrin (TF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and vasorin (VSN). Gene ontology analysis confirmed that a majority of the identified proteins were extracellular and are mostly involved in cell communication and signaling. We also confirmed the expression of ANPEP, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3) and osteoglycin (OGN) by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis of osteoarthritis synovial fluid samples. Conclusions We present an in-depth analysis of the synovial fluid proteome from patients with osteoarthritis. We believe that the catalog of proteins generated in this study will further enhance our knowledge regarding the

  8. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies. PMID:27253358

  9. Attempts to identify viruses in rheumatoid synovial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Norval, M; Marmion, B P

    1976-01-01

    Synovial fibroblast cell strains derived from the synovial membranes of 7 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were examined for the presence of viruses, in particular leucoviruses. Seven similar synovial strains derived from patients with other arthritic conditions were used as a control group. Evidence of the presence of a virus or a viral genome was looked for by several methods of induction followed by 3H-uridine labelling of the cultures. In addition, the culture supernatant, after induction and after the synovial strains had been co-cultivated with a variety of cell lines from several species, was assayed for the presence of viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. The DNA-polymerase activity of the synovial cells themselves was also determined. No evidence was found by any of these techniques to indicate the presence of virus or viral information within the synovial fibroblasts. Images PMID:60087

  10. Cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism differs in serum and synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Martin, James A; Wilkey, Andrew L; Brand, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Most cartilage explant culture studies assume conventional serum-supplemented growth media are biologically equivalent to the natural synovial fluid which baths cartilage in vivo. Few studies have systematically compared the effects of serum versus synovial fluid in culture. To address this assumption we conducted a series of studies to determine if cartilage matrix synthesis is significantly different in serum-based versus synovial fluid-based media. Normal bovine cartilage explants were cultured in DMEM either alone or supplemented with bovine serum or bovine synovial fluid. Matrix synthesis was measured with radiolabeling techniques. We then compared responses to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, a stimulator of matrix synthesis), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, an inhibitor of matrix synthesis). We observed significantly lower matrix synthesis activity in synovial fluid versus serum. Caution shoud be used in extrapolating studies of cartilage grown in media supplemented with serum rather than synovial fluid. PMID:12843702

  11. Femoral neck erosions: sign of hip joint synovial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Weissman, B.N.; Naimark, A.

    1983-07-01

    Pathologic synovial processes in the hip joint can cause characteristic extrinsic erosions of the femoral neck, which in extreme cases produce an ''apple core'' appearance. Nine such cases of synovial diseases, including synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and amyloidosis, that demonstrate this radiographic finding are presented. The anatomic relations of the hip joint that result in theis appearance, differential diagnosis, and radiographic techniques useful in diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: a rare neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Montserrat Blanco; Fontán, Eva María García; Carretero, Miguel Ángel Cańizares; Pińeiro, Ana González

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare tumor with an unknown cause. The diagnosis is established after other primary lung malignancies or metastatic extrathoracic sarcoma have been excluded. We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a well-defined mass in the right upper lobe on a chest X-ray. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) right upper lobectomy was performed. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, CD56 and Bcl-2, and focally positive for CD99, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin 7 and 19. The cytogenetic study revealed a SYT genetic reassortment. So, the final pathological diagnosis was primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma. PMID:27516790

  13. Identification of hydroxyapatite crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B; McCarty, D J

    1979-04-01

    A semiquantitative technique employing (14C) ethane-1-hydroxy 1, -1-diphosphonate (EHDP) binding has been used to detect crystals, presumably hydroxyapatite, in human synovial fluid samples which were handled to prevent the formation of artifactual mineral phase. Binding material was found in 29% of non-inflammatory and in none of inflammatory joint fluids. Nuclide binding material was strongly correlated with the presence of CPPD crystals and with radiographic evidence of cartilaginous degeneration. PMID:106859

  14. Synovial sarcoma of kidney in a child: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Dhanushkodi, Manikandan; Narayanswamy, Kathiresan; Raja, Anand; Sundersingh, Shirley; Sagar, Tenali

    2016-01-01

    There are no reported cases in the literature of primary renal synovial sarcoma in pediatric patients. The management of renal synovial sarcoma has been extrapolated from the management of soft tissue sarcomas at other sites. We present a 4-year-old female who was suspected to have Wilms' tumor. The patient underwent guided biopsy as she did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Wilms' tumor. The biopsy was consistent with primary renal synovial sarcoma. The child was treated with change in her neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen and surgery. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by demonstrating the t (X, 18) translocation using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27046979

  15. Atlantoaxial Joint Synovial Cyst: Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Velan, Osvaldo; Rabadan, Alejandra; Paganini, Lisandro; Langhi, Luciano

    2008-11-15

    Synovial cysts at the atlantoaxial level are found uncommonly. Lumbar symptomatic cases are treated by percutaneous cyst aspiration with or without corticoid injection or by surgical resection, but synovial cysts at the C1-C2 level are usually treated by surgery. We report here a 92-year-old woman with a retro-odontoid synovial cyst producing spinal cord compression that was treated by percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under CT guidance. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atlantoaxial synovial cyst successfully treated with a minimally invasive procedure.

  16. [Synovial sarcoma of the nasal cavity. A case report].

    PubMed

    Acosta Díaz, Hander; Trinidad Ruiz, Gabriel; Rejas, Eladio; Pando, Jesús; Cabrera, J J

    2011-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare tumour found in soft tissue; it is a mesenchymal spindle cell tumour that is not related to the synovial membrane. This tumour has a low incidence, the most frequent place of occurrence being the lower extremities in young adults. Synovial sarcoma of the head and neck accounts for 3-5% of sarcomas in this anatomical region. The treatment of choice for synovial sarcoma of the head and neck is complete surgical excision of the tumour mass followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:20466354

  17. Synovial sarcoma of kidney in a child: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Dhanushkodi, Manikandan; Narayanswamy, Kathiresan; Raja, Anand; Sundersingh, Shirley; Sagar, Tenali

    2016-01-01

    There are no reported cases in the literature of primary renal synovial sarcoma in pediatric patients. The management of renal synovial sarcoma has been extrapolated from the management of soft tissue sarcomas at other sites. We present a 4-year-old female who was suspected to have Wilms’ tumor. The patient underwent guided biopsy as she did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Wilms’ tumor. The biopsy was consistent with primary renal synovial sarcoma. The child was treated with change in her neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen and surgery. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by demonstrating the t (X, 18) translocation using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27046979

  18. Intraspinal synovial cyst at the craniocervical junction.

    PubMed

    Eustacchio, S; Trummer, M; Unger, F; Flaschka, G

    2003-01-01

    A cystic lesion adjacent to the dens with compression of the lower portion of the medulla oblongata was found on MRI in a 75-year-old male patient with a 2-month history of occipital pain and gait disturbance. Clinically, the patient showed mild tetraparesis, signs of spinal ataxia and symmetrical hyperreflexia. Following subtotal removal of the cyst via left-sided suboccipital craniotomy and left-sided hemilaminectomy of C1 the lesion was classified as synovial cyst on histopathological examination. Postoperatively, the quadriparesis almost completely subsided and the patient is currently doing well, 33 months after surgery. Synovial or ganglion cysts adjacent to the atlantoaxial articulation with ventral compression of the cervicomedullar cord represent rare surgical or radiological entities. Atlantoaxial synovial cysts have no typical radiographic appearance or specific neurological symptoms so that they are frequently misdiagnosed as intraspinal- or skull base tumour, rheumatoid lesion or ectatic vertebral artery. Since no ensuing complications or recurrences have been encountered in cases of incompletely removed cysts the less invasive operative approaches should be used to avoid destabilisation and subsequent additional surgical procedures. PMID:12838478

  19. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  20. Arthroscopic Management of Synovial Osteochondromatosis of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Blitzer, Charles M; Scarano, Kyle A

    2015-06-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign metaplasia of the synovium resulting in the formation of osteocartilaginous nodules within the synovial lining. At presentation, radiographs typically reveal these nodules to have broken free from the synovial lining, becoming loose bodies residing in the free space of the affected joint. These fragments readily receive the necessary nutrients for continued growth from the synovial fluid in which they reside. Controversy exists over the management of the disease. Some physicians call for arthrotomy with a complete synovectomy, whereas others vouch for a minimally invasive arthroscopic approach. In the case described here, the surgeon decided on hip arthroscopy to treat synovial osteochondromatosis in a 61-year-old woman. All but one loose body that was adherent in the anterior hip capsule was successfully removed and the patient recovered promptly. This case highlights the importance of hip arthroscopy and its usefulness not only in treating conditions such as synovial osteochondromatosis, but also in accurately diagnosing them. Recognition and management of hip conditions such as synovial osteochondromatosis through arthroscopy result in minimally invasive treatment and decreased morbidity and may markedly accelerate patient rehabilitation. It is the authors' belief that this unique case further suggests the practicality of using hip arthroscopy to successfully treat synovial osteochondromatosis. PMID:26091229

  1. [Meniscal transplantation with a synovial pedicle--an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K

    1993-12-01

    The effect of a meniscal transplantation with a synovial pedicle in the avascular portion of the meniscus was investigated in an animal model. An inner (free edge side) half of the middle segment of the medial meniscus, about 6 mm in length, of an adult dog was resected, and a half thickness of the remaining outer (peripheral) meniscus was advanced with a synovial pedicle to fill in the resected portion and sutured with 6-0 interrupted Nylon sutures. As a control, the same procedure without the synovial pedicle was performed for comparison. Twenty-four dogs were treated with synovial pedicle and 13 without. The treated meniscus was excised every four weeks postoperatively up to 32 weeks for gross observation and histological examination. The histological findings at the junction between the advanced meniscus and the remaining meniscus in the group with the synovial pedicle were as follows: 1) At eight to 20 weeks, vascular proliferation and fibroblasts formation were present. 2) At 24 weeks, the vascularity decreased and the junction was filled with collagen fibers. 3) At 32 weeks, the junction was almost completely repaired with chondrocytes. In contrast, in the group without the synovial pedicle, the junction was connected with fibrous tissue, but with no chondrocytes even at 32 weeks. This enhancement of the meniscus repair with the synovial pedicle was considered to be due to reparative ability of the synovial cells, neovascularization through the synovium and viability of the advanced meniscus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508485

  2. Single-molecule imaging of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, Joachim; Kaminski, Tim P.; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Jerosch, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Human synovial fluid contains a high concentration of hyaluronan, a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that provides viscoelasticity and contributes to joint lubrication. In osteoarthritis synovial fluid, the concentration and molecular weight of hyaluronan decrease, thus impairing shock absorption and lubrication. Consistently, substitution of hyaluronan (viscosupplementation) is a widely used treatment for osteoarthritis. So far, the organization and dynamics of hyaluronan in native human synovial fluid and its action mechanism in viscosupplementation are poorly characterized at the molecular level. Here, we introduce highly sensitive single molecule microscopy to analyze the conformation and interactions of fluorescently labeled hyaluronan molecules in native human synovial fluid. Our findings are consistent with a random coil conformation of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid, and point to specific interactions of hyaluronan molecules with the synovial fluid matrix. Furthermore, single molecule microscopy is capable of detecting the breakdown of the synovial fluid matrix in osteoarthritis. Thus, single molecule microscopy is a useful new method to probe the structure of human synovial fluid and its changes in disease states like osteoarthritis.

  3. [Synovial hemangioma of the knee joint. A case report].

    PubMed

    Lassoued, S; Billey, T; Ould-Henia, A; Aziz-Alaoui, M; Fardou, H; Jacobzone, D

    2002-11-01

    Synovial hemangioma of the knee joint was diagnosed in a young woman 15 years after the first signs. The principal clinical manifestation involved repeated episodes of hemorrhagic joint effusion. MRI is the exploration of choice for this vascular tumor of the synovial membrane, although a pathology study is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Cure is achieved with surgical resection. PMID:12457119

  4. Rare Thoracolumbar Facet Synovial Cyst Presenting as Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Dahuja, Gitanshu; Kaur, Rashmeet

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord compressing syndrome due to synovial cyst (SC) of the thoracolumbar spine is a rare clinical condition. In this report we aim to heighten awareness of the thoracolumbar facet synovial cyst as a possible cause of thoracic myelopathy. The SC was removed thoroughly by laminectomy. The patient had an excellent recovery. The etiological and therapeutic aspects are discussed. PMID:26512282

  5. Monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Betal, Dibendu; Babu, Ramesh; Mehmet, Veysi

    2009-01-01

    Synovial sarcomas are a rare form of soft tissue sarcomas. We present a case of a 62 year-old male presenting with a left thyroid lump initially though to be a thyroid adenoma but subsequently diagnosed as a monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this case. PMID:19335917

  6. Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen; Distler, Oliver; Pap, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For some time synovial fibroblasts have been regarded simply as innocent synovial cells, mainly responsible for synovial homeostasis. During the past decade, however, a body of evidence has accumulated illustrating that rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) are active drivers of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Details regarding the intracellular signalling cascades that result in long-term activation and synthesis of proinflammatory molecules and matrix-degrading enzymes by RASFs have been analyzed. Molecular, cellular and animal studies have identified various interactions with other synovial and inflammatory cells. This expanded knowledge of the distinct role played by RASFs in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis has moved these fascinating cells to the fore, and work to identify targeted therapies to inhibit their joint destructive potential is underway. PMID:18177509

  7. The Rheological Properties of the Biopolymers in Synovial Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Wetsch, Julie; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2005-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid and the synovial fluid model indicate that the fluids are highly viscoeleastic and rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  8. Synovial Sarcoma in Head and Neck: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Adriano Santana; Azevedo, Amanda Canário Andrade; Magalhães, Fabíola Moreira; Andrade, Nilvano Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Synovial sarcoma is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal pluripotent cells. Objectives We present a case of synovial sarcoma in the posterolateral wall of the oropharynx. Resumed report The patient, a 23-year-old woman, was admitted with a history of dysphagia and difficulty in breathing for 8 months, resulting in progressive deterioration and onset of snoring, muffled voice, and local pain. An oropharyngeal tumor in the left posterolateral wall touched the base of the ipsilateral tongue. The patient underwent endoscopic pharyngectomy to remove the lesion. Pathologic examination revealed synovial sarcoma with positive margins, and Mohs technique was proposed for margin control. The margins were disease-free, without the need for total laryngectomy. The pharynx was reconstructed with a microvascular forearm flap. The patient developed postoperative stability. Conclusion Despite its name, synovial sarcoma is rarely sourced directly from synovial membranes. It is most commonly found in the vicinity of large joints. The location at the head and neck, a location poor in synovial tissue, is unusual. Synovial sarcoma in the head and neck has an aggressive nature and poor prognosis. Resection with negative margins remains the foundation of therapy, which is not so easily achieved in the head and neck. It is important for the otorhinolaryngologist and head and neck surgeon to be familiar with this aggressive tumor, which carries high mortality and morbidity. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can improve prognosis and patient survival. PMID:25992071

  9. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  10. Validity, not Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Samindranath

    2015-03-01

    Science journals have been transformed by the internet. In particular, increasingly their role appears to be to validate research, not to disseminate it. How are journals, and the communities they interact with, adapting? In this context, are alternatives to peer review on the horizon? Are these challenges unique to physics journals, or also seen in other publication scenarios?

  11. Contribution of synovial lining cells to synovial vascularization of the rat temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Fumiko; Magara, Jin; Ohazama, Atsushi; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2016-03-01

    The lining layer of the synovial membrane in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) contains two types of lining cells: macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells. The type B cells are particularly heterogeneous in their morphology and immunoreactivity, so that details of their functions remain unclear. Some of the type B cells exhibit certain resemblances in their ultrastructure to those of an activated capillary pericyte at the initial stage of the angiogenesis. The articular surface, composed of cartilage and the disc in the TMJ, has few vasculatures, whereas the synovial lining layer is richly equipped with blood capillaries to produce the constituent of synovial fluid. The present study investigated at both the light and electron microscopic levels the immunocytochemical characteristics of the synovial lining cells in the adult rat TMJ, focusing on their contribution to the synovial vascularization. It also employed an intravascular perfusion with Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin to identify functional vessels in vivo. Results showed that several type B cells expressed desmin, a muscle-specific intermediate filament which is known as the earliest protein to appear during myogenesis as well as being a marker for the immature capillary pericyte. These desmin-positive type B cells showed immunoreactions for vimentin and pericyte markers (neuron-glial 2; NG2 and PDGFRβ) but not for the other markers of myogenic cells (MyoD and myogenin) or a contractile apparatus (αSMA and caldesmon). Immunoreactivity for RECA-1, an endothelial marker, was observed in the macrophage-like type A cells. The arterioles and venules inside the synovial folds extended numerous capillaries with RECA-1-positive endothelial cells and desmin-positive pericytes to distribute densely in the lining layer. The distal portion of these capillaries showing RECA-1-immunoreactivity lacked lectin-staining, indicating a loss of blood-circulation due to sprouting or termination in the

  12. Rheological characterization of an artificial synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Casentini, G; Di Paola, L; Marrelli, L; Palma, F

    2005-07-01

    Rheological measurements on two classes of artificial synovial fluids have been carried out in the attempt to get a suitable but cheap lubricant for wear tests of prosthetic materials. Fluids of both classes are solutions of hyaluronic acid (HA) that, for one class, is dissolved into a simple Ringer solution whereas, for the other class, into a mixture of human serum and Ringer solution. Similar rheological properties have been observed for both classes of fluids. Experimental results have been interpreted by two classical models that are commonly used in the literature to describe the rheological behavior of colloidal systems and of polymer solutions with high entanglement density, respectively. The quality of correlations shows that, at high HA concentrations, entangled structures are largely present and cannot be neglected. PMID:16049905

  13. Synovial Joints: from Development to Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tieshi; Tagliafierro, Lidia; Temple, Joseph D.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Ye, Ping; Esposito, Alessandra; Xu, Fuhua; Spagnoli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as interzone, and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cells niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium and groove of Ranvier. Inherited joint malformation as well as joint degenerating conditions are often associated with other skeletal defects, and may be seen as the failure of morphogenic factors to establish the correct microenvironment in cartilage and bone. Therefore, exploring how joints form can help us understand how cartilage and bone are damaged and to develop drugs to reactivate this developing mechanism. PMID:25431159

  14. Hyaluronate synthesis by synovial villi in organ culture. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.L.; Christine, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    Individual canine synovial villi were used to establish short-term synovial organ cultures. These villi incorporated /sup 3/H-glucosamine into highly-polymerized /sup 3/H-hyaluronic acid (/sup 3/H-HA), which was the only /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycan identified in the culture medium. Some /sup 3/H-HA, and larger amounts of other /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycans, were recovered from cultured tissues. Culture medium /sup 3/H-HA content was proportional to the surface area of cultured villi. Organ cultures of nonvillous synovium were compared with villi; nonvillous cultures synthesized less /sup 3/H-HA per mm2 of their synovial intimal surface than villi. These cultures complement cell culture techniques for in vitro studies of synovial lining cell function.

  15. Specific biological responses of the synovial membrane to carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Hiroki; Takanashi, Seiji; Tanaka, Manabu; Haniu, Hisao; Aoki, Kaoru; Okamoto, Masanori; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Takashi; Usui, Yuki; Oishi, Ayumu; Kato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Biological evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is typically performed in the lung or abdominal cavity; however, biological reactions to CNTs are predicted to be markedly different in other tissues. In applications of CNTs as reinforcement for artificial joints and drug delivery systems, including their use in bone regeneration, the intra-articular synovial membrane makes contact with the CNTs. Herein, we analyzed the reaction of the synovial membrane with multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs). Injection of MWCNTs into rat knee joints revealed their dose-dependent incorporation into deep synovial membranes and the formation of granulation tissue, without long-term inflammation. MWCNTs were incorporated into human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLSs), with less cytotoxicity than that observed in macrophages (RAW264 cells). Moreover, MWCNTs inhibited the release of cytokines and chemokines from HFLSs. The reaction of the synovial membrane with MWCNTs differed from that observed in other tissues; thus, detailed biological evaluation at each target site is necessary for clinical applications. PMID:26388047

  16. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase by synovial fluid and serum.

    PubMed Central

    Dularay, B; Yea, C M; Elson, C J

    1991-01-01

    An inhibitor of myeloperoxidase has been identified in the synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sera from normal subjects. Initially, these fluids were found to inhibit stimulus induced degranulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes independently of the stimulating agent. Subsequently, the fluids were shown to inhibit the released enzyme rather than the degranulation response of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Both rheumatoid and normal serum samples contained high concentrations of the inhibitor but the concentrations were lower in rheumatoid synovial fluids. The inhibitory activity seemed to be specific for peroxidase as the fluids did not inhibit beta-glucuronidase activity. A protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 150 kd was purified from synovial fluid by affinity chromatography on myeloperoxidase-Sepharose. It is concluded that serum and synovial fluid contain a novel myeloperoxidase inhibitor, which acts by binding to myeloperoxidase and thereby prevents myeloperoxidase releasing oxidative products in serum. Images PMID:1647755

  17. Modulation of TNF-induced macrophage polarization by synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Donlin, Laura T; Jayatilleke, Arundathi; Giannopoulou, Eugenia G; Kalliolias, George D; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2014-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells have emerged as powerful modulators of the immune system. In this study, we explored how the human macrophage response to TNF is regulated by human synovial fibroblasts, the representative stromal cell type in the synovial lining of joints that become activated during inflammatory arthritis. We found that synovial fibroblasts strongly suppressed TNF-mediated induction of an IFN-β autocrine loop and downstream expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 that are characteristic of classical macrophage activation. TNF induced the production of soluble synovial fibroblast factors that suppressed the macrophage production of IFN-β, and cooperated with TNF to limit the responsiveness of macrophages to IFN-β by suppressing activation of Jak-STAT signaling. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis showed that cocultured synovial fibroblasts modulate the expression of approximately one third of TNF-regulated genes in macrophages, including genes in pathways important for macrophage survival and polarization toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Pathway analysis revealed that gene expression programs regulated by synovial fibroblasts in our coculture system were also regulated in rheumatoid arthritis synovial macrophages, suggesting that these fibroblast-mediated changes may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. This work furthers our understanding of the interplay between innate immune and stromal cells during an inflammatory response, one that is particularly relevant to inflammatory arthritis. Our findings also identify modulation of macrophage phenotype as a new function for synovial fibroblasts that may prove to be a contributing factor in arthritis pathogenesis. PMID:25057003

  18. Giant Solitary Synovial Osteochondroma of the Subtalar Joint.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly progressing calcified mass was found in the left sinus tarsi in a 12-year-old female after a trivial ankle sprain. The lesion mimicked an aggressive lesion clinically and radiographically. Ultrasound-guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a synovial chondroma. Excision of the tumor and partial synovectomy were performed. The histologic diagnosis was a solitary synovial osteochondroma. The condition had not recurred after a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:26024557

  19. [Azlocillin--synovial fluid levels after intravenous doses].

    PubMed

    Härle, A; Ritzerfeld, W; Wiynck, G; Knoche, U

    1983-01-01

    The corresponding levels of azlocillin in serum and in synovial fluid in the knee-joint were investigated in patients who had undergone aseptic surgery of the lower limbs. The mean synovial fluid concentrations for azlocillin were determined on the basis of 30 samples. Clinically relevant azlocillin levels of approximately 40 mu g/ml were recorded in synovial fluid 10 minutes after start of a short infusion of 5 gm. These increased until about 90 minutes after commencement of antibiotic administration when the maximum level was attained. Subsequently synovial fluid levels decreased slowly and approximately 170 minutes after commencement of the short infusion the mean for serum and synovial concentrations corresponded. The results confirm that with an i.v. infusion of 5 g azlocillin levels can be attained for 3 hours in the synovial fluid that are above the break-point for this antibiotic of 64 mu g/ml. However, despite these good pharmacokinetic data it should be remembered that experience has shown that surgical reintervention is often necessary in addition in joint infections to achieve ultimate cure. PMID:6405553

  20. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance. PMID:25610675

  1. Functional analysis of an arthritogenic synovial fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Aidinis, Vassilis; Plows, David; Haralambous, Sylva; Armaka, Maria; Papadopoulos, Petros; Kanaki, Maria Zambia; Koczan, Dirk; Thiesen, Hans Juergen; Kollias, George

    2003-01-01

    Increasing attention has been directed towards identifying non-T-cell mechanisms as potential therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial fibroblast (SF) activation, a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis, results in inappropriate production of chemokines and matrix components, which in turn lead to bone and cartilage destruction. We have demonstrated that SFs have an autonomous pathogenic role in the development of the disease, by showing that they have the capacity to migrate throughout the body and cause pathology specifically to the joints. In order to decipher the pathogenic mechanisms that govern SF activation and pathogenic potential, we used the two most prominent methods of differential gene expression analysis, differential display and DNA microarrays, in a search for deregulated cellular pathways in the arthritogenic SF. Functional clustering of differentially expressed genes, validated by dedicated in vitro functional assays, implicated a number of cellular pathways in SF activation. Among them, diminished adhesion to the extracellullar matrix was shown to correlate with increased proliferation and migration to this matrix. Our findings support an aggressive role for the SF in the development of the disease and reinforce the perspective of a transformed-like character of the SF. PMID:12723986

  2. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Pharynx: A Series of Five Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Samia; Din, Nasir Ud; Ahmad, Zubair

    2015-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma comprises approximately 10 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. Although synovial sarcoma has been reported in practically every organ, the extremities are the commonest site of occurrence followed by the head and neck. Primary synovial sarcoma of the pharynx is rare and only case reports have been published. We report a series of five cases of primary synovial sarcoma involving the pharynx. PMID:26022274

  3. Synovial osteochondromatosis of the wrist joint: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GU, HOUYUN; LI, WEI; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; LIU, HUCHENG; DING, YI

    2016-01-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare condition in which multiple cartilaginous nodules proliferate within the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae. In general, a complete synovectomy is an effective method to treat this disease. Commonly involved joints are the knee, glenohumeral joint, elbow, hip and ankle, although any articulation may be affected. However, synovial osteochondromatosis occurs rarely in the wrist, and there have been a lack of reports of this occurrence in the literature. The current study presents a case of synovial osteochondromatosis in a 33-year-old man, who was admitted in 2014 with the symptom of swelling of the left wrist joint for 2 years. The swelling had become increasingly painful over the previous 2 months. Physical examination revealed local tenderness and a soft pliable mass, with no involvement of the skin and with moderate pain. X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the left wrist revealed a lump at the volar radial side of the left wrist joint without any bone erosion. The lesion was subsequently excised. Histological examination resulted in a diagnosis of osteochondromatosis, which was not considered prior to the surgery. The present case was reported with the aim of analyzing the clinical, imaging characteristic and therapeutic modalities of synovial osteochondromatosis of the wrist. While there was no evidence of recurrence for the subsequent 4 months of post-operative follow-up in the present case, the long-term efficacy of surgical excision requires extended observation. PMID:26998083

  4. Persisting High Levels of Synovial Fluid Markers after Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Peterson, Lars; Lindahl, Anders; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Local attempts to repair a cartilage lesion could cause increased levels of anabolic and catabolic factors in the synovial fluid. After repair with regenerated cartilage, the homeostasis of the cartilage ideally would return to normal. In this pilot study, we first hypothesized levels of synovial fluid markers would be higher in patients with cartilage lesions than in patients with no cartilage lesions, and then we hypothesized the levels of synovial fluid markers would decrease after cartilage repair. We collected synovial fluid samples from 10 patients before autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee. One year later, a second set of samples was collected and arthroscopic evaluation of the repair site was performed. Fifteen patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for various symptoms but with no apparent cartilage lesions served as control subjects. We measured synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations with specific activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I were higher in patients having cartilage lesions than in control subjects with no cartilage lesions. One year after cartilage repair, the lesions were filled with repair tissue, but the levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I remained elevated, indicating either graft remodeling or early degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18709427

  5. Microsurgical approach to lumbar synovial cysts. Technical notes.

    PubMed

    Cipri, S; Cafarelli, F; Ielo, A; Gambardella, G

    2004-03-01

    Intraspinal extradural synovial cysts are quite common in the lumbar spine. With respect to clinical presentation and surgical treatment, juxta-facet cysts (ganglion and synovial cysts) share identical characteristics and results. Nowadays, current treatment strategies of intraspinal juxta-facet cysts continue to inspire controversy regarding appropriate surgical approaches, and include many technical options. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the advantage of minimally invasive approaches in 3 cases of lumbar synovial cysts. We performed a small flavectomy in the 1st case, a transarticular partial facectomy, followed by etherologous bone graft fusion in the 2nd case, and a flavectomy and partial facectomy in the 3rd case. In our cases, a microsurgical approach to lumbar synovial cysts yielded to complete excision of the lesions and excellent pain relief, with early mobilization and hospital discharge of the patients. In our opinion, minimally invasive approaches and microsurgical excision of lumbar juxta-facet cysts are advantageous over conventional lumbar laminectomy because they reduce later development of segmental instability at the operative level, and therefore a less invasive strategy for intraspinal synovial cysts removal should be recommended. PMID:15257263

  6. Cell culture-derived HCV cannot infect synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Abd-Elshafy D.; Thomas, Pietschmann; Ulf, Müller-Ladner; Elena, Neumann; Anggakusuma, A; Mohamed, Bahgat M.; Frank, Pessler; Patrick, Behrendt

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide 170 million individuals are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), up to 45 million of whom are affected by arthropathy. It is unclear whether this is due to viral infection of synovial cells or immune-mediated mechanisms. We tested the capacity of primary synovial fibroblasts to support HCV propagation. Out of the four critical HCV receptors, only CD81 was expressed to any significant extent in OASF and RASF. Consistent with this, pseudotyped HCV particles were unable to infect these cells. Permissiveness for HCV replication was investigated by transfecting cells with a subgenomic replicon of HCV encoding a luciferase reporter. OASF and RASF did not support replication of HCV, possibly due to low expression levels of miR-122. In conclusion, primary human synovial fibroblasts are unable to support propagation of HCV in vitro. HCV-related arthropathy is unlikely due to direct infection of these cells. PMID:26643193

  7. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  8. Pediatric primitive intraneural synovial sarcoma of L-5 nerve root.

    PubMed

    Peia, Francesco; Gessi, Marco; Collini, Paola; Ferrari, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Valentini, Laura G

    2013-04-01

    Primitive intraneural synovial sarcomas are rare in children. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old girl affected by intraneural synovial sarcoma of a lumbar nerve root, the first such lesion in this location described in a child. The lesion mimicked a schwannoma clinically and radiologically. There was long-lasting leg pain in a radicular distribution, and a well-demarcated intraneural tumor was seen on MRI. On this basis, the first resection was conservative. However, histological examination documented a classic biphasic synovial sarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. After radical resection and adjuvant treatment, complete disease control was achieved and verified at 5-year follow-up. This case strongly suggests that early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to this unusual spinal lesion are essential to achieving a better prognosis. PMID:23414131

  9. Synovial lipomatosis of the metatarsophalangeal joint: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SHANG, JIANGYINZI; ZOU, FAN; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; NIE, TAO

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis, also termed lipoma arborescens, is an extremely rare disorder of the synovium that causes joint pain, swelling and effusion. To date, only a small number of cases have been reported in the literature. The current study presents the case of a 44-year-old male with repeated swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joints of the left hallux, which had persisted for ~3 years. The main clinical manifestations on presentation included multiple osseous lumps and limited activity of the left hallux without pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left hallux revealed a mass surrounding the left metatarsophalangeal joints. Subsequently, the lesion was resected. Pathological examination revealed well-defined lobules of mature adipocytes separated by thin fibrous septa, which indicated a diagnosis of synovial lipomatosis of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the left foot. The aim of this study was to evaluate synovial lipomatosis of the metatarsophalangeal joint, with an analysis of the clinical parameters and pathological features of the disorder. PMID:26998135

  10. [Immunomorphological characteristics of the synovial membrane in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Radenska-Lopovok, S G

    2016-01-01

    The synovial membrane is frequently a target in rheumatic diseases. A search for diagnostic criteria and determination of changes in the pathological process necessitate standardized biopsy diagnostic techniques and quantification of morphological changes using digital imaging methods. The paper considers main methods for obtaining synovial membrane samples. It presents major morphological and immunohistochemical variations in synovitis in the presence of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthrosis. It shows different immunological and autoinflammatory mechanisms of these diseases. Synovial membrane inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthrosis is characterized by different components of morphogenesis, which is proven by the expression of different cell markers. Rheumatoid synovitis is an autoinflammatory process; synovitis in ankylosing spondylitis is characterized by autoinflammatory processes; biomechanical factors as joint inflammation triggers are leading in osteoarthrosis. PMID:27600785

  11. Synovial Sarcoma of the Tongue: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Basile, Lauren E; Hoch, Benjamin; Dillon, Jasjit K

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the workup and management of a 55-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma of the lateral border of the tongue that was initially diagnosed as a glomus tumor. A review was performed of the literature on synovial sarcomas of the oral cavity and current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Synovial sarcomas of the tongue are rare neoplasms, with variable morphologic microscopic types and immunohistochemical profiles. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the known gene translocation also can be used in diagnosis. According to the literature, resection of the tumor is the current treatment of choice; however, owing to the rarity of this entity, diagnosis and management prove challenging for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:26212094

  12. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  13. Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cannarsa, Gregory; Clark, Shannon W.; Chalouhi, Norah; Zanaty, Mario; Heller, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intraspinal synovial cysts are infrequent causes of back and radicular leg pain. Commonly associated with degenerative spinal disease, the majority of synovial cysts appear in the lumbar spine. Rarely, intracystic hemorrhage can occur through an unclear mechanism. Similarly rare, cysts may also become migratory. The pathogenesis of hemorrhagic synovial cysts remains uncertain and their potential for migration also remains unclear. A 36 year-old male presented to the clinic with 5 months of back pain and leg pain that began after a work-related injury. An initial MRI obtained by another surgeon 3 month prior demonstrated an epidural cystic mass with T1 hypointensity and T2 hyperintensity at L2-L3. With worsening pain, the patient came to our clinic for a second opinion. A second MRI demonstrated resolution of the L2-L3 epidural cystic mass and formation of a new epidural cystic mass at L3-L4 causing compression of the thecal sac. The patient subsequently underwent decompressive hemilaminectomy with cyst removal. We present a case of two lumbar synovial cysts, separated over time and a vertebral level and giving the appearance of a single, migratory cyst. This is the first case of an "occult migratory" synovial cyst with repeat MR imaging capturing spontaneous resolution of the initial cyst and formation of a hemorrhagic cyst one level below. We also present a summary of the 44 cases of hemorrhagic synovial cysts reported in the literature and propose a mechanism that may account for the hemorrhagic and migratory progression in some patients. PMID:26412895

  14. [Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Ludovic; Bernier, Valérie; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Mainard, Laurence; Orbach, Daniel; Corradini, Nadège

    2016-02-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare high-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor affecting children, adolescents, and young adults. Cytogenetically, more than 90% of SS is characterized by the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), translocation resulting in two chimeric fusion genes SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2, confirming histological diagnosis. Pediatric SS arises most often in soft tissues of the extremities (66% of cases), and is a localized tumor without spreading to regional lymph nodes (96% of cases) nor to metastatic sites (94% of cases). Although clinical and radiologic presentation, histologic analysis and tumor biology appear similar in pediatric and adolescent SS, outcome seems better in children than in adolescents, respectively 84% vs 60% of 5years overall survival (OS). If complete resection is the gold standard in SS, other therapeutic modalities differ between pediatric and adult populations, considering SS as an intermediate chemosensitive tumor more frequently by pediatric oncologists. Prognostic factors evaluation (tumor size, site of primary and IRS group) is necessary to establish optimal treatment strategies, with multimodal therapeutic approach in children and adolescents. Thus, recent results about the European prospective EpSSG NRSTS 05 study for children and adolescent patients with localized SS showed a 5years OS >90%. Moreover, recent somatic genetic data about SS open the debate on an appropriate strategy based and stratified on tumor genomic. Multinational prospective pediatric, adolescent and young adult study is necessary to improve optimal and appropriate approach in this rare tumor. PMID:26774699

  15. Pericardial synovial sarcoma presenting with large recurrent pericardial effusion

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyo Chul; Lee, Yangyoun

    2016-01-01

    Primary pericardial synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare disease with a dismal prognosis. Its main presenting symptoms are a large pericardial effusion, signs of cardiac tamponade, and visualization of a pericardial mass on echocardiography. However, the systemic symptoms of fever, cough, and night sweats may present a clinical picture without any apparent pericardial mass on diagnostic imaging, potentially impeding the diagnosis. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient with fever and recurrent pericardial effusion for 2 years, who was diagnosed with primary pericardial synovial sarcoma after 2-year follow-up echocardiography. PMID:27293869

  16. A Normative Study of the Synovial Fluid Proteome from Healthy Porcine Knee Joints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid in an articulating joint contains proteins derived from the blood plasma and proteins that are produced by cells within the joint tissues, such as synovium, cartilage, ligament, and meniscus. The proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid and the cellular origins of many synovial fluid components are not fully understood. Here, we present a normative proteomics study using porcine synovial fluid. Using our optimized method, we identified 267 proteins with high confidence in healthy synovial fluid. We also evaluated mRNA expression data from tissues that can contribute to the synovial fluid proteome, including synovium, cartilage, blood, and liver, to better estimate the relative contributions from these sources to specific synovial fluid components. We identified 113 proteins in healthy synovial fluid that appear to be primarily derived from plasma transudates, 37 proteins primarily derived from synovium, and 11 proteins primarily derived from cartilage. Finally, we compared the identified synovial fluid proteome to the proteome of human plasma, and we found that the two body fluids share many similarities, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. Knowing the synovial fluid proteome of a healthy joint will help to identify mechanisms that cause joint disease and pathways involved in disease progression. PMID:25160569

  17. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Gando, Satoshi; Levi, Marcel; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular activation of coagulation that can be caused by infectious insults (such as sepsis) and non-infectious insults (such as trauma). The main pathophysiological mechanisms of DIC are inflammatory cytokine-initiated activation of tissue factor-dependent coagulation, insufficient control of anticoagulant pathways and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-mediated suppression of fibrinolysis. Together, these changes give rise to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular thrombosis, which can cause organ dysfunction and seriously affect patient prognosis. Recent observations have pointed to an important role for extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, in the pathogenesis of DIC. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) established a DIC diagnostic scoring system consisting of global haemostatic test parameters. This scoring system has now been well validated in diverse clinical settings. The theoretical cornerstone of DIC management is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying conditions, and DIC should be simultaneously managed to improve patient outcomes. The ISTH guidance for the treatment of DIC recommends treatment strategies that are based on current evidence. In this Primer, we provide an updated overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of DIC and discuss the future directions of basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:27250996

  19. Synovial sarcoma cell lines showed reduced DNA repair activity and sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kondo, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Ohta, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma and a rare type of cancer. Unfortunately, effective chemotherapies for synovial sarcomas have not been established. In this report, we show that synovial sarcoma cell lines have reduced repair activity for DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide). We also observed reduced recruitment of RAD51 homologue (S. cerevisiae; RAD51) at sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in synovial sarcoma cell lines that had been exposed to IR. These findings showed that synovial sarcoma cell lines are defective in homologous recombination (HR) repair. Furthermore, we found that a poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (AZD2281; olaparib) effectively reduced the growth of synovial sarcoma cell lines in the presence of an alkylating agent (temozolomide). Our findings offer evidence that treatment combining a PARP inhibitor and an alkylating agent could have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of synovial sarcoma. PMID:27353471

  20. Synovial Cysts of the Temporomandibular Joint: An Immunohistochemical Characterization and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sirera, B.; Tomás-Amerigo, J. A.; Baquero, C.; Vera-Sempere, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are very rare, and to date, only 12 cases of a synovial cyst in the TMJ region have been reported in the literature. In this paper, we present the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of one such lesion affecting a 48-year-old woman, presented with a mass in the left preauricular region. We describe the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis for recognizing the synovial lining, which allowed for clear differentiation between ganglion and synovial cysts. Immunohistochemical analyses can be used to diagnose synovial cysts with certainty; however, using at least two markers is advisable to distinguish the two existing synovial cell subtypes. Our findings indicate that synovial cysts of TMJ possess an internal lining dominated by type B (fibroblast-like) synoviocytes. PMID:23573446

  1. Hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction and synovial invasiveness in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Ursula; Canavan, Mary; Biniecka, Monika; Veale, Douglas J

    2016-07-01

    Synovial proliferation, neovascularization and leukocyte extravasation transform the normally acellular synovium into an invasive tumour-like 'pannus'. The highly dysregulated architecture of the microvasculature creates a poor oxygen supply to the synovium, which, along with the increased metabolic turnover of the expanding synovial pannus, creates a hypoxic microenvironment. Abnormal cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction thus ensue and, in turn, through the increased production of reactive oxygen species, actively induce inflammation. When exposed to hypoxia in the inflamed joint, immune-inflammatory cells show adaptive survival reactions by activating key proinflammatory signalling pathways, including those mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and Notch, which contribute to synovial invasiveness. The reprogramming of hypoxia-mediated pathways in synovial cells, such as fibroblasts, dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, and might therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27225300

  2. Tendon synovial cells secrete fibronectin in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Banes, A.J.; Link, G.W.; Bevin, A.G.; Peterson, H.D.; Gillespie, Y.; Bynum, D.; Watts, S.; Dahners, L.

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry and cell biology of the tendon have been largely overlooked due to the emphasis on collagen, the principle structural component of the tendon. The tendon must not only transmit the force of muscle contraction to bone to effect movement, but it must also glide simultaneously over extratendonous tissues. Fibronectin is classified as a cell attachment molecule that induces cell spreading and adhesion to substratum. The external surface of intact avian flexor tendon stained positively with antibody to cellular fibronectin. However, if the surface synovial cells were first removed with collagenase, no positive reaction with antifibronectin antibody was detected. Analysis of immunologically stained frozen sections of tendon also revealed fibronectin at the tendon synovium, but little was associated with cells internal in tendon. The staining pattern with isolated, cultured synovial cells and fibroblasts from the tendon interior substantiated the histological observations. Analysis of polyacrylamide gel profiles of /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled proteins synthesized by synovial cells and internal fibroblasts indicated that fibronectin was synthesized principally by synovial cells. Fibronectin at the tendon surface may play a role in cell attachment to prevent cell removal by the friction of gliding. Alternatively, fibronectin, with its binding sites for hyaluronic acid and collagen, may act as a complex for boundary lubrication.

  3. Cervical myelopathy associated with extradural synovial cysts in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Levitski, R E; Chauvet, A E; Lipsitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Three Mastiffs and 1 Great Dane were presented to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for cervical myelopathy based on history and neurologic examination. All dogs were males and had progressive ataxia and tetraparesis. Degenerative arthritis of the articular facet joints was noted on survey spinal radiographs. Myelography disclosed lateral axial compression of the cervical spinal cord medial to the articular facets. Extradural compressive cystic structures adjacent to articular facets were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (1 dog). High protein concentration was the most important finding on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Dorsal laminectomies were performed in all dogs for spinal cord decompression and cyst removal. Findings on cytologic examination of the cystic fluid were consistent with synovial fluid, and histopathologic results supported the diagnosis of synovial cysts. All dogs are ambulatory and 3 are asymptomatic after surgery with a follow-up time ranging from 1 to 8 months. This is the 1st report of extradural synovial cysts in dogs, and synovial cysts should be a differential diagnosis for young giant breed dogs with cervical myelopathy. PMID:10357105

  4. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  5. Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  6. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  7. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  8. Imatinib mesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated proliferation of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, Charlotta; Joutsiniemi, Saima; Lindstedt, Ken A.; Juutilainen, Timo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Eklund, Kari K. . E-mail: kari.eklund@hus.fi

    2006-08-18

    Synovial fibroblast is the key cell type in the growth of the pathological synovial tissue in arthritis. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen for synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of PDGF-receptor signalling by imatinib mesylate (1 {mu}M) completely abrogated the PDGF-stimulated proliferation and inhibited approximately 70% of serum-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Similar extent of inhibition was observed when PDGF was neutralized with anti-PDGF antibodies, suggesting that imatinib mesylate does not inhibit pathways other than those mediated by PDGF-receptors. No signs of apoptosis were detected in synovial fibroblasts cultured in the presence of imatinib. These results suggest that imatinib mesylate specifically inhibits PDGF-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, and that inhibition of PDGF-receptors could represent a feasible target for novel antirheumatic therapies.

  9. Postlaminectomy synovial cyst formation: a possible consequence of ligamentum flavum excision.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2012-02-01

    Ligamentum flavum is generally resected with impunity when a laminectomy is performed; it is a strong ligament and its removal may not be inconsequential. We sought to examine the consequence of resection of ligamentum flavum as it pertains to the formation of synovial cysts. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive patients who underwent a laminectomy for any diagnosis during the years 2009-2010. Exclusions were made for patients undergoing resection of a synovial cyst, laminectomy done as part of a fusion, and microdiscectomy. A total of 201 laminectomies were performed. 10 instances of post-laminectomy synovial cyst occurred in only the lumbar spine. Synovial cysts occurred exclusively after surgery for stenosis (n=10). Laminectomy and resection of the ligament flavum is a risk factor for the subsequent formation of a synovial cyst. Secondary synovial cyst formation should be suspected in individuals who develop radiculopathy after laminectomy for stenosis. PMID:22051031

  10. Report and Recommendations, Interstate Project on Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    An extensive study was made of information dissemination by a compact of seven state education agencies which formed the Interstate Project on Dissemination. First an historical perspective for information dissemination was developed, followed by an examination of legislation and regulations pertaining to dissemination. Suggestions were formulated…

  11. Synovial excrescences and cysts of the spine: clinicopathological features and contributions to spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sze, C I; Kindt, G; Huffer, W B; Chang, M; Wang, M; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2004-01-01

    Synovial cysts occur throughout the body and are generally benign lesions with limited clinical consequences. Juxtafacet cysts of the spine, in contrast, often press on a nerve root as it exits in the foramen, causing radiculopathy. Synovial tissue that emanates from the facet joint but extends medially, is an additional important cause of spinal stenosis. Over the past 5 years, neurosurgeons at our institution have operated on a large number of patients with back pain, with removal of abnormal synovial tissues. Histological examination of these tissues distinguishes the different types of pathologic processes responsible for producing symptoms. Juxtafacet cysts may be either mucin-filled ganglion cysts devoid of cyst lining or true synovial cysts with watery content and lined by synovial cells. Ganglion cysts arise in degenerated ligament at the facet joint, and occasionally within synovial stroma. Synovial cysts arise within synovium and, unlike synovial cysts in the extremities, have a thick wall containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes and giant cells. This hyperplastic, irritated synovium of the spine, which we term "synovial excrescences", is voluminous and this reactive part overshadows the cystic portion of the lesion in most instances. Iron pigment deposition and inflammation are mild to absent, making synovial excrescences different from pigmented villonodular synovitis. Synovial excrescences of the spine are an important cause of spinal stenosis, predominantly in elderly patients. Surgical removal of excrescences protruding into the spinal canal provides prompt and durable relief of symptoms, usually without the need for extensive bony laminectomy or spinal fusion. Several patients in our study had both spinal ganglion cysts and synovial excrescences, suggesting common risk factors for both lesions. PMID:15074582

  12. Intraneural Extension of Synovial Sarcoma: Exceptional, or Simply Underrecognized?

    PubMed

    Ng, Wen; Thway, Khin

    2015-12-01

    Intraneural extension of soft tissue sarcomas is uncommon; it is most frequently seen in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, but its occurrence is exceptional in synovial sarcoma. We describe a case arising extraneurally within the deep soft tissues of the forearm, which recurred and resulted in above-elbow amputation, revealing an unexpected finding of diffuse intraneural extension of tumor within a macroscopically normal major nerve. Despite macroscopic and microscopically clear soft tissue margins, the neoplasm had "traveled" a significant distance intraneurally to involve the neural resection margin. This feature does not appear to have been described before; it highlights the issue of whether intraneural spread of synovial sarcoma might have been previously underrecognized, and we discuss briefly some practical implications. PMID:26215219

  13. Supramolecular synergy in the boundary lubrication of synovial joints

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J.; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration–lubrication mechanism. PMID:25754223

  14. Supramolecular synergy in the boundary lubrication of synovial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J.; Klein, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration-lubrication mechanism.

  15. Synovial cutaneous fistula complicating a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Letter, Haley P; Limback, Joseph; Wasyliw, Christopher; Bancroft, Laura; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is becoming a common form of shoulder arthroplasty that is often performed in the setting of rotator cuff pathology. Infection is a rare complication but is more common in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty than in hemiarthroplasty or anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. We present the case of a 69-year-old patient with a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty who presented with purulent drainage from the skin of his anterior shoulder. Computed tomography arthrogram confirmed the presence of a synovial cutaneous fistula. Synovial cutaneous fistula is a rare variant of periprosthetic infection that, to our knowledge, has not been described previously in the setting of a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Computed tomography arthrogram proved to be a reliable method for confirming the diagnosis and was used for operative planning to remove the hardware. PMID:27257460

  16. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays. PMID:24713534

  17. Sports-related changes of the synovial membrane

    PubMed Central

    MANUNTA, ANDREA F.; ZEDDE, PIETRO; PISANU, FRANCESCO; MARRAS, FRANCESCO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study is to differentiate the behavior of the synovial membrane in the presence of various stimuli in patients who practice sports. Methods fifty one patients (30 males and 21 females, mean age 48 years, range 31–59 years) who actively practiced non-competitive sports underwent a biopsy of the synovial membrane during arthroscopic surgery performed for joint effusion secondary to meniscal lesion (24 cases), anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) (17 cases), postoperative knee joint stiffness (2 cases), aseptic loosening or dislocation of the polyethylene component of uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty (5 cases), and anterior fibrous impingement of the ankle (3 cases). Synovial tissue samples were obtained during surgery from all the patients and processed for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observation. Results circulatory phenomena were observed in acute inflammatory processes, characterized by hyperemia and vasodilation. Exudative and infiltrative phenomena were observed in the presence of foreign bodies and were characterized by leukocytic exudation (presence of polynuclear neutrophils), accompanied by lymphomonocytic infiltration. Proliferative phenomena were observed in post-traumatic forms of synovitis (ACL and meniscal injuries), characterized by hypertrophy and proliferation of villous formations. Degenerative and regressive phenomena were observed in cases of fibrous reaction (ankle impingement and joint stiffness) and were characterized by formation of dense fibrous connective tissue with hyaline patches, evolving towards sclerosis. Conclusions the activation of inflammatory processes in patients who expose their joints to excessive stress may lead to the formation of hyperplastic tissue. Ultramicroscopic debris is usually capable of transforming the structural organization of the synovial tissue. Level of evidence Level IV, observational case series. PMID:25750907

  18. The diagnostic utility of reduced immunohistochemical expression of SMARCB1 in synovial sarcomas: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Ito, Junko; Asano, Naofumi; Kawai, Akira; Yoshida, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, characterized by a specific SS18-SSX fusion. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma can be challenging based on morphology and conventional immunohistochemistry alone, and identification of the fusion gene by molecular genetics may be necessary for diagnosis. Several recent studies have demonstrated the diagnostic utility of the reduced expression of SMARCB1 in synovial sarcomas as measured using immunohistochemistry. Therefore, we undertook a validation study using synovial sarcomas and other spindle or round cell tumors that could enter differential diagnosis of monophasic or poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas. Among 36 synovial sarcomas that were successfully evaluated, the expression of SMARCB1 was diffusely reduced in 33 cases (92%) at variable degrees. In contrast, the expression of SMARCB1 was not reduced in any of the 93 evaluable non-synovial sarcoma tumors (5 thymomas, 5 sarcomatoid mesotheliomas, 10 schwannomas, 9 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, 20 solitary fibrous tumors, 19 Ewing sarcomas, and 25 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors). A few schwannomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors showed mosaic or complete loss of SMARCB1 expression. Reduced expression of SMARCB1 immunoreactivity was therefore found to be highly sensitive and specific for synovial sarcoma, and can be useful for rapidly and accurately confirming the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. This reduction in SMARCB1 expression likely reflects the BAF47 ejection mechanism of the SS18-SSX fusion product and can therefore be viewed as an indirect visualization of this fusion product. PMID:26520417

  19. The role of lubricin in the mechanical behavior of synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Jay, G. D.; Torres, J. R.; Warman, M. L.; Laderer, M. C.; Breuer, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a semidilute hyaluronate (HA) polymer solution, the rheology of which depends on HA–protein interactions, and lubricin is a HA-binding protein found in synovial fluid and at cartilage surfaces, where it contributes to boundary lubrication under load. Individuals with genetic deficiency of lubricin develop precocious joint failure. The role of lubricin in synovial fluid rheology is not known. We used a multiple-particle-tracking microrheology technique to study the molecular interactions between lubricin and HA in synovial fluid. Particles (200 nm mean diameter) embedded in normal and lubricin-deficient synovial fluid samples were tracked separately by using multiple-particle-tracking microrheology. The time-dependent ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacements of all of the particles were measured over a range of physiologically relevant frequencies. The mean-squared displacement correlation with time lag had slopes with values of unity for simple HA solutions and for synovial fluid from an individual who genetically lacked lubricin, in contrast to slopes with values less than unity (α ≈ 0.6) for normal synovial fluid. These data correlated with bulk rheology studies of the same samples. We found that the subdiffusive and elastic behavior of synovial fluid, at physiological shear rates, was absent in fluid from a patient who lacks lubricin. We conclude that lubricin provides synovial fluid with an ability to dissipate strain energy induced by mammalian locomotion, which is a chondroprotective feature that is distinct from boundary lubrication. PMID:17404241

  20. Identification and analysis of CXCR4-positive synovial sarcoma-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Wang, L; Tabu, K; Tsuda, M; Tanino, M; Maekawa, A; Nishihara, H; Hiraga, H; Taga, T; Oda, Y; Tanaka, S

    2016-07-28

    Synovial sarcoma accounts for almost 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas, and its prognosis is poor with 5-year survival rates at 36%. Thus, new treatments and therapeutic targets for synovial sarcoma are required. Tumor-initiating cells have been defined by the ability for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, and they exhibit higher tumorigenic capacity, chemoresistance and radiation resistance, expecting to be a new therapeutic target. In synovial sarcoma, the presence of such stemness remains largely unclear; thus, we analyzed whether synovial sarcoma possessed tumor-initiating cells and explored specific markers, and we discovered that synovial sarcoma cell lines possessed heterogeneity by way of containing a sphere-forming subpopulation highly expressing NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2. By expression microarray analysis, CXCR4 was identified to be highly expressed in the sphere subpopulation and correlated with stem-cell-associated markers. Inhibition of CXCR4 suppressed the cell proliferation of synovial sarcoma cell lines in vitro. The tumor-initiating ability of CXCR4-positive cells was demonstrated by xenograft propagation assay. CXCR4-positive cells showed higher tumorigenicity than negative ones and possessed both self-renewal and multipotent differentiation ability. Immunohistochemical analysis of 39 specimens of synovial sarcoma patients revealed that CXCR4 strongly correlated with poor prognosis of synovial sarcoma. Thus, we conclude that CXCR4 is the marker of synovial sarcoma-initiating cells, a new biomarker for prognosis and a new potential therapeutic target. PMID:26640147

  1. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  2. Tribological and Rheological Properties of a Synovial Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossner, Rebecca; Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and the plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, are the most abundant macromolecules in synovial fluid, the fluid that lubricates freely moving joints. In previous studies, bovine synovial fluid, a synovial fluid model (SFM) and albumin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were observed to be rheopectic---viscosity increases over time under constant shear. Additionally, steady shear experiments have a strong shear history dependence in protein-containing solutions, whereas samples of HA in PBS behaved as a ``typical'' polyelectrolyte. The observed rheopexy and shear history dependence are indicative of structure building in solution, which is most likely caused by protein aggregation. The tribology of the SFM was also investigated using nanoindenter-based scratch tests. The coefficient of frictions (μ) between the diamond nanoindenter tip and a polyethylene surface was measured in the presence of the SFM and solutions with varied protein and HA concentrations. The lowest μ is observed in the SFM, which most closely mimics a healthy joint. Finally, an anti-inflammatory drug, hydroxychloroquine, was shown to inhibit protein interactions in the SFM in rheological studies, and thus the tribological response was examined. We hypothesize that the rheopectic behavior is important in lubrication regimes and therefore, the rheological and tribological properties of these solutions will be correlated.

  3. Disseminating and Using Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overs, Robert P.; Trotter, Ann B.

    The authors offer some practical guidelines in four areas of rehabilitation research information dissemination: (1) filing and retrieval problems; (2) level and styles of writing, listing, abstracting, summarizing, and reconceptualizing; (3) profiling the average practitioner-consumers; and (4) leveling attitudinal barriers. Filing and retrieval…

  4. Disseminating Educational Research with IT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki

    Teachers and researchers need to use the research produced in education to improve their practice. However, the current modes of dissemination through journals and papers are often written for the expert community. The Telematics Centre at the University of Exeter (United Kingdom), School of Education provides creative solutions for the effective…

  5. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  6. Primary synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Sangkhathat, Surasak; Mitarnun, Winyou

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the fourth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, following malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. It usually occurs in the extremities near the large joints of middle-aged patients. We describe a case of synovial sarcoma of the anterior abdominal wall (SSAW) in an adolescent girl and undertake a review of the literature. PMID:26629297

  7. A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis. PMID:21826801

  8. Midline lumbar ganglion/synovial cyst mimicking an epidural tumor: case report and review of pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Azzam, C J

    1988-08-01

    A case of a midline lumbar extradural ganglion/synovial cyst causing lumbar canal stenosis and mimicking an epidural tumor is presented. The lesion was demonstrated by a magnetic resonance imaging study, and relief of symptoms was achieved with decompressive laminectomy and total removal of the mass. The pathogenesis of lumbar ganglion/synovial cyst is reviewed. PMID:2972941

  9. Synovial lipomatosis: A rare cause of knee pain in an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Miladore, Nicholas; Childs, Mary A; Sabesan, Vani J

    2015-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of the subsynovial adipose which can lead to a variety of presentations. Cases of synovial lipomatosis in children or adolescents are rare. This case report describes an adolescent patient with a rare bilateral presentation of synovial lipomatosis. She had been treated for years prior to her presentation for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. She presented with chronic bilateral knee pain, swelling, and mechanical symptoms. Bilateral MR imaging demonstrated effusions, hypertrophy of the synovium, and polyp-like projections of tissue with the same signal intensity as fat which is pathognomonic for synovial lipomatosis. Arthroscopic synovectomy and extensive debridement of polyp like fat projections of the right knee was performed. Histopathology was consistent with the synovial lipomatosis diagnosis. Postoperatively, the patient was satisfied with her outcome with improved pain relief and function in her right knee. PMID:25893181

  10. Synovial sarcoma specific translocation associated with both epithelial and spindle cell components.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, S; Osin, P; Lu, Y J; Fisher, C; Shipley, J

    1999-08-12

    The biphasic subtype of synovial sarcoma consists of both epithelial and spindle cell components. To address the relationship between the different cellular components found in synovial sarcoma, we deduced the presence of the synovial sarcoma-specific der(X)t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), and involvement of the SSX1 gene in both the epithelial/glandular and spindle cell components of 3 biphasic synovial sarcomas with wide ranging proportions of each of the 2 elements. This has been achieved using a 2-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methodology that we had developed recently for analysis paraffin-embedded material. The presence of the rearrangement could be deduced in histologically defined regions and the results showed clearly that the rearrangement was present in both cellular components. This finding provides direct genetic evidence for biphasic synovial sarcomas being clonal and truly biphasic. PMID:10404078

  11. MR evaluation of synovial injury in shoulder trauma.

    PubMed

    Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Andreisek, Gustav; McFarland, Edward G; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to synovial injury of the shoulder in patients with and without acute shoulder trauma. Three hundred and nine consecutive shoulder MRI studies (185-male, 124-female, 50 ± 15 years old) were retrospectively evaluated for findings suggestive of synovial injury including rupture and/or diverticulum of the joint capsule, bursa, and biceps tendon sheath (BTS), ganglion/synovial cyst, geyser phenomenon, and sequel of previous shoulder dislocation (Hill-Sachs deformity). Patients with one or more of these findings were included in the MR-positive group, whereas the remaining subjects were used as MR negatives. Based on their medical records, patients were also divided into trauma and non-trauma groups, and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the aforementioned MRI findings and history of shoulder trauma. Fifty-six patients were included in the MR-positive group and 253 in the MR-negative group. In MR-positive group, the incidence of capsular rupture (CR) and subacromial/subdeltoid (SASD) bursal rupture was higher in trauma patients, whereas the incidence of BTS diverticulum and ganglion cyst was higher in subjects without trauma. Significant association was found between the history of acute trauma and CR, SASD bursal rupture, BTS rupture, and Hill-Sachs deformity. In shoulder MR examination, presence of CR and/or SASD bursal rupture is strongly suggestive of acute shoulder trauma. In addition, BTS rupture and Hill-Sachs deformity are more prevalent in patients with acute shoulder trauma. The presence of these features should alert MRI readers to assess for additional trauma-related internal derangements, if a respective history has not been provided. PMID:21735271

  12. Upregulation of fibroblast growth factor 1 in the synovial membranes of patients with late stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Wang, B; He, C Q; Yang, Y Q; Guo, H; Chen, Y; Du, T H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the systemic joint that involves multiple cytokines and growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is increased in patients with rheumatic arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression and secretion of FGF-1 differed in synovial tissue from patients with late stage OA from that in normal tissues. We selected eight patients with late stage OA and eight healthy donors for this study. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the amount of FGF-1 in the synovial fluid and in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of FGF-1 and FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) in synovial and cartilage tissues. We detected FGF-1 in the synovial fluid from all eight donors, as well as in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Synovial fluid from patients with OA and culture medium of OA synovial fibroblasts contained significantly more FGF-1 than those from controls. FGF-1 expression was also lower in the synovial membranes of normal donors than in those of OA patients. FGFR2 expression was also higher in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage. Overall, these results demonstrated that FGF-1 synthesis and secretion by synovial fibroblasts were significantly increased in OA. FGFR2 expression was also shown to be upregulated in patients with OA. These findings suggest that increased FGF-1 signaling correlates with an OA pathological condition. PMID:26400350

  13. The synovial fold of the distal tibiofibular joint: A morphometric study.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, E; Bowyer, G; Webb, A L

    2013-07-01

    Impingement of the synovial fold of the distal tibiofibular joint (DTFJ) may contribute to the development of chronic ankle pain and disability after ankle inversion sprain. The morphology of the synovial fold of the DTFJ and recess is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify the synovial fold and recess of the DTFJ. Thirty-three pairs of adult embalmed ankle joints were dissected and the presence, disposition, morphology, and dimensions of the synovial fold were determined in relation to the DTFJ and its recess. A synovial fold was present in all specimens examined and extended from the deep posterior tibiofibular ligament along the DTFJ line an average of 15.31 mm [standard deviation (SD), 4.42 mm]. The majority of synovial folds were elongated in shape with smooth borders and occupied more than two thirds of the DTFJ line. In 70% of ankles examined, the synovial folds were found to extend a mean of 20.05 mm (SD, 7.01 mm) from the DTFJ line into the recess where they were loosely attached to the fibular wall. In the remaining ankles, the synovial fold was limited to the DTFJ line leaving the recess devoid of a synovial fold. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability of measurements was good to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.61-0.99). An understanding of the morphology of the DTFJ synovial fold might help to explain ongoing ankle pain after injury, and why arthroscopic removal of the tissue might be therapeutic. PMID:22887077

  14. Fucosyltransferase 1 mediates angiogenesis, cell adhesion and rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that sialyl Lewisy, synthesized by fucosyltransferases, is involved in angiogenesis. Fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) is an α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase responsible for synthesis of the H blood group and Lewisy antigens. However, the angiogenic involvement of fut 1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue (RA ST) has not been clearly defined. Methods Assay of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA was performed by enzyme-linked lectin assay. Fut1 expression was determined in RA ST samples by immunohistological staining. We performed angiogenic Matrigel assays using a co-culture system of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and fut1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. To determine if fut1 played a role in leukocyte retention and cell proliferation in the RA synovium, myeloid THP-1 cell adhesion assays and fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblast proliferation assays were performed. Results Total α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA ST were significantly higher compared to normal (NL) ST. Fut1 expression on RA ST lining cells positively correlated with ST inflammation. HMVECs from a co-culture system with fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts exhibited decreased endothelial cell tube formation compared to control siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. Fut1 siRNA also inhibited myeloid THP-1 adhesion to RA synovial fibroblasts and RA synovial fibroblast proliferation. Conclusions These data show that α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins are upregulated in RA ST compared to NL ST. We also show that fut1 in RA synovial fibroblasts is important in angiogenesis, leukocyte-synovial fibroblast adhesion, and synovial fibroblast proliferation, all key processes in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:24467809

  15. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi Mimicking a Synovial Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Aurélien; Levy, Bruno; Bouchand, Frédérique; Davido, Benjamin; Duran, Clara; Cristi, Marin; Felter, Adrien; Salomon, Jérôme; Ait Ammar, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient.

  16. GUYON'S CANAL SYNDROME DUE TO A SYNOVIAL CYST

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Evandro Silva; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Maia, Philipe Eduardo Carvalho; Melo, Gustavus Lemos Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome caused by a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient presented pain and paresthesia in the region of the ulnar nerve, with loss of muscle strength and left-hand deformity. Electroneuromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression of the nerve at Guyon's canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After the surgery, the patient presented an improvement in the pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscle trophism and correction of the deformity. PMID:27026975

  17. [The test of the synovial fluid in microcrystalline joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bravo, E

    1994-01-15

    The search for crystals in the synovial fluid must be carried out promptly and is very helpful in the diagnosis of microcrystalline arthropathy. If at light microscopy the fluid is negative for crystals and negative or weakly positive for alizarin red, and if the diagnosis is nevertheless suspected, analysis of the centrifuged fluid sediment facilitates the identification of crystals and increases the specificity of alizarin red (the specific stain for crystals) in the identification of apatite crystal deposits. Electronmicroscopy can the be used to confirm the presence or absence of crystals. PMID:8178070

  18. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Kakiuchi, Terutaka; Suguro, Toru; Kawai, Shinichi

    2009-01-09

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Cultured human synovial fibroblasts rapidly metabolize kinins and neuropeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Bathon, J M; Proud, D; Mizutani, S; Ward, P E

    1992-01-01

    Kinins and substance P have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis by virtue of their abilities to induce vasodilation, edema, and pain. The relative biological potencies of these peptides in vivo would depend at least in part upon their rates of catabolism in the joint. We hypothesized that human synovial lining cells may regulate intraarticular levels of kinins and neuropeptides via degradation by cell surface-associated peptidases. We exposed intact human synovial fibroblasts to kinins and substance P, in the presence or absence of specific peptidase inhibitors, and measured the amount of intact substrate remaining and degradation product(s) generated over time. Aminopeptidase M (AmM; EC 3.4.11.2), neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11; EC 3.4.24.11), and dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV; EC 3.4.14.5) were identified on the cell surface of synovial cells. Bradykinin degradation was due entirely to NEP-24.11 (1.39 +/- 0.29 nmol/min per well). Lysylbradykinin was also degraded by NEP-24.11 (0.80 +/- 0.19 nmol/min per well); however, in the presence of phosphoramidon, AmM-mediated conversion to bradykinin (3.74 +/- 0.46 nmol/min per well) could be demonstrated. The combined actions of NEP-24.11 (0.93 +/- 0.15 nmol/min per well) and DAP IV (0.84 +/- 0.18 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of substance P. AmM (2.44 +/- 0.33 nmol/min per well) and NEP-24.11 (1.30 +/- 0.45 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of the opioid peptide, [Leu5]enkephalin. The identity of each of the three peptidases was confirmed via synthetic substrate hydrolysis, inhibition profile, and immunological identification. The profiles of peptidase enzymes identified in cells derived from rheumatoid and osteoarthritic joints were identical. These data demonstrate the human synovial fibroblast to be a rich source of three specific peptidases and suggest that it may play a prominent role in regulating peptide levels in the joint

  20. Creating new realities: program development and dissemination.

    PubMed Central

    Fixsen, D L; Blase, K A

    1993-01-01

    Program development and dissemination in human services present challenges and opportunities for social scientists. Over the past 27 years the Teaching-Family Model of group home treatment has moved from prototype development to widespread dissemination across North America. Reviewing concepts in industry related to product development and dissemination, the application of these concepts to a human services delivery system, and program replication and dissemination data offer information about how innovative human services can be widely adapted and adopted. PMID:8307838

  1. Disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Tony A; Holcomb, Maura J; Motaparthi, Kiran; Grekin, Sarah J; Hsu, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    A 34-year-old, HIV-positive man living in Texas presented with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, myalgias, oral ulcers, and papules on his chest, back, face, and extremities, including the palms. Initially secondary syphilis was suspected. However, RPR was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous intra-histiocytic fungal organisms. GMS and PAS stains were positive, consistent with the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis clinically mimicking secondary syphilis. PMID:22136866

  2. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  3. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  4. Dissemination Manual for Enhancing Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Earl B.; And Others

    This manual is intended for use by all involved in dissemination of program improvement products--users, linkers, developers, and funders--in Illinois. Section 1 provides guidelines for content usage by dissemination group and usage of charts, forms, and samples. Section 2, Conceptual Framework, defines dissemination, discusses the dissemination…

  5. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.

  6. Glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovium and other tissues of rabbit knee in relation to synovial hydraulic resistance.

    PubMed

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-09-15

    1. The hydraulic resistance of the synovial lining of a joint, a key coupling coefficient in synovial fluid turnover, is thought to depend on the concentration of biopolymers (glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen) in the synovial intercellular spaces, because these polymers create hydraulic drag. The primary aim of this study was to obtain microscopically separated, milligram samples of the very thin synovium from eight rabbit knees, and to analyse these quantitatively for GAGs (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan) and collagen to allow comparison with published hydraulic resistance data. Synovial fluid and femoral cartilage were also studied. 2. Synovium comprised 73 +/- 3% water by weight (mean +/- S.E.M.). Of the 270 mg solid per gram of wet tissue, protein formed 136 mg (by automated amino acid analysis), and of this 94 mg was collagen by hydroxyproline analysis. From the collagen mass and fibril volume fraction (0.153 of tissue by morphometry), fibrillar specific volume was calculated to be 1.43 ml per gram of molecular collagen, and fibril water content 47% by volume. 3. The concentration of chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4S) plus chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6S), measured by capillary zone electrophoresis was 0.55 mg per gram of synovium--much greater than in synovial fluid (0.04 mg g-1) and much less than in cartilage (27.8 mg g-1). The C4S/C6S ratio in synovium (7.3) differed from that in cartilage (0.7), indicating that different proteoglycans predominated in synovium. The heparan sulphate concentration, assayed by radioactive Ruthenium Red binding, was 0.92 mg per gram of synovium (synovial fluid, 0.08 mg g-1; cartilage, 0.72 mg g-1). 4. In contrast to sulphated GAGs, the hyaluronan concentration was highest in synovial fluid (3.53 mg g-1; biotinylated G1 domain binding assay). The concentration in synovial interstitium was only 0.56 mg g-1 (corrected for interstitial volume fraction, 0.66), even though there is open contact between synovial

  7. Identification of α1-Antitrypsin as a Potential Candidate for Internal Control for Human Synovial Fluid in Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowei; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Li, Pengcui; Li, Kai; Wang, Dongming; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Western blot of synovial fluid has been widely used for osteoarthritis (OA) research and diagnosis, but there is no ideal loading control for this purpose. Although β-actin is extensively used as loading control in western blot, it is not suitable for synovial fluid because it is not required in synovial fluid as a cytoskeletal protein. A good loading control for synovial fluid in OA studies should have unchanged content in synovial fluids from normal and OA groups, because synovial fluid protein content can vary with changes in synovial vascular permeability with OA onset. In this study, we explore the potential of using α1-antitripsin (A1AT) as loading control for OA synovial fluid in western blot. A1AT level is elevated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Unlike RA, OA is a non-inflammation disease, which does not induce A1AT. In this study, we identified A1AT as an abundant component of synovial fluid by Mass Spectrometry and confirmed that the level of A1AT is relative constant between human OA and normal synovial fluid by western blot and ELISA. Hence, we proposed that A1AT may be a good loading control for western blot in human OA synovial fluid studies provided that pathological conditions such as RA or A1AT deficiency associated liver or lung diseases are excluded. PMID:26594594

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    CEDERGREN, J; FORSLUND 2, T; SUNDQVIST 2, T; SKOGH 1, T

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess’ reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0·001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 ± 78 versus 176 ± 65 µmol/l, P = 0·008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 ± 11 versus 26 ± 9 µmol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19·2 ± 20·7 versus 8·6 ± 6·5 µmol/l, P = 0·054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. PMID:12296866

  9. Sphingolipids in Human Synovial Fluid - A Lipidomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosinska, Marta Krystyna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lochnit, Guenter; Wilhelm, Jochen; Klein, Heiko; Kaesser, Ulrich; Lasczkowski, Gabriele; Rickert, Markus; Schmitz, Gerd; Steinmeyer, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Articular synovial fluid (SF) is a complex mixture of components that regulate nutrition, communication, shock absorption, and lubrication. Alterations in its composition can be pathogenic. This lipidomic investigation aims to quantify the composition of sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosyl- and dihexosylceramides) and minor glycerophospholipid species, including (lyso)phosphatidic acid, (lyso)phosphatidylglycerol, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate species, in the SF of knee joints from unaffected controls and from patients with early (eOA) and late (lOA) stages of osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SF without cells and cellular debris from 9 postmortem donors (control), 18 RA, 17 eOA, and 13 lOA patients were extracted to measure lipid species using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry - directly or coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. We provide a novel, detailed overview of sphingolipid and minor glycerophospholipid species in human SF. A total of 41, 48, and 50 lipid species were significantly increased in eOA, lOA, and RA SF, respectively when compared with normal SF. The level of 21 lipid species differed in eOA SF versus SF from lOA, an observation that can be used to develop biomarkers. Sphingolipids can alter synovial inflammation and the repair responses of damaged joints. Thus, our lipidomic study provides the foundation for studying the biosynthesis and function of lipid species in health and most prevalent joint diseases. PMID:24646942

  10. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of intervention dissemination (i.e., what is the best approach to disseminate an intervention). Rather, the paper discusses the challenges specific to finding pathways to disseminate an intervention and describes federal opportunities to support intervention dissemination. Three specific mechanisms are discussed: Federal Registries of Evidence-Based Programs, the Tiered Evidence Grant Programs, and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and the Small Technology Transfer Research (STTR) programs. The article presents some limitations associated with federal mechanisms for dissemination of effective interventions, but is intended to highlight current and future opportunities they may offer. PMID:26375192

  11. An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K

    1992-12-01

    The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of IL-17A-Treated Synovial Fibroblasts from the Human Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Toshio; Ogura, Naomi; Akutsu, Miwa; Kawashima, Mutsumi; Watanabe, Suguru; Ito, Ko; Kondoh, Toshirou

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fibroblasts contribute to the inflammatory temporomandibular joint under pathogenic stimuli. Synovial fibroblasts and T cells participate in the perpetuation of joint inflammation in a mutual activation feedback, via secretion of cytokines and chemokines that stimulate each other. IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine produced primarily by Th17 cells which plays critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the roles of IL-17A in temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) using genome-wide analysis of synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with TMD. IL-17 receptors were expressed in synovial fibroblasts as assessed using real-time PCR. Microarray analysis indicated that IL-17A treatment of synovial fibroblasts upregulated the expression of IL-6 and chemokines. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of IL-6, CXCL1, IL-8, and CCL20 was significantly higher in IL-17A-treated synovial fibroblasts compared to nontreated controls. IL-6 protein production was increased by IL-17A in a time- and a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, IL-17A simulated IL-6 protein production in synovial fibroblasts samples isolated from three patients. Furthermore, signal inhibitor experiments indicated that IL-17-mediated induction of IL-6 was transduced via activation of NFκB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. These results suggest that IL-17A is associated with the inflammatory progression of TMD. PMID:26839464

  13. Synovial tissue analysis for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with early arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Hair, Maria J H; Harty, Leonard C; Gerlag, Danielle M; Pitzalis, Costantino; Veale, Douglas J; Tak, Paul P

    2011-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease of unspecified etiology that is manifest by persistent inflammation of the synovium. Considerable efforts have been undertaken globally to study the microenvironment of the inflamed synovium, with many encouraging and enlightening results that bring us closer to unmasking the precise etiologies of RA. Subsequent to these efforts, it has been discovered that CD68-positive macrophages present in abundance in the synovial sublining of the inflamed synovium rescind with treatments that induce clinical improvement in RA. Examination of serial synovial biopsies is now commonly used for screening purposes during early drug development, and the number of centers able to perform synovial tissue biopsy sampling according to standardized methods is increasing. Having implemented the use of serial synovial tissue biopsies to evaluate the effects of new treatments on the group level in early proof of principle studies, it is the ambition of the OMERACT Synovial Tissue Group to identify synovial diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that could be used in individual patients. Therefore, we started a prospective study termed the Synoviomics Project aimed at the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic synovial biomarkers. We will use straightforward and powerful technologies to analyze patient material and assess clinical parameters to identify such biomarkers. These markers may be used in the future to identify patients who are at risk of having persistent and destructive disease and to start tailor-made targeted therapies in an early phase to prevent autonomous disease progression and irreversible joint damage. PMID:21885519

  14. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including... best practices. (c) Specific target audiences must be identified for dissemination activities and... Affiliated Programs, and State service systems to disseminate information to target audiences. (e)...

  15. Disseminating best practice through workshops.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    This article, the fourth in a five-part series, explores the ways in which best practice might be successfully disseminated through workshops. A workshop provides an exciting opportunity to engage nurses in new ways of thinking and the exploration of ideas applied to practice. It involves the nurse innovator in managing a learning experience that enables colleagues to explore their current and possible future practice. The article describes the different types of workshops available, the role of the workshop leader and the sorts of activities that might be used to encourage participation and practice development. PMID:20391674

  16. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi migrates into joint capsules and causes an up-regulation of interleukin-8 in synovial membranes of dogs experimentally infected with ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Straubinger, R K; Straubinger, A F; Härter, L; Jacobson, R H; Chang, Y F; Summers, B A; Erb, H N; Appel, M J

    1997-01-01

    . Histologically, nonsuppurative arthritis was found in multiple joints, and mild to moderate cortical hyperplasia was found in draining lymph nodes. Five uninfected dogs without lameness (group C) had normal synovial fluids and tissues. In all infected dogs, live spirochetes were demonstrated more frequently in tissues of the somatic quadrant closest to the tick bite than in tissues further from the site of infection, suggesting that dissemination of B. burgdorferi occurs more by migration than by blood-borne spread. From these studies employing a canine model of B. burgdorferi infection, we conclude that IL-8 is involved in the pathogenesis of acute Lyme arthritis. PMID:9119462

  18. Fluorescence and UV-vis Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Marie J.; Stojilovic, Nenad; Kovacik, Mark W.

    2009-10-01

    Total joint arthroplasty involves replacing the worn cartilaginous surfaces of the joint with man-made materials that are designed to be biocompatible and to withstand mechanical stresses. Commonly these bearing materials consist of metallic alloys (TiAlV or CoCrMo) and UHMWPE. Following joint arthroplasty, the normal generation of micro-metallic wear debris particles that dislodge from the prosthesis has been shown to cause inflammatory aseptic osteolysis (bone loss) that ultimately results in the failure of the implant. Here we report our results on the novel use of Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the metallic content of synovial fluid specimens taken from postoperative total knee arthroplasties. Preliminary finding showed presence of alumina and chromium is some specimens. The ability to detect and monitor the wear rate of these implants could have far reaching implications in the prevention of metallic wear-debris induced osteolysis and impending implant failure.

  19. Hemorrhagic Synovial Cyst Associated with Rheumatoid Atlantoaxial Subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jae Jon; Seo, Dong Kwang; Choi, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cyst on prevertebral space of C1-2 joint is rare but may be associated hemorrhagic event. We describe a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with sudden severe headache in her left occipital area with dyspnea. She had rheumatoid arthritis for 14-years. Large hemorrhagic cystic mass was seen around prevertebral space of the atlantoaxial joint on the left side on cervical MRI (magnetic resonance image) and it obstructed the nasopharyngeal cavity. Aspiration of the cystic lesion was performed via transoral approach, followed by posterior occipito-cervical fusion. The specimen was xanthochromic, suggesting old hemorrhage. The patient was tolerable on her postoperative course and showed good respiration and relieved headache. We suggest that repeated microtrauma due to atalantoaxial subluxation associated with rheumatoid arthritis as a main cause of hemorrhagic event on the cyst. PMID:24757465

  20. [Synovial cyst of chest wall; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Chujo, Masao; Anami, Kentaro; Miura, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    A 55-year-old male taxi driver visited our hospital because of a left dorsal tumor. The tumor was palpated at the inferior angle of the left scapula with tenderness. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a homogeneous 5-cm mass with capsule between the latissimus dorsi muscle and rib. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated the tumor with high intensity. The latissimus dorsi muscle was divided and separated off from the tumor and the lower layer;then, an applied wound retractor (Alexis) was placed under the lower layer of the latissimus dorsi muscle and the operative field was developed. Next, the anterior serratus and greater rhomboid muscles were separated off from the tumor and the lower layer, the Alexis was placed under the lower layer of those muscles. All muscles were preserved and the tumor was removed. The tumor was 56×32 mm in size. The histological diagnosis was synovial cyst. PMID:25434552

  1. Exomic Analysis of Myxoid Liposarcomas, Synovial Sarcomas, and Osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuchen; Wood, Laura D.; Kinde, Isaac; Wu, Jian; Mandahl, Nils; Luo, Jinyong; Hruban, Ralph H.; Diaz, Luis A.; He, Tong-Chuan; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Mertens, Fredrik; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are a group of histologically heterogeneous and relatively uncommon tumors. To explore their genetic origins, we sequenced the exomes of 13 osteosarcomas, eight myxoid liposarcomas (MLPS), and seven synovial sarcomas (SYN). These tumors had few genetic alterations (median of 10.8). Nevertheless, clear examples of driver gene mutations were observed, including canonical mutations in TP53, PIK3CA, SETD2, AKT1, and subclonal mutation in FBXW7. Of particular interest were mutations in H3F3A, encoding the variant histone H3.3. Mutations in this gene have only been previously observed in gliomas. Loss of heterozygosity of exomic regions was extensive in osteosarcomas but rare in SYN and MLPS. These results provide intriguing nucleotide-level information on these relatively uncommon neoplasms and highlight pathways that help explain their pathogenesis. PMID:24190505

  2. Spectrum of MRI features of ganglion and synovial cysts.

    PubMed

    Neto, Nelson; Nunnes, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Ganglion and synovial cysts occur mainly, but not necessarily, in association with osteoarthritis. Presentation varies widely, ranging from small, incidentally detected, asymptomatic lesions to giant ones that might be the source of symptoms, either due to their compressive effect on adjacent structures or due to complications, such as rupture. On magnetic resonance imaging they are typically presented as smooth, well-circumscribed, thin-walled, unilocular, and homogeneously T2-hyperintense lesions. An identifiable thin stalk communicating to the joint space is not infrequent. Nevertheless, depending on their age, anatomic location, and eventual complication, they might have many distinct appearances, including septae and internal debris, which the radiologist must be familiar with in order to accurately differentiate them from worrisome cystic-like lesions. With regard to this diversity, some illustrative cases are presented. PMID:26911967

  3. Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma mimicking a carcinoid tumor: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Zeid; Naqvi, Jawad; Oh, Teik Chooi

    2016-06-01

    Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy. Commonly described radiologic features in the literature include pleural disease and/or effusion, lack of calcification and high uptake on positron emission tomography computerised tomography. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of cough. Imaging studies showed a right upper lobe mass with internal foci of calcification, endobronchial extension, and low fluorodeoxyglucose avidity on positron emission tomography computerised tomography, leading to an initial diagnosis of carcinoid tumor. However, histologic specimens suggested an unexpected diagnosis of aggressive synovial sarcoma, and the case was referred to the sarcoma MDT. Metastatic synovial sarcoma was ruled out, and radical surgical excision of the lesion was performed. This article highlights the multiple atypical features of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as seen in this case and reviews imaging findings described in the literature. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual yet aggressive type of sarcoma. PMID:27257447

  4. The First Ever Reported Case of Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Biplab; Bhirud, Deepak Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcomas are a rare entity with predilection for extremities and joints. The literature suggests that these tumours are rare in the head and neck region. Very few authors have reported their origin in head. Among the ones occurring in the head region, most of them are found to originate from the parotid area. According to our extensive review of available literature, there has been no reported case of the primary case of synovial sarcoma originating from the scalp convexity. We hereby report one such case in a young female which, by far to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever reported case of a synovial sarcoma occurring on the scalp. The tumour is also the largest ever reported in the literature and posed a great surgical and diagnostic challenge to our team. Through this paper, we recommend that synovial sarcoma should be included as a very rare yet possible differential diagnosis for the scalp tumours. PMID:27446625

  5. Lipid bilayer membranes: Missing link in the comprehension of synovial lubrication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Ross; Cowley, Leonie; Dubief, Yves

    2010-03-01

    The human body hosts an extremely efficient tribological system in its synovial joints that operate under very low friction and virtually no wear. It has long been assumed that the higher molecular weight molecules present in the synovial fluid (hyaluronic acid, lubricin) are solely responsible for the mechanical properties of joint. Smaller components, unsaturated phospholipids, have a virtually an undefined role, most probably because of the cancellation of their amphiphilic properties ex vivo caused by oxidation. Using experimental observations of multilamellar arrangements in synovial joints, we formulate the assumption that self-assembling structures provide the anisotropy necessary to synovial fluid to resist drainage under normal compression. Our molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the tremendous mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and also highlight their weakening consistent with modifications resulting from injuries or joint prosthesis.

  6. Candida arthritis: cellular immune responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood lymphocytes to Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, E; Mayet, W J; Klein, O; Lohse, A W; Trautwein, C; Michiels, I; Poralla, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1991-01-01

    A case of septic Candida albicans arthritis of the knee in a patient with systemic candidiasis is presented. Systemic and intra-articular cellular immune responses to C albicans and various bacterial antigens were monitored for 15 weeks. It is shown that the candida induced blastogenesis of synovial fluid lymphocytes was much more stimulated than that of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and that the proportion of activated cells expressing HLA class II antigens was markedly increased in the synovial fluid. Strong cellular immune responses to Candida albicans could still be shown many weeks after the synovial fluid aspirates had become sterile. For the first time synovial fluid derived, CD4 positive T lymphocyte clones with specificity for candida antigens were characterised and further propagated in vitro. Images PMID:1720301

  7. A ganglion cyst derived from a synovial cyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Zahir; Yilmaz, Ali; Gurcan, Sevilay; Berber, Osman; Ozsunar, Yelda; Eliyatkın, Nuket

    2015-01-01

    The synovial and ganglion cysts originating from the facet joint have been named under the name of the Juxtafacet cyst by the several researchers. They put forward that the synovial cyst originated from the synovial joint. But, they failed to clarify the pathophysiology of the formation of the ganglion cyst. In this case report, we reported a 67-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency from another center with the complaint of a left leg pain and weakness in the left foot and patient was treated with microchirurgical technique. His patological examination was evaluated a ganglion cyst. We have discussed and explained the pathophysiology of the formation of a ganglion cyst derivered from a synovial cyst. And separately, we have presented the spinal cysts by grouping them under a new classification called a cystic formation of the soft tissue attachments of the mobile spine as well as dividing them into sub-groups. PMID:26652879

  8. Ganglion and Synovial Cyst of the Temporomandibular Joint: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hofstede, Diederik J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Ganglion and synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare. Although histopathological findings differ, clinical presentation is comparable. This study adds a case report of a ganglion of the TMJ to existing literature and a review of all available case reports on ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. Including our own case report, we reviewed 49 cases of ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. They occurred in a female:male ratio of 3:1, at an median age of 46 years (range, 11–64 years). Patients mainly presented with preauricular swelling and pain. After imaging, the ganglion or synovial cyst was most commonly excised under general anesthesia. No recurrences were described. PMID:26495237

  9. Ganglion and Synovial Cyst of the Temporomandibular Joint: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Steen, M Willemijn; Hofstede, Diederik J

    2015-09-01

    Ganglion and synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare. Although histopathological findings differ, clinical presentation is comparable. This study adds a case report of a ganglion of the TMJ to existing literature and a review of all available case reports on ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. Including our own case report, we reviewed 49 cases of ganglion and synovial cysts of the TMJ. They occurred in a female:male ratio of 3:1, at an median age of 46 years (range, 11-64 years). Patients mainly presented with preauricular swelling and pain. After imaging, the ganglion or synovial cyst was most commonly excised under general anesthesia. No recurrences were described. PMID:26495237

  10. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene utilization by B cell hybridomas derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue.

    PubMed

    Brown, C M; Longhurst, C; Haynes, G; Plater-Zyberk, C; Malcolm, A; Maini, R N

    1992-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects synovial joints. Activated B lymphocytes and plasma cells are present in the synovial tissue and are thought to contribute to the immunopathology of the rheumatoid joint. To investigate rheumatoid synovial B lymphocytes, we have generated B cell hybridomas from synovial tissue of an RA patient. Here we describe the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire of eight IgM- and 10 IgG-secreting synovial-derived hybridomas. The VH4 gene family is highly represented (38.5%) in this panel of hybridomas compared with the frequency of VH4 gene expression in circulating B lymphocytes reported previously (19-22%) and with the VH4 gene frequency we observed in a panel of hybridomas derived in the same manner from the spleen and tonsil of normal individuals (19%). The increased frequency of VH4 gene expression was not due to the expansion of a single B cell clone in vivo as none of these hybridomas was clonally related. Two synovial-derived hybridomas secreted autoantibodies; one (VH3+) secreted an IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and the other (VH4+) secreted IgM with polyreactive binding to cytoskeletal proteins and cardiolipin. The antibodies secreted by the remaining synovial-derived hybridomas were not reactive with the autoantigens tested. The VH gene usage in a proportion (5/17) of synovial-derived hybridomas that expressed CD5 antigen provided preliminary evidence that CD5+ B cells in RA synovium have a similar increase of VH4 gene expression reported for CD5+ B cells from normal individuals and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:1379132

  11. OSTEOCHONDROMA OF THE PROXIMAL HUMERUS WITH FRICTIONAL BURSITIS AND SECONDARY SYNOVIAL OSTEOCHONDROMATOSIS.

    PubMed

    De Groote, J; Geerts, B; Mermuys, K; Verstraete, K

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of multiple hereditary exostosis in a 33-year old patient with clinical symptoms of pain and impression of a growing mass of the left shoulder alerting potential risk of malignant transformation of an osteochondroma. Imaging studies illustrated perilesional bursitis surrounding an osteochondroma of the proximal humerus. Malignant transformation was excluded with MRI. Fragments of the osteochondroma were dislocated in the inflammatory synovial bursa illustrating a case of secondary synovial osteochondromatosis. PMID:26223067

  12. Unusual Presentation of Synovial Sarcoma as Meniscal Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Khodamorad; Yahyazadeh, Hooman; Bagherifard, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Periarticular cyst and cystic soft tissue lesion around the knee are common. Synovial sarcoma is a rare and malignant soft tissue tumor accounting for approximately 5% of soft tissue sarcoma. A case is presented where a lesion adjacent to the joint line of the knee was diagnosed clinically and on imaging as a meniscal cyst. MRI signal was homogenous and no concomitant meniscal tears were seen. The tissue diagnosis was monophasic synovial sarcoma. PMID:26550597

  13. Comparing the mechanical properties of the porcine knee meniscus when hydrated in saline versus synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Emily H; Kline, Courtney L; McFetridge, Peter S; Allen, Kyle D

    2015-12-16

    As research progresses to find a suitable knee meniscus replacement, accurate in vitro testing becomes critical for feasibility and comparison studies of mechanical integrity. Within the knee, the meniscus is bathed in synovial fluid, yet the most common hydration fluid in laboratory testing is phosphate buffered saline (PBS). PBS is a relatively simple salt solution, while synovial fluid is a complex non-Newtonian fluid with multiple lubricating factors. As such, PBS may interact with meniscal tissue differently than synovial fluid, and thus, the hydration fluid may be an important factor in obtaining accurate results during in vitro testing. To evaluate these effects, medial porcine menisci were used to evaluate tissue mechanics in tension (n=11) and compression (n=15). In all tests, two samples from the same meniscus were taken, where one sample was hydrated in PBS and the other was hydrated in synovial fluid. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the mean mechanical properties of samples tested in PBS compared to synovial fluid; however, compressive testing revealed the variability between samples was significantly reduced if samples were tested in synovial fluid. For example, the compressive Young׳s Modulus was 12.69±7.49MPa in PBS versus 12.34±4.27MPa in synovial fluid. These results indicate testing meniscal tissue in PBS will largely not affect the mean value of the mechanical properties, but performing compression testing in synovial fluid may provide more consistent results between samples and assist in reducing sample numbers in some experiments. PMID:26592438

  14. Cervical Synovial Cyst Causing Cervical Radiculomyelopathy: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Corredor, José A; Quan, Gerald

    2015-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Synovial cysts in the subaxial cervical spine are rare and are most commonly reported at the cervicothoracic junction. Only six cases of symptomatic C5-C6 synovial cysts have been reported in the literature; the condition is usually treated with decompressive laminectomy. We present a patient with a synovial cyst arising from the C5-C6 facet joint, associated with spondylolisthesis, and causing radiculomyelopathy. The patient was treated with a posterior excision of the cyst, decompressive laminectomy, and fusion. Methods A 67-year-old man had vertebral canal stenosis at C5-C6 secondary to a synovial cyst and spondylolisthesis with symptoms and signs of radiculopathy and myelopathy. Surgical management involved C5-C6 posterior decompressive laminectomy and excision of the cyst and C4-C6 instrumented fusion with lateral mass screws and rods. A literature review of symptomatic cervical synovial cysts is presented. Results The imaging studies identified grade I spondylolisthesis and a 3.3 × 4.3-mm extradural lentiform-like mass associated with focal compression of the spinal cord and exiting the C6 nerve root. After the surgery, the patient had an immediate full recovery and was asymptomatic by the 6-month examination. No operative complications were reported. The histologic report confirmed the presence of a synovial cyst. Conclusions C5-C6 is an unusual localization for symptomatic synovial cysts. Similar cases reported in the literature achieved excellent results after cyst excision and decompressive laminectomy. Because spondylolisthesis plus laminectomy are risk factors for segmental instability in the cervical spine, we report a case of a C5-C6 facet synovial cyst successfully treated with posterior laminectomy and C4-C6 fusion. PMID:26225291

  15. Cervical Synovial Cyst Causing Cervical Radiculomyelopathy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Corredor, José A.; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Synovial cysts in the subaxial cervical spine are rare and are most commonly reported at the cervicothoracic junction. Only six cases of symptomatic C5–C6 synovial cysts have been reported in the literature; the condition is usually treated with decompressive laminectomy. We present a patient with a synovial cyst arising from the C5–C6 facet joint, associated with spondylolisthesis, and causing radiculomyelopathy. The patient was treated with a posterior excision of the cyst, decompressive laminectomy, and fusion. Methods A 67-year-old man had vertebral canal stenosis at C5–C6 secondary to a synovial cyst and spondylolisthesis with symptoms and signs of radiculopathy and myelopathy. Surgical management involved C5–C6 posterior decompressive laminectomy and excision of the cyst and C4–C6 instrumented fusion with lateral mass screws and rods. A literature review of symptomatic cervical synovial cysts is presented. Results The imaging studies identified grade I spondylolisthesis and a 3.3 × 4.3-mm extradural lentiform-like mass associated with focal compression of the spinal cord and exiting the C6 nerve root. After the surgery, the patient had an immediate full recovery and was asymptomatic by the 6-month examination. No operative complications were reported. The histologic report confirmed the presence of a synovial cyst. Conclusions C5–C6 is an unusual localization for symptomatic synovial cysts. Similar cases reported in the literature achieved excellent results after cyst excision and decompressive laminectomy. Because spondylolisthesis plus laminectomy are risk factors for segmental instability in the cervical spine, we report a case of a C5–C6 facet synovial cyst successfully treated with posterior laminectomy and C4–C6 fusion. PMID:26225291

  16. Weather dissemination and public usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The existing public usage of weather information was examined. A survey was conducted to substantiate the general public's needs for dissemination of current (0-12 hours) weather information, needs which, in a previous study, were found to be extensive and urgent. The goal of the study was to discover how the general public obtains weather information, what information they seek and why they seek it, to what use this information is put, and to further ascertain the public's attitudes and beliefs regarding weather reporting and the diffusion of weather information. Major findings from the study include: 1. The public has a real need for weather information in the 0-6 hour bracket. 2. The visual medium is preferred but due to the lack of frequent (0-6 hours) forecasts, the audio media only, i.e., telephone recordings and radio weathercasts, were more frequently used. 3. Weather information usage is sporadic.

  17. NIST Mechanisms for Disseminating Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gills, T. E.; Dittman, S.; Rumble, J. R.; Brickenkamp, C. S.; Harris, G. L.; Trahey, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    The national responsibilities assigned to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) early in the last century for providing measurement assistance and service are carried out today by the four programs that comprise the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Measurement Services (OMS). They are the Calibration Program (CP), the Standard Reference Materials Program (SRMP), the Standard Reference Data Program (SRDP), and the Weights and Measures Program (W&MP). Organized when the U.S. Congress changed the NBS name to NIST, the OMS facilitates access to the measurement and standards activities of NIST laboratories and programs through the dissemination of NIST products, data, and services. A brief historical introduction followed by a perspective of pivotal measurement developments from 1901 to the present and concluding with a look to the future of NIST measurement services in the next decade of the new millennium are presented for each OMS program. PMID:27500025

  18. Clonal heterogeneity of synovial fluid T lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Duby, A.D.; Sinclair, A.K.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.L. ); Zeldes, W.; Kan, Li; Fox, D.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Although substantial evidence suggests that synovial T lymphocytes are critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), little is known regarding their antigenic specificities, antigen receptor gene rearrangements, and mechanisms of activation. To assess the extend of expansion of specific clones among RA synovial fluid T cells, Southern blot analyses of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements were performed on 40 RA synovial fluid T-cell clones, as well as on fresh and polyclonally activated T cells from RA synovial fluid, RA peripheral blood, and normal peripheral blood. Two of the clones had identical TCR rearrangement patterns, but the remainder were unique. The nonclonal RA T-cell samples showed the same pattern of TCR {beta}-chain rearrangement that was observed among normal peripheral blood T cells, indicating no dominant clonal T-cell population in these samples. It was noted that with sufficient exposure of autoradiograms of the Southern blots, discrete TCR gene rearrangements, representing in some cases common D{sub {beta}}J{sub {beta}} (D, diversity; J, joining) rearrangements, were evident in T cells from peripheral blood of normal individuals and patients with RA, as well as T cells from RA synovial fluid. Taken together, the findings indicate that only a minor degree of oligoclonality can be demonstrated among T lymphocytes from RA synovial fluid.

  19. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Moraes, Eduardo Wanzenboeck; de Souza, Alceuleir Cardoso; Cavatte, José Maria; Teixeira, João Carlos de Medeiros; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign proliferative disorder with metaplasia of the synovial membrane that affects the fibroblasts of the synovial joints, tendons and bursae. In literature, there are few descriptions of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow. The objective of this article was to report a case of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow in a patient aged 32, basketball athlete, in which surgical treatment was chosen because of the pain and functional limitation and stage of disease with multiple loose bodies. Patient 32, male, presented with pain and limitation of motion of the elbow. The range of passive motion was 100° of flexion and 30° extension. The range of active motion was 40-90°. Magnetic resonance observed many loose bodies mainly in the posterior compartment in the olecranon fossa plus some chondral lesions in the capitellum. The arthroscopic treatment was chosen with two anteriors portals (medial and lateral) and two posterior portals (standard posterior and posterolateral) for easing loose bodies and osteoplasty of the olecranon fossa. The visual analog scale pain was 9-3 and its arc of active motion was 110° to -20° of flexion and extension. On a scale of performance from Mayo Clinic patients was 65 points preoperatively to 90 postoperatively with 9 months follow-up and the patient was satisfied with the treatment outcome. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow is an effective and safe therapeutic management with low morbidity and early return to activities. PMID:26535210

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow. Case report and literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Moraes, Eduardo Wanzenboeck; de Souza, Alceuleir Cardoso; Cavatte, José Maria; Teixeira, João Carlos de Medeiros; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign proliferative disorder with metaplasia of the synovial membrane that affects the fibroblasts of the synovial joints, tendons and bursae. In literature, there are few descriptions of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow. The objective of this article was to report a case of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow in a patient aged 32, basketball athlete, in which surgical treatment was chosen because of the pain and functional limitation and stage of disease with multiple loose bodies. Patient 32, male, presented with pain and limitation of motion of the elbow. The range of passive motion was 100° of flexion and 30° extension. The range of active motion was 40–90°. Magnetic resonance observed many loose bodies mainly in the posterior compartment in the olecranon fossa plus some chondral lesions in the capitellum. The arthroscopic treatment was chosen with two anteriors portals (medial and lateral) and two posterior portals (standard posterior and posterolateral) for easing loose bodies and osteoplasty of the olecranon fossa. The visual analog scale pain was 9–3 and its arc of active motion was 110° to −20° of flexion and extension. On a scale of performance from Mayo Clinic patients was 65 points preoperatively to 90 postoperatively with 9 months follow-up and the patient was satisfied with the treatment outcome. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow is an effective and safe therapeutic management with low morbidity and early return to activities. PMID:26535210

  1. Influence of Anti-inflammatory Drugs on the Rheological Properties of Synovial Fluid and Its Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Liang, Jing; Colby, Ralph H.

    2006-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid, the synovial fluid model, and plasma protein solutions indicate that the fluids are rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. While HCQ has no effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions, it inhibits/suppresses the observed rheopexy of the synovial fluid model and plasma protein solutions. In contrast, D-penicillamine has a complex, time dependent effect on the viscosity of NaHA solutions,---reducing the zero shear rate viscosity of a 3 mg/mL NaHA (in phosphate buffered saline) by ca. 40% after 44 days. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  2. Quality assurance for synovial fluid examination for crystals: an improved method

    PubMed Central

    McGill, N.; McGill, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the best method of preparing synovial fluid specimens for use in quality assurance (QA) surveys designed to assess accuracy of crystal identification.
METHODS—A previously published method (A) was compared with a new method (B) in the setting of a QA survey. Ten Australian, one New Zealand, and one Hong Kong hospital laboratories took part in the survey. Each laboratory examined six different synovial fluid specimens prepared using method A (first round) and a separate six specimens using method B (second round). In method A, a drop of synovial fluid on a glass slide was surrounded by a rim of Ultramount, sealed with a coverslip, and distributed. The participating laboratory did not need to perform any processing of the specimen before examination. In method B, a capillary tip was filled with synovial fluid, heat sealed, and distributed. The fluid was expelled onto a glass slide in preparation for examination after arrival in the participating laboratory.
RESULTS—Using method A 36 of 71 (51%) of the specimens were rated as satisfactory, compared with 53 of 61 (87%) of the specimens using method B (Fisher's exact test, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—An improved method of preparation of synovial fluid specimens for QA surveys is described. Using the new method it is feasible to perform a synovial fluid QA survey covering a large area (Australasia).

 PMID:9306876

  3. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in the synovial cells of the temporomandibular joint in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yamaza, T; Masuda, K F; Atsuta, I; Nishijima, K; Kido, M A; Tanaka, T

    2004-08-01

    Synovial hyperplasia is a feature of degenerative temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease. However, the mechanism by which hyperplasia progresses in the TMJ is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the oxidative stress generated by mechanical loading causes degenerative changes in the TMJ synovium, we investigated the generation of the highly reactive species, peroxynitrite, and the occurrence of DNA damage in the synovium. After condylar hypermobility of rat TMJs, a marker of peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine, was localized to the nuclei and cytoplasm of the synovial lining cells and fibroblasts in synovitis-induced TMJ. DNA single-strand breaks were found in the nuclei of the synovial cells only after enzyme treatment, whereas DNA double-strand breaks were not detected. These findings indicate that condylar hypermovement induces the proliferation of synovial cells, and suggest that oxidative stress leads to the progression of synovial hyperplasia via DNA damage of the synovial cells in TMJs after mechanical loading. PMID:15271970

  4. Elevated synovial fluid concentration of adenosine triphosphate in dogs with osteoarthritis or sodium urate-induced synovitis of the stifle.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bryan T; Jimenez, David A; Budsberg, Steven C

    2016-07-19

    Adenosine triphosphate has been shown to stimulate nociceptive nerve terminals in joints. Elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations as well as a correlation between synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations and osteoarthritic knee pain has been demonstrated in humans, but not yet in dogs. This study documented elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations in the stifles of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis and urate-induced synovitis, as compared to normal stifles. PMID:27432274

  5. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  6. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  7. The Effectiveness of Selected Dissemination Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Johnson, Russell H.

    1981-01-01

    The dissemination activities through which college admissions officers heard about Project CHOICE, a three-year project to help colleges improve the information they provided to prospective students, were investigated. The study involved determining how well various dissemination methods (newsletter, journal articles, conference presentations,…

  8. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  9. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  11. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which...

  12. Gene expression and activity of cartilage degrading glycosidases in human rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pásztói, Mária; Nagy, György; Géher, Pál; Lakatos, Tamás; Tóth, Kálmán; Wellinger, Károly; Pócza, Péter; György, Bence; Holub, Marianna C; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczy, Krisztina; Mazán, Mercédesz; Nyirkos, Péter; Falus, András; Buzas, Edit I

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Similar to matrix metalloproteinases, glycosidases also play a major role in cartilage degradation. Carbohydrate cleavage products, generated by these latter enzymes, are released from degrading cartilage during arthritis. Some of the cleavage products (such as hyaluronate oligosaccharides) have been shown to bind to Toll-like receptors and provide endogenous danger signals, while others (like N-acetyl glucosamine) are reported to have chondroprotective functions. In the current study for the first time we systematically investigated the expression of glycosidases within the joints. Methods Expressions of β-D-hexosaminidase, β-D-glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, sperm adhesion molecule 1 and klotho genes were measured in synovial fibroblasts and synovial membrane samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis by real-time PCR. β-D-Glucuronidase, β-D-glucosaminidase and β-D-galactosaminidase activities were characterized using chromogenic or fluorogenic substrates. Synovial fibroblast-derived microvesicles were also tested for glycosidase activity. Results According to our data, β-D-hexosaminidase, β-D-glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, and klotho are expressed in the synovial membrane. Hexosaminidase is the major glycosidase expressed within the joints, and it is primarily produced by synovial fibroblasts. HexA subunit gene, one of the two genes encoding for the alpha or the beta chains of hexosaminidase, was characterized by the strongest gene expression. It was followed by the expression of HexB subunit gene and the β-D-glucuronidase gene, while the expression of hyaluronidase-1 gene and the klotho gene was rather low in both synovial fibroblasts and synovial membrane samples. Tumor growth factor-β1 profoundly downregulated glycosidase expression in both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis derived synovial fibroblasts. In addition, expression of cartilage-degrading glycosidases was moderately downregulated by proinflammatory

  13. A rare cause of deep peroneal nerve palsy due to compression of synovial cyst – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Mehmet; Ozkan, Korhan; Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Bilsel, Kerem; Turkmen, Ismail; Senol, Serkan; Sarar, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Synovial cyst is a rare cause of compression neuropathy and its differential diagnosis can be misleading. PRESENTATION OF CASE This article presents clinical, radiological, and histological findings of deep peroneal nerve palsy due to compression of a synovial cyst in a 30-year-old patient admitted with sudden drop foot. DISCUSSION Focal nerve entrapment in lower extremity due to synovial cystis a rare entity. Differential diagnosis is important. Surgical excision is the main treatment method with high success rate. CONCLUSION Synovial cyst compression which can be treated easily with surgical excision should be considered in rapidly progressed drop foot. PMID:23567545

  14. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluids and their relation with immunological and inflammatory mediators in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bensouyad, A; Hollander, A P; Dularay, B; Bedwell, A E; Cooper, R A; Hutton, C W; Dieppe, P A; Elson, C J

    1990-01-01

    The dimethylmethylene blue assay showed higher concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in many synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in autologous sera or sera or synovial fluids from normal subjects. These results were taken to suggest that the glycosaminoglycans in RA synovial fluid were abnormally raised and derived from cartilage. To discover what stimulated such glycosaminoglycan release in RA joints relations were sought between synovial fluid concentrations of glycosaminoglycans and immunological and inflammatory mediators. It was shown that RA synovial fluid glycosaminoglycan concentrations correlated with synovial fluid C3d concentrations but not with synovial fluid rheumatoid factor concentrations, polymorphonuclear leucocyte numbers, myeloperoxidase concentrations, or the ability of the synovial fluids to release free radicals from normal polymorphonuclear leucocytes. A correlation was found between synovial fluid C3d and interleukin 1 concentrations as judged by both lymphocyte activating factor activity and immunoassay, but no significant correlation was detected between interleukin 1 and glycosaminoglycan concentrations. It is suggested that in the rheumatoid joint locally produced cytokines, in addition to interleukin 1, together stimulate glycosaminoglycan release from cartilage and render it vulnerable to attack by other processes. PMID:2344209

  15. Disseminated Scopulariopsis-culture is required to distinguish from other disseminated mould infections.

    PubMed

    Swick, Brian L; Reddy, Sindhura C; Friedrichs, Amanda; Stone, Mary Seabury

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in severely immunocompromised bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. Scopulariopsis is a soil saprophytic mould that is typically associated with onychomycosis and only rarely associated with disseminated infection with cutaneous findings. We describe a case of fatal disseminated Scopulariopsis infection in a 56-year-old neutropenic male with chronic myelogenous leukemia status post peripheral blood stem cell transplant that was clinically and histologically indistinguishable from disseminated Aspergillus, Fusarium or zygomycosis infection. Distinguishing the above listed fungi by tissue culture is crucial because disseminated Scopulariopsis is difficult to eradicate and associated with a high mortality rate in the immunocompromised BMT patient population. PMID:19615008

  16. [Respiratory failure in disseminated sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Popova, L M; Avdiunina, I A; Alferova, V P

    2000-01-01

    The development and patterns of respiratory failure (RF) are analyzed in 9 patients with disseminated sclerosis (DS). Forced ventilation of the lungs was carried out with consideration for main location of the process. Relationship between patterns of respiratory disorders and neuroanatomy of respiratory regulation is discussed. Involvement of the corticospinal routes is paralleled by dissociation during functional pulmonary tests: spontaneous volumes are less than controlled inspirations. The most severe symptom complexes were observed in RF of predominantly bulbar localization: respiratory anarchy, blocking of airways caused by impaired swallowing, impaired mechanism of coughing reflex, loss of spontaneous respiration, sometimes apnea during sleeping. Involvement of the respiratory nuclei of medullary respiratory center and airways and of the corticonuclear routes of caudal cranial nerves causes the development of a triad of symptoms: glossopharyngolaryngeal paralysis, dysfunction of respiratory nuclei of medulla oblongata, and decreased sensitivity of respiratory center to CO2. Aspiration complications caused by dysphagia are characteristic of bulbar DS. Respiratory function in 5 patients without clinical picture of RF are specially discussed. The authors emphasize unfavorable prognostic significance of signs of extracorporeal obstruction indicating the probability of RF long before its manifestation. Special attention is paid to early diagnosis of symptoms of coming RF when evaluating the status of patients with DS during treatment. Timely use of respiratory resuscitation methods reduces the mortality and ensures a good chance for remissions with recovery of respiratory function, which are characteristic of RF. PMID:11014001

  17. GOES satellite time code dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The GOES time code system, the performance achieved to date, and some potential improvements in the future are discussed. The disseminated time code is originated from a triply redundant set of atomic standards, time code generators and related equipment maintained by NBS at NOAA's Wallops Island, VA satellite control facility. It is relayed by two GOES satellites located at 75 W and 135 W longitude on a continuous basis to users within North and South America (with overlapping coverage) and well out into the Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas. Downlink frequencies are near 468 MHz. The signals from both satellites are monitored and controlled from the NBS labs at Boulder, CO with additional monitoring input from geographically separated receivers in Washington, D.C. and Hawaii. Performance experience with the received time codes for periods ranging from several years to one day is discussed. Results are also presented for simultaneous, common-view reception by co-located receivers and by receivers separated by several thousand kilometers.

  18. The dissemination of pedagogical patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-06-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns—they think pedagogical patterns can be used for capturing and transferring knowledge of teaching within the community. In this article, I analyse the results of a questionnaire and try to answer whether the creators of the pedagogical patterns have reached their vision among computer science teachers at universities around the world. The results indicate a rather high familiarity with pedagogical patterns. The attitude towards pedagogical patterns is positive among both teachers with knowledge and teachers without knowledge of pedagogical patterns. The attitude towards pedagogical patterns as a tool for further development of teaching is to some extent positive. The results show that the group with knowledge of pedagogical patterns, as well as the group with a positive attitude towards pedagogical patterns, is difficult to describe.

  19. Synovial fluid dynamics with small disc perforation in temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhan, J; Zheng, Y; Han, Y; Zhang, Z; Xi, Y; Zhu, P

    2012-10-01

    The articular disc plays an important role as a stress absorber in joint movement, resulting in stress reduction and redistribution in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The flow of synovial fluid in the TMJ may follow a regular pattern during movement of the jaw. We hypothesised that the regular pattern is disrupted when the TMJ disc is perforated. By computed tomography arthrography, we studied the upper TMJ compartment in patients with small disc perforation during jaw opening-closing at positions from 0 to 3 cm. Finite element fluid dynamic modelling was accomplished to analyse the pattern of fluid flow and pressure distribution during the movements. The results showed that the fluid flow in the upper compartment generally formed an anticlockwise circulation but with local vortexes with the jaw opening up to 2 cm. However, when the jaw opening-closing reached 3 cm, an abnormal flow field and the fluid pressure change associated with the perforation may increase the risk of perforation expansion or rupture and is unfavourable for self-repair of the perforated disc. PMID:22582815

  20. Cutaneous Metaplastic Synovial Cyst: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Hamed; Dehghani, Nima; Dehghani, Siavash; Behnia, Hossein; Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Mohajerani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cutaneous metaplastic synovial cyst (CMSC) is a rare cutaneous lesion characterized by a tender subcutaneous nodule, which usually occurs at the site of previous surgical or local trauma. Histologically, the lesion includes a cystic structure with villous-like projections and a lining mimicking hyperplastic synovium. Case Presentation: We reported the first case of CMSC which developed at the surgical incision site of treatment of a maxillofacial fracture. In addition, we reviewed English literature to evaluate all previously reported CMSC cases and discussed its clinical and histopathological features and etiology. From 1987 to now, reviewing the English literature about CMSC includes 17 studies that described 28 cases, and our presented case was the 29th. There was no sex predilection and age of patients ranged from 7 to 82 years, but most of them were over 40 years. We can see this lesion in any site of the body and hand/arm is the most prevalent involved region (28% cases). Most of the patients had a history of previous local trauma or operation in the involved area. Conclusions: Although the actual etiology of CMSC remains unclear, trauma, as the most probable etiologic factor, plays a role in development of CMSC. Surgical excision of the lesion is the preferable treatment choice and rate of recurrence is low. PMID:26756011

  1. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF SYNOVIAL OSTEOCHONDROMATOSIS OF THE HIP

    PubMed Central

    Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Ono, Nelson Keiske; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Junior, Walter Ricioli; Souza, Bruno Gonçalves Schrödere; Dani, William Soltau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to show the results achieved in the treatment of hip osteochondromatosis by arthroscopy. Methods: Six patients submitted to hip arthroscopy for synovial osteochondromatosis have been assessed for pre- and postoperative function and pain. The time of preoperative complaint ranged from nine to 48 months, in an average of 28.2 months and the follow-up ranged from eight to 25 months (mean: 17.1 months). Mean age was 45.1 years, with four female patients (66.6%) and the right side affected in five cases (83.3%). Results: Concerning the results according to Byrd-modified Harris' criteria, the mean score evolved from 54.1 to 90.4, and the mean score on the face expressions scale for pain assessment ranged from 1.7 to 5.1. Conclusion: arthroscopy is a good alternative for hip osteochondromatosis treatment, although longer follow-up times are required to strictly stating this. The results found so far are encouraging, constituting a littleinvasive procedure allowing good recovery. PMID:27022513

  2. Interleukin-29 Enhances Synovial Inflammation and Cartilage Degradation in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingxiao; Peng, Qiuyue; Xuan, Wenhua; Feng, Xiaoke; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng; Xue, Meilang

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that IL-29 was an important proinflammatory cytokine in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation also contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of IL-29 on cytokine production and cartilage degradation in OA. The mRNA levels of IL-29 and its specific receptor IL-28Ra in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were significantly increased in OA patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). In the serum, IL-29 protein levels were higher in OA patients than those in HC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both IL-29 and IL-28Ra were dramatically elevated in OA synovium compared to HC; synovial fibroblasts (FLS) and macrophages were the main IL-29-producing cells in OA synovium. Furthermore, recombinant IL-29 augmented the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in OA FLS and increased cartilage degradation when ex vivo OA cartilage explant was coincubated with OA FLS. Finally, in OA FLS, IL-29 dominantly activated MAPK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), but not Jak-STAT and AKT signaling pathway as examined by western blot. In conclusion, IL-29 stimulates inflammation and cartilage degradation by OA FLS, indicating that this cytokine is likely involved in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:27433031

  3. Next generation sequencing in synovial sarcoma reveals novel gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Vlenterie, Myrella; Hillebrandt-Roeffen, Melissa H S; Flucke, Uta E; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Tops, Bastiaan B J; Kamping, Eveline J; Pfundt, Rolph; de Bruijn, Diederik R H; Geurts van Kessel, Ad H M; van Krieken, Han J H J M; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M H

    2015-10-27

    Over 95% of all synovial sarcomas (SS) share a unique translocation, t(X;18), however, they show heterogeneous clinical behavior. We analyzed multiple SS to reveal additional genetic alterations besides the translocation. Twenty-six SS from 22 patients were sequenced for 409 cancer-related genes using the Comprehensive Cancer Panel (Life Technologies, USA) on an Ion Torrent platform. The detected variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and compared to matched normal DNAs. Copy number variation was assessed in six tumors using the Oncoscan array (Affymetrix, USA). In total, eight somatic mutations were detected in eight samples. These mutations have not been reported previously in SS. Two of these, in KRAS and CCND1, represent known oncogenic mutations in other malignancies. Additional mutations were detected in RNF213, SEPT9, KDR, CSMD3, MLH1 and ERBB4. DNA alterations occurred more often in adult tumors. A distinctive loss of 6q was found in a metastatic lesion progressing under pazopanib, but not in the responding lesion. Our results emphasize t(X;18) as a single initiating event in SS and as the main oncogenic driver. Our results also show the occurrence of additional genetic events, mutations or chromosomal aberrations, occurring more frequently in SS with an onset in adults. PMID:26415226

  4. Interleukin-29 Enhances Synovial Inflammation and Cartilage Degradation in Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingxiao; Peng, Qiuyue; Xuan, Wenhua; Feng, Xiaoke; Kong, Xiangqing; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng; Xue, Meilang; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that IL-29 was an important proinflammatory cytokine in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation also contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of IL-29 on cytokine production and cartilage degradation in OA. The mRNA levels of IL-29 and its specific receptor IL-28Ra in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were significantly increased in OA patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). In the serum, IL-29 protein levels were higher in OA patients than those in HC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both IL-29 and IL-28Ra were dramatically elevated in OA synovium compared to HC; synovial fibroblasts (FLS) and macrophages were the main IL-29-producing cells in OA synovium. Furthermore, recombinant IL-29 augmented the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in OA FLS and increased cartilage degradation when ex vivo OA cartilage explant was coincubated with OA FLS. Finally, in OA FLS, IL-29 dominantly activated MAPK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), but not Jak-STAT and AKT signaling pathway as examined by western blot. In conclusion, IL-29 stimulates inflammation and cartilage degradation by OA FLS, indicating that this cytokine is likely involved in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:27433031

  5. Etiology of osteoarthritis: genetics and synovial joint development.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Linda J

    2012-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has a considerable hereditary component and is considered to be a polygenic disease. Data derived from genetic analyses and genome-wide screening of individuals with this disease have revealed a surprising trend: genes associated with OA tend to be related to the process of synovial joint development. Mutations in these genes might directly cause OA. In addition, they could also determine the age at which OA becomes apparent, the joint sites involved, the severity of the disease and how rapidly it progresses. In this Review, I propose that genetic mutations associated with OA can be placed on a continuum. Early-onset OA is caused by mutations in matrix molecules often associated with chondrodysplasias, whereas less destructive structural abnormalities or mutations confer increased susceptibility to injury or malalignment that can result in middle-age onset. Finally, mutations in molecules that regulate subtle aspects of joint development and structure lead to late-onset OA. In this Review, I discuss the genetics of OA in general, but focus on the potential effect of genetic mutations associated with OA on joint structure, the role of joint structure in the development of OA--using hip abnormalities as a model--and how understanding the etiology of the disease could influence treatment. PMID:22231237

  6. Next generation sequencing in synovial sarcoma reveals novel gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vlenterie, Myrella; Hillebrandt-Roeffen, Melissa H.S.; Flucke, Uta E.; Groenen, Patricia J.T.A.; Tops, Bastiaan B.J.; Kamping, Eveline J.; Pfundt, Rolph; de Bruijn, Diederik R.H.; van Kessel, Ad H.M. Geurts; van Krieken, Han J.H.J.M.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Over 95% of all synovial sarcomas (SS) share a unique translocation, t(X;18), however, they show heterogeneous clinical behavior. We analyzed multiple SS to reveal additional genetic alterations besides the translocation. Twenty-six SS from 22 patients were sequenced for 409 cancer-related genes using the Comprehensive Cancer Panel (Life Technologies, USA) on an Ion Torrent platform. The detected variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and compared to matched normal DNAs. Copy number variation was assessed in six tumors using the Oncoscan array (Affymetrix, USA). In total, eight somatic mutations were detected in eight samples. These mutations have not been reported previously in SS. Two of these, in KRAS and CCND1, represent known oncogenic mutations in other malignancies. Additional mutations were detected in RNF213, SEPT9, KDR, CSMD3, MLH1 and ERBB4. DNA alterations occurred more often in adult tumors. A distinctive loss of 6q was found in a metastatic lesion progressing under pazopanib, but not in the responding lesion. Our results emphasize t(X;18) as a single initiating event in SS and as the main oncogenic driver. Our results also show the occurrence of additional genetic events, mutations or chromosomal aberrations, occurring more frequently in SS with an onset in adults. PMID:26415226

  7. Transbronchial Dissemination of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Tomoya; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Bandoh, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung cancer with transbronchial dissemination in a 73-year-old man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple bronchial mucosal nodules that existed independently of one another. We reviewed 16 previous cases of endobronchial metastasis in lung cancer. All patients were men. Among the reports that described the smoking history, most patients were smokers (6/7), and the most frequent histological type of cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (11/17). Although hematogenous and lymphogenous routes have been reported as metastatic mechanisms, no previous cases involving transbronchial dissemination have been described. Transbronchial dissemination may be an alternative pathway of endobronchial metastasis. PMID:26672760

  8. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  9. Glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovium and other tissues of rabbit knee in relation to synovial hydraulic resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-01-01

    1. The hydraulic resistance of the synovial lining of a joint, a key coupling coefficient in synovial fluid turnover, is thought to depend on the concentration of biopolymers (glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen) in the synovial intercellular spaces, because these polymers create hydraulic drag. The primary aim of this study was to obtain microscopically separated, milligram samples of the very thin synovium from eight rabbit knees, and to analyse these quantitatively for GAGs (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan) and collagen to allow comparison with published hydraulic resistance data. Synovial fluid and femoral cartilage were also studied. 2. Synovium comprised 73 +/- 3% water by weight (mean +/- S.E.M.). Of the 270 mg solid per gram of wet tissue, protein formed 136 mg (by automated amino acid analysis), and of this 94 mg was collagen by hydroxyproline analysis. From the collagen mass and fibril volume fraction (0.153 of tissue by morphometry), fibrillar specific volume was calculated to be 1.43 ml per gram of molecular collagen, and fibril water content 47% by volume. 3. The concentration of chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4S) plus chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6S), measured by capillary zone electrophoresis was 0.55 mg per gram of synovium--much greater than in synovial fluid (0.04 mg g-1) and much less than in cartilage (27.8 mg g-1). The C4S/C6S ratio in synovium (7.3) differed from that in cartilage (0.7), indicating that different proteoglycans predominated in synovium. The heparan sulphate concentration, assayed by radioactive Ruthenium Red binding, was 0.92 mg per gram of synovium (synovial fluid, 0.08 mg g-1; cartilage, 0.72 mg g-1). 4. In contrast to sulphated GAGs, the hyaluronan concentration was highest in synovial fluid (3.53 mg g-1; biotinylated G1 domain binding assay). The concentration in synovial interstitium was only 0.56 mg g-1 (corrected for interstitial volume fraction, 0.66), even though there is open contact between synovial

  10. Intra-Articular Synovial Sarcomas: Incidence and Differentiating Features from Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Nordemar, D.; Öberg, J.; Brosjö, O.; Skorpil, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and investigate if any radiological variables can differentiate them from localized (unifocal) pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and if multivariate data analysis could be used as a complementary clinical tool. Methods. Magnetic resonance images and radiographs of 7 cases of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and 14 cases of localized PVNS were blindedly reviewed. Variables analyzed were size, extra-articular growth, tumor border, blooming, calcification, contrast media enhancement, effusion, bowl of grapes sign, triple signal intensity sign, synovial low signal intensity, synovitis, age, and gender. Univariate and multivariate data analysis, the method of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. Register data on all synovial sarcomas were extracted for comparison. Results. The incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas was 3%. PLS-DA showed that age, effusion, size, and gender were the most important factors for discrimination between sarcomas and localized PVNS. No sarcomas were misclassified as PVNS with PLS-DA, while some PVNS were misclassified as sarcomas. Conclusions. The most important variables in differentiating intra-articular sarcomas from localized PVNS were age, effusion, size, and gender. Multivariate data analysis can be helpful as additive information to avoid a biopsy, if the tumor is classified as most likely being PVNS. PMID:26819567

  11. [LE cells in synovial fluid: prevalence and diagnostic usefulness in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Białkowska-Puszczewicz, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of LE cells in synovial fluid and their importance for the diagnosis of rheumatic disease. Synovial fluid was obtained from 631 patients: 31 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 337 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with Still's disease, 9 with systemic scleroderma (SS), 27 with the overlap syndrome (RA/SLE), 132 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 57 with Reiter's syndrome, and 34 with psoriatic arthritis (PA). The fluid was centrifuged, precipitate smears were done and were May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained for cytologic assessment. The supernatant was collected for antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Physicochemical and serologic properties of the synovial fluid were routinely determined. All synovial fluids demonstrated signs of inflammation. The presence of LE cells was ascertained in five patients with SLE and nine patients with the overlap syndrome. In these cases, LE cells were accompanied by ANA. In addition, hematoxylin bodies were revealed in SLE patients. LE cells were observed in 2.6% of patients with RA but were not accompanied by ANA. Patients with SS, Still's disease, AS, Reiter's syndrome, and PA tested negative for LE cells. It appears from these results that LE cells are rarely present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic diseases. In contrast, they occur in more than 40% of patients with the overlap syndrome and may thus be regarded as important for the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:21365954

  12. Assessment of glycosaminoglycan concentration in equine synovial fluid as a marker of joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J L; Bertone, A L; McClain, H

    1995-01-01

    A modification of a colorimetric assay was used to determine synovial fluid total and individual sulphated-glycosaminoglycan concentration in various clinical presentations of joint disease in horses. Concentrations of synovial fluid and serum sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) were measured by the 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) dye assay in normal horses (n = 49), horses with acute (n = 26) or chronic (n = 27) joint disease (defined by clinical, radiographic, and clinicopathological parameters), and horses with cartilaginous lesions at diagnostic arthroscopy, but with normal radiographs and synovial fluid (n = 9). Horses with acute joint disease were subdivided into moderate acute (n = 21) and severe acute (n = 5) joint disease on the basis of synovial fluid analysis and clinical examination. Horses with chronic joint disease were subdivided into mild chronic (n = 9), moderate chronic (n = 10), and severe chronic (n = 8) joint disease on the basis of synovial fluid analysis, clinical examination, and radiographic findings. The concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) and keratan sulphate (KS) were analyzed in each sample following sequential enzymatic digestion of the sample with chondroitinase or keratanase. In addition, the concentration of hyaluronate (HA) in each sample was determined by a colorimetric assay following digestion of the sample with microbial hyaluronidase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8521354

  13. Synovial distribution of “systemically” administered acetylsalicylic acid in the isolated perfused equine distal limb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated synovial concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) in the equine fetlock joint following systemic administration of ASA. Salicylates were chosen because SA is the only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for which threshold levels exist for plasma and urine in equine sports. To avoid animal experiments, the study was conducted using an ex vivo model of the isolated perfused equine distal limb in combination with plasma concentrations obtained from literature. Salicylate concentrations in the joint were determined using microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Any anti-inflammatory effect of synovial ASA concentrations was assessed using an ASA EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) determined in equine whole blood. Results The ASA concentration in the synovial fluid (n = 6) reached a maximum of 4 μg/mL, the mean concentration over the entire perfusion period was 2 μg/mL. Maximum SA concentration was 17 μg/mL, the average was 14 μg/mL. ASA and SA concentration in the synovial fluid exceeded systemic concentrations 2 h and 3.5 h after “systemic” administration, respectively. Conclusions ASA and SA accumulated in the in the synovial fluid of the ex vivo model despite decreasing systemic concentrations. This suggests a prolonged anti-inflammatory effect within the joint that remains to be further elucidated. PMID:23531229

  14. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine--pathological considerations and surgical strategy.

    PubMed

    Ganau, Mario; Ennas, Franco; Bellisano, Giulia; Ganau, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Faa, Gavino; Maleci, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are a rare cause of degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, with thecal sac or nerve root compression. True synovial cysts have a thick wall lined by synovial cells, containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes, and giant cells. In contrast, pseudo-cysts lack specialized epithelium, have a collagenous capsule filled with myxoid material, and may be classified into ganglion cysts, originating from periarticular fibrous tissues, and ligamentous cysts, arising from the ligamentum flavum or even from the posterior longitudinal ligament. Here we present the surgical series of the Chair of Neurosurgery at the University of Cagliari (Italy) including a total of 17 LSCs. Surgical technique consisted of facet sparing excision of LSC, achieved by simple hemilaminectomy/laminectomy, and diagnosis was always confirmed by histological specimen examination, which detected the typical synovial epithelium, the intracystic presence of hemosiderin, histiocytes, and calcifications. Further immunohistochemical investigation revealed positive staining for cytokeratin: CK5, CK6, and AE1/AE3. Clinically, our cohort experienced rapid and complete resolution of symptoms, without perioperative complications, or recurrence of cysts or vertebral instability at a median follow up of 28 months, when the MacNab score was generally excellent. A review of the literature, retrieving articles published from 1973, collected a total of 101 articles concerning all the cases of LSC scientifically described to date. Both clinical and histological findings described in our study support the theory of degenerative microtraumatic pathogenesis of synovial cysts. PMID:23438660

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation after multiple honeybee stings.

    PubMed

    V, Dharma Rao; Bodepudi, Sravan Kumar; Krishna, Murali

    2014-01-01

    Honeybee venom contains apitoxin which can cause anaphylaxis, cardiovascular collapse and death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is rare following honeybee stings. We describe the case of a farmer who developed this complication. PMID:25668084

  16. [Combined chemotherapy of disseminated skin melanoma].

    PubMed

    Dement'eva, N P; Voznyĭ, E K; Koroleva, L A

    1978-01-01

    The author's experience with nitrosomethylurea+prospidine treatment in 37 patients having disseminated melanoma is described. The mentioned scheme of the combination therapy is proved to be effective. PMID:741699

  17. Disseminated Trichosporonosis Caused by Trichosporon loubieri

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Francisco M.; Barouch, Dan H.; Coakley, Eoin P.; Baden, Lindsey R.

    2003-01-01

    Trichosporonosis is an emerging invasive fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients; a case of disseminated infection caused by Trichosporon loubieri presented confirms its role as a human pathogen. PMID:14605194

  18. Functional genomics identifies drivers of medulloblastoma dissemination.

    PubMed

    Mumert, Michael; Dubuc, Adrian; Wu, Xiaochong; Northcott, Paul A; Chin, Steven S; Pedone, Carolyn A; Taylor, Michael D; Fults, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise in the cerebellum in children and disseminate via the cerebrospinal fluid to the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. Challenged by the poor prognosis for patients with metastatic dissemination, pediatric oncologists have developed aggressive treatment protocols, combining surgery, craniospinal radiation, and high-dose chemotherapy, that often cause disabling neurotoxic effects in long-term survivors. Insights into the genetic control of medulloblastoma dissemination have come from transposon insertion mutagenesis studies. Mobilizing the Sleeping Beauty transposon in cerebellar neural progenitor cells caused widespread dissemination of typically nonmetastatic medulloblastomas in Patched(+/-) mice, in which Shh signaling is hyperactive. Candidate metastasis genes were identified by sequencing the insertion sites and then mapping these sequences back to the mouse genome. To determine whether genes located at transposon insertion sites directly caused medulloblastomas to disseminate, we overexpressed candidate genes in Nestin(+) neural progenitors in the cerebella of mice by retroviral transfer in combination with Shh. We show here that ectopic expression of Eras, Lhx1, Ccrk, and Akt shifted the in vivo growth characteristics of Shh-induced medulloblastomas from a localized pattern to a disseminated pattern in which tumor cells seeded the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. PMID:22875024

  19. On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for Metal-on-Metal hip tribology.

    PubMed

    Myant, Connor; Cann, Philippa

    2014-06-01

    Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal-metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed. PMID:24462265

  20. Giant primary synovial sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ukekwe, F I; Ezemba, N; Olusina, D B; Igbokwe, U; Ngene, C

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial sarcoma is a very rare tumor of the mediastinum, which is unreported in the entire subcontinent of West Africa, and presents daunting challenges from diagnosis to management with lack of standard management strategies. We present a case of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum, in a 22-year-old Nigerian lady who presented with cough, chest pain, and pleural effusion. Chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography on admission showed a left-sided huge mass in the left anterior mediastinum with no metastasis to the contralateral pleural cavity. Complete resection of the mediastinal tumor was done and histologic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed a diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma. However, 10 months postoperation she represented with chest pain, productive cough and a repeat CXR showed multiple left pulmonary nodules. She received two cycles of docetaxel and gemcitabine chemotherapy, but declined further treatment until her demise 8 months later. PMID:26856298

  1. Giant extra-articular synovial osteochondromatosis of the left proximal thigh: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YU, XIAOLONG; LI, WEI; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; ZOU, FAN; LIU, HUCHENG

    2015-01-01

    Extra-articular synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare disease. The present study describes the case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from extra-articular synovial osteochondromatosis of the left proximal thigh with limited hip movement. The patient underwent a total tumor resection and recovered well. The tumor was 15×14×5 cm3 in size and located in the muscle gap. After a 3-month follow-up, the patient's left hip motion was improved and a computed tomography scan demonstrated no evidence of recurrence. However, the long-term efficacy of this procedure requires continuous observation of the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a giant extra-articular synovial osteochondromatosis of the proximal thigh muscle gap. PMID:26788172

  2. Stifle synovial cyst in a Labrador Retriever with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Franklin, A D; Havlicek, M; Krockenberger, M B

    2011-01-01

    A seven-year-old Labrador Retriever dog was presented with the complaint of chronic left hindlimb lameness. A diagnosis of partial rupture of the left cranial cruciate ligament with concurrent cranio-medial synovial cyst formation was made. This cystic structure was assumed to be communicating with the stifle joint. There was no evidence of a meniscal tear, but superficial fibrillation of the axial border was present. Surgical excision of the cyst with concurrent treatment of the cranial cruciate ligament deficiency by tibial tuberosity advancement was performed with a successful outcome. Whilst commonly encountered in humans, synovial cysts are uncommon in dogs. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of synovial cyst formation in the stifle of a dog. PMID:21243179

  3. Minimally Invasive Approach For Extraforaminal Synovial Cyst L5-S1

    PubMed Central

    Torres Campa-Santamarina, Jose; Towne, Sara; Alimi, Marjan; Härtl, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms from synovial cysts are produced by neural compression in the spinal canal or the foramen. Few cases of extraforaminal synovial cyst have been published in the literature. This is a case report of a 65-year-old female who presented with a three-month history of sciatic pain and no relief with conservative treatment. MRI showed a left-sided extraforaminal synovial cyst at L5-S1 with compression of the L5 nerve root at the lateral portion of the foramen. Minimally invasive surgery for resection was performed using an extraforaminal tubular microscopic endoscopy-assisted approach. The patient improved clinically and remained symptom-free for the entire follow-up of 30 months. PMID:26623217

  4. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  5. ADAMTS-4 activity in synovial fluid as a biomarker of inflammation and effusion

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S.; Evans, H.; Wright, K.; van Niekerk, L.; Caterson, B.; Richardson, J.B.; Kumar, K.H.S.; Kuiper, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To evaluate the potential of ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase -1) activity in synovial fluid (SF) as a biomarker of knee injury and joint disease. Design We have measured ADAMTS-4 activity in the synovial fluid of 170 orthopaedic patients with different degrees of joint pathology, using a commercial ADAMTS-4 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) substrate assay. Patients were classified at arthroscopy as (i) macroscopically normal, (ii) with an injury of the meniscus, anterior cruciate ligament or chondral/osteochondral defects or (iii) with osteoarthritis, and the influence of independent factors (age, patient group, effusion and synovial inflammation) on ADAMTS-4 activity levels was assessed. Results In most patients (106/170) ADAMTS-4 activity was undetectable; ADAMTS-4 ranged from 0 to 2.8 ng/mL in synovial fluid from patients with an injury, 0–4.1 ng/mL in osteoarthritic patients and 4.0–12.3 ng/mL in patients with large effusions. Four independent variables each significantly influenced ADAMTS-4 activity in synovial fluid (all P < 0.001): age (concordance = 0.69), presence of osteoarthritis (OA) (concordance = 0.66), level of effusion (concordance = 0.78) and inflammation (concordance = 0.68). Not only did effusion influence the amount of ADAMTS-4 activity most strongly, but it also did this in an ordered manner (P < 0.001). Conclusions The main finding of this study is that ADAMTS-4 levels in synovial fluid are most strongly correlated with inflammation and severity of effusion in the knee. Further study is required to determine if it could provide a useful tool to aid clinical diagnoses, indicate treatment, to monitor progression of joint degeneration or OA or alternatively the success of treatment. PMID:26003949

  6. Gene Expression Profiling in Peripheral Blood Cells and Synovial Membranes of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Alessandro; Patuzzo, Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Elisa; Argentino, Giuseppe; Beri, Ruggero; Lunardi, Claudio; Puccetti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis whose pathogenesis is poorly understood; it is characterized by bone erosions and new bone formation. The diagnosis of PsA is mainly clinical and diagnostic biomarkers are not yet available. The aim of this work was to clarify some aspects of the disease pathogenesis and to identify specific gene signatures in paired peripheral blood cells (PBC) and synovial biopsies of patients with PsA. Moreover, we tried to identify biomarkers that can be used in clinical practice. Methods PBC and synovial biopsies of 10 patients with PsA were used to study gene expression using Affymetrix arrays. The expression values were validated by Q-PCR, FACS analysis and by the detection of soluble mediators. Results Synovial biopsies of patients showed a modulation of approximately 200 genes when compared to the biopsies of healthy donors. Among the differentially expressed genes we observed the upregulation of Th17 related genes and of type I interferon (IFN) inducible genes. FACS analysis confirmed the Th17 polarization. Moreover, the synovial trascriptome shows gene clusters (bone remodeling, angiogenesis and inflammation) involved in the pathogenesis of PsA. Interestingly 90 genes are modulated in both compartments (PBC and synovium) suggesting that signature pathways in PBC mirror those of the inflamed synovium. Finally the osteoactivin gene was upregulared in both PBC and synovial biopsies and this finding was confirmed by the detection of high levels of osteoactivin in PsA sera but not in other inflammatory arthritides. Conclusions We describe the first analysis of the trancriptome in paired synovial tissue and PBC of patients with PsA. This study strengthens the hypothesis that PsA is of autoimmune origin since the coactivity of IFN and Th17 pathways is typical of autoimmunity. Finally these findings have allowed the identification of a possible disease biomarker, osteoactivin, easily detectable in PsA serum. PMID

  7. Joint aspiration and injection and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses: (1) the indications, the technical principles and the expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid; and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration, although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique requires a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation is associated with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count, and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear: mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allow a precise diagnosis of gout and of calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. PMID:19393565

  8. [Primary Synovial Sarcoma in the Anterior Mediastinum;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Naoki; Shiono, Satoshi; Katahira, Masato; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Abiko, Masami; Ogata, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    We report a rare case of synovial sarcoma in the anterior mediastinum. A 43-year-old man consulted our hospital with a complaint of dyspnea and chest discomfort. Chest computed tomography revealed an anterior mediastinal mass. Small open biopsy was performed, and the pathological examination revealed spindle-shaped cells with severe atypia. Tumor resection was performed. On pathology, fascicular and storiform patterns of spindle-shaped cells with severe atypia were noted. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, vimentin, Bcl -2 and CD99, and the amplification of SYT-SSX fusion gene was also found. Therefore it was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma. PMID:27246137

  9. Descriptions of therapeutic arthrocenthesis and of synovial fluid in a Nahuatl text from prehispanic Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Segovia, D

    1980-06-01

    Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison. PMID:7416821

  10. Descriptions of therapeutic arthrocenthesis and of synovial fluid in a Nahuatl text from prehispanic Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon-Segovia, D

    1980-01-01

    Paracelsus is considered to have been the first to record the viscid quality of the synovial fluid. However, his contemporary Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar who came to Mexico shortly after the Spanish conquest, obtained from elderly Aztec Indians who spoke only Nahuatl the descriptions of therapeutic arthrocentesis and of the viscid nature of the synovial fluid. They compared the fluid from the knee joint to the viscid fluid from the leaves of the nopal cactus (Opuntia sp.). We here record their description and confirm the accuracy of their comparison. Images PMID:7416821

  11. Immunohistological analysis of the synovial membrane: search for predictors of the clinical course in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Soden, M; Rooney, M; Whelan, A; Feighery, C; Bresnihan, B

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistological features which might predict the clinical course and outcome of rheumatoid arthritis were sought by examining multiple synovial membrane samples obtained by needle biopsy from the knee joints of 57 patients who had not received disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Clinical measurements, but not biopsies, were repeated one year and three years after starting treatment. A correlation between both the intensity of synovial lining layer thickening and mononuclear cell infiltration and the clinical status at the time of biopsy was seen. After three years of treatment the correlations were maintained in patients who had presented and persisted with milder disease but not in patients who had presented with more active disease. PMID:1958087

  12. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  13. Interleukin-2 in rheumatoid arthritis: production of and response to interleukin-2 in rheumatoid synovial fluid, synovial tissue and peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Pope, R M; Fischbach, M; Darnell, B; Baron, S; Talal, N

    1985-01-01

    Several aspects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) generation and function were studied employing mononuclear cells from synovial fluid (SF), synovial tissue (ST) and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Decreased PHA stimulated IL-2 production by lymphocytes from rheumatoid ST, SF (P less than 0.02), and PB (P less than 0.01) was observed when compared to normal blood and SF of patients with gout. The proliferative response of rheumatoid lymphocyte blasts exposed to exogenous IL-2 was also defective (P less than 0.05-0.001). This defect was greater in SF than in rheumatoid PB (P less than 0.05-0.001). In addition to the proliferative response, the effect of IL-2 on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production was also examined. Rheumatoid lymphocytes from both PB and SF produced less IFN-gamma after overnight treatment with IL-2 than did normal PB lymphocytes. This decreased IFN-gamma induction was discordant with the excellent enhancement by IL-2 of natural killer activity. Removal of adherent cells in synovial fluid did not correct this deficit. Abnormalities in the biology of IL-2 and IFN-gamma suggest that impaired T cell function could contribute to the immunopathogenesis of RA. PMID:3921298

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: bacterial diversity in temporomandibular joint synovial fluid in comparison with immunological and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Olsen-Bergem, H; Kristoffersen, A K; Bjørnland, T; Reseland, J E; Aas, J A

    2016-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in up to 80% of affected children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid, and to compare this with clinical and immunological findings in children with JIA, adults with persistent JIA, and adults with rheumatoid arthritis, in order to detect whether bacteria contribute to inflammation in TMJ arthritis. Synovial fluid and skin swab samples were collected from 30 patients (54 TMJs). Bacterial detection was performed using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Bacterial DNA was detected in 31 TMJs (57%) in 19 patients (63%). A positive statistically significant correlation was registered between bacterial DNA detected in TMJ synovial fluid and the following factors: total protein concentration in synovial fluid, interleukin 1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and adiponectin, as well as the duration of the general medical disease. Fourteen different bacterial species were detected in synovial fluid. Bacterial DNA in TMJ synovial fluid without contamination was detected in more than 50% of the patients. Studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of this bacterial DNA in synovial fluid with regard to TMJ arthritis. PMID:26554824

  15. Identification of the advanced glycation end products N -carboxymethyllysine in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Drinda, S; Franke, S; Canet, C; Petrow, P; Brauer, R; Huttich, C; Stein, G; Hein, G

    2002-01-01

    Background: Generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an inevitable process in vivo and can be accelerated under pathological conditions such as oxidative stress. In serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) raised AGE levels have been found. Objective: To determine the presence of N -carboxymethyllysine (CML; marker of oxidative stress) in RA synovial tissue by immunohistology. Methods: Frozen synovial tissue samples from 10 patients with RA and eight controls (four patients without joint disease and four patients with osteoarthritis (OA)) were treated with rabbit-anti-CML-IgG and goat-antirabbit-IgG. Immunostaining was visualised by streptavidine-alkaline phosphatase (chromogen fuchsin). Cell differentiation was performed with antibodies against CD68, CD45RO, and CD20. Results: CML was detected in the synovial lining, sublining, and endothelium in 10/10 RA and 4/4 OA synovial specimens. In RA some macrophages (CD68+) and T cells (CD45RO+) showed positive immunostaining for CML, whereas B cells were negative. Staining in OA synovial sublining was weak compared with RA. Conclusions: CML was detected for the first time in RA and OA synovial tissue. Different patterns of immunostaining in RA and OA and the presence of CML on macrophages and T cells, suggest a role for CML in the pathogenesis of RA. This might be due to presentation of new epitopes which can maintain or even trigger an autoimmune response. PMID:12006318

  16. Effect of Toll-Like Receptor 4 on Synovial Injury of Temporomandibular Joint in Rats Caused by Occlusal Interference

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jingjing; Yang, Yingying; Sun, Shuzhen; Xie, Jianli; Lin, Xuefen; Ji, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Synovitis is an important disease that causes intractable pain in TMJ. Some investigations suggested that the increasing expression of IL-1β secreted by synovial lining cells plays an important role in synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction in TMJ. In our previous research, the results demonstrated that TLR4 is involved in the expression of IL-1β in SFs from TMJ with lipopolysaccharide stimulation. However, the inflammatory response that occurred in synovial membrane is not caused by bacterial infection. In the current study, we investigated whether or not TLR4 participates in the inflammatory responses and the expression of IL-1β in synovial membrane of rats induced by occlusal interference. The results showed that obvious inflammation changes were observed in the synovial membranes and the expression of TLR4 and IL-1β was increased at both mRNA and protein levels in the occlusal interference rats. In addition, the inflammation reactions and the increased expression of IL-1β could be restrained by treatment with TAK-242, a blocker of TLR4 signaling. The results prompted us that the activation of TLR4 may be involved in the inflammatory reactions and increased expression of IL-1β in patients with synovitis and participate in the mechanisms of the initiation and development of synovial injury by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators like IL-1β in synovial membranes. PMID:27413256

  17. Public information, dissemination, and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysts have become increasingly concerned about inaccuracies and misconceptions in the public, educational, and professional information portraying their activities, but have done little to correct these views. The present paper has two purposes in this regard. First, the paper describes some of the conditions that have given rise to these concerns. Second, and more important, the paper surveys various procedures and programs for the dissemination of public information that may correct inaccuracies and misconceptions. Special consideration is also given to issues involving (a) the assessment of the problem, (b) the content and means of dissemination, (c) the possible contributions of behavior analysts to current misunderstandings, and (d) relationships between behavior analysts and the media. The dissemination of accurate and unbiased information constitutes an important new undertaking for behavior analysis. The future of the field may depend in part on such activity. PMID:22478623

  18. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  19. Magnetic Capture of a Molecular Biomarker from Synovial Fluid in a Rat Model of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yarmola, Elena G; Shah, Yash; Arnold, David P; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Kyle D

    2016-04-01

    Biomarker development for osteoarthritis (OA) often begins in rodent models, but can be limited by an inability to aspirate synovial fluid from a rodent stifle (similar to the human knee). To address this limitation, we have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based technology to collect biomarkers from a rodent stifle, termed magnetic capture. Using a common OA biomarker--the c-terminus telopeptide of type II collagen (CTXII)--magnetic capture was optimized in vitro using bovine synovial fluid and then tested in a rat model of knee OA. Anti-CTXII antibodies were conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing polymeric particles. Using these anti-CTXII particles, magnetic capture was able to estimate the level of CTXII in 25 μL aliquots of bovine synovial fluid; and under controlled conditions, this estimate was unaffected by synovial fluid viscosity. Following in vitro testing, anti-CTXII particles were tested in a rat monoiodoacetate model of knee OA. CTXII could be magnetically captured from a rodent stifle without the need to aspirate fluid and showed tenfold changes in CTXII levels from OA-affected joints relative to contralateral control joints. Combined, these data demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of magnetic capture for post-mortem analysis of OA biomarkers in the rat. PMID:26136062

  20. Raman spectroscopy of dried synovial fluid droplets as a rapid diagnostic for knee joint damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-02-01

    Human synovial fluid droplets were investigated using drop deposition in combination with Raman spectroscopy. Following informed consent, synovial fluid was obtained from forty human patients with various severities of knee pain and/or osteoarthritis at the time of knee arthroscopy or total joint replacement. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the knee joint of each patient and stored at -80°C until examination by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Synovial fluid aspirates from the knee joint of each patient were deposited onto a clean fused silica microscope slide and the droplet dried under ambient laboratory conditions. Each droplet was illuminated by a line-focused or a ring-focused 785 nm laser. As the droplet dries, biofluid components segregated based on solubility differences and a deposit that is spatially heterogeneous was made. Spectra taken from the droplet edges and center were dominated by protein bands and showed the presence of at least two protein moieties in the droplet. Band area and band height ratios (1410 cm -1/1450 cm -1) showed the greatest change between specimens from patients with mild/early osteoarthritis compared to those with severe/late stage osteoarthritis. The greatest differences were found in the center of the droplet, which contains more soluble protein components than the edges.

  1. A new TGF-β3 controlled-released chitosan scaffold for tissue engineering synovial sheath.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Ziming; Du, Quanyin; Yu, Jiang; Wang, Aimin; Xiong, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The post-operative outcome of flexor tendon healing remains limited by flexor tendon adhesion that reduces joint range of motion. Despite improvement in different methods, peritendinous adhesion formation continues to present a formidable challenge. Recent studies showed that transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) may be the key factor to reducing adhesion formation in skin or tendon. In this study, we designed a novel type of tissue engineering synovial sheath containing TGF-β3, to prevent flexor tendon adhesion. First, to achieve a stable release of TGF-β3, chitosan microspheres, prepared by crosslinking-emulsion, were used for the delivery of TGF-β3. Second, a three-dimensional chitosan scaffold was prepared by lyophilization, and TGF-β3 microspheres were carefully introduced into the scaffold. Then, synovial cells were cultured and then seeded into the TGF-β3 loaded scaffold to produce TGF-β3 controlled-released tissue engineering synovial sheath. Tests clearly demonstrated that the scaffold has good structure and compatibility with cells. These results expand the feasibility of combinative strategies of controlled protein release and tissue-engineered synovial sheath formation. Application of this scaffold to tendon repair sites may help to prevent adhesion of tendon healing. PMID:23564463

  2. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  3. Complement-derived leukotactic factors in inflammatory synovial fluids of humans

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Peter A.; Zvaifler, Nathan J.

    1971-01-01

    A large per cent of rheumatoid synovial fluids contain chemotactic activity for rabbit granulocytes (neutrophilic). The chemotactic activity is, in large part, related to the fifth (C5) and sixth (C6) components of human complement; a combination of physical-chemical techniques indicates the activity to be attributable to C567 and C5a, a cleavage product of C5. Many rheumatoid synovial fluids contain a C5-cleaving enzyme which, on the basis of substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors, is very similar to an enzyme extractable from lysosomal granules of human and rabbit granulocytes. Inflammatory nonrheumatoid synovial fluids contain chemotactic activity that is related to cleavage products (C3a) of the third component of human complement (C3). Also found in these fluids is a C3-cleaving enzyme capable of producing C3a. Of the other synovial fluids examined, lupus fluids were remarkable by their total lack of chemotactic activity. These findings record for the first time the presence of complement-derived chemotactic factors in pathological human fluids. Images PMID:5545123

  4. Localization of /sup 99m/Tc methylene disphosphonate within synovial fluid in osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Heyman, S.; Watts, H.

    1984-08-01

    Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate bone scanning agents has been reported in a wide variety of lesions, including malignant effusions. A case of uptake of bone scanning agent within synovial fluid in a joint involved with osteosarcoma is reported.

  5. Role of the netrin system of repellent factors on synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Denk, A; Mägdefrau, U; Kaufmann, S; Bastone, P; Lowin, T; Schedel, J; Bosserhoff, A K

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the expression of repellent factors, i.e., Netrins and their receptors, may be responsible for the invasive behavior of the synovial tissue cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). This study was carried out to analyze the expression of Netrins and their receptors in synovial cells of patients with RA, OA, and control subjects without synovial inflammation. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of Netrin-1, -3, -4, Neogenin, DCC, UNC5A-D. The influence of Netrin-1 on synovial fibroblasts (SF) was analyzed by determining proliferation, migration, and their ability to organize collagen. SF expressed all repellent factors of the Netrin family. When comparing SF of healthy donors to patients with RA and OA, a stronger expression of UNC5B (4 fold) and UNC5C (769 fold) in RA and OA was found, whereas expression of the other molecules revealed no significant differences. Treating the SF-cells with recombinant Netrin-1 resulted in inhibition of migration of RA- and OA-SFs whereas control cells were not affected. The stronger expression of UNC5B and UNC5C receptors might contribute to the disordered phenotype of RA- and OA-SFs. Addition of Netrin-1 reduces the migratory ability of SFs, potentially by repulsion, as seen in neuronal cells in embryonic development. Due to its function, Netrin-1 may constitute a novel target in the treatment of OA and RA. PMID:19822088

  6. Orally incoculated Salmonella typhimurium is detected in the lymph nodes and synovial fluid of swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with illnesses from the consumption of meat products. Traditional carcass sampling techniques fail to account for contamination via atypical carcass reservoirs such as lymph nodes and synovial fluid that may harbor Salmonella. In this two-p...

  7. Local fibroblast proliferation but not influx is responsible for synovial hyperplasia in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Saito, Tetsuya; Kawahata, Kimito; Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji; Inagaki, Yutaka; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2016-02-12

    Synovial fibroblasts play crucial roles in inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). How they accumulate in the RA joints remains unclear. This study was conducted to discern whether cellular influx from the outside of the joints and local proliferation are responsible for synovial fibroblast accumulation in an animal model of RA. We found that synovial fibroblasts were identified as GFP+ cells using collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2)-GFP transgenic reporter mice. Then, bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis techniques were utilized to study the cellular influx. Irradiated wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from Col1a2-GFP mice. Col1a2-GFP and wild-type mice were conjoined for parabiosis. The transplanted mice and the parabionts were subjected to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We found no GFP+ cells in the hyperplastic synovial tissues from the transplanted mice with CAIA and from the wild-type parabionts with CAIA. Furthermore, normal and CAIA synovial tissues from Col1a2-GFP mice and from fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) transgenic mice, in which cells in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle express Azami-Green, were studied for Ki67, a cellular proliferation marker, and vimentin, a fibroblast marker, expression. The percentages of Ki67+/GFP+ and Azami-Green+/vimentin+ cells in the CAIA synovial tissues were higher than those in the untreated synovial tissues (34% vs. 0.40% and 19% vs. 0.26%, respectively). These findings indicate that local fibroblast proliferation but not cellular influx is responsible for the synovial hyperplasia in CAIA. Suppression of proliferation of the local synovial fibroblasts should be a promising treatment for RA. PMID:26806309

  8. Disseminated Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Boamah, H; Puranam, P; Sandre, R M

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram-positive, partially acid-fast, methenamine silver-positive aerobic actinomycete that is infrequently associated with nocardiosis. The relative frequency of Nocardia farcinica isolates in nocardiosis is unknown but thought to be under diagnosis. It is increasingly been recognized in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated Nocardia farcinica causing brain abscess in 55 year old immunocompetent man who was successfully treated with long term antibiotics. The present report illustrates that early detection and treatment of disseminated Nocardia farcinica can lead to a good outcome. PMID:27617207

  9. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Detection from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Blood and Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Kahani, Mahboobeh Sadat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ahamadi, Zyenab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Direct detection of microbial super antigens in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be able to guide to the design of cost-effective therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess the existence of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in the synovial fluid of patients with RA by the PCR and ELISA methods. Methods This experimental study was conducted on the synovial fluid of 103 RA patients from Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences’ Rheumatology Clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2011–2014. Bacterial cultures, polymerase chain reaction with specific primer pairs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were used. The PCR products were subjected to sequence as a confirmatory molecular method results. The data were descriptively analyzed by SPSS Version 19. Results The bacteriological study result indicated that, in four cases (3.8%) of the patients, bacterial strains were isolated. The result of PCR molecular method for staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene showed that, 42 of the patients (40.7%) tested positive for the ent A gene. The results of ELISA were positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in 51 cases (49.51%) of the patients’ synovial fluids. The results indicated that the possibility of detecting superantigen A in the SF of RA patients, but the origin of the enterotoxin A gene remained unknown. Conclusions The findings of this study may be able to alter the actual theory on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of RA patients. In addition, the results have shown the probability of an endogenous origin for the involved superantigen A in RA patients’ synovial fluids. PMID:27053990

  10. Identification of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis and Correlation with Radiographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Monibi, Farrah; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron; Garner, Bridget; Bal, Sonny; Cook, James L

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a costly and debilitating condition that is typically not diagnosed early enough to prevent progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synovial fluid from knees with and without OA for potential markers of joint inflammation and degradation and to correlate these findings with radiographic severity of disease. With Institutional Review Board approval, synovial fluid samples were collected before the patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Control knees (n = 3) were patients younger than 30 years of age with no history of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, or meniscal injury, and no surgical history for either knee. Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine radiographic OA severity using the modified Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid samples from 18 patients (21 knees) were analyzed using a multiplex assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.013), IL-8 (p < 0.024), and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of OA patients compared with normal patients. The radiographic score was significantly higher in patients with OA compared with normal knees (p < 0.002). MMP-1 had a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5. IL-6 had a strong positive correlation with IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 had a moderate positive correlation with IL-6 and a strong positive correlation with IL-8. Radiographic scores had a strong positive correlation with IL-6 and IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MCP-1. These data provide novel and clinically relevant information for the investigation of synovial fluid biomarkers for knee OA. PMID:25927354

  11. Differential levels of synovial fluid aggrecan aggregate components in experimental osteoarthritis and joint disuse.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, A; Beauvais, P J; Saed-Nejad, F

    1994-07-01

    The levels of proteoglycan aggregate components (link protein, keratan sulfate epitope, and total sulfated glycosaminoglycan) were determined in the synovial fluid lavages of dogs with experimental osteoarthritis or disuse atrophy. A model of experimental osteoarthritis was created by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the right knee; studies were carried out 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. Joint disuse was studied at 4 and 8 weeks after initiation of the disuse. Recovery after disuse also was studied in joints that had 3 weeks of remobilization after 4 or 8 weeks of disuse. Synovial fluid lavages from the right knee joints of untreated animals were used as controls. The concentrations of keratan sulfate epitope, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and link protein in the synovial fluid lavages at 6 and 12 weeks after transection of the anterior cruciate were elevated compared with the control values. Similar analysis of the fluid after disuse showed that the levels of keratan sulfate epitope and sulfated glycosaminoglycan were increased compared with the control levels and the levels after transection. However, the concentration of link protein in the fluid after disuse was not significantly different from the control level. The levels of keratan sulfate epitope and sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the synovial fluid lavages after disuse with recovery were high, but the levels of link protein remained low. The results indicate that the catabolism of proteoglycan aggregates in articular cartilage during early osteoarthritis and disuse is different. The determination of keratan sulfate epitope in synovial fluid lavages appears to provide a relatively general indication of proteoglycan catabolism, whereas increased levels of link protein may be more indicative of cartilage degeneration. PMID:7520485

  12. Synovial chemokine expression and relationship with knee symptoms in patients with meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anjali; Gan, Justin; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Verma, Nikhil; Tetreault, Matthew W.; Saha, Kanta; Margulis, Arkady; Fogg, Louis; Scanzello, Carla R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with knee OA, synovitis is associated with knee pain and symptoms. We previously identified synovial mRNA expression of a set of chemokines (CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL-1, CCR7) associated with synovitis in patients with meniscal tears but without radiographic OA. CCL19 and CCR7 were also associated with knee symptoms. This study sought to validate expression of these chemokines and association with knee symptoms in more typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, many who have pre-existing OA. Design Synovial biopsies and fluid (SF) were collected from patients undergoing meniscal arthroscopy. Synovial mRNA expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was administered preoperatively. Regression analyses determined if associations between chemokine mRNA levels and KOOS scores were independent of other factors including radiographic OA. CCL19 in SF was measured by ELISA, and compared to patients with advanced knee OA and asymptomatic organ donors. Results 90% of patients had intra-operative evidence of early cartilage degeneration. CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL1, CCR7 transcripts were detected in all patients. Synovial CCL19 mRNA levels independently correlated with KOOS Activities of Daily Living scores (95% CI [-8.071, -0.331], p= 0.036), indicating higher expression was associated with more knee-related dysfunction. SF CCL19 was detected in 7 of 10 patients, compared to 4 of 10 asymptomatic donors. Conclusion In typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, synovial CCL19 mRNA expression was associated with knee-related difficulty with activities of daily living, independent of other factors including presence of radiographic knee OA. PMID:25724256

  13. Gene Expression Pattern of Cells From Inflamed and Normal Areas of Osteoarthritis Synovial Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Cécile; Dubuc, Jean-Emile; Montell, Eulàlia; Vergés, Josep; Munaut, Carine; Noël, Agnès; Henrotin, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the gene expression patterns of synovial cells from inflamed or normal/reactive areas of synovial membrane obtained from the same patient with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods At the time of total knee replacement, synovial tissues were obtained from 12 patients with knee OA. The inflammation status of the synovial membrane was characterized according to macroscopic criteria and classified as normal/reactive or inflamed. Biopsy samples were cultured separately for 7 days. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on normal/reactive and inflamed areas. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the identified genes that were differentially expressed. Results We identified 896 genes that were differentially expressed between normal/reactive and inflamed areas. The key pathways were related to inflammation, cartilage metabolism, Wnt signaling, and angiogenesis. In the inflammation network, the genes TREM1 and S100A9 were strongly up-regulated. The genes MMP3, MMP9, CTSH (cathepsin H), and CTSS (cathepsin S) were significantly up-regulated in the cartilage catabolism pathway, while the most up-regulated anabolism enzyme gene was HAS1. In the Wnt signaling pathway, the genes for Wnt-5a and low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 5 were up-regulated, while the gene FZD2 and the gene for Dkk-3 were down-regulated. Finally, STC1, which codes for a protein involved in angiogenesis, was identified as the most up-regulated gene in inflamed compared with normal/reactive areas. Conclusion This study is the first to identify different expression patterns between 2 areas of the synovial membrane from the same patient. These differences concern several key pathways involved in OA pathogenesis. This analysis also provides information regarding new genes and proteins as potential targets of treatment. PMID:24757147

  14. Changes in glycosaminoglycan concentration and synovial permeability at raised intra-articular pressure in rabbit knees.

    PubMed Central

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-01-01

    1. When intra-articular pressure is raised to pathological values (> 9 cmH2O) by saline, the hydraulic conductance of the synovial lining increases manyfold. The increase at 25 cmH2O is only partially accounted for by stretching of the tissue and has been ascribed to washout and/or dilution of interstitial matrix biopolymers. This suggestion was tested in this study by sampling synovium from control joints (rabbit knees) and from joints perfused with saline to 25 cmH2O, and analysing them quantitatively for collagen, chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan. 2. Pressure and trans-synovial flow measurements showed that in samples taken at 25 cmH2O the conductance of the synovial lining had increased by a factor of 5.23 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) over the conductance at low pressures (just above atmospheric pressure). 3. The tissue concentrations of collagen and the sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were reduced by similar amounts after perfusion to 25 cmH2O, namely to 62.8-70.4% of control. The hyaluronan concentration by contrast was not significantly reduced (106% of control). 4. The reduction in collagen concentration (fixed material) indicated increased interstitial hydration. The closely similar reduction in sulphated GAGs indicated that dilution rather than washout of these components was occurring. The hyaluronan results could be explained by synthesis in vivo at a rate of > or = 91 micrograms h-1 (ml synovium)-1 (possibly a non-basal rate under the conditions of the experiment, i.e. raised pressure and a stretched hydrated membrane). 5. Because interstitial hydraulic drag is related to biopolymer concentration by a power function, the overall matrix dilution observed here was more than sufficient to explain the rise in synovial lining hydraulic conductance at 25 cmH2O when taken in conjunction with stretching of the synovial lining (increased area, reduced thickness). PMID:8887785

  15. Factors that Influence Dissemination in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, B. T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational materials and methods in engineering education is increasing, the process of disseminating (making target groups become aware of, accept, and use) these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. The purpose of this article is to identify…

  16. Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Arielle; Branch, Andrea D

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key components of the innate immune system yet they are often the victims of attack by infectious agents. This review examines the significance of viral infection of macrophages. The central hypothesis is that macrophage tropism enhances viral dissemination and persistence, but these changes may come at the cost of reduced replication in cells other than macrophages. PMID:26949751

  17. Active Tools for Better Knowledge Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Peter; Mikulecka, Jaroslava

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a solution to the inadequacy and passivity problems with push and pull technologies could be in a combination of both, with an active component, adding more intelligence to the whole process of information and knowledge dissemination and supply. Describes basic principles of activity components in intelligent systems, and some…

  18. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY... of intended dissemination, use of the information and whether the end purpose to be served renders effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  19. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  20. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M.; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab. PMID:26291712

  1. Groupware: Improving Group Communication and Information Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Thomas; Shiigi, Clyde

    1996-01-01

    Faced with increased public expectations and decreased funding, the Hawaii Department of Education chose Lotus Notes groupware technology as an efficient means to support statewide collaboration and information dissemination among 4,200 users in 231 schools. Although initially resistant, respondents to a year-end evaluation of the project in one…

  2. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Following Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Shoichi; Sekiya, Noritaka; Takizawa, Yasunobu; Morioka, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirofumi; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Mitarai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Kamei, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found mainly in patients with respiratory or cutaneous infections, but it rarely causes disseminated infections. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of disseminated M abscessus infection. A 75-year-old Japanese woman who had been treated for 17 years with a corticosteroid for antisynthetase syndrome with antithreonyl-tRNA synthetase antibody developed swelling of her right elbow. X-ray of her right elbow joint showed osteolysis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed fluid in her right elbow joint. M abscessus grew in joint fluid and blood cultures. She was diagnosed with a disseminated M abscessus infection following septic arthritis. Antimicrobial treatment by clarithromycin, amikacin, and imipenem/cilastatin combined with surgical debridement was administered. Although blood and joint fluid cultures became negative 1 week later, the patient died at 6 weeks from starting antimicrobial treatment. We reviewed 34 cases of disseminated M abscessus infections from the literature. Most of the patients had immunosuppressive backgrounds such as transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents, hematological malignancy, and end stage renal disease. The duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was over 3 months in half of the cases. All fatal cases had positive blood cultures or use of immunosuppressive agents. Clinicians should bear in mind that mycobacterial infections including M abscessus are one of the differential diagnoses in patients with subacute arthritis and soft tissue infections. PMID:26020393

  3. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  4. CHRONIC DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS WITH PROLONGED LATENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in an ex-serviceman is described. Evidence is presented to support a latency period of over sixty years between acquisition of infection and clinical manifestation. This is the longest latency period for histoplasmosis described in the medical literature...

  5. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV.

    PubMed

    Soza, Gabriela M; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison; Ryan, Caitriona

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4(+) count of 3 cells/µL. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed. PMID:26722169

  6. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Rimtepathip, Parin P; Erickson, Alex; Katner, Harold; Bakri, Younes

    2016-01-01

    A 39-year-old female patient was presented with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed extensive granulomas throughout the abdomen. Disseminated TB was suspected, but the biopsies were negative. Due to a high degree of suspicion, a urine antigen test was performed and was strongly positive for histoplasmosis. PMID:26783441

  7. ADHD as Sequel to Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Investigators from Ruth Children's Hospital, Haifa, and Schneider Medical Center, Petah Tikuah, Israel, evaluated the long-term motor and neurocognitive outcome of 43 children hospitalized during 2002-2012 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and identified prognostic risk factors. PMID:27053911

  8. Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Ernest W.

    This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

  9. Computer software management, evaluation, and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center involving the collection, processing, and distribution of software developed under the auspices of NASA and certain other federal agencies are reported. Program checkout and evaluation, inventory control, customer services and marketing, dissemination, program maintenance, and special development tasks are discussed.

  10. Disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact, female miniature Doberman pinscher was evaluated for lethargy, intermittent back pain, and unstable gait. Physical and neurological findings included bradycardia, hypothermia, hyperesthesia, progressive and ascending ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits in all limbs. Laboratory findings and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, confirmed later by microscopy. PMID:11802671

  11. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  12. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV

    PubMed Central

    Soza, Gabriela M.; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4+ count of 3 cells/µL. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed. PMID:26722169

  13. Underlying synovial sarcoma in a patient with a history of complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Joshua; Johnston, Leslie; Brennan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma, although commonly found in the lower extremities, is considered a rare neoplasm. One of the distinguishing features of a synovial sarcoma is its initial benign features that can later turn into a more aggressive lesion. Because of the subtle early features, synovial sarcoma can be mistaken for other pathologic entities that present with clinical signs of erythema, warmth, edema, and pain. We present a patient who was originally diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome. That diagnosis and subsequent treatment of complex regional pain syndrome likely delayed the appropriate evaluation, which led to a 9-month lag in the proper diagnosis. After magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy were performed, synovial sarcoma was diagnosed. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed a transtibial amputation and chemotherapy. Although rare, neoplasm should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a clinical presentation of a painful erythematous and edematous mass. PMID:23158107

  14. Differential proteomics of the synovial membrane between bilateral and unilateral knee osteoarthritis in surgery‑induced rabbit models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilin; He, Jian; Lin, Ruhui; Liang, Jie; Luo, Qinglu

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the differential proteomics of synovial membranes between bilateral and unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), in order to elucidate the pathological biomarkers of different degrees of KOA. A total of 6 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into groups A and B (three rabbits per group). The two groups were subjected to bilateral and unilateral ACLT, respectively. A total of 6 weeks following surgery, proteins were extracted from the knee joint synovial membranes of KOA rabbits and were separated by two‑dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The differentially expressed proteins in the OA synovial membranes were selected for further analysis by linear ion trap‑Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Ten protein spots were identified to be different between the synovial membranes of the bilateral and unilateral KOA rabbits. Protein disulfide‑isomerase and creatine kinase M‑type were identified in the unilateral KOA rabbit synovial membranes. Serum albumin (three spots), lumican, α‑2‑HS‑glycoprotein and three uncharacterized proteins were identified in the synovial membranes of the bilateral KOA rabbits. The differential proteomic expression demonstrated the different biomarkers associated with bilateral and unilateral KOA, and indicated that spontaneous and secondary KOA require diverse methods of treatment; thus the underlying mechanism of KOA requires further investigation. PMID:27430254

  15. Qualitative study of young, adult, and aged Wistar rats temporomandibular synovial membrane employing light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duro, Christiano Cony; Ciena, Adriano Polican; De Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Righetti, Marta Maria Da Silva; Grisolia, Débora De Freitas; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial membrane at different ages using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Under light microscopic analysis, the TMJ structures were observed such as condyle, capsule, disk, the synovial membrane collagen type, and cells distribution. In the scanning electron microscopy, the synovial membrane surface exhibited a smooth aspect in young animals and there was an increase with ageing in the number of folds. The transmission electron microscopic analysis showed more synoviocytes in the synovial layer in the young group and still a great number of vesicles and cisterns dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the aged group. In the three groups, a dense layer of collagen fibers in the synovial layer and cytoplasmic extensions were clearly seen. It was possible to conclude that synovial membrane structures in aged group showed alterations contributing to the decrease in joint lubrication and in the sliding between disk and joint surfaces. These characteristic will reflect in biomechanics of chewing, and may cause the TMJ disorders, currently observed in clinical processes. PMID:22791633

  16. Identification of oral bacterial DNA in synovial fluid of arthritis patients with native and failed prosthetic joints

    PubMed Central

    Témoin, Stéphanie; Chakaki, Alia; Askari, Ali; El-Halaby, Ahmed; Fitzgerald, Steven; Marcus, Randall E.; Han, Yiping W.; Bissada, Nabil F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the presence of bacterial DNA in synovial fluids of native or aseptically failed prosthetic joints from patients having periodontal disease and arthritis to determine if there is bacterial spread from the oral cavity to the joints. Methods A total of 36 subjects were enrolled in the study. Among these, 11 were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 25 with osteoarthritis (OA). Eight patients with OA and are with RA had failed prostheses. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the affected hip or knee joint. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected followed by clinical periodontal examination. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the collected synovial fluid and dental plaque samples followed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA genes. Results Of the 36 subjects, bacterial DNA was detected in the synovial fluid samples from five patients (13.9%), two with rheumatoid arthritis (one native and one failed prosthetic joints) and three with osteoarthritis (one native and two failed prosthetic joints). Of these five patients, two were diagnosed with periodontitis and had identical bacterial clones (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Serratia proteamaculans, respectively) detected in both the synovial fluid and dental plaque samples. Conclusions The present findings of this bacterial DNA in synovial fluid suggest the possibility of infection translocating from the periodontal tissue to the synovium. We suggest that patients with arthritis or failed prosthetic joints be examined for the presence of periodontal diseases and that be treated accordingly. PMID:22426587

  17. Information, Vol. 1, Number 4. Teacher Corps Dissemination Project Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenau, Fred S., Ed.

    Guidelines are provided for disseminating information on teacher corps projects. Information is given on experienced disseminators such as existing networks that are available to help in planning. Suggestions are made on targeting information and marketing. (JD)

  18. Dissemination to research subjects: operationalizing investigator accountability.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik Shaul, Randi; Reid, Lynette; Essue, Beverley; Gibson, Julie; Marzinotto, Velma; Daneman, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent articles have argued from principles of bioethics for the right of research subjects to receive the results of the studies in which they have participated. We argue that accountability is a powerful tool of meso-level analysis appropriate to reasoning about answerability in research ethics, and that it captures the responsibility of researchers to disseminate study results to research subjects. We offer the following features of the research situation as relevant to the manner of dissemination to study subject, in addition to factors already proposed in the literature (risk and impact on health outcome): (a) features of the research subject in relation to identity, personal investment, disease, and community; (b) characteristics of the research study and field of inquiry in relation to certainty and significance; and (c) relationships among the research subjects and the healthcare workers involved in their care and in the research. PMID:16021788

  19. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Induced with Leukocyte Procoagulant

    PubMed Central

    Kociba, Gary J.; Griesemer, Richard A.

    1972-01-01

    The procoagulant activity of rabbit peritoneal leukocytes significantly increased when the leukocytes were incubated in suspension cultures at 37 C for 24 hours. Intravenous infusions of Iysates of 232 × 106 rabbit leukocytes which had been incubated in cultures at 37 C for 24 hours produced disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis involving the pulmonary arteries in normal rabbits. Intraaortic infusions of lysates of 230 × 106 similarly incubated leukocytes produced renal thrombosis and renal cortical necrosis in normal rabbits. These observations suggest that the procoagulant of granulocytic leukocytes could play a role in the generalized Shwartzman reaction and other syndromes of disseminated intravascular coagulation. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2 PMID:5086898

  20. Cutaneous Cryptococcus: marker for disseminated infection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G N; Tilak, Ragini; Yadav, Jyoti; Bansal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the encapsulated yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, a dimorphic fungus recovered from pigeon excreta, soil, dust and human skin. After a primary infection in the lungs, the disease can disseminate via a haematogenous route to various organs, including the central nervous system and skin, in susceptible individuals. Cryptococcosis can present with a variety of skin and soft tissue manifestations including acneiform lesions, purpura, vesicles, nodules, abscesses, ulcers, granulomas, pustules, draining sinuses and cellulitis. We present a case of a young man with HIV infection who developed molluscum-like cutaneous lesions secondary to pulmonary cryptococcosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by Indian ink preparation of the cutaneous lesions. Primary cutaneous infection occurs rarely due to direct inoculation. Cutaneous lesions are usually secondary and act as a key marker of disseminated infection, especially in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, such as those infected with HIV, solid-organ transplant recipients, and those on chronic corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26199299

  1. Multifocal brain radionecrosis masquerading as tumor dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Safdari, H.; Boluix, B.; Gros, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on an autopsy-proven case of multifocal widespread radionecrosis involving both cerebral hemispheres and masquerading as tumor dissemination on a CT scan done 13 months after complete resection of an oligodendroglioma followed by radiation therapy. This case demonstrates that radiation damage may be present in a CT scan as a multifocal, disseminated lesion. Since the survival of brain-tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy is prolonged by aggressive therapy, the incidence and variability of radiation-induced complications in such cases is likely to increase. For similar reasons, the radionecrosis in such cases should be taken into consideration. A short review of the CT scan findings and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in a case of widespread radionecrosis is presented. The need for appropriate diagnosis and subsequent life-saving management is emphasized.

  2. [Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with anthralin].

    PubMed

    Jantke, M E; Bertsch, H-P; Schön, M P; Fuchs, T

    2011-12-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, often asymptomatic and self-limiting granulomatous skin disease. In cases of disseminated granuloma annulare, spontaneous regression is considerably less frequent than in localized forms so that therapy is often desired. Systemic treatments should always be assessed critically and reserved for patients who are severely affected and in whom treatment approaches with few side effects such as local application of anthralin do not suffice to achieve a satisfactory effect. PMID:21656108

  3. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Shital; Khatu, Swapna

    2014-08-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that typically presents in immunocompromised patients, most commonly in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It rarely has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Defects in the host defense mechanisms due to hyperglycemia predispose diabetic patients to opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis. We present a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a 48-year-old HIV-negative man with DM. PMID:25184644

  4. Time dissemination in the Hydro Quebec network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Lefrancois, W.; Laroche, L.

    1979-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of electrical networks combined with the increasing cost of power losses during a network failure has led public utilities to become equipped with more powerful and precise tools for pinpointing the causes of such a fault. Hydro Quebec has developed and is now using a time dissemination system which uses a modified IRIG B code transmitted on its own telecommunication network. The reasons for using such a system and the way it was carried out are discrete.

  5. Disseminated nocardiosis masquerading as metastatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Rajalakshmi; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Reddy Attunuru, Bhanu Prakash; Gupta, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. It can be localized or systemic and is regarded as an opportunistic infection that is commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a patient with underlying malignancy in whom the clinical presentation was highly suggestive of a metastatic disease. PMID:27578940

  6. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  7. [Cancer cell plasticity and metastatic dissemination].

    PubMed

    Moyret-Lalle, Caroline; Pommier, Roxane; Bouard, Charlotte; Nouri, Ebticem; Richard, Geoffrey; Puisieux, Alain

    Metastatic dissemination consists of a sequence of events resulting in the invasion by cancer cells of tissues located away from the primary tumour. This process is highly inefficient, since each event represents an obstacle that only a limited number of cells can overcome. However, two biological phenomena intrinsically linked with tumour development facilitate the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the body and promote the formation of metastases, namely the genetic diversity of cancer cells within a given tumour, which arises from their genetic instability and from successive clonal expansions, and cellular plasticity conveyed to the cells by micro-environmental signals. Genetic diversity increases the probability of selecting cells that are intrinsically resistant to biological and physical constraints encountered during metastatic dissemination, whereas cellular plasticity provides cells with the capacity to adapt to stressful conditions and to changes in the microenvironment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an embryonic trans-differentiation process frequently reactivated during tumour development, plays an important role in that context by endowing tumor cells with a unique capacity of motility, survival and adaptability to the novel environments and stresses encountered during the invasion-metastasis cascade. PMID:27615180

  8. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma Showing a Prolonged Survival with Multimodality Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Sakiyama, Shoji; Sumitomo, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Seiji; Ikushima, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Kohei; Nagahiro, Shinji; Yamago, Taito; Toyoda, Yuko; Bando, Yoshimi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to a mass shadow noted on a chest X-ray. Thoracoscopic lobectomy yielded a diagnosis of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma according to the histology and SYT-SSX1 gene analyses. Five months after the thoracic surgery, he developed brain metastasis; therefore, we performed resection of the brain metastatic focus followed by radiotherapy. As a local recurrence in the thoracic cavity concurrently emerged, systemic chemotherapy was also administered. These observations indicated that a multidisciplinary approach may be useful against primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma, although there is presently no established therapeutic strategy due to its rarity and highly aggressive nature. PMID:26875964

  9. The surprising outcome of a giant primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Balieiro, Marcos Alexandre; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Costa, Bruno Pinheiro; Veras, Gustavo Perissé Moreira; Perelson, Paulo Sergio; Acatauassú Nunes, Rodolfo; Saito, Eduardo Haruo

    2013-02-01

    There are only a few cases of primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma in the literature. Normally, they do not respond well to chemotherapy. In our case, a 30-year-old patient was admitted due to thoracic pain, dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, hoarseness and weight loss over a 3-month period as well as a dramatic worsening a week before the admission. A chest radiography showed a completely white left hemithorax and contralateral mediastinal shift; in addition, a chest tomography revealed a giant heterogeneous mediastinal mass, lung atelectasia and a small pleural effusion. The patient was submitted to Chamberlain procedure (biopsy) under local anesthesia and the diagnosis of a synovial sarcoma was obtained after immunohistochemical analysis. Due to his poor general condition, he received chemotherapy first, with a dramatic response, after what, the mass that had been reduced was removed surgically. After a 5-year- follow-up period there are no signs of disease recurrence. PMID:23372956

  10. The surprising outcome of a giant primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Balieiro, Marcos Alexandre; Costa, Bruno Pinheiro; Veras, Gustavo Perissé Moreira; Perelson, Paulo Sergio; Acatauassú Nunes, Rodolfo; Saito, Eduardo Haruo

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few cases of primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma in the literature. Normally, they do not respond well to chemotherapy. In our case, a 30-year-old patient was admitted due to thoracic pain, dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, hoarseness and weight loss over a 3-month period as well as a dramatic worsening a week before the admission. A chest radiography showed a completely white left hemithorax and contralateral mediastinal shift; in addition, a chest tomography revealed a giant heterogeneous mediastinal mass, lung atelectasia and a small pleural effusion. The patient was submitted to Chamberlain procedure (biopsy) under local anesthesia and the diagnosis of a synovial sarcoma was obtained after immunohistochemical analysis. Due to his poor general condition, he received chemotherapy first, with a dramatic response, after what, the mass that had been reduced was removed surgically. After a 5-year- follow-up period there are no signs of disease recurrence. PMID:23372956

  11. Diagnosing Septic Arthritis in the Synovial White Cell Count "Gray Zone".

    PubMed

    Ruzbarsky, Joseph J; Gladnick, Brian P; Dodwell, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Differentiating septic arthritis of the pediatric hip from other causes of hip pain and effusion continues to present a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Although septic arthritis traditionally has been reported to have a synovial white blood cell count of 75,000 cells/mm3 or greater, lower counts can be seen in this condition. In cases where a synovial sample has been obtained and the cell count falls in the intermediate range between 25,000 and 75,000 cells/mm(3), it is unclear what proportion of these cases may be truly septic hips. In this evidence-based review, we examine Heyworth et al's study focusing on the predictive value of this intermediate white cell count range in a Lyme-endemic region. PMID:27385951

  12. Tribological performance of the biological components of synovial fluid in artificial joint implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Moradi, Ali; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of biological components of synovial fluid (such as albumin, globulin, hyaluronic acid, and lubricin) varies between healthy persons and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of such variation on tribological performance in a simulated hip joint model. The study was carried out experimentally by utilizing a pin-on-disk simulator on ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) and ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) hip joint implants. The experimental results show that both friction and wear of artificial joints fluctuate with the concentration level of biological components. Moreover, the performance also varies between material combinations. Wear debris sizes and shapes produced by ceramic and polyethylene were diverse. We conclude that the biological components of synovial fluid and their concentrations should be considered in order to select an artificial hip joint to best suit that patient.

  13. Synovial Sarcoma Associated With Indwelling Intramedullary Pin in a Peach-Faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yumiko; Une, Yumi

    2016-03-01

    Sarcoma developing in association with a metallic orthopedic procedure is an uncommon but well-recognized complication in mammals. We report on a synovial sarcoma that developed at the site of an intramedullary pin after surgery to treat a bone fracture. A 17-year-old female peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) developed a spherical mass on the distal right dorsal wing at a site that was previously fractured and surgically repaired with an indwelling intramedullary pin. The right wing was amputated at the scapulohumeral joint. One year later, the bird died. Postmortem examination revealed metastases in the right lung, left thoracic wall, and proventricular serosa. Histologically, the tumor had a characteristic biphasic pattern. The tumor was immunohistologically and ultrastructurally identified as a synovial sarcoma. This is the first report of a suspected fracture-associated sarcoma in a bird. PMID:27088741

  14. Reactive oxygen species induce Cox-2 expression via TAK1 activation in synovial fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Yuta; Teramura, Takeshi; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Shigi, Kanae; Fukuda, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress within the arthritis joint has been indicated to be involved in generating mediators for tissue degeneration and inflammation. COX-2 is a mediator in inflammatory action, pain and some catabolic reactions in inflamed tissues. Here, we demonstrated a direct relationship between oxidative stress and Cox-2 expression in the bovine synovial fibroblasts. Furthermore, we elucidated a novel mechanism, in which oxidative stress induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB through TAK1 activation and resulted in increased Cox-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that ROS-induced Cox-2 expression was inhibited by supplementation of an antioxidant such as N-acetyl cysteamine and hyaluronic acid in vitro and in vivo. From these results, we conclude that oxidative stress is an important factor for generation of Cox-2 in synovial fibroblasts and thus its neutralization may be an effective strategy in palliative therapy for chronic joint diseases. PMID:26110105

  15. Primary Cardiac Synovial Sarcoma Originating From the Mitral Valve Causing Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Veshti, Altin; Ikonomi, Majlinda; Demiraj, Aurel

    2015-10-01

    An 11-year-old boy was admitted with complaints of syncope and convulsion. Echocardiogram revealed a mass measuring 2 × 4 cm related to the mitral subvalvular apparatus. The mass, which appeared to be attached to the anterolateral papillary muscle, protruded into the left ventricular outflow tract causing intermittent obstruction. The patient underwent surgical excision of the mass. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of primary synovial sarcoma. At six months following the operation, a small mass measuring 1 × 1 cm was detected in the left ventricle. The patient underwent reoperation consisting of radical resection of the subvalvular apparatus and mitral valve replacement. Histology confirmed that the mass was cardiac synovial sarcoma. One year after surgery, the patient is doing well. PMID:26467881

  16. State Dissemination Planning as Part of Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, James E.

    Knowing and understanding the principles and tenets underlying dissemination, utilization, and impact collection facilitate the "how." Dissemination is a communication process involving interactional relationships among individuals. Involvement of multiple agencies gives rise to networking. Disseminating is also a major facet of planned change,…

  17. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20 Dissemination of information. DOE shall disseminate to the public, in an appropriate manner, information of...

  18. 48 CFR 5.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 5.101 Methods of disseminating... various methods of satisfying the requirements of 5.207(c). For example, the contracting officer may...

  19. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance... (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators of... to disseminate policy and guidance. They shall distribute material under foregoing systems to...

  20. Extensive Surgical Treatment of Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma After Recurrent Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Andranik; Bergeron, Patrice

    2015-11-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a history of right-sided recurrent pneumothorax and resection of pulmonary bullae, pleural abrasion, and talc pleurodesis underwent right-sided extensive pleural pneumonectomy for a monophasic primary pleural-pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS). The pathologic diagnosis was predominantly fusiform PPSS with R0 resection. Sixteen months after the operation, she is alive, without signs of new lesions. The extensive tumor resection can achieve a good result for controlling local disease. PMID:26522536

  1. Nitric Oxide-Driven Hypoxia Initiates Synovial Angiogenesis, Hyperplasia and Inflammatory Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Fei; Wu, Pei; Xiao, Na; Qiu, Frank; Zeng, Qing-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory articular disease with cartilage and bone damage due to hyperplasic synoviocyte invasion and subsequent matrix protease digestion. Although monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been approved for clinical use in patients with RA, desired therapeutic regimens suitable for non-responders are still unavailable because etiological initiators leading to RA remain enigmatic and unidentified. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacteria-induced arthritis (BIA) that simulates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is developed in mice upon daily live bacterial feeding. The morphological lesions of paw erythema and edema together with the histological alterations of synovial hyperplasia and lymphocytic infiltration emerge as the early-phase manifestations of BIA and CIA. Bacteria- or collagen-mediated global upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is accompanied by the burst of nitric oxide (NO). Elevation of the serum NO level is correlated with decline of the blood oxygen saturation percentage (SpO2), reflecting a hypoxic consequence during development towards arthritis. NO-driven hypoxia is further evident from a positive relationship between NO and lactic acid (LA), an end product from glycolysis. Upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) validates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in the inflamed synovium of modeling mice. Administration of the NO donor compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP) causes articular inflammation by inducing synovial hypoxia. Anti-bacteria by the antibiotic cefotaxime and/or the immunosuppressant rapamycin or artesunate that also inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) can abrogate NO production, mitigate hypoxia, and considerably ameliorate or even completely abort synovitis, hence highlighting that NO may serve as an initiator of inflammatory arthritis. Conclusions/Significance Like collagen, bacteria also

  2. Identification of candidate synovial membrane biomarkers after Achyranthes aspera treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen; Lu, Xianghong; Fu, Zhirong; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Xu, Xiaobao; Ren, Yina; Lu, Yongzhuang; Fu, Hongwei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main symptom is a heightened inflammatory response in synovial tissues. To verify the anti-arthritic activities of Achyranthes aspera and its possible therapy-related factors on the pathogenesis of RA, the saponins in A. aspera root were isolated and identified to treat the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Phytochemical analysis isolated and identified methyl caffeate, 25-S-inokosterone, 25-S-inokosterone β-D-glucopyranosyl 3-(O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-oleanolate, and β-D-glucopyranosyl 3-(O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1→2)(O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-oleanolate as main compounds in the root of A. aspera. Proteomics was performed to determine the differentially expressed proteins in either inflamed or drug-treated synovium of CIA rats. Treatment resulted in dramatically decreased paw swelling, proliferation of inflammatory cells, and bone degradation. Fibrinogen, procollagen, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, and apolipoprotein A-I were all increased in inflamed synovial tissues and were found to decrease when administered drug therapy. Furthermore, Alpha-1-antiproteinase and manganese superoxide dismutase were both increased in drug-treated synovial tissues. The inhibition of RA progression shows that A. aspera is a promising candidate for future treatment of human arthritis. Importantly, the total saponins found within A. aspera are the active component. Finally, autoantigens such as fibrinogen and collagen could act as inducers of RA due to their aggravation of inflammation. Given this, it is possible that the vimentin and PDIA3 could be the candidate biomarkers specific to Achyranthes saponin therapy for rheumatoid arthritis in synovial membrane. PMID:26724776

  3. Synovial macrophage-derived IL-1β regulates the calcitonin receptor in osteoarthritic mice.

    PubMed

    Takano, S; Uchida, K; Miyagi, M; Inoue, G; Aikawa, J; Fujimaki, H; Minatani, A; Sato, M; Iwabuchi, K; Takaso, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contributes to joint pain. However, regulation of the CGRP/CGRP receptor signalling in osteoarthritis (OA) is not fully understood. To investigate the regulation of CGRP/CGRP receptor signalling by macrophages in the synovial tissue (ST) of OA joints, we characterized the gene expression profiles of CGRP and CGRP receptors in the ST of OA mice (STR/Ort). In addition, we examined whether macrophage depletion by the systemic injection of clodronate-laden liposomes affected the expression of CGRP and CGRP receptors in ST. CD11c(+) macrophages in the ST of STR/Ort and C57BL/6J mice were analysed by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, CGRP, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) in F4/80(+) and F4/80(-) cells. The effects of IL-1β on the expression of CGRP and CLR by cultured synovial cells were also examined. The percentage of CD11c(+) macrophages in the ST of STR/Ort was higher than that in C57/BL6J mice. Notably, the F4/80(+) cell fraction expressed IL-1β highly, whereas the F4/80(-) cell fraction expressed CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 highly. In addition, expression of the IL-1β and CLR genes was increased in ST, but was decreased upon macrophage depletion, and the IL-1β treatment of cultured synovial cells up-regulated CLR. Taken together, the present findings suggest that synovial macrophages are the major producers of IL-1β and regulators of CLR in OA mice. Therefore, macrophages and IL-1β may be suitable therapeutic targets for treating OA pain. PMID:26400621

  4. Synovial Sarcoma Microvesicles Harbor the SYT-SSX Fusion Gene Transcript: Comparison of Different Methods of Detection and Implications in Biomarker Research.

    PubMed

    Fricke, A; Ullrich, P V; Cimniak, A F V; Follo, M; Nestel, S; Heimrich, B; Nazarenko, I; Stark, G B; Bannasch, H; Braig, D; Eisenhardt, S U

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue malignancy. This study examines the presence of the SYT-SSX fusion transcript in synovial sarcoma microvesicles as well as its potential role as a biomarker for synovial sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Microvesicle release of synovial sarcoma cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. RNA-content was analyzed by qPCR, nested PCR, nested qPCR, and droplet digital PCR to compare their sensitivity for detection of the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript. Whole blood RNA, RNA of mononuclear cells, and microvesicle RNA of synovial sarcoma patients were analyzed for the presence of the fusion gene transcripts. Results. Electron microscopic analysis revealed synovial sarcoma cells releasing membrane-enclosed microvesicles. In vitro, the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript was detected in both synovial sarcoma cells and microvesicles. Nested qPCR proved to be the most sensitive in detecting the SYT-SSX fusion gene mRNA. In contrast, the fusion gene transcript was not detected in peripheral blood cells and microvesicles of synovial sarcoma patients. Conclusion. Synovial sarcoma cells release microvesicles harboring the SYT-SSX fusion transcript. Nested qPCR proved to be the most sensitive in detecting the SYT-SSX fusion gene mRNA; however, more sensitive assays are needed to detect cancer-specific microvesicles in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. PMID:27069481

  5. Synovial Sarcoma Microvesicles Harbor the SYT-SSX Fusion Gene Transcript: Comparison of Different Methods of Detection and Implications in Biomarker Research

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, A.; Ullrich, P. V.; Cimniak, A. F. V.; Follo, M.; Nestel, S.; Heimrich, B.; Nazarenko, I.; Stark, G. B.; Bannasch, H.; Braig, D.; Eisenhardt, S. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue malignancy. This study examines the presence of the SYT-SSX fusion transcript in synovial sarcoma microvesicles as well as its potential role as a biomarker for synovial sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Microvesicle release of synovial sarcoma cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. RNA-content was analyzed by qPCR, nested PCR, nested qPCR, and droplet digital PCR to compare their sensitivity for detection of the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript. Whole blood RNA, RNA of mononuclear cells, and microvesicle RNA of synovial sarcoma patients were analyzed for the presence of the fusion gene transcripts. Results. Electron microscopic analysis revealed synovial sarcoma cells releasing membrane-enclosed microvesicles. In vitro, the SYT-SSX fusion gene transcript was detected in both synovial sarcoma cells and microvesicles. Nested qPCR proved to be the most sensitive in detecting the SYT-SSX fusion gene mRNA. In contrast, the fusion gene transcript was not detected in peripheral blood cells and microvesicles of synovial sarcoma patients. Conclusion. Synovial sarcoma cells release microvesicles harboring the SYT-SSX fusion transcript. Nested qPCR proved to be the most sensitive in detecting the SYT-SSX fusion gene mRNA; however, more sensitive assays are needed to detect cancer-specific microvesicles in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. PMID:27069481

  6. Impact of synovial fluid flow on temperature regulation in knee cartilage.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohamadreza Nassajian; Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Camine, Valérie Malfroy; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2015-01-21

    Several studies have reported an increase of temperature in cartilage submitted to cyclic sinusoidal loading. The temperature increase is in part due to the viscous behavior of this tissue, which partially dissipates the input mechanical energy into heat. While the synovial fluid flow within the intra-articular gap and inside the porous cartilage is supposed to play an important role in the regulation of the cartilage temperature, no specific study has evaluated this aspect. In the present numerical study, a poroelastic model of the knee cartilage is developed to evaluate first the temperature increase in the cartilage due to dissipation and second the impact of the synovial fluid flow in the cartilage heat transfer phenomenon. Our results showed that, the local temperature is effectively increased in knee cartilage due to its viscous behavior. The synovial fluid flow cannot significantly preventing this phenomenon. We explain this result by the low permeability of cartilage and the moderate fluid exchange at the surface of cartilage under deformation. PMID:25488136

  7. A protocol for the culture and isolation of murine synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinjun; Ouyang, Qingqing; Hu, Ziyou; Huang, Qin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Ran; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The culture of synovial fibroblasts (SFs) is one of the most effective tools for investigating the pathology and physiology of synovial tissues and should prove useful for identifying the importance of SFs in disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for several chronic joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, thus far, a detailed protocol for the primary culture and isolation of murine SFs has not been established. Therefore, the present study describes an easy and convenient method for isolating and culturing SFs from C57BL/6 mice. This protocol can be divided into 4 stages: Isolation of synovial tissues, isolation of SFs, seeding of SFs for growth in culture and purity analysis of SFs using the four cell markers, vimentin, cluster of differentiation 90.2 (CD90.2; Thy-1.2), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD106). This method is efficient and a purified population of SFs can be obtained 10 days after the initiation of culture. PMID:27446536

  8. Synovial sarcoma presenting as a lung mass and diagnosed by cytology.

    PubMed

    Pyden, Alexander D; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a common soft tissue sarcoma with variable fibrous and epithelial differentiation that rarely arises from other body sites, such as within the lung. A case of a 68-year-old male with an extensive smoking history who presented with chest pain and a primary, central, metabolically active lung mass was reported. The mass was biopsied by bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytologic analysis of bronchial brushing, BAL, and FNA revealed single and clusters of atypical spindle cells, oval, or spindle-shaped nuclei with smooth nuclear membranes, hyperchromatic and granular chromatin, scant to moderate and delicate cytoplasm, a high degree of mitotic figures, and a lack of necrosis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD99, BCL2, and CK7. A diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was rendered. The differential diagnosis of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is discussed, including neuroendocrine tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, and various sarcomatous tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:434-437. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875702

  9. Abundant lubricin expression suggests a link between synoviocytes, synovial tumors, and myxomas.

    PubMed

    Solka, Kathryn A; Schmid, Thomas M; Miller, Ira J

    2016-10-01

    Progenitor cell differentiation into fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and their ensuing phenotypic changes are incompletely explored. Synovial lining is composed of intimal macrophages and FLSs. FLSs have epithelioid morphology and directionally secrete components of synovial fluid, including lubricin. We stained human tissues and tumors using two anti-lubricin antibodies. Lubricin was found in FLSs in synovium and in tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TSGCTs) and not in the associated monocyte/macrophage cells, which were identified by double immunostaining for CD163. In TSGCTs, giant cells, known to form by fusion of mononuclear cells, were negative for both lubricin and CD163. Occasional mononuclear cells with the same phenotype were also seen, suggesting that the precursors of the giant cells are derived from the minor CD163-negative monocyte subset. Lubricin was also detected in intramuscular myxomas, in early myxoid changes of ganglion cysts, and in one of five low-grade myxofibrosarcomas, but not in other fibroconnective tissues, epithelial tissues, or other tumors tested. This suggests that lubricin expression may typify adaptive and neoplastic changes along a pathway toward FLSs. Further support for this concept comes from ganglion cysts and juxta-articular myxoma tumors, which show a spectrum of myxoid, cystic and synovial differentiation, and in which moderate lubricin staining of myxoid stroma was seen. PMID:26924731

  10. A Tumour in Disguise in the Right Palm- Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Vasugi Gramani; Sundaram, Sandhya; Ramesh, Anita; Duvuru, Prathiba; Rajappa, Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    Synovial sarcoma is one of the poorly differentiated malignant soft tissue tumour occuring commonly among young adults in the extremities. We report a 50-year-old female presenting with a soft tissue mass in the right palm. On examination, a single firm and non tender swelling was noticed adjacent to the thenar muscles. Radiology suggested a benign soft tissue lesion. The swelling, clinically thought to be a lipoma, was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Microscopy showed a highly cellular tumour arranged in nests, cords and pseudo glandular pattern separated by dense fibrocollagenous tissue. An interesting and baffling finding was the presence of a distinct mucin vacuole in many of the tumour cells. A diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma with epithelial features was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical stains done. Tumour cells showed strong positivity for cytokeratin 7, vimentin, EMA & Bcl2. CD 99 and S100 were focally positive. CD 34 and CEA were negative. In view of the above microscopic and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma of epithelial type was rendered. This case is being documented for the rare morphological appearance of mucin vacuoles in a monophasic epithelial type synovial sarcoma. PMID:27437233

  11. Fibronectin Splice Variation in Human Knee Cartilage, Meniscus and Synovial Membrane: Observations in Osteoarthritic Knee

    PubMed Central

    Scanzello, Carla R.; Markova, Dessislava Z.; Chee, Ana; Xiu, Yan; Adams, Sherrill L.; Anderson, Greg; Zgonis, Miltiadis; Qin, Ling; An, Howard S.; Zhang, Yejia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fibronectin (FN) is a widely expressed molecule that can participate in development of osteoarthritis (OA) affecting cartilage, meniscus, and synovial membrane (SM). The alternatively spliced isoforms of FN in joint tissues other than cartilage have not been extensively studied previously. The present study compares FN splice variation in patients with varying degrees of osteoarthritic change. Design Joint tissues were collected from asymptomatic donors and patients undergoing arthroscopic procedures. Total RNA was amplified by PCR using primers flanking alternatively spliced Extra Domain A (EDA), Extra Domain B (EDB) and Variable (V) regions. Results EDB+, EDB− and EDA− and V+ variants were present in all joint tissues, while the EDA+ variant was rarely detected. Expression levels of EDB+ and EDV+ variants were similar in cartilage, synovium and meniscal tissues. Synovial expression of V+ FN in arthroscopy patients varied with degree of cartilage degeneration. Two V− isoforms, previously identified in cartilage, were also present in SM and meniscus. Conclusions Fibronectin splicing in meniscus and SM bears striking resemblance to that of cartilage. Expression levels of synovial V+ FN varied with degree of cartilage degeneration. V+ FN should be investigated as a potential biomarker of disease stage or progression in larger populations. PMID:25410897

  12. Antiarthritis Effect of Morin is Associated with Inhibition of Synovial Angiogensis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Tong, Bei; Zhang, Xinyu; Dou, Yannong; Wu, Xin; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    Morin, a flavonoid isolated from Morus alba L. (Moraceae), possesses anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic among other biological activities. This study investigated its effect on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explored the underlying mechanisms in view of synovial angiogenesis. Morin administered po attenuated arthritic progression as indicated by reduction of arthritis scores and paw swelling. It also markedly reduced serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and ameliorated histopathological changes of joints. Morin markedly inhibited expression of CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor in synovial membrane tissues, and decreased serum levels of VEGF in CIA rats. In vitro, morin markedly inhibited VEGF-induced migration and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results indicate that morin had antirheumatoid potential, and its mechanism might be associated with inhibition of synovial angiogenesis. PMID:26769128

  13. Synovial sarcoma: Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging features and differential diagnostic considerations

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, CHANGHUA; MAO, HUAJIE; TAN, JING; JI, YINGHUA; SUN, FENGXIA; DOU, WENGUANG; WANG, HUIFANG; WANG, HONGPO; GAO, JIANBO

    2015-01-01

    The present study retrospectively examined 24 cases of pathologically confirmed synovial sarcoma and analyzed the clinical presentation and imaging findings in order to explore the imaging features of synovial sarcoma. The majority of the lesions were large (>5 cm; 88%), rounded or lobulated, relatively well-defined tumor masses in the extremities near the joints or deeply located. On computed tomography (CT) scans, the lesions demonstrated intensity signals similar to those of muscle. Six cases exhibited punctate calcification in the periphery of the tumor. On T1-weighted images, the largest lesions of >5 cm, were usually heterogeneous, with a signal intensity similar to or slightly higher than that of muscle. On T2-weighted images, heterogeneous high-intensity or slightly high-intensity signals were observed, with 12 cases exhibiting a high signal consistent with hemorrhage and 12 presenting signals that indicated internal septations. Contrast-enhanced scanning revealed heterogeneous enhancement in the majority of the lesions and no enhancement in areas of cystic necrosis or internal septations. Synovial sarcoma has specific imaging features, and comprehensive analysis of CT and magnetic resonance imaging can improve the accuracy of the pre-operative diagnosis. PMID:25621034

  14. Gene expression profile and synovial microcirculation at early stages of collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gierer, Philip; Ibrahim, Saleh; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Koczan, Dirk; Moeller, Steffen; Landes, Jürgen; Gradl, Georg; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the initial mechanisms that lead to arthritic disease could facilitate development of improved therapeutic strategies. We characterized the synovial microcirculation of knee joints in susceptible mouse strains undergoing intradermal immunization with bovine collagen II in complete Freund's adjuvant to induce arthritis (i.e. collagen-induced arthritis [CIA]). Susceptible DBA1/J and collagen II T-cell receptor transgenic mice were compared with CIA-resistant FVB/NJ mice. Before onset of clinical symptoms of arthritis, in vivo fluorescence microscopy of knee joints revealed marked leucocyte activation and interaction with the endothelial lining of synovial microvessels. This initial inflammatory cell response correlated with the gene expression profile at this disease stage. The majority of the 655 differentially expressed genes belonged to classes of genes that are involved in cell movement and structure, cell cycle and signal transduction, as well as transcription, protein synthesis and metabolism. However, 24 adhesion molecules and chemokine/cytokine genes were identified, some of which are known to contribute to arthritis (e.g. CD44 and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1) and some of which are novel in this respect (e.g. CC chemokine ligand-27 and IL-13 receptor α1). Online in vivo data on synovial tissue microcirculation, together with gene expression profiling, emphasize the potential role played by early inflammatory events in the development of arthritis. PMID:15987489

  15. A Tumour in Disguise in the Right Palm- Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Vasugi Gramani; Ramesh, Anita; Duvuru, Prathiba; Rajappa, Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is one of the poorly differentiated malignant soft tissue tumour occuring commonly among young adults in the extremities. We report a 50-year-old female presenting with a soft tissue mass in the right palm. On examination, a single firm and non tender swelling was noticed adjacent to the thenar muscles. Radiology suggested a benign soft tissue lesion. The swelling, clinically thought to be a lipoma, was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Microscopy showed a highly cellular tumour arranged in nests, cords and pseudo glandular pattern separated by dense fibrocollagenous tissue. An interesting and baffling finding was the presence of a distinct mucin vacuole in many of the tumour cells. A diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma with epithelial features was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical stains done. Tumour cells showed strong positivity for cytokeratin 7, vimentin, EMA & Bcl2. CD 99 and S100 were focally positive. CD 34 and CEA were negative. In view of the above microscopic and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma of epithelial type was rendered. This case is being documented for the rare morphological appearance of mucin vacuoles in a monophasic epithelial type synovial sarcoma. PMID:27437233

  16. Assay of synovial fluid parameters: hyaluronan concentration as a potential marker for joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Praest, B M; Greiling, H; Kock, R

    1997-10-31

    Synovial fluids from the knees of patients with degenerative joint disease (n = 29), osteoarthritis (n = 16), diabetic arthropathy (n = 12), gout (n = 7) and acute inflammatory joint disease (n = 7) were investigated by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle laser light scattering detection and differential refractometry. These data were compared with the viscosities of the same samples measured by rotation viscometry with one low shear rate, as well as with C reactive protein. The median value of the weight-average molecular weight of hyaluronan in synovial fluids, which differed less than the viscosity of these groups, varied between 1.09 x 10(6) g/mol (range 0.849-1.63 x 10(6) g/mol) (acute-inflammatory joint disease) and 1.91 x 10(6) g/mol (range 1.06-3.48 x 10(6) g/mol) (degenerative joint disease). The correlation between viscosity and hyaluronan concentration was much better than between viscosity and weight-average molecular weight. Changes in C reactive protein concentration were correlated with the disease activity. The concentration of hyaluronan was significantly higher in the cases of degenerative joint disease and diabetic arthropathy. These results suggest that synovial fluid concentration of hyaluronan is appropriate as a prognostic value in the evaluation of different kinds of joint diseases. PMID:9437540

  17. Summary - National Dissemination and the Five Target States, Part 3, Final Report for Phase II--Dissemination, Rural Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    The dissemination phase (Phase II) of the Rural Shared Services Project is reported in this document. Efforts of the dissemination phase were concentrated in 5 target states: Vermont, Georgia, Wyoming, Montana, and New Mexico; national dissemination was limited to attendance at national conferences, the U. S. Office of Education PREP materials for…

  18. A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

  19. Multicomponent T2 Analysis of Articular Cartilage With Synovial Fluid Partial Volume Correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Block, Walter F.; Samsonov, Alexey; Kijowski, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a three-pool model to account for the confounding effects of synovial fluid on multicomponent T2 analysis of articular cartilage using Multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Shot Observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT). Materials and Methods mcDESPOT was performed on the knee of eight asymptomatic volunteers and eight patients with osteoarthritis at 3.0T with multicomponent T2 maps created using the two-pool model and a three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. The fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) and the T2 relaxation times for the fast-relaxing (T2F) and slow-relaxing (T2S) water components were measured in the superficial and deep layers of patellar cartilage using the two-pool and three-pool models in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis and were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results Within the superficial layer of patellar cartilage, FF was 22.5% and 25.6% for asymptomatic volunteers and 21.3% and 22.8% for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively, while T2S was 73.9 msec and 62.0 msec for asymptomatic volunteers and 72.0 msec and 63.1 msec for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively. For both asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis, the two-pool model provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower FF and higher T2S than the three-pool model, likely due to the effects of synovial fluid partial volume averaging. Conclusion The effects of partial volume averaging between superficial cartilage and synovial fluid may result in biased multicomponent T2 measurements that can be corrected using an mcDESPOT three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. PMID:26435385

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi Induces the Production and Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Canine Synovial Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Straubinger, Reinhard K.; Straubinger, Alix F.; Summers, Brian A.; Erb, Hollis N.; Härter, Luc; Appel, Max J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Canine synovial membrane explants were exposed to high- or low-passage Borrelia burgdorferi for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Spirochetes received no treatment, were UV light irradiated for 16 h, or were sonicated prior to addition to synovial explant cultures. In explant tissues, mRNA levels for the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, and IL-8 were surveyed semiquantitatively by reverse transcription-PCR. Culture supernatants were examined for numbers of total and motile (i.e., viable) spirochetes, TNF-like and IL-1-like activities, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) chemotaxis-inducing activities, and IL-8. During exposure to synovial explant tissues, the total number of spirochetes in the supernatants decreased gradually by ∼30%, and the viability also declined. mRNAs for TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 were up-regulated in synovial explant tissues within 3 h after infection with untreated or UV light-irradiated B. burgdorferi, and mRNA levels corresponded to the results obtained with bioassays. During 24 h of coincubation, cultures challenged with untreated or UV light-irradiated spirochetes produced similar levels of TNF-like and IL-1-like activities. In contrast, explant tissues exposed to untreated B. burgdorferi generated significantly higher levels of chemotactic factors after 24 h of incubation than did explant tissues exposed to UV light-treated spirochetes. In identical samples, a specific signal for IL-8 was identified by Western blot analysis. High- and low-passage borreliae did not differ in their abilities to induce proinflammatory cytokines. No difference in cytokine induction between untreated and sonicated high-passage spirochetes was observed, suggesting that fractions of the organism can trigger the production and release of inflammatory mediators. The titration of spirochetes revealed a dose-independent cytokine response, where 103 to 107 B. burgdorferi organisms induced similar TNF

  1. Differential regulation and expression of hyaluronan synthases in human articular chondrocytes, synovial cells and osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Recklies, A D; White, C; Melching, L; Roughley, P J

    2001-01-01

    Recently three isoforms of hyaluronan synthase (HAS), the enzyme responsible for hyaluronate/hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis, have been cloned, allowing us to study their expression pattern. Our objective was to determine which of the HAS isoenzymes were expressed in human articular chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells, whether their expression could be modulated by growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1) and cytokines [interleukin 1beta1 (IL-1beta)], and whether changes in the rate of HA synthesis by the cells correlated with changes in mRNA levels for one or more of the HAS isoforms. All three HAS isoforms were found to be expressed in the cultured cells analysed in this study, although the relative proportions varied for each cell type. HAS2 mRNA was usually predominant in chondrocytes, whereas synovial cells contained increased amounts of HAS1. HAS3 was always the least abundant message. The rapidly growing osteosarcoma cells contained almost exclusively HAS2 message. HAS usage in uncultured cartilage and synovial tissues was similar to that in the cultured cells, with HAS2 message being the predominant species in cartilage and HAS1 usually being the predominant species in synovium. HA synthesis was stimulated by the growth factors, but the extent of the response was cell-type specific. Synovial cells responded particularly well to IL-1beta, and showed a unique synergistic response when IL-1beta was used in combination with TGF-beta1. This response was much reduced in articular chondrocytes and absent in the osteosarcoma cells. Analysis of changes in HAS message levels indicated that there was often no correlation with the changes in HA secretion following exposure to growth factors. Although HAS-1 mRNA was increased in synovial cells after exposure to TGF-beta1/IL-1beta, the magnitude of the change was far less than the effect on HA synthesis. Our data thus

  2. Synovial explant inflammatory mediator production corresponds to rheumatoid arthritis imaging hallmarks: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasound for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity, little is known regarding the association of imaging-detected activity and synovial pathology. The purpose of this study was to compare site-specific release of inflammatory mediators and evaluate the corresponding anatomical sites by examining colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and MRI scans. Methods RA patients were evaluated on the basis of CDUS and 3-T MRI scans and subsequently underwent synovectomy using a needle arthroscopic procedure of the hand joints. The synovial tissue specimens were incubated for 72 hours, and spontaneous release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β) and IL-8 was measured by performing multiplex immunoassays. Bone marrow oedema (BME), synovitis and erosion scores were estimated on the basis of the rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS). Mixed models were used for the statistical analyses. Parsimony was achieved by omitting covariates with P > 0.1 from the statistical model. Results Tissue samples from 58 synovial sites were obtained from 25 patients. MCP-1 was associated with CDUS activity (P = 0.009, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.41), RAMRIS BME score (P = 0.01, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.42) and RAMRIS erosion score (P = 0.03, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.31). IL-6 was associated with RAMRIS synovitis score (P = 0.04, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.50), BME score (P = 0.04, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.31) and RAMRIS erosion score (P = 0.03, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.35). MIP-1β was associated with CDUS activity (P = 0.02, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.38) and RAMRIS synovitis scores (P = 0.02, approximate Spearman’s ρ = 0.63). IL-8 associations with imaging outcome measures did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The association between

  3. The determination of inorganic sulphate in serum and synovial fluid by high performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Schneider, H; Delvoux, B; Greiling, H

    1997-09-01

    A method for the determination of inorganic sulphate based on high performance ion chromatography is presented. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange column with a 1.8 mmol/l sodium carbonate/ 1.7 mmol/l sodium hydrogen carbonate-buffer, pH 10.35. Conductivity of the eluate was monitored after suppression of the background conductivity caused by the eluent-buffer. Serum and synovial fluid samples were prepared by ultrafiltration through membranes with a molecular mass cutoff of M(r) 10,000. The viscosity of the synovial fluids was reduced by treatment with hyaluronate lyase before ultrafiltration. The method showed a linear response for sulphate concentrations between 0.5 and 1000 mumol/l. The limit of detection was 1 mumol/l for aqueous standards. For serum the coefficient of variation within-run was 2.3%-2.4%, the coefficient of variation between days 2.9%-3.1%. For synovial fluids the coefficient of variation within-run was 3.1%-3.4%, the coefficient of variation between days 4.6%-5.7%. Standard recovery experiments performed by spiking pools of human sera containing low sulphate concentrations with sulphate concentrations between 5 mumol/l and 40 mumol/l showed recoveries between 98.9% and 100.6%. The corresponding experiments with pools of synovial fluids showed recoveries of 98.3% to 100.9%. As determined from 127 serum samples the reference range for sulphate was 262 mumol/l-420 mumol/l, with a mean value of 314 mumol/l. No dependence on age or sex was observed. The sulphate concentration in 36 synovial fluids from knees affected by inflammatory processes showed a mean value of 424 mumol/l and a standard deviation of 70 mumol/l. In 41 synovial fluids from knees affected by chronic degeneration joint disease, the sulphate concentrations were statistically significantly lower, with a mean of 374 mumol/l and a standard deviation of 58 mumol/l. The concentrations of sulphate in the synovial fluids were statistically significantly higher than those in

  4. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  5. The future of time and frequency dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1994-01-01

    I will try to extrapolate the changes in the dissemination of time and frequency information that have taken place during the last 25 years to predict the future developments both in the methods of disseminating time and frequency and in the kinds of customers we will be asked to serve. Two important developments are likely to play pivotal roles in driving the evolution of dissemination. The first is the commercial availability of very high quality clocks -- devices whose performance may eventually rival that of the current generation of primary frequency standards. The widespread use of these devices may blur the traditional distinction between client and server, and may replace it with a more symmetrical interchange of data among peers. The second is the increasing demand for digital time and frequency information driven by the increasing sophistication of everything from traffic lights to electric power meters. The needs of these individual users may not tax the state of the art of primary frequency standards in principle, but their large numbers and wide geographical distribution present a technological challenge that is difficult to meet at a reasonable price using existing methods. Some of these problems may be solved (or at least addressed) using developments in communications and consumer electronics such as the increasing use of fiber-optic telephone circuits and the increasing bandwidth and sophistication of the cable network used to transmit television pictures. To be useful, these advances in hardware must stimulate parallel advances in software algorithms and methods. These advances are more difficult to predict with great confidence, but the developments of the last few years will be examined to provide some indications of the future.

  6. Disseminated Pleural Siliconoma Mimicking Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiki; Tao, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Kumiko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a 3-month history of back pain was admitted for further examination of multiple left pleural nodules. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 10 years previously. Nine years after the operation, both ruptured implants were removed, and autologous fat was injected. Computed tomography revealed multiple pleural nodules suggestive of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thoracoscopic exploration revealed multiple pleural nodules with massive pleural adhesions. The nodules were filled with viscous liquid and were histologically determined to be siliconomas. Disseminated pleural siliconoma should be recognized as a late adverse event of silicone breast implantation. PMID:26652527

  7. Disseminated cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophialophora bantiana.

    PubMed

    Khader, Anza; Ambooken, Betsy; Binitha, Manikoth Payyanadan; Francis, Saji; Kuttiyil, Ashokan K; Sureshan, Deepthi Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Cladophialophora bantiana is a neurotropic dematiaceous fungus which only rarely affects the skin. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompromised female who presented with multiple pyogenic granuloma-like nodules, dermatophytosis-like plaque, and subcutaneous cysts on the upper and lower extremities without systemic involvement. Biopsy revealed black yeasts resembling sclerotic bodies and culture yielded irregular, velvety, grey colonies with black reverse. Excision of the nodules and treatment with oral itraconazole 100 mg twice daily resulted in complete clinical resolution within two months, following which itraconazole was administered for another 4 months. PMID:26261143

  8. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  9. Virulence, persistence and dissemination of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Sibylle; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola

    2015-08-31

    Bovine mycoplasmosis due to Mycoplasma bovis causes several important bovine diseases such as pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis, genital disorders or keratoconjunctivitis. Variable surface lipoproteins, adhesion, invasion of host cells, modulation of the host immune system, biofilm formation and the release of secondary metabolites like hydrogen peroxide, as well as synergistic infections with other bacterial or viral pathogens are among the more significantly studied characteristics of the bacterium. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the virulence of M. bovis and additionally, factors contributing to the dissemination and persistence of this pathogen in the bovine host will be discussed. PMID:25824130

  10. Connexin43 Mediated Delivery of ADAMTS5 Targeting siRNAs from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Niger, Corinne; Koh, Eugene Y.; Stains, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint-destructive disease that has no effective cure. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) could offer therapeutic benefit in the treatment of arthritic diseases by suppressing inflammation and permitting tissue regeneration, but first these cells must overcome the catabolic environment of the diseased joint. Likewise, gene therapy also offers therapeutic promise given its ability to directly modulate key catabolic factors that mediate joint deterioration, although it too has limitations. In the current study, we explore an approach that combines hMSCs and gene therapy. Specifically, we test the use of hMSC as a vehicle to deliver ADAMTS5 (an aggrecanase with a key role in osteoarthritis)-targeting siRNAs to SW982 synovial fibroblast-like cells via connexin43 containing gap junctions. Accordingly, we transduced hMSCs with ADAMTS5-targeting shRNA or non-targeted shRNA, and co-cultured them with synovial fibroblasts to allow delivery of siRNAs from hMSC to synovial fibroblasts. We found that co-culture of hMSCs-shRNA-ADAMTS5 and synovial fibroblasts reduced ADAMTS5 expression relative to co-culture of hMSCs-shRNA-control and synovial fibroblasts. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was specifically reduced in the synovial fibroblasts populations as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, suggesting transfer of the siRNA between cells. To test if Cx43-containing gap junctions are involved in the transfer of siRNA, we co-cultured hMSCs-shRNA-ADAMTS5 cells with synovial fibroblasts in which connexin43 was knocked down. Under these conditions, ADAMTS5 levels were not inhibited by co-culture, indicating that connexin43 mediates the delivery of siRNA from hMSCs to synovial fibroblasts. In total, our findings demonstrate that hMSCs can function as donor cells to host and deliver siRNAs to synovial fibroblasts via connexin43 gap junction in vitro. These data may have implications in the combination of hMSCs and gene therapy to treat diseases like

  11. Targeting EZH2-mediated methylation of H3K27 inhibits proliferation and migration of Synovial Sarcoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jacson K; Cote, Gregory M; Gao, Yan; Choy, Edwin; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma genetically defined by the fusion oncogene SS18-SSX. It is hypothesized that either SS18-SSX disrupts SWI/SNF complex inhibition of the polycomb complex 2 (PRC2) methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2), or that SS18-SSX is able to directly recruit PRC2 to aberrantly silence target genes. This is of potential therapeutic value as several EZH2 small molecule inhibitors are entering early phase clinical trials. In this study, we first confirmed EZH2 expression in the 76% of human synovial sarcoma samples. We subsequently investigated EZH2 as a therapeutic target in synovial sarcoma in vitro. Knockdown of EZH2 by shRNA or siRNA resulted in inhibition of cell growth and migration across a series of synovial sarcoma cell lines. The EZH2 selective small-molecule inhibitor EPZ005687 similarly suppressed cell proliferation and migration. These data support the hypothesis that targeting EZH2 may be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of synovial sarcoma; clinical trials are initiating enrollment currently. PMID:27125524

  12. Nerve Growth Factor Regulation by TNF-α and IL-1β in Synovial Macrophages and Fibroblasts in Osteoarthritic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shotaro; Inoue, Gen; Aikawa, Jun; Iwase, Dai; Minatani, Atsushi; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Takaso, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of macrophages as a regulator and producer of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the synovial tissue (ST) of osteoarthritis (OA) joints, the gene expression profiles of several inflammatory cytokines in the ST, including synovial macrophages and fibroblasts, of OA mice (STR/Ort) were characterized. Specifically, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to evaluate the expression of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and NGF in CD11b+ and CD11b– cells isolated from the ST of a murine OA model. The effects of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 on the expression of NGF in cultured synovial cells were also examined. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NGF in the ST of STR/Ort was higher than that in C57/BL6J mice. Compared to the CD11b– cell fraction, higher expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were detected in the CD11b+ cell fraction, whereas no differences in the expression of NGF were detected between the two cell fractions. Notably, TNF-α upregulated NGF expression in synovial fibroblasts and macrophages and IL-1β upregulated NGF expression in synovial fibroblasts. IL-1β and TNF-α may regulate NGF signaling in OA joints and be suitable therapeutic targets for treating OA pain.

  13. Inhibitory effect of sodium houttuyfonate on synovial proliferation in vitro in cells from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    LI, JUN; ZHOU, TING; ZHAO, FUTAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sodium houttuyfonate (SH) on synovial cell proliferation in vitro. Primary cells were obtained from the synovial tissue of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cells were divided into five treatment groups as follows: the control group (group 1), 25 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 2), 50 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 3), 100 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 4) and the 200 μg/ml SH-treated group (group 5). Following seven days of treatment, the proliferation rate of the synovial cells was then detected using an MTT assay. The expression level of proliferative synovial cells markedly decreased in the SH-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that SH was able to inhibit the proliferation of synovial cells obtained from a patient with RA. These results provide a potential theoretical basis for the development of a safe and effective treatment against RA in the future. PMID:24926358

  14. The influence of corticosteroids on sequential clinical and synovial fluid parameters in joints with acute infectious arthritis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Tulamo, R M; Bramlage, L R; Gabel, A A

    1989-09-01

    Infectious arthritis was induced experimentally in one tarsocrural joint of six horses by intra-articular injection of 1 ml Staphylococcus aureus-saline suspension with the addition of 200 mg methylprednisolone acetate. The corresponding contralateral joint was injected with 1 ml of saline with the addition of 200 mg methylprednisolone acetate, and served as a control. The purpose of the experiment was to examine the effect of corticosteroids on the acute clinical signs of infectious arthritis, and the associated changes in synovial fluid, to separate the effects of a steroid injection from those of infection alone. This should aid early diagnosis of infection. The progression of the infectious arthritis was assessed over nine days by clinical examination and sequential synovial fluid analysis. The corticosteroids masked the clinical signs in some horses for up to the third day although changes in the synovial fluid were present earlier. Cellular changes preceded biochemical changes initially. Leucocyte counts showed a significant increase in cell numbers after infection was established. Persistent neutrophilia, over 90 per cent, together with a pH under 6.9 were the most consistent findings in the infected synovia. Total protein values were lower in infected joints with, than those without, corticosteroids; although there was a progressive rise in total protein concentration throughout the experiment in both groups. Serum and synovial glucose difference and synovial lactate had very little diagnostic value because significant increases due to the corticosteroids were documented in the control joints. PMID:2776719

  15. Targeting EZH2-mediated methylation of H3K27 inhibits proliferation and migration of Synovial Sarcoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jacson K.; Cote, Gregory M.; Gao, Yan; Choy, Edwin; Mankin, Henry J.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma genetically defined by the fusion oncogene SS18-SSX. It is hypothesized that either SS18-SSX disrupts SWI/SNF complex inhibition of the polycomb complex 2 (PRC2) methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2), or that SS18-SSX is able to directly recruit PRC2 to aberrantly silence target genes. This is of potential therapeutic value as several EZH2 small molecule inhibitors are entering early phase clinical trials. In this study, we first confirmed EZH2 expression in the 76% of human synovial sarcoma samples. We subsequently investigated EZH2 as a therapeutic target in synovial sarcoma in vitro. Knockdown of EZH2 by shRNA or siRNA resulted in inhibition of cell growth and migration across a series of synovial sarcoma cell lines. The EZH2 selective small-molecule inhibitor EPZ005687 similarly suppressed cell proliferation and migration. These data support the hypothesis that targeting EZH2 may be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of synovial sarcoma; clinical trials are initiating enrollment currently. PMID:27125524

  16. Intra-articular injection of synovial mesenchymal stem cells improves cartilage repair in a mouse injury model.

    PubMed

    Mak, J; Jablonski, C L; Leonard, C A; Dunn, J F; Raharjo, E; Matyas, J R; Biernaskie, J; Krawetz, R J

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains whether articular cartilage has an endogenous stem/progenitor cell population, since its poor healing capacity after injury can lead to diseases such as osteoarthritis. In the joint environment there are mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in the synovial membrane and synovial fluid that can differentiate into cartilage, but it is still under debate if these cells contribute to cartilage repair in vivo. In this study, we isolated a Sca-1 positive, chondrogenesis capable population of mouse synovial MSCs from C57BL6 and MRL/MpJ "super-healer" strains. Intra-articular injection of Sca-1 + GFP + synovial cells from C57BL6 or MRL/MpJ into C57BL6 mice following cartilage injury led to increased cartilage repair by 4 weeks after injury. GFP expression was detected in the injury site at 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks after injury. These results suggest that synovial stem/progenitor cells, regardless of strain background, have beneficial effects when injected into an injured joint. MSCs derived from MRL/MpJ mice did not promote an increased repair capacity compared to MSCs derived from non-healing C57BL6 controls; however, MRL/MpJ MSCs were observed within the defect area at the time points examined, while C57BL6 MSCs were not. PMID:26983696

  17. Of Mice and Men: Opportunities to Use Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Synovial Sarcoma for Preclinical Cancer Therapeutic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kevin B.; Haldar, Malay; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Sharma, Sunil; Capecchi, Mario R.; Randall, R. Lor

    2016-01-01

    Background Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue malignancy with a predilection for adolescents and young adults. Despite recent improvements in the understanding of its character and etiology, few therapeutic advances have been made. The mortality rate is high among the young population it affects. The low incidence of most subtypes of sarcoma, such as synovial sarcoma, makes disease-specific trials difficult to organize. The biological differences between sarcoma subtypes make inclusion of multiple types in general trials unsatisfactory as well. Methods A review of the literature regarding targetable pathways in synovial sarcoma was undertaken. A strategy has been devised to utilize available technologies in order to prioritize drug trial planning. Results Cell culture and xenograft research with synovial sarcoma cell lines have identified some critical pathways that may be targetable. Promising therapeutic strategies include newer cytotoxic chemotherapies, antiangiogenic agents, anti-IGF1R pathway agents, anti-Bcl-2/proapoptotic agents, and histone deacetylase complex inhibitors. Conclusions We propose to prioritize potential therapeutic strategies via preclinical testing of agents in a genetic mouse model of synovial sarcoma. Preclinical optimization of treatment regimens can guide the development of more focused patient trials. PMID:21666582

  18. Intra-articular injection of synovial mesenchymal stem cells improves cartilage repair in a mouse injury model

    PubMed Central

    Mak, J.; Jablonski, C. L.; Leonard, C. A.; Dunn, J. F.; Raharjo, E.; Matyas, J. R.; Biernaskie, J.; Krawetz, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains whether articular cartilage has an endogenous stem/progenitor cell population, since its poor healing capacity after injury can lead to diseases such as osteoarthritis. In the joint environment there are mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in the synovial membrane and synovial fluid that can differentiate into cartilage, but it is still under debate if these cells contribute to cartilage repair in vivo. In this study, we isolated a Sca-1 positive, chondrogenesis capable population of mouse synovial MSCs from C57BL6 and MRL/MpJ “super-healer” strains. Intra-articular injection of Sca-1 + GFP + synovial cells from C57BL6 or MRL/MpJ into C57BL6 mice following cartilage injury led to increased cartilage repair by 4 weeks after injury. GFP expression was detected in the injury site at 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks after injury. These results suggest that synovial stem/progenitor cells, regardless of strain background, have beneficial effects when injected into an injured joint. MSCs derived from MRL/MpJ mice did not promote an increased repair capacity compared to MSCs derived from non-healing C57BL6 controls; however, MRL/MpJ MSCs were observed within the defect area at the time points examined, while C57BL6 MSCs were not. PMID:26983696

  19. Risk of CNS dissemination in extranodal lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2014-04-01

    Extranodal lymphomas constitute a heterogeneous group of malignancies, accounting for roughly 60% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The extranodal organ where lymphomas arise is an important determining factor of biological, molecular, and aetio-pathogenic features, and of presentation, dissemination pattern, and outcome. An increased risk of CNS involvement, an uncommon but lethal event, has been suggested in some extranodal lymphomas, but the absolute risk is still debatable for most of these malignancies. This debate is because of the presence of selection biases and other confounding factors in related literature, which inevitably has led to conflicting recommendations. The identification of extranodal lymphomas at increased risk of CNS dissemination is an important unmet clinical need; affected patients could benefit from early CNS assessment by neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis and adequate CNS prophylaxis, avoiding unnecessary prophylaxis and related toxicity in low-risk patients. This Review discusses relevant confounding factors and identifies high-risk extranodal lymphomas analysing histopathological category, involved organ, and other specific risk factors, which could be helpful for result interpretation and patient stratification in future clinical trials. Finally, a recommendation is provided for CNS-directed management of high-risk extranodal lymphoma patients in daily practice. PMID:24694639

  20. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  1. HMGB1–LPS complex promotes transformation of osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts to a rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Y; Chen, Y; Wang, W; Wang, Z; Tang, G; Zhang, P; He, Z; Liu, Y; Dai, S-M; Shen, Q

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that some inflammatory antigens can recognize Toll-like receptors on synovial fibroblasts (SFs) and then activate downstream signals, leading to the formation of RASFs and inducing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the current work was to study on the hypothesis that outer PAMP (LPS) binds to the inner DAMP (HMGB1) and becomes a complex that recognizes TLRs/RAGE on SFs, thus initiating a signaling cascade that leads to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, production of tissue-destructive enzymes, and formation of RASFs, finally resulting in RA. Osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) were co-cultured with HMGB1–LPS complex in vitro for five generations to induce the transformation of human SFs to RA-like SFs (tOASFs). Then, changes of tOASFs in cell cycle and apoptosis–autophagy balance were investigated in vitro, and the pathogenicity of tOASFs was evaluated in a SCID mouse model in vivo. In vitro cell cycle analysis showed more tOASFs passing through the G1/S checkpoint and moving to S or G2 phase. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that apoptosis was reduced and autophagy was enhanced significantly in tOASFs as compared with those in OASFs. The expression of certain receptors and adhesion molecules in tOASFs was upregulated. In vivo experiments showed that tOASFs attached to, invaded, and degraded the co-implanted cartilage. In addition, histochemistry showed excessive proliferation of tOASFs and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Based on the above findings, we conclude that HMGB1–LPS complex could promote the formation of RASFs. PMID:24556692

  2. Detection of disseminated peritoneal tumors by fluorescein diacrylate in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yoshinori; Furuta, Hirokazu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Dai, Ping; Fujikawa, Yuta; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Morishita, Koki; Hasegawa, Akira; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    Tumor invasion to the peritoneum is a poor prognostic factor in cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal tumors is essential to accurate cancer staging. To date, peritoneal washing cytology during laparotomy has been used for diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer, but its sensitivity has not been satisfactory. Thus, a more direct approach is indispensable to detect peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Fluorescein diacrylate (FDAcr) is an esterase-sensitive fluorescent probe derived from fluorescein. In cancer cells, fluorescent fluorescein generated by exogenous application of FDAcr selectively deposits owing to its stronger hydrolytic enzyme activity and its lower leakage rate. We examined whether FDAcr can specifically detect disseminated peritoneal tumors in athymic nude mouse models. Intraperitoneally administered FDAcr revealed disseminated peritoneal microscopic tumors not readily recognized on white-light imaging. These results suggest that FDAcr is a useful probe for detecting disseminated peritoneal tumors.

  3. ["Plica disease" (synovial folds) of the knee-joint: arthroscopic and histological findings, with suggestions for treatment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klein, W; Schulitz, K P; Huth, F

    1979-09-01

    A mediopatellar plica (synovial fold) of the knee-joint may develop without recognisable cause in adolescents or young adults, predominantly females. It leads to pain on pressure over the medial knee compartment, sudden or "springing" intraarticular movements and pseudolocking of the joint. Similar plicae occur after traumatic joint contusion, with meniscus disease, or more rarely with arthrosis deformans. Histologically they are characterized by band-like fibrosed evaginations of the synovial membrane and of the synovial fat and connective tissue into the joint spaces. The following therapeutic suggestions, based on the personal experience of 15 cases, are made in the knowledge that significant inflammatory or proliferative arthritic changes can be excluded: the plica can be cut through under arthroscopy; chondromalacial defects, directly or indirectly caused by plical rubbing, of the medial femoral condyle and the medial patella can be removed, also under arthroscopic control, with an electric razor. Arthrotomy is no longer needed in most cases. PMID:477536

  4. Contributions of the lymphatic and microvascular systems to fluid absorption from the synovial cavity of the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Levick, J R

    1980-09-01

    1. The trans-synovial flow (Qs) of Ringer solution from the cavity of immobile knee (stifle) joints was determined in anaesthetized rabbits when intra-articular hydrostatic pressure (PJ) was elevated in steps from 2 to 25 cm H2O. 2. It has been demonstrated previously (Levick, 1978) that slope DQs/dPJ shows an abrupt sixfold increase at a 'breaking point' (PB) around 9 . 5 cm H2O, rising from a mean of 0 . 49 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (PJ less than PB) to 2 . 81 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (PJ greater than PB). 3. Perforation of the synovial intima by an intra-articular cannula increased dQs/dPJ below breaking pressure and thus largely abolished the breaking point phenomenon, indicating that the phenomenon might be simulated by a break-down in synovial resistance to flow. 4. Ligation of the femoral lymph trunks draining the joint did not significantly alter the relationship between Qs and PJ. The slope dQs/dPJ was 0 . 60 +/- 0 . 17 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (mean +/- S.E.) below a breaking pressure of 8 . 8--10.5 cm H2O, and 2 . 90 +/- 0 . 64 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 above breaking pressure. Thus changes in synovial lymph flow did not explain the breaking point phenomenon. 5. Interruption of synovial blood flow by vascular clamps or by killing the animal reduced, but did not abolish fluid absorption; nor was the breaking point phenomenon abolished. Slope dQs/dPJ increased from 0 . 37 +/- 0 . 06 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 below breaking point (10 . 5 +/- 1 . 0 cm H2O) to between 1 . 82 and 0 . 96 +/- 0 . 15 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 above breaking pressure. Fluid accumulated in extra-synovial interstitial spaces. 6. When the synovial intima was divested of its surrounding tissues, lymphatic and vascular supplies by extensive dissection, the denuded synovium still showed a marked increase in hydraulic conductivity at normal breaking pressures. The breaking point phenomenon was therefore not caused by changes in extra-synovial interstitial pressure or compliance. 7. It

  5. Statistical analysis of synovial fluid layers phase maps in the diagnostics of development and differentiation of pathological changes severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2011-09-01

    A new method for differential diagnosis of pathological changes of the joints on the basis of synovial fluid was founded. Adduced description scheme and the principles of polarization filtering to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of synovial fluid smears and the change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  6. Statistical analysis of synovial fluid layers phase maps in the diagnostics of development and differentiation of pathological changes severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for differential diagnosis of pathological changes of the joints on the basis of synovial fluid was founded. Adduced description scheme and the principles of polarization filtering to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of synovial fluid smears and the change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  7. Synovial haemangioma of the knee joint: an unusual cause of knee pain in a 14-month old girl.

    PubMed

    Wen, D W; Tan, T J; Rasheed, S

    2016-06-01

    We report a histologically proven case of synovial haemangioma of the knee in a 14-month old girl who presented to the emergency department with an acute 1-day history of refusing to weight-bear on the right leg and a preceding 3-week history of a right knee lump. Physical examination revealed a non-tender, soft lump over the lateral infrapatellar region. Radiographs revealed a poorly defined soft tissue density over the infrapatellar fat pad and a suprapatellar joint effusion. Ultrasound was used to confirm the presence of a vascular soft tissue mass compatible with a synovial haemangioma within the infrapatellar fat pad which showed both intra-articular and extra-articular extension. There was good correlation of the ultrasound findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the potential clinical utility of ultrasound as an alternative imaging modality in establishing the pre-operative diagnosis and extent of a synovial haemangioma about the knee joint. PMID:26960422

  8. Evaluation of a Genus- and Group-Specific Rapid PCR Assay Panel on Synovial Fluid for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Knee Infection

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Dante P.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Berbari, Elie F.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Hanssen, Arlen D.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a genus- and group-specific PCR assay panel using 284 prosthetic knee synovial fluid samples collected from patients presenting to our institution with implant failure. Using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria, 88 and 196 samples were classified as showing prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic failure (AF), respectively. Sensitivities of the synovial fluid PCR panel and culture were 55.6% and 76.1% (P ≤ 0.001), respectively, and specificities were 91.8% and 97.4% (P = 0.016), respectively. Among the 70 subjects who had received antibiotics within the month preceding synovial fluid aspiration (48 of whom had PJI), PCR panel and synovial fluid culture sensitivities were 64.5% and 85.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In this group, the PCR panel detected Staphylococcus aureus in two culture-negative PJI cases. Overall, the evaluated molecular diagnostic tool had low sensitivity when applied to synovial fluid. PMID:26537446

  9. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  10. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  11. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Sonavane, Amey Dilip; Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-03-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  12. Significant synovial pathology in a meniscectomy model of osteoarthritis: modification by intra-articular hyaluronan therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cake, M. A.; Ghosh, P.; Schiavinato, A.; Read, R. A.; Little, C. B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. IA therapy with hyaluronan (HA) is reported to provide symptomatic relief and disease modification in OA. This study assessed the pathological changes in the synovium of an ovine model of OA and evaluated the effects of two HA preparations on this pathology. Methods. Eighteen sheep had bilateral lateral meniscectomy to induce OA. Four months post-surgery animals received IA saline or HA (Hyalgan®) weekly for 5 weeks or three injections of an amide derivative of HA (HYADD®4-G) every 2 weeks (n = 6 per group). Six months after meniscectomy, sheep were killed, knee joint synovium processed, scored for pathological change and compared with synovium from non-operated animals. Sections of synovium from normal and treated joints were also immunostained for TNF-α, HSP-47, TGF-β, CD44, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) or iNOS. HA synthesis by synovial fibroblasts isolated from each OA joint was quantified. Results. Aggregate scores of pathological change were higher in OA joint synovia compared with controls, with individual measures of subintimal fibrosis and vascularity predominantly affected. Depth of intimal fibrosis was also significantly higher in meniscectomized joints. IA treatment with Hyalgan® decreased aggregate score, vascularity and depth of fibrosis. HYADD®4-G treatment decreased vascularity, intimal hyperplasia and increased high-molecular weight HA synthesis by synovial fibroblasts. CD44, CTGF or iNOS expression was increased in the synovial lining of OA joints compared with normal, but there was no significant modulation of this increase by either HA preparation. Conclusion. Increased fibrosis and vascularity are hallmarks of pathological change in synovium in this meniscectomy model of OA. Both the IA HA and an amide derivative of HA reduced aspects of this pathology thus providing a potential mechanism for improving joint mobility and function in OA. PMID:18565987

  13. Urokinase, a constitutive component of the inflamed synovial fluid, induces arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tao; Tarkowski, Andrej; Carmeliet, Peter; Bokarewa, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis in synovial fluid. An increase of uPA activity and expression of its receptor have been reported in joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to assess the arthritogenic capacity of uPA and the mechanisms by which this effect is mediated. uPA was injected into the knee joints of healthy mice, and morphological signs of arthritis were assessed 4 days after the injection. The prerequisite of different leukocyte populations for the development of uPA-triggered arthritis was assessed by selective cell depletion. The inflammatory capacity of uPA was assessed in vitro. Finally, levels of uPA were measured in 67 paired blood and synovial fluid samples from RA patients. The synovial fluid from RA patients displayed higher levels of uPA compared with blood samples. Morphological signs of arthritis were found in 72% of uPA-injected joints compared with in only 18% of joints injected with PBS (P < 0.05). Synovitis was characterised by infiltration of CD4-Mac-1+ mononuclear cells, by the formation of pannus and by occasional cartilage destruction. The absence of monocytes and lymphocytes diminished the frequency of synovitis (P < 0.01), indicating an arthritogenic role of both these leukocyte populations. Synthetic uPA inhibitor downregulated the incidence of uPA-triggered arthritis by 50%. uPA induced arthritis, stimulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor alpha. Accumulation of uPA locally in the joint cavity is a typical finding in erosive RA. uPA exerts potent arthritogenic properties and thus may be viewed as one of the essential mediators of joint inflammation. PMID:12716448

  14. Synovial capillary distribution in relation to altered pressure and permeability in knees of anaesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Levick, J R; McDonald, J N

    1989-01-01

    1. The hydraulic conductance of the synovial lining of the rabbit knee increases greatly at intra-articular pressures (IAP) above 9 cmH2O. A structural cause was sought by fixing synovium in situ at less than or equal to 5 cmH2O IAP (ten animals) or 25 cmH2O IAP (five animals) and examining histological sections morphometrically. 2. The synovial lining was found to be a highly deformable sheet of very vascular connective tissue, with 47 x 10(3)-73 X 10(3) capillaries per cm2 section. 150-260 cm2 endothelial surface per cm3 tissue and a vascular volume of 2.4-5.7%. 3. The thickness of the lining averaged 14-19 microns at low IAP and was reduced at high IAP; in suprapatellar synovium, where changes were most marked, thickness fell by 24-47%. The loose subsynovial space expanded. 4. The average distance separating capillary near-edges from the joint cavity approximately halved from 3.75 and 7.47 microns at low IAP (harmonic and arithmetical means respectively) to 1.82 and 3.35 microns at high IAP. Capillaries remained patent and their number density did not change significantly at high IAP. 5. It is concluded that a reduction in the extravascular path length for fluid exchange contributes to the increase synovial conductance at high IAP, but the path length changes were not sufficient to account fully for the conductance changes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:2621638

  15. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahabadi, Mostafa; Faghihiloo, Ebrahim; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ataee, Mohamad Hossein; Ataee, Ramezan Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders. Genes and environmental factors contribute to RA. Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) has been considered as one the RA pathogeneses. The aim of this study was to detect of the EBV genome in patients with RA. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 50 samples of synovial fluid were obtained from patients with RA from 2010–2012. Using a standard of the EBV genome and EBNA-1-specific primers, the method of PCR was set up. Then, all of the samples of synovial fluids separately were subjected to DNA extraction and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The statistical analysis was performed by the t-test. Results The demographic and laboratory characteristic assay revealed that the mean age of patients was 49, and the patients were 60% males and 40% females. In addition, in all cases, the mean rheumatoid factor (RF) levels of the patients were below the normal level. The results of this study showed that the PCR was able to detect EBV DNA in > 60% of the cases. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that EBV was frequently detected in the synovial fluid of RA patients. Thus, EBV may be a strong candidate that can act at several levels of the pathophysiology of RA. However, these findings also indicated that EBV may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. However, the possible relationship between RA and EBV must be determined by further research. PMID:27123228

  16. Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Viscosupplementation on Synovial Fluid Inflammation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K; Percival, Susan S; Conrad, Bryan P; Seay, Amanda N; Montero, Cindy; Vincent, Kevin R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the changes in synovial fluid levels of cytokines, oxidative stress and viscosity six months after intraarticular hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment in adults and elderly adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: This was a prospective, repeated-measures study design in which patients with knee OA were administered 1% sodium hyaluronate. Patients (N=28) were stratified by age (adults, 50-64 years and elderly adults, ≥65 years). Ambulatory knee pain values and self-reported physical activity were collected at baseline and month six. Materials and Methods: Knee synovial fluid aspirates were collected at baseline and at six months. Fluid samples were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 6,8,12, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 4, 10 13), oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal) and viscosity at two different physiological shear speeds 2.5Hz and 5Hz. Results: HA improved ambulatory knee pain in adults and elderly groups by month six, but adults reported less knee pain-related interference with participation in exercise than elderly adults. A greater reduction in TNF-α occurred in adults compared to elderly adults (-95.8% ± 7.1% vs 19.2% ± 83.8%, respectively; p=.044). Fluid tended to improve at both shear speeds in adults compared to the elderly adults. The reduction in pain severity correlated with the change in IL-1β levels by month six (r= -.566; p=.044). Conclusion: Reduction of knee pain might be due to improvements in synovial fluid viscosity and inflammation. Cartilage preservation may be dependent on how cytokine, oxidative stress profiles and viscosity change over time. PMID:24093052

  17. Tofacitinib regulates synovial inflammation in psoriatic arthritis, inhibiting STAT activation and induction of negative feedback inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, W; McGarry, T; Orr, C; McCormick, J; Veale, D J; Fearon, U

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by synovitis and destruction of articular cartilage/bone. Janus-kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of PsA. Objectives To examine the effect of tofacitinib (JAK inhibitor) on proinflammatory mechanisms in PsA. Methods Primary PsA synovial fibroblasts (PsAFLS) and ex vivo PsA synovial explants were cultured with tofacitinib (1 µM). PhosphoSTAT3 (pSTAT3), phosphoSTAT1 (pSTAT1), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), protein inhibitor of activated Stat3 (PIAS3) and nuclear factor kappa B cells (NFκBp65) were quantified by western blot. The effect of tofacitinib on PsAFLS migration, invasion, Matrigel network formation and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)2/9 was quantified by invasion/migration assays and zymography. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-17, IL-10, MMP3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) were assessed by ELISA. Results Tofacitinib significantly decreased pSTAT3, pSTAT1, NFκBp65 and induced SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression in PsAFLS and synovial explant cultures (p<0.05). Functionally, PsAFLS invasion, network formation and migration were inhibited by tofacitinib (all p<0.05). In PsA explant, tofacitinib significantly decreased spontaneous secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP9/MMP2, MMP3 (all p<0.05) and decreased the MMP3/TIMP3 ratio (p<0.05), with no effect observed for IP-10 or IL-10. Conclusions This study further supports JAK-STAT inhibition as a therapeutic target for the treatment of PsA. PMID:26353790

  18. Decrease of CD68 Synovial Macrophages in Celastrol Treated Arthritic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cascão, Rita; Vidal, Bruno; Lopes, Inês P.; Paisana, Eunice; Rino, José; Moita, Luis F.; Fonseca, João E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease characterized by cellular infiltration into the joints, hyperproliferation of synovial cells and bone damage. Available treatments for RA only induce remission in around 30% of the patients, have important adverse effects and its use is limited by their high cost. Therefore, compounds that can control arthritis, with an acceptable safety profile and low production costs are still an unmet need. We have shown, in vitro, that celastrol inhibits both IL-1β and TNF, which play an important role in RA, and, in vivo, that celastrol has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Our main goal in this work was to test the effect of celastrol in the number of sublining CD68 macrophages (a biomarker of therapeutic response for novel RA treatments) and on the overall synovial tissue cellularity and joint structure in the adjuvant-induced rat model of arthritis (AIA). Methods Celastrol was administered to AIA rats both in the early (4 days after disease induction) and late (11 days after disease induction) phases of arthritis development. The inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight were evaluated during treatment period. Rats were sacrificed after 22 days of disease progression and blood, internal organs and paw samples were collected for toxicological blood parameters and serum proinflammatory cytokine quantification, as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively. Results Here we report that celastrol significantly decreases the number of sublining CD68 macrophages and the overall synovial inflammatory cellularity, and halted joint destruction without side effects. Conclusions Our results validate celastrol as a promising compound for the treatment of arthritis. PMID:26658436

  19. Inhibitory effects of H-Ras/Raf-1-binding affibody molecules on synovial cell function.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Gräslund, Torbjörn; Nygren, Per-Åke; Sano, Hajime; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Affibody molecules specific for H-Ras and Raf-1 were evaluated for their ability to inhibit synovial cell function. Affibody molecules targeting H-Ras (Zras122, Zras220, and Zras521) or Raf-1 (Zraf322) were introduced into the MH7A synovial cell line using two delivery methods: transfection with plasmids encoding the affibody molecules or direct introduction of affibody protein using a cell-penetrating peptide reagent. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by MH7A cells were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Cell proliferation was also analyzed. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was analyzed by western blot. All affibody molecules could inhibit IL-6 and PGE2 production in TNF-α-stimulated MH7A cells. The inhibitory effect was stronger when affibody molecules were delivered as proteins via a cell-penetrating peptide reagent than when plasmid-DNA encoding the affibody moelcules was transfected into the cells. Plasmid-expressed Zras220 inhibited phosphorylation of ERK in TNF-α-stimulated MH7A cells. Protein-introduced Zraf322 inhibited the production of IL-6 and PGE2 and inhibited cell proliferation in MH7A cells. These findings suggest that affibody molecules specific for H-Ras and Raf-1 can affect intracellular signal transduction through the MAP kinase pathway to inhibit cell proliferation and production of inflammatory mediators by synovial cells. PMID:26267111

  20. Circulating and synovial antibody profiling of juvenile arthritis patients by nucleic acid programmable protein arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation of unknown cause in children. JIA is an autoimmune disease and small numbers of autoantibodies have been reported in JIA patients. The identification of antibody markers could improve the existing clinical management of patients. Methods A pilot study was performed on the application of a high-throughput platform, the nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), to assess the levels of antibodies present in the systemic circulation and synovial joint of a small cohort of juvenile arthritis patients. Plasma and synovial fluid from 10 JIA patients was screened for antibodies against 768 proteins on NAPPAs. Results Quantitative reproducibility of NAPPAs was demonstrated with > 0.95 intra-array and inter-array correlations. A strong correlation was also observed for the levels of antibodies between plasma and synovial fluid across the study cohort (r = 0.96). Differences in the levels of 18 antibodies were revealed between sample types across all patients. Patients were segregated into two clinical subtypes with distinct antibody signatures by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Conclusion The NAPPAs provide a high-throughput quantitatively reproducible platform to screen for disease-specific autoantibodies at the proteome level on a microscope slide. The strong correlation between the circulating antibody levels and those of the inflamed joint represents a novel finding and provides confidence to use plasma for discovery of autoantibodies in JIA, thus circumventing the challenges associated with joint aspiration. We expect that autoantibody profiling of JIA patients on NAPPAs could yield antibody markers that can act as criteria to stratify patients, predict outcomes and understand disease etiology at the molecular level. PMID:22510425

  1. Vascular perfusion kinetics by contrast-enhanced ultrasound are related to synovial microvascularity in the joints of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, Ugo; Stramare, Roberto; Coran, Alessandro; Grisan, Enrico; Scagliori, Elena; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Lunardi, Francesca; Oliviero, Francesca; Bianchi, Fulvia Chieco; Scanu, Anna; Martini, Veronica; Boso, Daniele; Beltrame, Valeria; Vezzù, Maristella; Cozzi, Luisella; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sacerdoti, David; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea; Calabrese, Fiorella; Rubaltelli, Leopoldo

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship of the continuous mode contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound (CEUS) imaging with the histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) quantitative estimation of microvascular proliferation on synovial samples of patients affected by sustained psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A dedicated linear transducer was used in conjunction with a specific continuous mode contrast enhanced harmonic imaging technology with a second-generation sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles C-agent. The examination was carried out within 1 week before arthroscopic biopsies in 32 active joints. Perfusional parameters were analyzed including regional blood flow (RBF); peak (PEAK) of the C-signal intensity, proportional to the regional blood volume (RBV); beta (β) perfusion frequency; slope (S), representing the inclination of the tangent in the origin; and the refilling time (RT), the reverse of beta. Arthroscopic synovial biopsies were targeted in the hypervascularity areas, as in the same knee recesses assessed by CEUS; the synovial cell infiltrate and vascularity (vessel density) was evaluated by IHC staining of CD45 (mononuclear cell) and CD31, CD105 (endothelial cell) markers, measured by computer-assisted morphometric analysis. In the CEUS area examined, the corresponding time-intensity curves demonstrated a slow rise time. Synovial histology showed slight increased layer lining thickness, perivascular lymphomonocyte cell infiltration, and microvascular remodeling, with marked vessel wall thickening with reduction of the vascular lumen. A significant correlation was found between RT and CD31+ as PEAK and CD105+ vessel density; RT was inversely correlated to RBF, PEAK, S, and β. The study demonstrated the association of the CEUS perfusion kinetics with the histopathological quantitative and morphologic estimation of synovial microvascular proliferation, suggesting that a CEUS imaging represents a reliable tool for the estimate of the

  2. Intimal lining layer macrophages but not synovial sublining macrophages display an IL-10 polarized-like phenotype in chronic synovitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Synovial tissue macrophages play a key role in chronic inflammatory arthritis, but the contribution of different macrophage subsets in this process remains largely unknown. The main in vitro polarized macrophage subsets are classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, the latter comprising interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 polarized cells. Here, we aimed to evaluate the polarization status of synovial macrophages in spondyloarthritis (SpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Expression of polarization markers on synovial macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes, and in vitro polarized monocyte-derived macrophages from SpA versus RA patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. The polarization status of the intimal lining layer and the synovial sublining macrophages was assessed by double immunofluorescence staining. Results The expression of the IL-10 polarization marker cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163) was increased in SpA compared with RA intimal lining layer, but no differences were found in other M1 and M2 markers between the diseases. Furthermore, no significant phenotypic differences in monocytes and in vitro polarized monocyte-derived macrophages were seen between SpA, RA, and healthy controls, indicating that the differential CD163 expression does not reflect a preferential M2 polarization in SpA. More detailed analysis of intimal lining layer macrophages revealed a strong co-expression of the IL-10 polarization markers CD163 and cluster of differentiation 32 (CD32) but not any of the other markers in both SpA and RA. In contrast, synovial sublining macrophages had a more heterogeneous phenotype, with a majority of cells co-expressing M1 and M2 markers. Conclusions The intimal lining layer but not synovial sublining macrophages display an IL-10 polarized-like phenotype, with increased CD163 expression in SpA versus RA synovitis. These differences in the distribution of the polarized

  3. Digital resection and reconstruction of TMJ synovial chondrosarcoma involving the skull base: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Chen, Min-Jie; Huang, Dong; Abdelrehem, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondrosarcoma (SCS) is a very rare malignant cartilaginous tumor. To the best of our knowledge, only three reported studies presented the involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Hereby, we present a case of surgical management of a SCS of the TMJ, arising from SC and involving the skull base. The surgical procedure includes digital design, resection guided by digital templates, as well as immediate reconstruction with free iliac bone graft (IBG) and pedicled sternoclavicular joint (SCJ). At 1-year follow-up, the TMJ function and form were improved with no sign of local recurrence or metastasis to bone or other joints. However, its distant metastasis to lung was observed. PMID:26379987

  4. The protein phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A stimulates chemokine production by human synovial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, N J; Watson, M L; Westwick, J

    1995-01-01

    Cultured human synovial fibroblasts express mRNA for the chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), when stimulated with IL-1 or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Calyculin A, a potent type 1/2A protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, was used to examine the role of protein phosphatases in the regulation of chemokine gene expression. Calyculin A (1 nM) mimicked IL-1 by inducing IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA expression in synovial cells. IL-8 mRNA was induced over a similar time period (1-6 h) in response to IL-1 or calyculin A, whereas MCP-1 mRNA was induced more rapidly (1-2 h) by calyculin A than by IL-1 (4-6 h). Expression of RANTES mRNA occurred in response to TNF alpha, but could not be induced by stimulation with calyculin A alone. These results suggest that inhibition of protein phosphatase type 1/2A may have a differential role in the regulation of the expression of each of the chemokine genes. Synovial fibroblasts also secreted IL-8 and IL-6 peptide when stimulated with either IL-1/TNF alpha or calyculin A. The amount of IL-8 and IL-6 peptide produced in response to calyculin A was significantly increased above that produced by untreated synovial cells, though it was much less than the amount induced by IL-1 or TNF alpha. Calyculin A also acted synergistically with IL-1 or TNF alpha to cause a 2-fold potentiation of IL-1- or TNF alpha-induced IL-8 mRNA and peptide and RANTES mRNA expression. These results suggest that although inhibition of a protein phosphatase may be able to regulate the magnitude of IL-1-induced chemokine gene expression, the IL-1 signal transduction pathway involves components in addition to phosphatase inhibition, possibly including the activation of a protein kinase, the action of which may be opposed by a protein phosphatase inhibited by calyculin A. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

  5. Effects of dexamethasone on human synovial fibroblast-like cells, from osteoarthritic joints, in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Vento, R.; Torregrossa, M.V.; Giuliano, M.; Grecomoro, G.; Piccione, F. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of Dexamethasone (DEX) on cell division and macromolecular synthesis was investigated in a line (Mc Coy cells, A 9) of synovial fibroblast-like cells derived from human osteoarthritic joints. DEX markedly reduced the proliferation of Mc Coy cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. The maximal inhibition was found at 500 nM DEX 24 h after incubation and was accompanied by the appearance of giant macrophage-like cells. After DEX treatment cells showed increased content of DNA, proteins and RNA together with the reduction of ({sup 3}H)-thymidine incorporation into the TCA-precipitable fraction.

  6. Arthritis due to synovial involvement by extramedullary haematopoiesis in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, M H; Zarrabi, M H; Gorevic, P D

    1983-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with polyarthralgias, a psoriasiform rash, and severe elbow pain. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow biopsy established a diagnosis of myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Biopsy of the skin lesions revealed a nonspecific dermatitis. The clinical presentation was inconsistent with psoriatic arthritis, and there was no evidence for associated gout or collagen-vascular disease. Histological examination of tissue taken at the time of synovectomy indicated elbow arthritis to be due to myeloid metaplasia involving the synovial membrane. Images PMID:6847265

  7. Ganglion cyst versus synovial cyst? Ultrasound characteristics through a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giard, Marie-Claude; Pineda, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonographic characteristics of two common musculoskeletal lesions, ganglion cysts (GCs) and synovial cysts (SCs) are presented through a review of the literature. Although similar in many ways, these two lesions display different morphostructural characteristics justifying, in our view, their descriptions as separate entities. Mainly different from an anatomopathologic point of view, they also differ in their potential therapeutic implications. A symptomatic GC, refractory to conservative therapy, may require surgical excision of the cyst itself. For SC, therapy should primarily be oriented toward identifying and correcting the often coexisting intra-articular disease instead of only targeting merely its consequence, the SC. PMID:25190552

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in the synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Parker, A; Smith, M D

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the immunohistochemical techniques which can be used to detect cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in synovial membrane tissue, including a list of reagents and possible problems in each technique. It also describes three methods of quantitation of the resultant immunohistochemical detection, including the recent innovation computer-assisted digital video image analysis, and lists the advantages and disadvantages of each quantitation technique. This information will be a useful summary for any scientist interested in applying such techniques to the detection of cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in human tissue sections. PMID:10420385

  9. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  10. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169–diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph. PMID:25872742

  11. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Abed, Firas; Baniya, Ramkaji; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  12. Neuroborreliosis presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ruben; Lisboa, Lurdes; Neves, João; García López, Milagros; Santos, Elsa; Ribeiro, Augusto

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the initial presentation of neuroborreliosis. Parents report an upper-airway infection a few days before the development of acute encephalopathy, mild facial palsy, and seizures. The patient needed mechanical ventilation for 10 days, and after extubation, he presented hypotonia, ataxia, dysarthria, as well as weak gag and cough reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions on T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences on the right subcortical occipital and parietal region, left posterior arm of the internal capsule, and in the medulla oblongata. Borrelia burgdorferi was identified in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction and in the plasma by Western blotting. He was treated with ceftriaxone, methylprednisolone, and human immunoglobulin. Recovery was partial. PMID:23222106

  13. Multilocular Disseminated Tarlov Cysts: Importance of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management. PMID:25191117

  14. Multilocular disseminated tarlov cysts: importance of imaging.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management. PMID:25191117

  15. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination.

    PubMed

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph. PMID:25872742

  16. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Tachamo, Niranjan; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity. PMID:27406461

  17. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Tachamo, Niranjan; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity. PMID:27406461

  18. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  19. Persistent spontaneous synovial drainage from digital flexor sheath in proliferative tenosynovitis: Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chin, Brian; Cheung, Kevin; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Thoma, Achilleas

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative flexor tenosynovitis of the hand is an inflammatory process involving the synovial sheaths surrounding the tendons. It is most commonly caused by infection, but may also be caused by overuse, diabetes and rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and crystal arthropathies. The present report describes two patients with severe proliferative tenosynovitis, who developed a fistula between the tendon sheath and skin after instrumentation, resulting in persistent synovial drainage. After failing conservative management, both patients were managed with extensive flexor tenosynovectomy to prevent inoculation of bacteria into the flexor sheath. The presentation, management and outcome of each case is described in addition to a discussion of the literature on tenosynovial fistulas. PMID:26090353

  20. Correlation and fractional analysis of synovial fluid microscopic images for diagnostics and differentiation of pathological conditions in joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, was given the basis of the method of spectral Stokes polarimetry of human synovial fluid. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize spectral distributions of polarization azimuth and ellipticity of the body's electromagnetic radiation and dynamics of change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of human knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  1. Correlation and fractional analysis of synovial fluid microscopic images for diagnostics and differentiation of pathological conditions in joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, was given the basis of the method of spectral Stokes polarimetry of human synovial fluid. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize spectral distributions of polarization azimuth and ellipticity of the body's electromagnetic radiation and dynamics of change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of human knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  2. Tiludronate concentrations and cytologic findings in synovial fluid after intravenous regional limb perfusion with tiludronate in horses

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Barbara G.; Larson, Maureen K.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts of tiludronate administration via intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) exist despite a lack of information regarding safety for synovial structures in the perfused area. The objective of this study was to determine whether tiludronate concentrations in synovial structures after IVRLP with low dose (0.5 mg, LDT) or high dose (50 mg, HDT) tiludronate remain below a value demonstrated in vitro to be safe for articular cartilage (<19,000 ng/ml), and to determine effects of tiludronate on synovial fluid cytology variables compared to saline perfused control limbs. Using a randomized controlled experimental study design, horses received IVRLP with LDT (n = 6) or HDT (n = 6) in one forelimb and IVRLP with saline in the contralateral limb. Synovial fluid cytology variables and tiludronate concentrations were evaluated in navicular bursae (NB), and distal interphalangeal (DIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints one week before and 30–45 min after IVRLP, and in DIP and MCP joints 24 h after IVRLP. Data were analyzed with 2-way rmANOVA (p < 0.05). Highest measured synovial fluid tiludronate concentrations occurred 30–45 min post-perfusion. Mean tiludronate concentrations were lower in LDT limbs (MCP = 39.6 ± 14.3 ng/ml, DIP = 118.1 ± 66.6 ng/ml, NB = 82.1 ± 30.2 ng/ml) than in HDT limbs (MCP = 3,745.1 ± 1,536.6 ng/ml, DIP = 16,274.0 ± 5,460.2 ng/ml, NB = 6,049.3 ± 1,931.7 ng/ml). Tiludronate concentration was >19,000 ng/ml in DIP joints of two HDT limbs. Tiludronate was measurable only in synovial fluid from HDT limbs 24 h post-perfusion. There were no differences in synovial fluid cytology variables between control and treated limbs. Conclusions. In some horses, IVRLP with HDT may result in synovial fluid concentrations of tiludronate that may have adverse effects on articular cartilage, based on in vitro data. IVRLP with LDT is unlikely to promote articular cartilage degradation. Further studies to determine a safe and effective dose

  3. Synovial fluid analyses detect and differentiate proteoglycan metabolism in canine experimental models of osteoarthritis and disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, A; Beauvais, P J; Saed-Nejad, F; Shurety, W; Caterson, B

    1993-01-01

    Canine experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA) and disuse atrophy were used to study cartilage metabolism. The synovial fluids from the OA joints showed elevated levels of keratan sulfate (KS) epitope and link protein, indicating increased catabolism. Analysis of fluids from joints with disuse atrophy showed high levels of KS epitope, but no increase in link protein. Quantitation of a novel chondroitin sulfate (3B3) epitope showed it to be present only in the synovial fluids and articular cartilage of the OA joints. The results indicate that these may be important indicators, or markers, of degenerative joint disease. PMID:8456644

  4. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  5. Hypothesis: disseminated intravascular inflammation as the inflammatory counterpart to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Bull, B S; Bull, M H

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances--such as erythrocyte salvage--in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality. Images PMID:8058778

  6. Surfactants identified in synovial fluid and their ability to act as boundary lubricants.

    PubMed Central

    Hills, B A; Butler, B D

    1984-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography has been used to identify phospholipids extracted from canine synovial fluid, the major component (45%) being phosphatidyl choline (PC). The extracts and their components have been shown to be surface active in reducing the surface tension of water and to be readily adsorbed to hydrophilic solids, whose surfaces then become hydrophobic. These adsorbed monolayers of synovial surfactant were then found to be excellent boundary lubricants in vitro, reducing the coefficient of kinetic friction (mu) in the dry state and under physiological loading by up to 97% for extracts and 99% for PC alone, reaching mu = 0.01. Surface-active phospholipid is put forward as the possible active ingredient in joint lubrication and shown to be consistent with previous biochemical studies to elucidate its identity. The model essentially follows the classical Hardy model for boundary lubrication imparted by surfactants. It is discussed in relation to a new approach in providing artificial lubrication and facilitating tissue release in patients with arthritis. PMID:6476922

  7. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchessi, Marta; Chen, Yuwen; Durgam, Sushmitha; Pondenis, Holly; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP) cells in equine synovial fluid (SF) and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were performed during primary cultures. At first passage, SF-cells were seeded at low density, with or without FGF-2. Following monolayer expansion and serial immunophenotyping, cells were transferred to chondrogenic pellet cultures. Pellets were analyzed for chondrogenic mRNA expression and cartilage matrix secretion. There was a mean of 59.2 CFU/mL of SF. FGF-2 increased the number of population doublings during two monolayer passages and halved the population doubling times. FGF-2 did not alter the immunophenotype of SF-CPs during monolayer expansion, nor did FGF-2 compromise chondrogenesis. Hypertrophic phenotypic markers were not expressed in control or FGF-2 groups. FGF-2 did prevent the development of a “fibroblastic” cell layer around pellet periphery. FGF-2 significantly accelerates in vitro SF-CP expansion, the major hurdle to clinical application of this cell population, without detrimentally affecting subsequent chondrogenic capacity. PMID:26839571

  8. Knee Locking in Osteoarthritis due to Synovial Lipoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    S. Amarjit, Kataria; Budhiraja, Shivali; Chandramouleeswari, K.; Anita, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intra–articular synovial lipomas are very rare and only few cases have been reported till now. We are reporting a rare case of a unilateral intra–articular lipoma of osteoarthritic knee joint in a 62 years old male. Patient had two episodes of sudden locking of knee joint, which resolved spontaneously. A plain X-ray showed changes which were suggestive of osteoarthritis. Clinically, patient was diagnosed as a case of loose bodies in left knee joint. An arthrotomy was performed. After a Histopathological Examination (HPE) of loose bodies, a diagnosis of an intra–articular synovial lipoma was made. Due to wide differentials and varied clinical behaviour of loose bodies, lipoma should be included in differential diagnosis of osteroarthritic patients who complain of episodic locking of knees. Intraarticular lipomas, on arthroscopic guided excision, get cured permanently, with no recurrence. The differentiation of an intra-articular lipoma from a relatively more common entity, Lipoma arborescens, has also been discussed. PMID:24086885

  9. Fluorescent sensing of pyrophosphate anion in synovial fluid based on DNA-attached magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Li; Chen, Zhen-zhen; Jiang, Zhong-yao; Sun, Miao-miao; Li, Lu; Liu, Ju; Tang, Bo

    2015-10-15

    In this work, a new fluorescent method for sensitive detection of pyrophosphate anion (P2O7(4-), PPi) in the synovial fluid was developed using fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA-attached Fe3O4 NPs. The sensing approach is based on the strong affinity of PPi to Fe3O4 NPs and highly efficient fluorescent quenching ability of Fe3O4 NPs for fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA. In the presence of PPi, the fluorescence would enhance dramatically due to desorption of fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA from the surface of Fe3O4 NPs, which allowed the analysis of PPi in a very simple manner. The proposed sensing system allows for the sensitive determination of PPi in the range of 2.0 × 10(-7)-4 × 10(-6)M with a detection limit of 76 nM. Importantly, the protocol exhibits excellent selectivity for the determination of PPi over other phosphate-containing compounds. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PPi in the synovial fluid, which suggests our proposed method has great potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25957830

  10. The Effect of SHH-Gli Signaling Pathway on the Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suping; Sun, Dexu; Li, Hui; Li, Xiangyang; Pan, Wei; Yan, Chao; Tang, Renxian; Liu, Xiaomei

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis. This study aims to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-Gli signaling pathway in synovial fibroblast proliferation in rheumatoid arthritis. The expression of serum SHH in RA patients group was significantly increased compared with the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and healthy subject (healthy control, HC) groups, respectively; serum SHH expression of RA patients was positively correlated with rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP Ab), while there was no significant correlation between SHH expression and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). SHH, Ptch, Smo, and Gli molecules were highly expressed in rat RA-synovial fibroblast (RA-SF); after blocking the SHH-Gli signaling pathway with a Gli specific inhibitor, Gli-antagonist 61 (GANT61), RA-SF proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the apoptosis rate of RA-SF was increased as well; the expression levels of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and FGFR3 declined in SF cells after GANT61 treatment. Our results suggest that SHH-Gli pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of RA, and blocking SHH-Gli pathway inhibits RA-SF cell proliferation and increases cell apoptosis, which may shed light on developing new ideas for RA treatment. PMID:26552406

  11. Determination of marbofloxacin in plasma and synovial fluid by ultrafiltration followed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Camilla; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel; Compagnone, Dario; Celani, Gianluca; Varasano, Vincenzo; Petrizzi, Lucio; Amorena, Michele

    2016-05-10

    A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the determination of marbofloxacin in plasma and synovial fluid is presented in this study. The method uses a rapid sample preparation which only requires an ultrafiltration step with centrifugal filter devices. The optimized procedure allows a minimal need of sample (175μL), particularly useful for synovial fluid samples which amount is rather limited; it is simple, rapid and easily applicable providing anyhow a satisfactory clean up, demonstrated by post-infusion experiments. On the other hand to maximize the speed of the analysis an ultrafast chromatographic separation has been obtained by selecting a column of 20mm; the reduced run-time is suitable for processing numerous samples on a daily basis. Linearity was assessed in the range 5-2500ngmL(-1); ofloxacin was used as internal standard. LOD and LOQ were respectively 1 and 5ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to a set of samples generated during an experimental veterinary study. PMID:26859613

  12. Effects of ACL Reconstructive Surgery on Temporal Variations of Cytokine Levels in Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Marco; Gandolla, Marta; Sacerdote, Paola; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gorla, Massimo; Munegato, Daniele; Gaddi, Diego; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J.; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24–72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery). For comparison, a “control” group consisted of individuals presenting chronic ACL tears. Our results indicate that levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 vary significantly over time in reconstruction patients. In the acute phase, the levels of these cytokines in reconstruction patients were significantly greater than those in controls. In the presurgery phase, cytokine levels in reconstruction patients were reduced and comparable with those in controls. Finally, cytokine levels increased again with respect to control group in the postsurgery phase. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α showed no temporal variation. Our data show that the history of an ACL injury, including trauma and reconstruction, has a significant impact on levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in synovial fluid but does not affect levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:27313403

  13. [Sonic hedgehog (SHH) promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts of rats with collagen-induced arthritis].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Qin, Suping; Sun, Dexu; Pan, Wei; Li, Xiangyang; Kong, Fanyun; Zhen, Kuiyang; Tang, Renxian

    2016-05-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sonic hedgehog (SHH) on the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts (SFs). Methods The serum samples were collected from 30 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 30 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 30 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and 30 healthy subjects. The concentrations of serum SHH were detected by ELISA. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) were developed by type 2 collagen in Sprague-Dawley rats. The SFs were isolated from knee synovial tissues of CIA rats, and then identified by the detection of vimentin by immunofluorescence technique. Before and 72 hours after blocking SHH-glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli-1) signaling pathway with GANT61, the expression level of SHH in SFs was detected by Western blotting, and the proliferation of SFs was examined with CCK-8 assay. Results The level of serum SHH in the RA patients was remarkably higher than that in the SLE, AS patients and the healthy controls. In the CIA rats, the expression of SHH in SFs in vitro was higher than that in the healthy control rats. After 72-hour treatment of GANT61 to block SHH-Gli-1 signaling pathway, the expression level of SHH protein in SFs from CIA rats was reduced, and meanwhile the proliferation of the SFs was inhibited. Conclusion SHH plays an important role in the proliferation of SFs and could be used as a potential therapeutic target for RA. PMID:27126942

  14. Microscopical analysis of synovial fluid wear debris from failing CoCr hip prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. B.; Brown, A. P.; Cox, A.; Curry, A.; Denton, J.

    2010-07-01

    Metal on metal hip joint prostheses are now commonly implanted in patients with hip problems. Although hip replacements largely go ahead problem free, some complications can arise such as infection immediately after surgery and aseptic necrosis caused by vascular complications due to surgery. A recent observation that has been made at Manchester is that some Cobalt Chromium (CoCr) implants are causing chronic pain, with the source being as yet unidentified. This form of replacement failure is independent of surgeon or hospital and so some underlying body/implant interface process is thought to be the problem. When the synovial fluid from a failed joint is examined particles of metal (wear debris) can be found. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used to look at fixed and sectioned samples of the synovial fluid and this has identified fine (< 100 nm) metal and metal oxide particles within the fluid. TEM EDX and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) have been employed to examine the composition of the particles, showing them to be chromium rich. This gives rise to concern that the failure mechanism may be associated with the debris.

  15. Elevated soluble CD8 in the synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Suppressor/cytotoxic T cells express the surface marker CD8, which can be measured in a soluble form in culture supernatants of activated human lymphocytes. Using a sandwich immunoassay, we assessed the levels of soluble CD8 (sCD8) in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 82), patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD; n = 40), and healthy controls. There were no differences in serum sCD8 levels among these groups. In contrast, the levels of soluble CD8 in the synovial fluid (SF) from patients with RA (n = 53) were significantly increased compared with the levels in 23 samples from patients with DJD (821 +/- 110 U/ml versus 213 +/- 13 U/ml, p less than 0.001). Synovial fluid sCD8 levels in the RA group were strikingly elevated, to a maximum value of 5,026 U/ml. In the majority of RA SF specimens (39 of 53), the values were significantly higher in the SF than the serum. Although the RA group had higher values of sCD8, such values were not significantly correlated with measured laboratory or clinical parameters. Current clinical and laboratory methods of evaluating patients may not be adequate in dealing with the complexity and heterogeneity of RA. Soluble CD8 values may be useful in further grouping patients with this disease. PMID:2121924

  16. Lumbar Intraforaminal Synovial Cyst in Young Adulthood: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kalevski, Svetoslav K.; Haritonov, Dimitar Georgiev; Peev, Nikolay Angelov

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Lumbar juxtafacet cysts (synovial and ganglion cysts) are a rare cause of low back and radicular leg pain. Most patients with lumbar cysts are in their sixth decade of life and have significant facet joint and disk degeneration. Lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are extremely rare in adolescence and young adulthood, and to our knowledge, only two pediatric cases of LSC have been reported in the literature. We aim to prove the existence of LSC in adolescent patients as a real entity that causes low back and radicular complaints and to discuss the possibility of traumatic injury as a pathogenic cause of LSC formation in adolescence. A case of an 18-year old patient with LSC is presented. We report the clinical presentation, management, outcome, and review of the literature, focusing on issues that remain debatable. Methods The case is presented together with its clinical course, the diagnostic techniques, the surgical findings, histologic results, and the treatment outcome. Results After surgical treatment, the patient's complaints were alleviated and almost no complaints were registered during the next 6 months' follow-up. Conclusions LSCs are extremely rare in adolescence, but they could be considered in the differential diagnosis in adolescent patients with low back pain and radiculopathy. Surgical removal of LSC could be considered as a treatment option to provide immediate and safe symptomatic relief. PMID:25083362

  17. Human Synovial Lubricin Expresses Sialyl Lewis x Determinant and Has L-selectin Ligand Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunsheng; Ekwall, Anna-Karin Hultgård; Bylund, Johan; Björkman, Lena; Estrella, Ruby P.; Whitelock, John M.; Eisler, Thomas; Bokarewa, Maria; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lubricin (or proteoglycan 4 (PRG4)) is an abundant mucin-like glycoprotein in synovial fluid (SF) and a major component responsible for joint lubrication. In this study, it was shown that O-linked core 2 oligosaccharides (Galβ1–3(GlcNAcβ1–6)GalNAcα1-Thr/Ser) on lubricin isolated from rheumatoid arthritis SF contained both sulfate and fucose residues, and SF lubricin was capable of binding to recombinant L-selectin in a glycosylation-dependent manner. Using resting human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) from peripheral blood, confocal microscopy showed that lubricin coated circulating PMN and that it partly co-localized with L-selectin expressed by these cells. In agreement with this, activation-induced shedding of L-selectin also mediated decreased lubricin binding to PMN. It was also found that PMN recruited to inflamed synovial area and fluid in rheumatoid arthritis patients kept a coat of lubricin. These observations suggest that lubricin is able to bind to PMN via an L-selectin-dependent and -independent manner and may play a role in PMN-mediated inflammation. PMID:22930755

  18. Biodynamic Performance of Hyaluronic Acid versus Synovial fluid of the Knee for Osteoarthritic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model and evaluation for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, the comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA [Singh et al. 2104]. PMID:25858258

  19. Microvesicles shed by oligodendroglioma cells and rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts contain aggrecanase activity.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Majkowska, Iwona; Nagase, Hideaki; Di Liegro, Italia; Troeberg, Linda

    2012-05-01

    Membrane microvesicle shedding is an active process and occurs in viable cells with no signs of apoptosis or necrosis. We report here that microvesicles shed by oligodendroglioma cells contain an 'aggrecanase' activity, cleaving aggrecan at sites previously identified as targets for adamalysin metalloproteinases with disintegrin and thrombospondin domains (ADAMTSs). Degradation was inhibited by EDTA, the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, but not by TIMP-1 or TIMP-2. This inhibitor profile indicates that the shed microvesicles contain aggrecanolytic ADAMTS(s) or related TIMP-3-sensitive metalloproteinase(s). The oligodendroglioma cells were shown to express the three most active aggrecanases, namely Adamts1, Adamts4 and Adamts5, suggesting that one or more of these enzymes may be responsible for the microvesicle activity. Microvesicles shed by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts similarly degraded aggrecan in a TIMP-3-sensitive manner. Our findings raise the novel possibility that microvesicles may assist oligodendroglioma and rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts to invade through aggrecan-rich extracellular matrices. PMID:22406378

  20. Importance of synovial fluid aspiration when injecting intra-articular corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Weitoft, T.; Uddenfeldt, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this prospective study was to find if a complete synovial fluid aspiration before injecting intra-articular corticosteroids influences the treatment result.
METHODS—The study was performed in 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred and ninety one knees with synovitis were randomised to arthrocentesis (n=95) or no arthrocentesis (n=96) before 20 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide was injected. The duration of effect was followed up for a period of six months. All patients were instructed to contact the rheumatology department if signs and symptoms from the treated knee recurred. If arthritis could be confirmed by a clinical examination a relapse was noted.
RESULTS—There was a significant reduction of relapse in the arthrocentesis group (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION—The study shows that aspiration of synovial fluid can reduce the risk for arthritis relapse when treating RA patients with intra-articular corticosteroids. It is concluded that arthrocentesis shall be included in the intra-articular corticosteroid injection procedure.

 PMID:10700435

  1. Biodynamic performance of hyaluronic acid versus synovial fluid of the knee in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model that can be evaluated for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, a comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA (Singh et al., 2014). PMID:25858258

  2. Lumbar intraforaminal synovial cyst in young adulthood: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kalevski, Svetoslav K; Haritonov, Dimitar Georgiev; Peev, Nikolay Angelov

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Lumbar juxtafacet cysts (synovial and ganglion cysts) are a rare cause of low back and radicular leg pain. Most patients with lumbar cysts are in their sixth decade of life and have significant facet joint and disk degeneration. Lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are extremely rare in adolescence and young adulthood, and to our knowledge, only two pediatric cases of LSC have been reported in the literature. We aim to prove the existence of LSC in adolescent patients as a real entity that causes low back and radicular complaints and to discuss the possibility of traumatic injury as a pathogenic cause of LSC formation in adolescence. A case of an 18-year old patient with LSC is presented. We report the clinical presentation, management, outcome, and review of the literature, focusing on issues that remain debatable. Methods The case is presented together with its clinical course, the diagnostic techniques, the surgical findings, histologic results, and the treatment outcome. Results After surgical treatment, the patient's complaints were alleviated and almost no complaints were registered during the next 6 months' follow-up. Conclusions LSCs are extremely rare in adolescence, but they could be considered in the differential diagnosis in adolescent patients with low back pain and radiculopathy. Surgical removal of LSC could be considered as a treatment option to provide immediate and safe symptomatic relief. PMID:25083362

  3. A comparative proteomics study of a synovial cell line stimulated with TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Morisaka, Hironobu; Takeda, Yumiko; Aoki, Wataru; Kitano, Sachie; Kitano, Masayasu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Sano, Hajime; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we used proteomic analysis to determine the protein profile in a synovial cell line, MH7A, established from patients with RA. Proteins were extracted from MH7A cells that were or were not stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and then analyzed on a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system equipped with a unique long monolithic silica capillary. On the basis of the results of this proteomic analysis, we identified 2650 proteins from untreated MH7A cells and 2688 proteins from MH7A cells stimulated with TNF-α. Next, we selected 269 differentially produced proteins that were detected only under TNF-α stimulation, and classified these proteins by performing gene ontology analysis by using DAVID as a functional annotation tool. In TNF-α-stimulated MH7A cells, we observed substantial production of plasminogen-activator inhibitor 2 and apoptosis-regulating proteins such as BH3-interacting domain death agonist, autophagy protein 5, apolipoprotein E, and caspase-3. These results indicate that the upregulation of plasminogen-activator inhibitor 2 and apoptosis-regulating proteins in synovial cells in response to TNF-α stimulation might represent a predominant factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:27419047

  4. Stimulation of human rheumatoid synovial cells by non-lethal complement membrane attack.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, R H; Houston, W A; Petersen, M M; Williams, J D; Williams, B D; Morgan, B P

    1990-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal complement attack on cultured human rheumatoid synovial cells have been investigated by measuring a variety of parameters. Within 3-4 min of initiating non-lethal complement membrane attack there was a rise in reactive oxygen metabolite release from cultured synovial cells, which slowly returned to basal levels over a period of 45 min. The response was dependent on the formation of the complete C5b-9 complex. Prostaglandin E2 was also released during non-lethal attack in a biphasic manner, an early phase of release occurring within the first hour and a second, larger phase commencing at 4 hr and rising to levels of over 1000 ng/10(6) cells at 24 hr, compared to control levels at this time of less than 100 ng/10(6) cells. This response was dependent on the formation of the C5b-8 complex but did not require C9. Removal of extracellular calcium reduced release of prostaglandin E2 to background levels, and inclusion of an inhibitor of protein synthesis abolished the second phase of release but not the first phase. Non-lethal attack caused release of small amounts of leukotriene B4 but no detectable release of tumour necrosis factor. PMID:2155179

  5. Ultra-stable radio frequency dissemination in free space.

    PubMed

    Miao, J; Wang, B; Gao, C; Bai, Y; Zhu, X; Wang, L J

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-stable radio frequency (RF) dissemination scheme over 80 m free space. The frequency dissemination stability is 3.2 × 10(-13)/s and 4.4 × 10(-17)/day, which can be applied to transfer frequency signal without compromising its stability in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) or radio astronomy. PMID:24182140

  6. New Jersey Curriculum Management Center: Curriculum Dissemination Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F., Jr.

    A description of the curriculum dissemination system of the New Jersey Curriculum Management Center (NJCMC) is provided for the use of educators needing these services and for other states who wish to establish similar curriculum dissemination systems. As a curriculum management center in the National Network for Curriculum Coordination in…

  7. 49 CFR 25.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 25.140 Section 25.140 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 25.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1)...

  8. 29 CFR 36.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of policy. 36.140 Section 36.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall...

  9. 43 CFR 41.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 41.140 Section 41.140 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 41.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  10. 29 CFR 34.23 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of policy. 34.23 Section 34.23 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) Recordkeeping and Other Affirmative Obligations of Recipients § 34.23 Dissemination...

  11. 10 CFR 1009.6 - Dissemination of prices and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of prices and charges. 1009.6 Section 1009.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.6 Dissemination of prices and charges. Current prices and charges...

  12. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20 Dissemination... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed...

  13. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  14. 15 CFR 8a.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 8a.140 Section 8a.140 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 8a.140 Dissemination of policy. (a)...

  15. 43 CFR 41.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dissemination of policy. 41.140 Section 41.140 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 41.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  16. 10 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall...

  17. 6 CFR 17.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 17.140 Section 17.140 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 17.140 Dissemination of policy. (a)...

  18. 22 CFR 146.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dissemination of policy. 146.140 Section 146.140 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 146.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1)...

  19. 22 CFR 229.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dissemination of policy. 229.140 Section 229.140 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 229.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy....

  20. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  1. 47 CFR 11.53 - Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53 Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. Initiation...

  2. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION... dissemination of information concerning procurement actions. The Division of Acquisition Management...

  3. 36 CFR 1211.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 1211... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1211.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each... prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each...

  4. 28 CFR 54.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 54.140 Section... Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing...) Publications. (1) Each recipient shall prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph...

  5. 31 CFR 28.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 28.140... Introduction § 28.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement...) Publications. (1) Each recipient shall prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph...

  6. 14 CFR 1253.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 1253.140 Section... § 1253.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement... policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each announcement, bulletin, catalog, or...

  7. 32 CFR 196.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 196.140 Section 196.140... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 196.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each... prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each...

  8. 44 CFR 19.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 19... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing steps to notify...

  9. 47 CFR 11.53 - Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. 11.53 Section 11.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.53 Dissemination of Emergency Action Notification. Initiation...

  10. 13 CFR 113.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 113.140 Section 113.140 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Introduction § 113.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall...

  11. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.28 Dissemination of classified information. Heads of OSTP offices... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information....

  12. A Dissemination Model for New Technical Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    The Technical Education Research Center-SW has conceived, tested, and refined a model for disseminating newly developed programs and materials throughout the nation. The model performed successfully in the dissemination of more than 50,000 educational units (modules) of Laser/Electro-Optics Technician (LEOT) materials during a four-year period…

  13. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments." The…

  14. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators...

  15. 29 CFR 34.23 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 34.23 Section 34.23 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) Recordkeeping and Other Affirmative Obligations of Recipients § 34.23 Dissemination...

  16. Disseminated Candida tropicalis presenting with Ecthyma-Gangrenosum-like Lesions.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Knox; Panach, Kamaldeep; Dominguez, Arturo R

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis in immunosuppressed patients has been classically associated with an erythematous papular eruption, however more severe presentations are possible. We present a patient who developed disseminated Candida tropicalis that presented with hemorrhagic bullae that progressed to large necrotic ulcers. PMID:26990472

  17. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 2905.101 Methods of...

  18. 48 CFR 3052.242-71 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3042.202-70, insert the following clause: Dissemination of Contract Information... performance of this contract, without the prior written consent of the Contracting Officer. An electronic or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of...

  19. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K

    2013-03-30

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease. PMID:23580913

  20. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished