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Sample records for dissolution test method

  1. [Quality assessment for sustained release pharmaceutical preparations by dissolution test using microdialysis-HPLC method].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Murao, Takatoshi; Inubuse, Rino; Konishi, Nahoko; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2011-04-01

    Dissolution testing is a core performance test in pharmaceutical development and quality control. The conventional HPLC dissolution method (batch-sampling method) has many steps such as the filtration, collection and replenishment of sample solutions. We previously reported the dissolution test by using microdialysis methods (microdialysis-HPLC method) that can omit many steps. In this study, we investigated whether the microdialysis-HPLC method can be applied to quality assessment for sustained release preparations by a dissolution test. Calcium-channel blockers nifedipine tablets (20 mg) were used, and the test solution used was 0.2 M hydrogen phosphate-citric acid buffer (pH 6.8) with or without 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. In both test solutions, the microdialysis-HPLC method is able to accomplish continuous sampling of sample solutions, and the dissolution behaviors of original nifedipine tablets by the microdialysis-HPLC method were similar to that of the batch-sampling method. In contrast, the dissolution behaviors by the microdialysis-HPLC method were different between original nifedipine tablets and generic products, and the dissolution behaviors in the microdialysis-HPLC method tend to reflect the pharmaceutical design in comparison with the batch-sampling method. In addition, standard deviation in the microdialysis-HPLC method was lower than that of the batch-sampling method. We found that the recovery rate of nifedipine by the microdialysis-HPLC method was increased with the decrease in flow rate through dialysis probe. These findings provide significant information that can be used in pharmaceutical development and quality assessment for original and generic pharmaceutical products, which are sustained release preparations. PMID:21467802

  2. Comparative Application of PLS and PCR Methods to Simultaneous Quantitative Estimation and Simultaneous Dissolution Test of Zidovudine - Lamivudine Tablets.

    PubMed

    Üstündağ, Özgür; Dinç, Erdal; Özdemir, Nurten; Tilkan, M Günseli

    2015-01-01

    In the development strategies of new drug products and generic drug products, the simultaneous in-vitro dissolution behavior of oral dosage formulations is the most important indication for the quantitative estimation of efficiency and biopharmaceutical characteristics of drug substances. This is to force the related field's scientists to improve very powerful analytical methods to get more reliable, precise and accurate results in the quantitative analysis and dissolution testing of drug formulations. In this context, two new chemometric tools, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) were improved for the simultaneous quantitative estimation and dissolution testing of zidovudine (ZID) and lamivudine (LAM) in a tablet dosage form. The results obtained in this study strongly encourage us to use them for the quality control, the routine analysis and the dissolution test of the marketing tablets containing ZID and LAM drugs. PMID:26085428

  3. Dissolution testing of nitroglycerin tablets.

    PubMed

    Gaglia, C A; Lomner, J J; Leonard, B L; Chafetz, L

    1976-11-01

    The available types of dissolution testing apparatus for tablets and capsules are inapplicable to sublingual tablets, since these tablets are formulated to release their drug content within minutes in a small volume of fluid. A simple dissolution test method was developed for nitroglycerin tablets based on the reduction of nitroglycerin at a rotating platinum electrode, which provides reproducible stirring. The system provides instantaneous and continuous measurement of dissolved nitroglycerin in a small constant volume of buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution over a period of seconds to several minutes, when reduction is complete as shown by the current-time curve. Since the height of the curve is directly proportional to the amount of nitroglycerin in solution, the method also can be used to determine the drug content of individual tablets. PMID:825635

  4. High-throughput study of phenytoin solid dispersions: formulation using an automated solvent casting method, dissolution testing, and scaling-up.

    PubMed

    Barillaro, Valéry; Pescarmona, Paolo P; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Thi, Thao Do; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Vermant, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick; Martens, Johan A; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2008-01-01

    A high-throughput experimentation method for studying the dissolution of phenytoin, a poorly water soluble drug, was developed and validated. Solid dispersions with 12 excipients (7 polymers and 5 surfactants) were prepared and tested. Each excipient was screened with three drug loadings: 10, 20, and 40% (w/w). Each solid dispersion was prepared in triplicate, for a total of 108 samples. The drug dissolution was studied in simulated gastric fluid without pepsin plus 1% sodium laurylsulfate. This study led to the identification of three improved formulations, exhibiting an extent of dissolution higher than 90% after both 30 and 60 min. The HTE results could be reproduced at a larger scale using a conventional solvent evaporating method, proving the reliability of the HTE protocol. PMID:18627202

  5. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  6. Discriminative Dissolution Method for Benzoyl Metronidazole Oral Suspension.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aline Santos; da Rosa Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Paula, Fávero Reisdorfer; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos

    2016-06-01

    A dissolution method for benzoyl metronidazole (BMZ) oral suspensions was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. After determination of sink conditions, dissolution profiles were evaluated using different dissolution media and agitation speeds. The sample insertion mode in dissolution media was also evaluated. The best conditions were obtained using a paddle, 50 rpm stirring speed, simulated gastric fluid (without pepsin) as the dissolution medium, and sample insertion by a syringe. These conditions were suitable for providing sink conditions and discriminatory power between different formulations. Through the tested conditions, the results can be considered specific, linear, precise, accurate, and robust. The dissolution profiles of five samples were compared using the similarity factor (f 2) and dissolution efficiency. The dissolution kinetics were evaluated and described by the Weibull model. Whereas there is no monograph for this pharmaceutical formulation, the dissolution method proposed can be considered suitable for quality control and dissolution profile comparison of different commercial formulations. PMID:26349689

  7. Statistical properties of the USP dissolution test with pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Carlos D; Meneces, Nora S; Tessore, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The Montecarlo simulation method is used to study the statistical properties of the USP pooled dissolution test. In this paper, the statistical behavior of the dissolution test for pooled samples is studied, including: a) the operating characteristic curve showing the probability of passing the test versus the mean amount dissolved, b) the influence of measurement uncertainty on the result of the test, c) an analysis of the dependence of the statistical behavior on the underlying distribution of the individual amounts dissolved, d) a comparison of the statistical behavior of the unit dissolution test versus the pooled dissolution test, e) the average number of stages needed to reach a decision presented as a function of parameters of the lot, f) the relative influence of the three stages of the test on the probability of acceptance. PMID:16316066

  8. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2002-09-01

    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  9. A new biorelevant dissolution method for orodispersible films.

    PubMed

    Krampe, Raphael; Sieber, Daniel; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Specific knowledge about the dissolution behavior under biorelevant conditions is of high interest for the rational development of orodispersible films (ODFs). As the conditions in the oral cavity strongly differ from those in the gastrointestinal tract and from those performed with the pharmacopoeial test setups, a biorelevant dissolution setup was developed in this work, considering the mechanical force of the tongue, the saliva flow, the small fluid volume and the saliva composition. Especially in the initial phase, dissolution profiles of KTP (ketoprofen) ODFs observed by the new method showed a slower drug release than obtained with setups based on conventional dissolution methods. 27.47% KTP release after 100s was detected using the new method, compared to 59.29-82.55% detected without considering the in vivo conditions. Furthermore, an influence of the simulated in vivo conditions on the dissolution profile was observed. By simulating either saliva flow or mechanical force, the KTP release after 100s was two to three times higher (18.78% and 14.18%) compared to the profiles, measured without considering one of the parameters (6.76%). Further studies have to show, whether obtained data are comparable to in vivo data to predict drug release profiles of ODFs in the oral cavity. PMID:26515261

  10. Automated Dissolution for Enteric-Coated Aspirin Tablets: A Case Study for Method Transfer to a RoboDis II.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sarah A; Martini, Luigi

    2014-01-24

    Dissolution method transfer is a complicated yet common process in the pharmaceutical industry. With increased pharmaceutical product manufacturing and dissolution acceptance requirements, dissolution testing has become one of the most labor-intensive quality control testing methods. There is an increased trend for automation in dissolution testing, particularly for large pharmaceutical companies to reduce variability and increase personnel efficiency. There is no official guideline for dissolution testing method transfer from a manual, semi-automated, to automated dissolution tester. In this study, a manual multipoint dissolution testing procedure for an enteric-coated aspirin tablet was transferred effectively and reproducibly to a fully automated dissolution testing device, RoboDis II. Enteric-coated aspirin samples were used as a model formulation to assess the feasibility and accuracy of media pH change during continuous automated dissolution testing. Several RoboDis II parameters were evaluated to ensure the integrity and equivalency of dissolution method transfer from a manual dissolution tester. This current study provides a systematic outline for the transfer of the manual dissolution testing protocol to an automated dissolution tester. This study further supports that automated dissolution testers compliant with regulatory requirements and similar to manual dissolution testers facilitate method transfer. PMID:24464812

  11. ACID DISSOLUTION METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM IN SOIL: EVALUATION OF AN INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE TEST AND COMPARISON WITH RESULTS OF A FUSION METHOD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data from an interlaboratory collaborative test are presented. A statistical analysis of the data is also presented. From that analysis, statements are made of the combined within-laboratory precision, the systematic error between laboratories, the total error between laborat...

  12. Development and Validation of Discriminating and Biorelevant Dissolution Test for Lornoxicam Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Anumolu, P. D.; Sunitha, G.; Bindu, S. Hima; Satheshbabu, P. R.; Subrahmanyam, C. V. S.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of biorelevant and discriminating dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility is a useful technique for qualitative forecasting of the in vivo behavior of formulations. It also characterizes the drug product performance in pharmaceutical development. Lornoxicam, a BCS class-II drug is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug of the oxicam class, has no official dissolution media available in the literature. The objective of present work was to develop and validate a discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablet dosage forms. To quantify the lornoxicam in dissolution samples, UV spectrophotometric method was developed using 0.01M sodium hydroxide solution as solvent at λma×376 nm. After evaluation of saturation solubility, dissolution, sink conditions and stability of lornoxicam bulk drug in different pH solutions and biorelevant media, the dissolution method was optimized using USP paddle type apparatus at 50 rpm rotation speed and 500 ml simulated intestinal fluid as discriminating and biorelevant dissolution medium. The similarity factor (f2) were investigated for formulations with changes in composition and manufacturing variations, values revealed that dissolution method having discriminating power and method was validated as per standard guidelines. The proposed dissolution method can be effectively applied for routine quality control in vitro dissolution studies of lornoxicam in tablets and helpful to pharmacopoeias. PMID:26180277

  13. High-throughput automated dissolution method applicable for a wide dose range of controlled release pellets.

    PubMed

    Petruševska, Marija; Horvat, Matej; Peternel, Luka; Kristan, Katja

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the application of an automated high-throughput (HT) dissolution method as a useful screening tool for characterization of controlled release pellets in the formulation development phase. Five controlled release pellet formulations with drug substances exhibiting high or low solubility were chosen to investigate the correlation of the automated HT dissolution method with the conventional dissolution testing. Overall, excellent correlations (R(2 )>( )0.96) between the HT and the conventional dissolution method were obtained. In one case the initial unsatisfactory correlation (R(2 )=( )0.84) and poor method agreement (SD = 12.5) was improved by optimizing the HT dissolution method with design of experiment approach. Here in comparison to initial experimental HT dissolution settings, increased amount of pellets (25% of the capsule filling mass), lower temperature (22 °C) and no shaking resulted in significantly better correlation (R(2 )=( )0.97) and method agreement (SD = 5.3). These results show that such optimization is valuable for the development of HT dissolution methods. In conclusion, the high correlation of dissolution profiles obtained from the conventional and the automated HT dissolution method combined with low within-sample and measurement system variability, justifies the utilization of the automated HT dissolution method during development phase of controlled release pellets. PMID:26552838

  14. In Vitro Dissolution Testing Strategies for Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems: Recent Developments and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticulate systems have emerged as prevalent drug delivery systems over the past few decades. These delivery systems (such as liposomes, emulsions, nanocrystals, and polymeric nanocarriers) have been extensively used to improve bioavailability, prolong pharmacological effects, achieve targeted drug delivery, as well as reduce side effects. Considering that any unanticipated change in product performance of such systems may result in toxicity and/or change in vivo efficacy, it is essential to develop suitable in vitro dissolution/release testing methods to ensure product quality and performance, and to assist in product development. The present review provides an overview of the current in vitro dissolution/release testing methods such as dialysis, sample and separate, as well as continuous flow methods. Challenges and future directions in the development of standardized and biorelevant in vitro dissolution/release testing methods for novel nanoparticulate systems are discussed. PMID:24069580

  15. Validation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: acceptance limits and decision methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2012-11-01

    Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization. PMID:23084050

  16. Interlaboratory study of the reproducibility of the single-pass flow-through test method : measuring the dissolution rate of LRM glass at 70 {sup {degree}}C and pH 10.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-28

    An international interlaboratory study (ILS) was conducted to evaluate the precision with which single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests can be conducted by following a method to be standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials - International. Tests for the ILS were conducted with the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass developed previously for use as a glass test standard. Tests were conducted at 70 {+-} 2 C using a LiCl/LiOH solution as the leachant to impose an initial pH of about 10 (at 70 C). Participants were provided with LRM glass that had been crushed and sieved to isolate the -100 +200 mesh size fraction, and then washed to remove fines. Participants were asked to conduct a series of tests using different solution flow rate-to-sample mass ratios to generate a range of steady-state Si concentrations. The glass dissolution rate under each test condition was calculated using the steady-state Si concentration and solution flow rate that were measured in the test. The glass surface area was estimated from the mass of glass used in the test and the Si content of LRM glass was known. A linear relationship between the rate and the steady-state Si concentration (at Si concentrations less than 10 mg/L) was used to estimate the forward dissolution rate, which is the rate in the absence of dissolved Si. Participants were asked to sample the effluent solution at least five times after reaction times of between 3 and 14 days to measure the Si concentration and flow rate, and to verify that steady-state was achieved. Results were provided by seven participants and the data sets provided by five participants were sufficient to determine the forward rates independently.

  17. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    NN Krot; VP Shilov; AM Fedoseev; NA Budantseva; MV Nikonov; AB Yusov; AYu Garnov; IA Charushnikova; VP Perminov; LN Astafurova; TS Lapitskaya; VI Makarenkov

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported.

  18. Solar Radiation Management and Olivine Dissolution Methods in Climate Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kone, S.

    2014-12-01

    An overview of solar radiation management and olivine dissolution methods allows to discuss, comparatively, the benefits and consequences of these two geoengineering techniques. The combination of those two techniques allows to concomitantly act on the two main agents intervening in global warming: solar radiation and carbon dioxide. The earth surface temperature increases due mainly to carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) that keeps the solar radiation and causes the global warming. Two complementary methods to mitigate climate change are overviewed: SRM method, which uses injected aerosols, aims to reduce the amount of the inbound solar radiation in atmosphere; and olivine dissolution in water, a key chemical reaction envisaged in climate engineering , aiming to reduce the amount of the carbon dioxide in extracting it from atmosphere. The SRM method works on scenarios of solar radiation decrease and the olivine dissolution method works as a carbon dioxide sequestration method. Olivine dissolution in water impacts negatively on the pH of rivers but positively in counteracting ocean acidification and in transporting the silica in ocean, which has benefits for diatom shell formation.

  19. [Dissolution testing combined with computer simulation technology to evaluate the bioequivalence of domestic amoxicillin capsule].

    PubMed

    Pan, Rui-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Wan-Li; Li, Yu-Lan; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2014-08-01

    Re-evaluation of bioequivalence of generic drugs is one of the key research focus currently. As a means to ensure consistency of the therapeutic effectiveness of drug products, clinical bioequivalence has been widely accepted as a gold standard test. In vitro dissolution testing based on the theory of the BCS is the best alternative to in vivo bioequivalence study. In this article, the conventional dissolution method and flow-through cell method were used to investigate the dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules in different dissolution media, and the absorption behavior of the drugs with different release rates (t85% = 15-180 min) in the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by Gastro Plus. The flow-through cell method was thought better to reflect the release characteristics in vivo, and amoxicillin capsules with regard to the release rates up to 45 min (t85% = 45 min) were having a satisfied bioequivalence with the oral solution according to the C(max) and AUC. Although two different dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules were found by flow-through cell methods, prediction results revealed that domestic capsules were probably bioequivalent to each other. PMID:25322558

  20. Biphasic dissolution method for quality control and assurance of drugs containing active substances in the form of weak acid salts.

    PubMed

    Franc, Aleš; Muselłk, Jan; Goněc, Roman; Vetchý, David

    2016-03-01

    Substances in the form of weak acid salts have been found to be problematic for dissolution testing. Their absorption can start only after they are turned into the form of an acid following the gastric passage although they were administered in the form of a salt. Due to poor solubility, they cannot be tested in acidic gastric environment for a biased dissolution profile. The biphasic dissolution method is promising for overcoming this obstacle. Tablets with warfarin clathrate sodium salt in two concentrations and two different particle size distributions were tested as a suitable model for finding the medium and process conditions of dissolution. The dissolution method based on the use of the upper organic layer (1-octanol) and the lower aqueous layer 0.1 mol L-1 HCl) was found suitable and discriminatory for tablets containing active substances in the form of salts of weak acids. The method also reflects physical differences in the quality of used substances. PMID:26959550

  1. Enzymes in the dissolution testing of gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Marques, Margareth R C

    2014-12-01

    Gelatin capsules are a widely used dosage form both for pharmaceutical drug products as well as dietary supplements. Gelatin in the presence of certain compounds, mainly aldehydes, or in high humidity and high temperature conditions can cross-link. Cross-linking involves covalent bonding of the amine group of a lysine side chain of one gelatin molecule to a similar amine group on another molecule. The covalent bonding is, for practical purposes, irreversible. Cross-linking results in the formation of a pellicle on the internal or external surface of the gelatin capsule shell that prevents the capsule fill from being released. In vitro dissolution testing of cross-linked gelatin capsules can result in slower release of the drug or no release at all. The data obtained by the Gelatin Capsule Working Group, created in the early 90s to investigate noncompliance of gelatin capsules, was used to establish the type and amounts of enzymes that can be added to the dissolution medium in the case of test failure to the presence of cross-linking in the gelatin. The two-tier dissolution testing was included in the US Pharmacopeia and it recommends the addition of pepsin (pH below 6.8) or pancreatin (pH above 6.8) to the medium depending on its pH. Pepsin shows good protease activity up to pH 4 and pancreatin above pH 6 leaving a gap where neither one has good activity. Possible proteolytic enzymes that could be used for the pH range 4-6.8 could be papain or bromelain. PMID:24942315

  2. Characterization Plan and Dissolution Tests for Tank 16H Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.L.; Hay, M.S.

    1998-02-09

    In support of the closure of Tank 16H, a sample of the solids residue on the bottom of the tank interior and three samples from the tank annulus will be sent to SRTC for analysis. The results of the analysis of the samples from the tank interior and the annulus will define the source term inventory used for fate and transport modeling. In addition, the samples from the tank annulus will be used for dissolution tests to evaluate the effectiveness of various cleaning alternatives.

  3. Dissolution study of nanocrystal powders of a poorly soluble drug by UV imaging and channel flow methods.

    PubMed

    Sarnes, Annika; Østergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Sabrine Smedegaard; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Rantanen, Jukka; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2013-11-20

    Application of drug nanocrystals provides advantageous options for the pharmaceutical formulation development of poorly soluble drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the dissolution behavior improving effects of differently sized nanocrystals of a poorly soluble model drug, indomethacin. Nanocrystal suspensions were prepared using a top-down wet milling technique with three stabilizers: poloxamer F68, poloxamer F127 and polysorbate 80. The dissolution of the differently sized indomethacin nanocrystals were investigated using a channel flow dissolution method and by UV imaging. Unmilled bulk indomethacin and physical mixtures were used as references. According to both the dissolution methods, the dissolution properties of indomethacin were improved by the particle size reduction. UV imaging was used for the first time as a dissolution testing method for fast dissolving nanoscale material. The technique provided new information about the concentration of the dissolved drug next to the sample surface; with the smallest nanocrystals (580 nm) the indomethacin concentration next to the particle surface exceeded five-fold the thermodynamic saturated indomethacin solution concentration. Thus the solubility improvement itself, not only the increased surface area for dissolution, may have an important role in the higher dissolution rates of nanocrystal formulations. Poloxamer F68 was the most optimal stabilizer in the preparation of the indomethacin nanocrystal suspensions and in the solubility and dissolution enhancement as well. PMID:23999036

  4. Combined study of biphasic and zero-order release formulations with dissolution tests and ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wray, Patrick; Li, Jing; Li, Ling Qiao; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-07-01

    In this study of multi-layer tablets, the dissolution of biphasic and zero-order release formulations has been studied primarily using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic imaging as well as UV-Vis detection of dissolved drug in the effluent stream and USP dissolution testing. Bilayer tablets, containing the excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose, were used for biphasic release with nicotinamide and buflomedil as model drugs. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging showed the changing component distributions during dissolution. Further experiments studied monolithic and barrier-layered tablets containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, MCC and buflomedil dissolving in a USP I apparatus. These data were compared with UV-Vis dissolution profiles obtained online with the ATR flow-through cell. ATR-FTIR imaging data of the biphasic formulations demonstrated that the drug release was affected by excipient ratios and effects such as interference between tablet sections. Tablets placed in the ATR-FTIR flow-through cell exhibited zero-order UV-Vis dissolution profile data at high flow rates, similar to barrier-layered formulations studied using the USP I apparatus. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging provided information regarding the dissolution mechanisms in multi-layer tablets which could assist formulation development. The ability to relate data from USP dissolution tests with that from the ATR-FTIR flow-through cell could help spectroscopic imaging complement dissolution methods used in the industry. PMID:24801351

  5. Reexamining the Dissolution of Spent Fuel: A Comparison of Different Methods for Calculating Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Brady D.; Stout, Ray B.

    2004-12-01

    Dissolution rates for spent fuel have typically been reported in terms of a rate normalized to the surface area of the specimen. Recent evidence has shown that neither the geometric surface area nor that measured with BET accurately predicts the effective surface area of spent fuel. Dissolution rates calculated from results obtained by flowthrough tests were reexamined comparing the cumulative releases and surface area normalized rates. While initial surface area is important for comparison of different rates, it appears that normalizing to the surface area introduces unnecessary uncertainty compared to using cumulative or fractional release rates. Discrepancies in past data analyses are mitigated using this alternative method.

  6. Development and evaluation of methods for starch dissolution using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part I: Dissolution of amylopectin.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated methods of starch dissolution with the aim of finding an optimum method to completely dissolve starch granules to form a molecularly dissolved starch solution without degradation of the polymers. Glycogen was used as a model molecule for amylopectin, to identify the dissolution conditions under which the degradation of the polymers was limited or not present. Dissolution was performed in water with temperatures up to 200 °C, facilitated by the use of heating in an autoclave or a microwave oven, or in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 100 °C. Waxy maize starch was chosen due to its high content of amylopectin and very low content of amylose. The degree of starch dissolution under different conditions was determined enzymatically. The effect of different dissolution conditions on the molar mass and root-mean-square radius of the polymers was determined with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index (AF4-MALS-dRI) detectors under aqueous conditions. The results suggest that reliable and accurate size separation and characterization of amylopectin can be obtained by dissolution of starch granules in an aqueous environment at 140 °C by autoclaving or in DMSO at 100 °C. The results also clearly show an upper limit for heat treatment of starch, above which degradation cannot be avoided. PMID:25925852

  7. Development and evaluation of methods for starch dissolution using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part II: Dissolution of amylose.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether dissolution in water under autoclaving conditions (140 °C, 20 min) or in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO (100 °C, 1 h), is preferable for characterization of amylose. Two types of amylose, potato and maize, were dissolved either in water using an autoclave or in DMSO. On the aqueous solutions obtained, the extent of molecular dissolution of the sample (referred to as the dissolution yield) was determined by enzymatic analysis as well as the molecular properties, such as molar mass and root-mean-square radius, obtained with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index detection (AF4-MALS-dRI). The results showed that both dissolution methods are efficient at dissolving amylose. However, AF4-MALS-dRI analysis revealed substantial differences. Amylose aqueous solutions obtained by dissolution in DMSO were relatively stable over time, but the dissolution method in autoclave caused some degradation of the molecules, and their solutions display a high tendency to retrograde. PMID:26232931

  8. Screening method to identify preclinical liquid and semi-solid formulations for low solubility compounds: miniaturization and automation of solvent casting and dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Mansky, Paul; Dai, Wei-Guo; Li, Shu; Pollock-Dove, Crystal; Daehne, Klaus; Dong, Liang; Eichenbaum, Gary

    2007-06-01

    We have developed an efficient screening method to identify liquid and semisolid formulations for low-solubility compounds. The method is most suitable for identifying dosing vehicles for compounds in lead optimization, where compound supply is limited and long-term stability is not a requirement. Dilute compound and excipient stock solutions are prepared in organic solvent and then dispensed and mixed in 96-well plates. The solvent is removed in a vacuum centrifuge evaporator, leaving neat formulation (e.g., 10-40 microg compound, 0.4 mg excipient) at the bottom of each well. After an aging step, an aqueous dilution medium is added and the plates are incubated (agitation by orbital shaking). The diluted formulations are then filtered and analyzed by ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To illustrate the method, two compounds (aqueous solubility method to screening compound/surfactant/oil formulations is also presented. PMID:17094139

  9. The differences between the branded and generic medicines using solid dosage forms: In-vitro dissolution testing

    PubMed Central

    Al Ameri, Mubarak Nasser; Nayuni, Nanda; Anil Kumar, K.G.; Perrett, David; Tucker, Arthur; Johnston, Atholl

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dissolution is the amount of substance that goes into solution per unit time under standardised conditions of liquid/solid interface, solvent composition and temperature. Dissolution is one of the most important tools to predict the in-vivo bioavailability and in some cases to determine bioequivalence and assure interchangeability. Aim To compare the differences in dissolution behaviour of solid dosage forms between innovators (reference products) and their generic counterparts (tested products). Methods Four replicates for each batch of 37 tested medicines was carried out using A PT-DT70 dissolution tester from Pharma Test. A total of 13 branded medicines and 24 generic counterparts were obtained locally and internationally to detect any differences in their dissolution behaviour. They were tested according to the British Pharmacopeia, European Pharmacopeia and the US Pharmacopeia with the rate of dissolution determined by ultra-violet Spectrophotometery. Results Most tested medicines complied with the pharmacopoeial specifications and achieved 85% dissolution in 60 min. However, some generic medicines showed significant differences in dissolution rate at 60 and 120 min. Many generic medicines showed a slower dissolution rate than their branded counterparts such as the generic forms of omeprazole 20 mg. Some showed an incomplete dissolution such as the generic form of nifedipine 10 mg. Other generics showed faster dissolution rate than their branded counterpart such as the generic forms of meloxicam 15 mg. Moreover, some generics from different batches of the same manufacturer showed significant differences in their dissolution rate such as the generic forms of meloxicam 7.5 mg. Nevertheless, some generic medicines violated the EMA and the FDA guidelines for industry when they failed to achieve 85% dissolution at 60 min, such as the generic form of diclofenac sodium 50 mg. Conclusion Most medicines in this study complied with the pharmacopeial limits. However, some generics dissolved differently than their branded counterparts. This can clearly question the interchangeability between the branded and its generic counterpart or even among generics. PMID:25755988

  10. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.: Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed.

  11. In vitro biopharmaceutical investigation of antacid activity in standard dissolution test apparatus.

    PubMed

    Plachy, J; Antal, I; Rácz, I; Kulcsár-Molnár, Z; Muskáth, Z

    1995-01-01

    The pH stat titration and the Rossett-Rice test used especially for the reaction kinetical and in vitro biopharmaceutical investigation of antacids were standardized applying the U.S.P. Dissolution Test Apparatus with paddle stirring element. The developed "artificial stomach" is suitable to simulate also the gastric emptying. The in vitro model may give a new alternative for the in vitro evaluation of antacid effectiveness, because this standardized method may perfectly eliminate the deficiencies of the earlier test prescriptions. PMID:7725926

  12. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  13. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  14. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  15. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  16. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  17. Dating of black gel pen ink using the dissolution-diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao

    2014-01-01

    In many criminal and civil cases in China, the most commonly questioned documents are those written with gel pen ink. An important task for forensic document examiners is to identify whether two or more ink entries in one or more documents were written with the same ink type. The identification of the age of gel ink entries made poses an important and difficult problem for forensic document examiners. In this paper, a dissolution-diffusion method was successfully employed to estimate the relative age of gel ink entries by comparing dissolution-diffusion rates. Using extensive tests, the mixed solution of dimethyl formamide (DMF) and anhydrous ethanol proved to be a suitable solvent and was used to dissolve the dye of gel ink strokes made at different times. As preliminary findings of this study, calibration curves were created to indicate the relationship between the average dissolution-diffusion rate of soluble gel ink components and the age of gel ink entries stored under natural aging conditions. It was also determined that brands of gel inks, types of paper and thickness of gel ink strokes had varying impacts on estimating the dates of gel ink strokes. Experimental results showed that dissolution-diffusion method was applicable for determining the relative age of gel ink entries under certain conditions. PMID:24378312

  18. Development of a two-step tier-2 dissolution method for blinded overencapsulated erlotinib tablets using UV fiber optic detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xujin; Xiao, Baiming; Lo, Lili; Bolgar, Mark S; Lloyd, David K

    2011-08-25

    Measuring dissolution of a comparator drug overencapsulated in a hard gelatin shell is necessary when determining performance of the native and blinded formulations. However, the gelatin in the shell may form cross-links upon storage at stressed conditions, resulting in slow dissolution of the encapsulated drug. The aim of this study was to develop a dissolution approach for a hard-gelatin overencapsulated formulation of a comparator drug, erlotinib, which can overcome cross linking of the capsule shell. In this case, following the USP two-tier dissolution test by simply adding an enzyme did not dissolve the cross-linked capsules because the medium used in the method for erlotinib described in the FDA Dissolution Database contains sodium dodecyl sulfate that inhibits the activity of the enzyme. Changing the method by using different surfactants was not considered acceptable because it is preferable to closely follow the compendial method for the comparator. A two-step tier-2 method was developed as a solution, without significant change to the compendial method conditions. It uses 0.1N HCl + pepsin as the initial medium to help capsule break-up. SDS is added at 15 min after the testing starts to ensure dissolution of the drug. This may be a useful general approach for dealing with cross-linking in over-encapsulated comparators. A UV fiber optic spectrophotometer was used for in situ, real-time detection of the dissolution profile during method development studies. The fast sampling rate available with this type of detection was important in elucidating the events occurring during dissolution and determining the optimal time of the SDS addition. PMID:21620602

  19. Optimization and statistical evaluation of dissolution tests for indinavir sulfate capsules.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, B; Moreira-Campos, L M; Nunan, E A; Vianna-Soares, C D; Araujo-Alves, B L; Cesar, I C; Pianetti, G A

    2004-11-01

    An optimization, statistically based on t-student test, to set up dissolution test conditions for indinavir sulfate capsules is presented. Three dissolution media, including that reported in United States Pharmacopeial Forum, and two apparatus, paddle and basket, were applied. Two different indinavir sulfate capsules, products A and B, were evaluated. For a reliable statistical analysis eighteen capsules were assayed in each condition based on the combination of dissolution medium and apparatus. All tested media were statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) for both drug products when paddle apparatus was employed at the stirring speed of 50 rpm. The use of basket apparatus at the stirring speed of 50 rpm caused significant decrease in the drug release percent for the product B (P < 0.05). The best dissolution conditions tested, for products A and B, were applied to evaluate capsules dissolution profiles. Twelve dosage units were assayed and dissolution efficiency concept was used, for each condition, to obtain results with statistical significance (P > 0.05). Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test were 900 ml of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid as dissolution medium, basket at 100 rpm stirring speed and 260 nm ultraviolet detection. PMID:15544798

  20. Dissolution and assaying of multicomponent tablets by chemometric methods using computer-aided spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Dinç, E; Serin, C; Tuğcu-Demiröz, F; Doğanay, T

    2003-01-16

    Dissolution of three component tablets containing paracetamol (APAP), propyphenazone (PP), and caffeine (CAF) was carried out by USP paddle method. Three chemometric methods; inverse least square (ILS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were applied to simultaneous assay of APAP, PP and CAF in tablets. The PCR, PLS and ILS methods were applied to simultaneous dissolution APAP, PP and CAF in tablets using a double beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer without any chemical separation and any graphical treatment of the overlapping spectra of three drugs. Twenty two mixture solutions in different concentrations were prepared in simulated gastric juice (SGJ, USP) for the chemometric calibrations as training set. The absorbance data matrix was obtained by measuring the absorbance at 14 wavelength points (from 222.5 to 292.5 nm) with the intervals of 5 nm (Deltalambda=5 nm) in the spectral region between 200 and 310 nm. Training set and absorbance data were used for the calibrations of chemometric methods. The developed calibrations were tested for the previously prepared solutions of mixture of three drugs for the validation of the assay method. The chemometric calculations were performed by using the 'MAPLE VRSQUO; software. The results of three chemometric methods were statistically compared with each other. These chemometric calibrations were successfully applied to the content uniformity and dissolution of the multicomponent tablets without any separation procedure. The synthetic mixtures of three drugs were used for the validity of the calibrations. Means recoveries (percent) and relative standard deviation of PLS, PCR and ILS methods were found to be 100.1+/-0.6, 101.4+/-1.6 and 100.1+/-0.6 for APAP; 100.9+/-3.2, 102.0+/-3.3 and 100.9+/-3.2 for PP; 99.9+/-3.5, 101.6+/-3.3 and 99.9+/-3.2 for CAF, respectively. Dissolution profiles of three component tablets were performed. More than 95% of drugs were dissolved within 15 min. All of the three-chemometric methods in this study can be satisfactorily used for the quantitative analysis and for dissolutions test of multicomponent dosage form. PMID:12527161

  1. Development of a discriminating in vitro dissolution method for a poorly soluble NO-donating selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Papp, Robert; Luk, Pauline; Mullett, Wayne M; Kwong, Elizabeth; Debnath, Smita; Thibert, Roch

    2008-05-12

    A discriminating dissolution method using a USP apparatus 2 dissolution tester was developed for a nitric oxide donating selective COX-2 inhibitor to support phase I and II formulation development, clinical supplies release and stability testing of an immediate release oral tablet. The BCS class II compound showed very low aqueous solubility and required the use of surfactant-containing (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)) dissolution medium in order to achieve an appropriate release profile. The dissolution method utilized 900 mL of 2% SLS (w/v). Samples were withdrawn at five specified time-points over 60 min, at a paddle speed of 75 rpm. Analysis of samples was performed using a validated HPLC method. Despite the use of high levels of SLS, the ability to discriminate variations in physical properties such as drug particle size, granule particle size and tablet compression force was demonstrated. In order to confirm the relationship between these physical parameters and the tablet in vivo release profile, oral dosing of the formulations in fasted beagle dogs was performed to determine if the changes observed in the dissolution profiles were biorelevant. The results of the dissolution and corresponding in vivo experiments helped identify the critical processing parameters likely to influence product bioavailability. PMID:18272312

  2. DISSOLUTION KINETICS STUDIES OF CLOPIDOGREL FROM SELECTED MULTISOURCE COATED TABLETS WITH APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS METHOD.

    PubMed

    Karaźniewicz-Łada, Marta; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina; Główka, Franciszek

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to an anti-platelet agent clopidogrel (CLP) and the growing number of products with the drug cause the need for comparison of their quality to assure patients safe and effective treatment. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare in vitro dissolution kinetics of CLP immediate-release tablets, commonly used in anti-platelet therapy in Poland. For analysis of CLP in samples obtained from dissolution test a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was elaborated and validated. Separation of CLP and ticlopidine, used as an internal standard, was performed in silica capillary filled with phosphate buffer of pH 2.5, at the applied voltage of 20 kV. The CZE method fulfilled the validation requirements for determination of drugs in pharmaceutical matrices and was successfully applied for analysis of CLP dissolved from the tablets. Dissolution profiles were prepared for each product and mean dose fractions of CLP dissolved from tablets at 30 min were calculated. Kinetic parameters of the CLP dissolution from the studied products were compared. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal differences between CLP fractions dissolved at 30 min time point from the tested drug products. However, ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparison test revealed significant differences in first-order dissolution rate constants and t₀.₅ values (times at which 50% of drug is dissolved) of CLP among tested tablets. It was concluded that the studied CLP products met the acceptance criteria regarding dissolution test but differed with each other in dissolution kinetics. PMID:27008814

  3. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Krot, N N.; Shilov, V P.; Fedoseev, A M.; Budantseva, N A.; Nikonov, M V.; Yusov, A B.; Garnov, A Y.; Charushnikova, I A.; Perminov, V P.; Astafurova, L N.; Lapitskaya, T S.; Makarenkov, V I.

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup -} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported. The present systematic tests investigated oxygen gas, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium persulfate oxidants to dissolve Cr(III) under alkaline conditions to form soluble chromate. Permanganate and ozone also were considered for testing but were thought to be of secondary interest because of the insoluble residue (MnO{sub 2} from permanganate) and complex equipment (necessary to generate ozone) implicit with use of these reagents. The oxygen and hydrogen peroxide reagents leave no condensable residue and sodium persulfate only leaves soluble sodium sulfate. Crystalline Cr(OH){sub 3}, various hydrothermally aged amorphous Cr(III) oxide hydrates, mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) oxide hydrates, and nickel and iron Cr(III) spinels, all of which have been identified or are likely constituents in Hanford tank wastes, were prepared and characterized for the dissolution tests. The effects of reagent and hydroxide concentrations, reaction temperature, and transition metal catalysts on reaction progress were investigated for each reagent as functions of reaction time. Reaction progress was measured by monitoring chromate concentration. Oxidation of chromium compounds by dissolved oxygen was found to increase linearly with oxygen partial pressure and NaOH concentration. The rate also increased with temperature at low activation energy, 26-36 kJ/mol, reflecting the opposing influences of decreasing oxygen volubility and increasing underlying chemical reaction rate. The reaction apparently proceeds by way of dissolved Cr(III) species, is catalyzed by Ni(II), and is slower for the hydrothermally aged materials. Dissolution rates ranged from about 7 x 10{sup -5} to 2.4 x 10{sup -4} moles Cr(III)/liter-hour in 80 C, 3-M NaOH with one atmosphere pure oxygen for the various Cr(III) compounds tested. These low dissolution rates commend the use of oxygen reagent to waste tank processing where extended residence times maybe practical. Oxidative dissolution of Cr(III) compounds by hydrogen peroxide was hampered in the presence of greater than 0.5 g Fe(III)/liter and other catalysts for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition and was less effective for materials that had undergone prolonged aging at high temperatures. Leaching was optimized at low excess NaOH and high temperatures (activation energy of {approx}82 kJ/mol). To prevent excessive loss of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to catalytic decomposition, the peroxide reagent must be added slowly and with intense stirring. Treatment of waste solids with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may only be attractive for freshly formed Cr(III) hydroxides [formed, for example, by alkaline metathesis of Cr(III)-bearing sludges] in the absence of decomposition catalysts such as Fe(III).

  4. High-Speed Intrinsic Dissolution Rate in One Minute Using the Single-Particle Intrinsic Dissolution Rate Method.

    PubMed

    Svanbäck, Sami; Ehlers, Henrik; Antikainen, Osmo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-11-01

    Intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) has traditionally been determined from a constant surface area of a substance. Here we present an optofluidic single-particle intrinsic dissolution rate (SIDR) method, by means of which real-time determination of IDR from continuously changing effective surface areas of dissolving individual microparticles, is possible. The changing surface area of the individual microparticles is characterized through continuous random orientation 3D particle morphology characterization during the dissolution process. Using noninvasive optical monitoring and nonspecific image analysis, we determined IDRs of a diverse set of substances from individual pure-substance microparticles (14-747 μg) with an average relative standard deviation of 9.4%. A linear fit between SIDR and literature equilibrium solubility values (R(2) = 0.999) was achieved and kinetic solubility equivalent SIDRs were obtained, for all substances, in as little as 1 min. Such miniaturized methods could become valuable tools in drug discovery, by providing resource sparing higher quality data acquisition means to replace current high-throughput solubility methods. PMID:26439135

  5. Developing dissolution testing methodologies for extended-release oral dosage forms with supersaturating properties. Case example: Solid dispersion matrix of indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Tomokazu; Morita, Shigeaki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Mimura, Hisahi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Reppas, Christos; Kitamura, Satoshi

    2015-07-25

    The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro dissolution test method with discrimination ability for an extended-release solid dispersion matrix of a lipophilic drug using the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Apparatus 4, flow-through cell apparatus. In the open-loop configuration, the sink condition was maintained by manipulating the flow rate of the dissolution medium. To evaluate the testing conditions, the drug release mechanism from an extended-release solid dispersion matrix containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers was investigated. As the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) maintained concentrations of indomethacin higher than the solubility in a dissolution medium, the release of HPMC into the dissolution medium was also quantified using size-exclusion chromatography. We concluded that the USP Apparatus 4 is suitable for application to an in vitro dissolution method for orally administered extended-release solid dispersion matrix formulations containing poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:26022889

  6. Improvement of the dissolution rate of nitrendipine using a new pulse combustion drying method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Cui, Fu-De; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2007-08-01

    Solid dispersions (SDs) of nitrendipine (NTD), a poorly water-soluble drug, were prepared with the Hypulcon pulse combustion dryer system, and the physicochemical properties of particles were investigated and compared with those of particles prepared with a spray dryer. The SD particles prepared with Hypulcon using Aerosil and Tween 80 as carriers showed improved properties over those prepared with a conventional spray dryer, such as smaller particle size, tighter particle size distribution, and no agglomeration. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry evaluation showed that the drug in the NTD-Aerosil SD prepared with 5% (v/v) Tween 80 solution was dispersed in an amorphous state. Fourier transformation IR spectroscopy indicated the presence of hydrogen bonds between NTD and Aerosil. Aerosil had greater ability to improve the dissolution of NTD than Sylysia and other polymers. The highest drug supersaturation concentration was maintained continuously during the dissolution test of the NTD-Aerosil SD prepared with 5% (v/v) Tween 80 solution using Hypulcon. The good hydrophilicity and dispersibility of Aerosil, solubilization of Tween 80, and actions of shock waves and ultrasonic waves might account for the amorphization of NTD and improved dissolution rate of SDs. Pulse combustion drying with low drying costs and high thermal efficiency is a promising method for the preparation of SD particles with improved properties without using organic solvent. PMID:17666831

  7. EVALUATION OF ARG-1 SAMPLES PREPARED BY CESIUM CARBONATE DISSOLUTION DURING THE ISOLOK SME ACCEPTABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently completed the evaluation of one of these opportunities - the possibility of using an Isolok sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard valve for taking DWPF process samples at the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The use of an Isolok for SME sampling has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time, and decrease CPC cycle time. The SME acceptability testing for the Isolok was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 and was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNLRP-2011-00145. RW-0333P QA requirements applied to the task, and the results from the investigation were documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00693. Measurement of the chemical composition of study samples was a critical component of the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. A sampling and analytical plan supported the investigation with the analytical plan directing that the study samples be prepared by a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) fusion dissolution method and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The use of the cesium carbonate preparation method for the Isolok testing provided an opportunity for an additional assessment of this dissolution method, which is being investigated as a potential replacement for the two methods (i.e., sodium peroxide fusion and mixed acid dissolution) that have been used at the DWPF for the analysis of SME samples. Earlier testing of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method yielded promising results which led to a TTR from Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) to SRNL for additional support and an associated TTQAP to direct the SRNL efforts. A technical report resulting from this work was issued that recommended that the mixed acid method be replaced by the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method for the measurement of magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and zirconium (Zr) with additional testing of the method by DWPF Laboratory being needed before further implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method at that laboratory. While the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok does not address any of the open issues remaining after the publication of the recommendation for the replacement of the mixed acid method by the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method (since those issues are to be addressed by the DWPF Laboratory), the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} testing associated with the Isolok testing does provide additional insight into the performance of the method as conducted by SRNL. The performance is to be investigated by looking to the composition measurement data generated by the samples of a standard glass, the Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1), that were prepared by the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method and included in the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. The measurements of these samples were presented as part of the study results, but no statistical analysis of these measurements was conducted as part of those results. It is the purpose of this report to provide that analysis, which was supported using JMP Version 7.0.2.

  8. Online monitoring of dissolution tests using dedicated potentiometric sensors in biorelevant media.

    PubMed

    Juenemann, Daniel; Bohets, Hugo; Ozdemir, Mahir; de Maesschalck, Roy; Vanhoutte, Koen; Peeters, Karl; Nagels, Luc; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2011-05-01

    The performance of the Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) for in vitro dissolution testing using biorelevant media was evaluated in this study. In vitro dissolution was carried out using USP apparatus 2 (paddle method) with classical and with updated biorelevant media to simulate the pre- and postprandial states. The ISE was used as an analytical stand-alone system and in combination with a single-point HPLC-UV measurement. A modified method enabling the use of the ISE for very poorly soluble substances is also proposed. In terms of f(2)-factor, the results acquired using the ISE for the drug diphenhydramine-HCl were found to be very similar to the results obtained by manual sampling followed by HPLC-UV analysis. In Fed State Simulated Gastric Fluid (FeSSGF), a medium containing 50% milk, the ISE is more practical since the need to separate proteins from the analyte prior to HPLC-UV analysis is eliminated. Further work will be needed to establish ISE methodology for Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF) media. In summary, the ISE has promise as an analytical tool for research and development applications. PMID:21168489

  9. Development and Validation of a New HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Paracetamol, Ascorbic Acid, and Pseudoephedrine HCl in their Co-formulated Tablets. Application to in vitro Dissolution Testing.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fawzia; El-Enany, Nahed; El-Shaheny, Rania N; Mikhail, Ibraam E

    2015-01-01

    The first HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PC), ascorbic acid (AA), and pseudoephedrine HCl (PE) in their co-formulated tablets. Separation was achieved on a C18 column in 5 min using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.05 M phosphate buffer (35:65, v/v) at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 220 nm. Linear calibration curves were constructed over concentration ranges of 1.0 - 50.0, 3.0 - 60.0 and 3.0 - 80.0 μg mL(-1) for PC, AA, and PE, respectively. The method was validated and applied for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in their tablets with average % recoveries of 101.17 ± 0.67, 98.34 ± 0.77, and 98.95 ± 1.11%, for PC, AA, and PE, respectively. The proposed method was also used to construct in vitro dissolution profiles of the co-formulated tablets containing the three drugs. PMID:26353962

  10. Development and validation of a dissolution test for lutein tablets and evaluation of intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Carina de Souza; Mendes, Thamara de Carvalho; Honorio, Thiago da Silva; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with antioxidant activity that is present in various dosage forms. The bioavailability of carotenoid from oral dosage formulations depends on their release, dissolution and its permeability through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, a dissolution test was developed for evaluating formulations and the bioavailability was assessed. The test utilized a USP-apparatus II with rotations of 50, 75 and 100rpm in water with P80 at 1, 2 and 5% (w/v). A non-everted rat intestinal sac model was used in conjunction to assess the intestinal permeability. The most discriminative conditions were 100rpm in water with 2% polysorbate 80, which showed profile differences between two formulations. The intestinal permeation studies showed a lag-time and apparent permeability coefficient that were characteristic of highly permeable drugs. We suggest that a dissolution test can be an essential quality control tool for formulations containing compounds as lutein, although not mandatory by the regulation agencies. PMID:27211621

  11. Phase field and level set methods for modeling solute precipitation and/or dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijie Xu; Hai Huang; Paul Meakin

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of solid-liquid interfaces controlled by solute precipitation and/or dissolution due to the chemical reaction at the interface were computed in two dimensions using a phase field models. Sharp-interface asymptotic analysis demonstrated that the phase field solutions should converge to the proper sharp-interface precipitation/dissolution limit. For the purpose of comparison, the numerical solution of the sharp-interface model for solute precipitation/dissolution was directly solved using a level set method. In general, the phase field results are found in good agreement with the level set results for all reaction rates and geometry configurations investigated. Present study supports the applications of both methods to more complicated and realistic reactive systems, including the nuclear waste release and mineral precipitation and dissolution

  12. Field test of a calcite dissolution rate law: Fort's Funnel Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Slunder, J.S. ); Groves, C.G. . Center for Cave and Karst Studies)

    1994-03-01

    The laboratory-derived calcite dissolution rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) is the most widely used and mechanistically detailed expression currently available for predicting dissolution rates as a function of water chemistry. Such rate expressions are of great use in understanding timescales associated with limestone karst development. Little work has gone into the field testing of the rate law under natural conditions. This work measured dissolution rates by a crystal weight loss experiment in Buffalo Creek within Fort's funnel Cave, which lies within a pristine, forested catchment of Mammoth Cave National Park. Continuous water chemistry sampling over the same period allowed a time-integrated prediction of the dissolution based on the Plummer et al. (1978) expression. Results indicate that the rate law overpredicted dissolution by a factor of about ten. This concurs with earlier laboratory work suggesting that the law tends to overpredict rates in solutions close to equilibrium with respect to calcite, as were the waters within this part of the groundwater flow system.

  13. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver solutions as a function of reaction (dissolution) time, by analyzing offgas generation rate and composition, and by analyzing intermittent and final acid-insoluble solids at the end of the dissolution. The testing was conducted in a system designed to assess parameters that can influence sludge dissolution and provide information that can be used to determine operating conditions for the actual system.

  14. Dissolution testing of a metallic waste form in chloride brine

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E Janney

    2006-11-01

    This paper is intended for publication in the peer-reviewed proceedings from the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management (at the Fall 2006 meeting of the Materials Research Society). The same material was presented in a 15-minute talk. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an electrometallurgical process for conditioning spent sodium-bonded metallic reactor fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). One waste stream from this process consists of a metal waste form (MWF) whose baseline composition is stainless steel alloyed with 15 wt% Zr (SS-15Zr) and whose microstructure is a eutectic intergrowth of iron solid solutions and Fe-Zr-Cr-Ni intermetallics. This paper reports scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of corrosion products formed during static immersion tests in which coupons of surrogate MWF containing 10 wt% U (SS-15Zr-10U) were immersed in solutions with nominal pH values of 3 and 4 and 1000 ppm added chloride for 70 days at 50 °C. Although the majority of the surface areas of the coupons appear unchanged, linear areas with localized corrosion products apparently consisting of porous materials overlying corrosion-product-filled channels formed on both coupons, cross-cutting phase boundaries in the original eutectic microstructures. Many of the linear areas intersected the sample edge at notches present before the tests or followed linear flaws visible in pre-test images. Compositions of corrosion products differed significantly from the bulk composition, and the maximum observed concentration of U in corrosion products (~25 at%) slightly exceeded the highest reported values in actinide-bearing phases in uncorroded surrogate MWF samples with comparable concentrations of U (~17-19 at%).

  15. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. PMID:27025293

  16. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Niranjan G; Singh, Sima; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sunnapu, Omprakash; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel microbially triggered and animal-sparing dissolution method for testing of nanorough polysaccharide-based micron granules for colonic drug delivery. In this method, probiotic cultures of bacteria present in the colonic region were prepared and added to the dissolution media and compared with the performance of conventional dissolution methodologies (such as media with rat cecal and human fecal media). In this study, the predominant species (such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus species, Eubacterium and Streptococcus) were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5% w/v grade “A” honey. Approximately 1010–1011 colony forming units m/L of probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media to test the drug release of polysaccharide-based formulations. A USP dissolution apparatus I/II using a gradient pH dissolution method was used to evaluate drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release of guar gum/Eudragit FS30D coated 5-fluorouracil granules was assessed under gastric and small intestine conditions within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with the probiotic culture. The results with the probiotic system were comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials’ community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery. PMID:27051284

  17. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media.

    PubMed

    Kotla, Niranjan G; Singh, Sima; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sunnapu, Omprakash; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel microbially triggered and animal-sparing dissolution method for testing of nanorough polysaccharide-based micron granules for colonic drug delivery. In this method, probiotic cultures of bacteria present in the colonic region were prepared and added to the dissolution media and compared with the performance of conventional dissolution methodologies (such as media with rat cecal and human fecal media). In this study, the predominant species (such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus species, Eubacterium and Streptococcus) were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5% w/v grade "A" honey. Approximately 10(10)-10(11) colony forming units m/L of probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media to test the drug release of polysaccharide-based formulations. A USP dissolution apparatus I/II using a gradient pH dissolution method was used to evaluate drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release of guar gum/Eudragit FS30D coated 5-fluorouracil granules was assessed under gastric and small intestine conditions within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with the probiotic culture. The results with the probiotic system were comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials' community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery. PMID:27051284

  18. Evaluation of the Microcentrifuge Dissolution Method as a Tool for Spray-Dried Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Benjamin; Li, Jinjiang; Wang, Yahong

    2016-03-01

    Although using spray-dried dispersions (SDDs) to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble compounds has become a common practice in supporting the early phases of clinical studies, their performance evaluation, whether in solid dosage forms or alone, still presents significant challenges. A microcentrifuge dissolution method has been reported to quickly assess the dissolution performance of SDDs. While the microcentrifuge dissolution method has been used in the SDD community, there is still a need to understand the mechanisms about the molecular species present in supernatant after centrifugation, the molecular nature of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), as well as the impact of experimental conditions. In this paper, we aim to assess the effect of API and polymer properties on the dissolution behavior of SDDs along with centrifuging parameters, and for this, two poorly water-soluble compounds (indomethacin and ketoconazole) and two commonly used polymers in the pharmaceutical industry (PVP and HPMC-AS) were chosen to prepare SDDs. A typical microcentrifuge dissolution procedure as reported in the publication (Curatolo et al., Pharm Res 26:1419-1431, 2009) was followed. In addition, after separation of the supernatant from precipitation, some of the samples were filtered through filters of various sizes to investigate the particulate nature (particle size) of the supernatant. Furthermore, the centrifuge speed was varied to study sedimentation of API, SDD, or polymer particles. The results indicated that for the SDDs of four drug-polymer pairs, microcentrifuge dissolution exhibited varied behaviors, depending on the polymer and the drug used. The SDDs of indomethacin with either PVP or HPMC-AS showed a reproducible dissolution with minimum variability even after filtration and subjecting to varied centrifugation speed, suggesting that the supernatant behaved solution-like. However, ketoconazole-PVP and ketoconazole-HPMC-AS SDDs displayed a significant variation in concentration as the speed of centrifugation and the pore sizes of filters were altered, indicating that their supernatant was heterogeneous with the presence of particulates. In conclusion, microcentrifuge dissolution method was more suitable for indomethacin-PVP and indomethacin-HPMC-AS systems compared with ketoconazole-PVP and ketoconazole-HPMC-AS. Therefore, the use of microcentrifuge dissolution method depends on both compounds and polymers selected, which should be examined case by case. PMID:26831250

  19. Development and Characterization of Solid Dispersion for Dissolution Improvement of Furosemide by Cogrinding Method

    PubMed Central

    Siahi-Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Valizadeh, Hadi; Taherpoor, Alireza; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Barzegar-Jalali, Azim; Adibkia, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize solid dispersion formulation of furosemide to enhance dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersions with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared by cogrinding method using crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose as carrier. The physical state and interactions between the drug and carrier were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) and X ray diffraction (XRD). Results: Solid dispersions (especially with drug: Carrier ratio of 1:2) showed a higher dissolution rate than their respective physical mixture and pure furosemide. Dissolution rate in pH 5.8 was also higher than pH 1.2. The XRD analysis showed that crystalline form was changed to the amorphous state in the solid dispersions. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interactions in the solid dispersion formulations. Release kinetic of formulations were fitted best to the Weibull and Wagner log probability (linear kinetic) as well as suggested 2 and Gompertz (non-linear kinetic) models. Conclusion: The dissolution properties of furosemide were improved with the use of hydrophilic carriers in solid dispersions due to change in the crystalline form of the drug and more intimate contact between drug and carriers which was dependent on the type and ratio of carrier as well as dissolution medium pH. PMID:25436197

  20. Phase field and level set methods for modeling solute precipitation and/or dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Huang, Hai; Li, Xiaoyi; Meakin, Paul

    2012-01-02

    The dynamics of solid-liquid interfaces controlled by solute precipitation and/or dissolution due to the chemical reaction at the interface were computed in two dimensions using a phase field models. Sharp-interface asymptotic analysis demonstrated that the phase field solutions should converge to the proper sharp-interface precipitation/dissolution limit. For the purpose of comparison, the numerical solution of the sharp-interface model for solute precipitation/dissolution was directly solved using a level set method. In general, the phase field results are found in good agreement with the level set results for all reaction rates and geometry configurations. Present study supports the applications of both methods to more complicated and realistic reactive systems.

  1. A novel dissolution method for evaluation of polysaccharide based colon specific delivery systems: A suitable alternative to animal sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Prudhviraj, G; Gulati, Monica; Kaur, Puneet; Vaidya, Yogyata

    2015-06-20

    The most extensively used test for predicting in-vivo release kinetics of a drug from its orally administered dosage forms is dissolution testing. For polysaccharide based, colon targeted oral delivery systems, the entire path of the gut traversed by the dosage form needs to be simulated for assessing its in-vivo dissolution pattern. This includes the dissolution testing sequentially in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF). For SGF and SIF, simple and standardized composition is well-known. However, preparation of SCF requires addition of either the colonic contents of rodents or human faecal slurry. A method is proposed, wherein a mixture of five probiotics cultured in the presence of a prebiotic under anaerobic conditions is able to surrogate the colonic fluid. Release profiles of drug from colon targeted delivery systems in this medium were studied and compared to those generated in the conventionally used media containing rodent caecal contents and human faecal slurry. The results from the three studies were found to be quite similar. These findings suggest that the proposed medium may prove to be useful not only as a biorelevant and discriminatory method but may also help in achieving the 3Rs objective regarding the ethical use of animals. PMID:25829049

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Dissolution Test Criteria for Waiver of Clinical Bioequivalence Study.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a theoretical basis for the dissolution test criteria of a biowaiver scheme. The critical dissolution number (Dncrit) was defined as a value to show bioequivalence of AUC and Cmax against infinitely rapid dissolution (Dn = ∞). The gastrointestinal tract was represented by the one-compartment model. The dissolution of a drug was expressed by the Noyes-Whitney equation. The permeation of a drug was expressed by the first-order equation. The approximate analytical solutions of Dncrit were derived from the analytical solution for the fraction of a dose absorbed [Fa = 1 - exp(-1/(1/Dn + Do/Pn)]; Do, the dose number; Pn, the permeation number). Numerical integration was also performed to calculate Dncrit more accurately. Dncrit was found to become smaller as Pn and Do became smaller. Dncrit for Cmax was found to be dependent on the elimination half-life of a drug as well as Pn and Do. The Fa equation can be an appropriate theoretical basis for a biowaiver scheme. PMID:27238491

  3. Investigation of a suitable in vitro dissolution test for itraconazole-based solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Justine; Broze, Guy; Pestieau, Aude; Tatton, Andrew S; Baumans, France; Damblon, Christian; Krier, Fabrice; Evrard, Brigitte

    2016-03-31

    The difficulty to find a relevant in vitro dissolution test to evaluate poorly soluble drugs is a well-known issue. One way to enhance their aqueous solubility is to formulate them as amorphous solid dispersions. In this study, three formulations containing itraconazole (ITZ), a model drug, were tested in seven different conditions (different USP apparatuses and different media). Two of the formulations were amorphous solid dispersions namely Sporanox®, the marketed product, and extrudates composed of Soluplus® and ITZ produced by hot melt extrusion; and the last one was pure crystalline ITZ capsules. After each test, a ranking of the formulations was established. Surprisingly, the two amorphous solid dispersions exhibited very different behavior depending primarily on the dissolution media. Indeed, the extrudates showed a better release profile than Sporanox® in non-sink and in biphasic conditions, whilst Sporanox® showed a higher release profile than the extrudates in sink and fasted simulated gastric conditions. The disintegration, dynamic light scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance results highlighted the presence of interaction between the surfactants and Soluplus®, which slowed down the erosion of the polymer matrix. Indeed, the negative charge of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and bile salts interacted with the surface of the extrudates that formed a barrier through which the water hardly diffused. Moreover, Soluplus® and SDS formed mixed micelles in solution in which ITZ interacts with SDS, but no longer with Soluplus®. Regarding the biphasic dissolution test, the interactions between the octanol dissolved in the aqueous media disrupted the polymer - ITZ system leading to a reduced release of ITZ from Sporanox®, whilst it had no influence on the extrudates. All together these results pointed out the difficulty of finding a suitable in vitro dissolution test due to interactions between the excipients that complicates the prediction of the behavior of these solid dispersions in vivo. PMID:26850682

  4. Method for dissolution and stabilization of silica-rich fibers

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for dissolving silica-rich fibers such as borosilicate fibers, fiberglass and asbestos to stabilize them for disposal. The method comprises (1) immersing the fibers in hot, five-weight-percent sodium hydroxide solution until the concentration of dissolved silica reaches equilibrium and a only a residue is left (about 48 hours), then immersing the residue in hot, five-weight-percent nitric acid until the residue dissolves (about 96 hours). After adjusting the pH of the dissolved fibers to be caustic, the solution can then be added to a waste vitrification stream for safe disposal. The method is useful in disposing contaminated HEME and HEPA filters.

  5. Production and dissolution of nuclear explosive melt glasses at underground test sites in the Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Smith, D.K.

    1998-11-06

    From 1975 to 1996 the French detonated 140 underground nuclear explosions beneath the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa in the South Pacific; from 1965 to 1971 the United States detonated three high yield nuclear tests beneath Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain. Approximately 800 metric tons of basalt is melted per kiloton of nuclear yield; almost lo7 metric tons of basalt were melted in these tests. Long-lived and toxic radionuclides are partitioned into the melt glass at the time of explosion and are released by dissolution with seawater under saturated conditions. A glass dissolution model predicts that nuclear melt glasses at these sites will dissolve in lo6 to lo7 yea

  6. Method for dissolution and stabilization of silica-rich fibers

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for dissolving silica-rich fibers such as borosilicate fibers, fiberglass and asbestos to stabilize them for disposal. The method comprises (1) immersing the fibers in hot, five-weight-percent sodium hydroxide solution until the concentration of dissolved silica reaches equilibrium and a only a residue is left (about 48 hours), then immersing the residue in hot, five-weight-percent nitric acid until the residue dissolves (about 96 hours). After adjusting the pH of the dissolved fibers to be caustic, the solution can then be added to a waste vitrification stream for safe disposal. The method is useful in disposing contaminated HEME and HEPA filters. 1 fig.

  7. Evaluation of the DWPF Cold Chem Dissolution Method with Tank 7 and Tank 51 Radioactive Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.R.

    2004-03-11

    Dissolution experiments were conducted on radioactive sludge from Tank 7, before transfer of the contents of Tank 7 to Tank 51, and the subsequent sludge in Tank 51 to evaluate the effectiveness of the DWPF Cold Chem Method. The DWPF Cold Chem Method is a room temperature dissolution method (DWPF Cold Chem Method) used in the DWPF on the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) samples in preparation for instrumental analysis. Four types of dissolutions experiments were carried out, the DWPF Cold Chem Method, hot aqua regia, sodium peroxide fusion and hot HF-HNO3. The hot HF-HNO3 digestion is modified version of the DWPF method that incorporates a heating step. The hot aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion digestions were included as reference digestions. The resulting solutions from all the sludge digestions were analyzed by ICP-ES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy). Visual observations and ICP-ES results were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the DWPF Cold Chem by comparison to the hot aqua regia, sodium peroxide fusion and the hot HF-HNO3 digestions. The data and experimental observations support the following conclusions: The DWPF Cold Chem Method seemed to be effective at dissolving initial species of radioactive sludge, but concurrent precipitation of insoluble mixed-metal fluoride salts was observed in both the Tank 7 and Tank 51 Cold Chem digestion solutions. Complete dissolution, by visual observation, was achieved with a modified hot HF-HNO3 digestion. This was done as an alternative to the DWPF room-temperature acid dissolution.

  8. Regulatory considerations for the classification of video monitoring in dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Kinh; Salt, Alger; Wirges, James; Grove, Geoffrey N

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this article is to discuss the classification of video recordings and images when applied to dissolution testing in USP apparatus 1 and 2. Three use cases are presented. The first case presents the use and classification of video as RBE (review by exception) data under GAMP 5. The second case presents the use of video in formulation development in a research and development environment. The third case presents a feasibility study using readily available computer vision software to recognize and measure objects in the dissolution vessel, setting the groundwork for the use of image analysis as a quantitative tool. The classification of video as "electronic data", requiring 21 CFR part 11 compliance, versus its classification as a RBE data under GAMP 5, likely depends upon its use case. Another goal of this article is to establish a position on the use of video monitoring technology as a tool for dissolution testing that is fit for purpose and compliant with regulations regarding video data management and information. PMID:25142822

  9. Determining the dissolution rates of actinide glasses: A time and temperature product consistency test study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.; Best, D.R.; Ramsey, W.G.; Meaker, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses the composition, relative durability, and dissolution rate characteristics of the actinide glass, Loffer Target, that will be used in the Americium/Curium Vitrification Project at the Savannah River Plant. The first part of the paper discusses Product Consistency Tests (PCTs) performed on the Loffler Target Glass to determine dissolution rates. A total of 47 tests were performed on the Loffler Target, water blanks, and an Approved Reference Material glass. Results are presented in tabular form and graphically. The second part of the paper discusses experiments performed to determine the activation energy of the Loffler Target glass. PCTs were performed at temperatures from 60 to 210 C. Activation energies were calculated from elemental analyses of the leachates and are presented. The study showed that the concentration of PCT leachate species is both time and temperature dependent. As time increases, the instantaneous dissolution rates decrease following a power law relationship. Loffler Glass is more durable than quartz or fused silica by an order of magnitude. Temperature studies showed a similar result; as temperature increases, the amount of dissolved leachate component increases following an Arrhenius type expression. The pseudo-activation energy for the Loffler Target is around 23 kilojoules/g mole for temperatures below 150 C, and levels off at this temperature.

  10. Single-step preparation and deagglomeration of itraconazole microflakes by supercritical antisolvent method for dissolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sathigari, Sateesh Kumar; Ober, Courtney A; Sanganwar, Ganesh P; Gupta, Ram B; Babu, R Jayachandra

    2011-07-01

    Itraconazole (ITZ) microflakes were produced by supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method and simultaneously mixed with pharmaceutical excipients in a single step to prevent drug agglomeration. Simultaneous ITZ particle formation and mixing with fast-flo lactose (FFL) was performed in a high-pressure stirred vessel at 116 bar and 40 C by the SAS-drug excipient mixing (SAS-DEM) method. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and poloxamer 407 (PLX), on particle formation and drug dissolution were studied. Drug-excipient formulations were characterized for surface morphology, crystallinity, drug-excipient interactions, drug content uniformity, and drug dissolution rate. Mixture of drug microflakes and FFL formed by the SAS-DEM process shows that the process was successful in overcoming drug-drug agglomeration. PLX produced crystalline drug flakes in loose agglomerates with superior dissolution and flow properties even at higher drug loadings. Characterization studies confirmed the crystallinity of the drug and absence of chemical interactions during the SAS process. The dissolution of ITZ was substantially higher due to SAS and SAS-DEM processes; this improvement can be attributed to the microflake particle structures, effective deagglomeration, and wetting of the drug flakes with the excipients. PMID:21344415

  11. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. CO2CRC's Otway Residual Saturation and Dissolution Test: Using Reactive Ester Tracers to Determine Residual CO2 Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M.; Stalker, L.; LaForce, T.; Pejcic, B.; Dyt, C.; Ho, K.; Ennis-King, J.

    2013-12-01

    Residual trapping, that is CO2 held in the rock pore space due to capillarity, is an important storage mechanism in geo-sequestration of over the short to medium term (up to 1000 years). As such residual CO2 saturation is a critical reservoir parameter for assessing the storage capacity and security of carbon capture and storage (CCS). As a component of the CO2CRC's Residual Gas Saturation and Dissolution Test at the CO2CRC Otway Project site in Victoria (Australia), we have recently tested a suite of reactive esters (triacetin, tripropionin and propylene glycol diacetate) in a single well chemical tracer test to determine residual CO2 saturation. The goal of this project was to assess and validate a suite of possible tests that could be implemented to determine residual CO2 saturation. For this test, the chemical tracers were injected with a saturated CO2/water mixture into the formation (that is already at residual CO2 saturation) where they were allowed to 'soak' for approximately 10 days allowing for the partial hydrolysis of the esters to their corresponding carboxylic acids and alcohols. Water containing the tracers was then produced from the well resulting in over 600 tracer samples over a period of 12 hours. A selection of these samples were analysed for tracer content and to establish tracer breakthrough curves. To understand the behaviour of these chemical tracers in the downhole environment containing residually trapped supercritical CO2 and formation water, it is necessary to determine the supercritical CO2/water partition coefficients. We have previously determined these in the laboratory (Myers et al., 2012) and they are used here to model the tracer behaviour and provide an estimate of the residual CO2 saturation. Two different computational simulators were used to analyse the tracer breakthrough profiles. The first is based on simple chromatographic retardation and has been used extensively in single well chemical tracer tests to determine residual oil saturation and the second is based on TOUGH2. The estimates of residual saturation given by these models were similar giving a very low residual CO2 saturation value. We suspect that this low value might be due to CO2 being inadvertently dissolved in the near wellbore region prior to this test. This possible dissolution of CO2 may be attributed to the complexity of the multi-test sequence (including other tracer tests prior to this particular test) used in the overall program at of the Residual Gas Saturation and Dissolution Test. References Myers, M., Stalker, L., Ross, A., Dyt, C., Ho, K.-B., 2012. Method for the determination of residual carbon dioxide saturation using reactive ester tracers. Applied Geochemistry 27, 2148-2156.

  13. [Application of multicomponent dissolution evaluation method of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica in gegen qinlian tablets].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Wang, Guo-Peng; Dong, Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The study is a paticular embodiment of Chinese patent medicine based on biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) , focusing on assessment of synchronization issues of dissolution that may affect the timing of the multicomponent absorption. The accumulative dissolution percentages of nine components in Gengen Qinlian tablets in different dissolution solvents and times were determined by HPLC. The dissolution curve was drew and its similarity was evaluated by similarity factors (f2) and cluster method. Results in this experiment showed that the components that peak 7 and peak 8 (baicalin) represented had poor similarity with the reference peak 2 (puerarin). Their similarity factors were both 43 in water dissolution media and 31 and 45 in pH 7.4 dissolution media, respectively. Components that peaks represented had better similarity with the reference peak 2 (puerarin) in other medium. It illustrated that components that peak 3,4,5,6 (berberine) represented had fully synchronous dissolution characteristics with the reference peak 2 (puerarin), components peak 1 and 9 represented had nearly fully synchronous dissolution characteristics with the reference peak 2 (puerarin), while components that peak 7 and 8 (baicalin) represented had no synchronous dissolution characteristics with the reference peak 2 (puerarin). PMID:25911789

  14. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  15. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, Brant E.; Stephenson, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a method for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  16. Dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursunoglu, Sait; Kaya, Muammer

    2015-11-01

    The dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method was investigated. The effects of the type of organic acid, acid concentration, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the lateritic nickel ore were examined. Organic acids were used individually prior to sequential leaching. Citric acid was more effective than the other two acids for the selective leaching of nickel and cobalt. An increase in the citric acid concentration negligibly affected the dissolution of the metals, whereas temperature exhibited a strong beneficial effect. Oxalic acid was determined to be the most appropriate organic acid for the second leaching step. After 8 h (4 h + 4 h) of leaching with organic acids (0.5 M citric + 0.5 M oxalic) in sequence at 90°C, 89.63% Ni, 82.89% Co, and 69.63% Fe were leached from the lateritic nickel ore. A sequential citric + oxalic acid leaching method could represent a viable alternative for the dissolution of metals from lateritic nickel ore.

  17. Selective chemical dissolution of sulfides: An evaluation of six methods applicable to assaying sulfide-bound nickel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klock, P.R.; Czamanske, G.K.; Foose, M.; Pesek, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six analytical techniques for the selective chemical dissolution of sulfides are compared with the purpose of defining the best method for accurately determining the concentration of sulfide-bound nickel. Synthesized sulfide phases of known elemental content, mixed with well-analyzed silicates, were used to determine the relative and absolute efficiency, based on Ni and Mg recovery, of the techniques. Tested leach-methods purported to dissolve sulfide from silicate phases include: brominated water, brominated water-carbon tetrachloride, nitric-hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide-ammonium citrate, bromine-methanol and hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid. Only the hydrogen peroxide-ammonium citrate method did not prove adequate in dissolving the sulfide phases. The remaining five methods dissolved the sulfide phases, but the indicated amount of attack on the silicate portion ranged from 3% to 100%. The bromine-methanol method is recommended for assaying sulfide-Ni deposits when Ni is also present in silicate phases. ?? 1986.

  18. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

  19. Physical properties and dissolution behaviour of nifedipine/mannitol solid dispersions prepared by hot melt method.

    PubMed

    Zajc, Natalija; Obreza, Ales; Bele, Marjan; Srcic, Stane

    2005-03-01

    Solid dispersions of nifedipine (NIF) with mannitol in preparations containing 10 and 50% (w/w) of drug were manufactured by the hot melt method. Physical properties and the dissolution behaviour of binary systems as physical mixtures and solid dispersions were investigated. In all samples, the crystal structure of NIF was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed, there was no interaction between drug and carrier, however, FTIR spectra indicated formation of thermodynamically less stable polymorph of mannitol. The dissolution rate of NIF from solid dispersions was markedly enhanced, the effect being stronger at higher drug loading (50%, w/w, NIF). The dissolution rate enhancement was attributed to improved wetting of NIF crystals due to mannitol particles, attached on the surface, as inspected by means of SEM. Thermal stability of NIF, mannitol and two other potential carbohydrate carriers (lactose and saccharose) during the hot melt procedure was investigated using 1H NMR. NIF was found to be thermically stable under conditions applied. As expected, among carriers only mannitol demonstrated suitable resistance to high temperature used in experiments. PMID:15707731

  20. Statistical comparison of dissolution profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Snee, Ronald D; Keyvan, Golshid; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2016-05-01

    Statistical methods to assess similarity of dissolution profiles are introduced. Sixteen groups of dissolution profiles from a full factorial design were used to demonstrate implementation details. Variables in the design include drug strength, tablet stability time, and dissolution testing condition. The 16 groups were considered similar when compared using the similarity factor f2 (f2 > 50). However, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) repeated measures suggested statistical differences. A modified principal component analysis (PCA) was used to describe the dissolution curves in terms of level and shape. The advantage of the modified PCA approach is that the calculated shape principal components will not be confounded by level effect. Effect size test using omega-squared was also used for dissolution comparisons. Effects indicated by omega-squared are independent of sample size and are a necessary supplement to p value reported from the MANOVA table. Methods to compare multiple groups show that product strength and dissolution testing condition had significant effects on both level and shape. For pairwise analysis, a post-hoc analysis using Tukey's method categorized three similar groups, and was consistent with level-shape analysis. All these methods provide valuable information that is missed using f2 method alone to compare average profiles. The improved statistical analysis approach introduced here enables one to better ascertain both statistical significance and clinical relevance, supporting more objective regulatory decisions. PMID:26294289

  1. Initial Results From Dissolution Testing of Spent Fuel Under Acidic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Brady D.; Friese, Judah I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.

    2004-12-01

    Flow through dissolution tests using leachants with pH in the range 2 to 7 have been conducted on a moderate burnup Light Water Reactor spent fuel. Such low pH conditions have been modeled as possibly occurring in a failed waste package at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The release of total uranium, 99Tc, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239&240Pu were measured for up to 90% total reaction of the specimens. The reaction rates, determine both from the cumulative release and the release normalized to surface area, were found to decrease with increasing pH and with increasing extent of reaction. The implications to instantaneous release and long-term behavior in a geologic repository are discussed.

  2. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Corrosion tests to determine temperature and pH dependencies of the dissolution rates of sodalite, binder glass, and ceramic waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S.-Y.; Fanning, T. H.; Morss, L. R.; Ebert, W. L.

    2003-02-12

    A glass bonded-sodalite ceramic waste form (CWF) has been developed to immobilize salt wastes from electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. The CWF is a composite of salt-loaded sodalite and a binder glass formed at high temperature (850-950 C) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or pressureless-consolidation (PC) processes. A waste form degradation and radionuclide release model has been developed to support qualification of the CWF for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Six series of tests were conducted in conjunction with the development of that model. (1) Static tests were conducted to measure the dissolution rate of sodalite, HIP binder glass, and HIP CWF at 40, 70, and 90 C in pH range 4.8-9.8 buffer solution. The parameter values in the degradation model were calculated from the dissolution rates measured by the static tests. (2) Static tests were conducted at 70 C in noncomplexing tertiary amine pH buffers to confirm that the dissolution rate measured with traditional buffers was not affected by the complexation of metal ions. The results showed that the difference between dissolution rate determined with noncomplexing buffer and that determined with traditional buffers was negligible. (3) Static tests were conducted in five buffer solutions in the pH range 4.8-9.8 at 20 C with HIP sodalite, HIP glass, and HIP CWF. The results showed that the model adequately predicts the dissolution rate of these materials at 20 C. (4) Static tests at 20 and 70 C with CWF made by the PC process indicated that the model parameters extracted from the results of tests with HIP CWF could be applied to PC CWF. (5) The dissolution rates of a modified glass made with a composition corresponding to 80 wt% glass and 20 wt% sodalite were measured at 70 C to evaluate the sensitivity of the rate to the composition of binder glass in the CWF. The dissolution rates of the modified binder glass were indistinguishable from the rates of the binder glass. (6) The dissolution rate of a simple five-component glass (CSG) was measured at 70 C using static tests and single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests. Rates were similar for the two methods; however, the measured rates are about 10X higher than the rates measured previously at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for a glass having the same composition using an SPFT test method. Differences are attributed to effects of the solution flow rate on the glass dissolution rate and how the specific surface area of crushed glass is estimated. This comparison indicates the need to standardize the SPFT test procedure.

  4. Development and validation of a dissolution test for a once-a-day combination tablet of immediate-release cetirizine dihydrochloride and extended-release pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Likar, Michael D; Mansour, Hany L; Harwood, Jeffrey W

    2005-09-15

    A dissolution test for a once daily combination tablet containing 10 mg of cetirizine dihydrochloride (cetirizine HCl) for immediate release and 240 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (pseudoephedrine HCl) for extended release was developed and validated according to current ICH and FDA guidelines. The cetirizine HCl is contained within an outer layer of the tablet while a semipermeable membrane of cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol controls the rate at which pseudoephedrine HCl is released from the tablet core. The dissolution method, which uses USP apparatus 2 with paddles rotating at 50 rpm, 1000 ml of deaerated water as the dissolution medium, and reversed-phased HPLC for quantitation, was demonstrated to be robust, discriminating, and transferable. These test conditions were selected after it was demonstrated that the cetirizine HCl portion of the tablet rapidly dissolved in aqueous media over the physiologically relevant pH range of 1.1-7.5, and that the extended-release profile of pseudoephedrine HCl was independent of dissolution conditions (i.e., apparatus, pH, and agitation). PMID:15975755

  5. TRANSPORT OF REACTING SOLUTES SUBJECT TO A MOVING DISSOLUTION BOUNDARY: NUMERICAL METHODS AND SOLUTIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Catherine; Rubin, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we consider examples of chemistry-affected transport processes in porous media. A moving boundary problem which arises during transport with precipitation-dissolution reactions is solved by three different numerical methods. Two of these methods (one explicit and one implicit) are based on an integral formulation of mass balance and lead to an approximation of a weak solution. These methods are compared to a front-tracking scheme. Although the two approaches are conceptually different, the numerical solutions showed good agreement. As the ratio of dispersion to convection decreases, the methods based on the integral formulation become computationally more efficient. Specific reactions were modeled to examine the dependence of the system on the physical and chemical parameters.

  6. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  7. Size distributions of micro-bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, C.; Maeda, Y.; Hosokawa, S.; Tomiyama, A.; Ito, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Size of micro-bubbles is widely distributed in the range of one to several hundreds micrometers and depends on generation methods, flow conditions and elapsed times after the bubble generation. Although a size distribution of micro-bubbles should be taken into account to improve accuracy in numerical simulations of flows with micro-bubbles, a variety of the size distribution makes it difficult to introduce the size distribution in the simulations. On the other hand, several models such as the Rosin-Rammler equation and the Nukiyama-Tanazawa equation have been proposed to represent the size distribution of particles or droplets. Applicability of these models to the size distribution of micro-bubbles has not been examined yet. In this study, we therefore measure size distribution of micro-bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method by using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), and investigate the applicability of the available models to the size distributions of micro-bubbles. Experimental apparatus consists of a pressurized tank in which air is dissolved in liquid under high pressure condition, a decompression nozzle in which micro-bubbles are generated due to pressure reduction, a rectangular duct and an upper tank. Experiments are conducted for several liquid volumetric fluxes in the decompression nozzle. Measurements are carried out at the downstream region of the decompression nozzle and in the upper tank. The experimental results indicate that (1) the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation well represents the size distribution of micro-bubbles generated by the pressurized dissolution method, whereas the Rosin-Rammler equation fails in the representation, (2) the bubble size distribution of micro-bubbles can be evaluated by using the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation without individual bubble diameters, when mean bubble diameter and skewness of the bubble distribution are given, and (3) an evaluation method of visibility based on the bubble size distribution and bubble number density is proposed, and the evaluated visibility agrees well with the visibility measured in the upper tank.

  8. Study of the effect of temperature on Pt dissolution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells via accelerated stress tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, S. R.; Kundu, S.; Fowler, M. W.; Pritzker, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at higher cell temperatures accelerates Pt dissolution in the catalyst layer. In this study, a Pt dissolution accelerated stress testing protocol involving the application of a potentiostatic square-wave with 3 s at 0.6 V followed by 3 s at 1.0 V was developed to test fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The use of this Pt dissolution protocol at three different temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C) was investigated for the same membrane electrode assembly composition. Impedance analysis of the membrane electrode assemblies showed an increase in polarization resistance during the course of the accelerated stress testing. Polarization analysis and electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) loss measurements revealed evidence of increased cathode catalyst layer (CCL) degradation due to Pt dissolution and deposition in the membrane as the cell temperature was raised. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirmed the formation of Pt bands in the membrane. A diagnostic expression was developed to estimate kinetic losses due to oxygen reduction using the effective platinum surface area (EPSA) estimated from cyclic voltammograms. The results indicated that performance degradation occurred mainly due to Pt loss.

  9. How Do Test Size and Dissolution Modify Stable Isotope Ratios and Mg/Ca in Planktonic Foraminifer Tests? a Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekik, F.

    2014-12-01

    We present new data for stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in four test-size ranges for Neogloboquadrina dutertrei from the EEP, and from four foraminifer species on RGR: Globorotalia menardii, Globorotalia truncatulinoides, Globorotalia inflata and Globigerinoides conglobatus. The EEP has a steep gradient to environmental parameters allowing statistical analyses of the effect of habitat and test size on shell chemistry. The RGR permits isolating the effect of sedimentary dissolution on shell chemistry because there is a strong gradient to sedimentary calcite dissolution there while surface environmental parameters remain invariable among core tops. Our statistical analyses include ANOVA, matched pair and independent means t-tests, univariate and multiple linear regression, principle components, and geographic distribution analyses. Calcite dissolution is estimated using the G. menardiiFragmentation Index. Stable isotope data from small N. dutertrei shells (< 350μm) provide more accurate, statistically significant, and consistent estimates of environmental parameters than larger foraminifers. Temperature estimates made from stable oxygen isotopes disagree with those made with Mg/Ca with large and statistically significant differences (up to 4°C) using the same species, in the same core top samples and within the same test-size ranges. Previous studies have shown the strong effect of dissolution in modifying Mg/Ca content of foraminifer tests. While there is no statistically significant evidence on RGR that dissolution modifies stable isotope ratios in foraminifer shells; in EEP core tops we observe a strong and statistically significant relationship between dissolution and shell stable isotope chemistry. Geographic analyses and radiocarbon data suggest that sediments experiencing much dissolution can be as old as 9000 years, and there is a linear and statistically significant relationship between degree of dissolution and core top sediment age. The greater the dissolution, the older the sediment. Therefore, environmental inferences from shell chemistry are not comparable to modern environmental parameters, and dissolution indirectly confounds the accurate interpretation of shell stable isotope data while directly altering the Mg/Ca content of foraminifer shells.

  10. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  11. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  12. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  13. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  14. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution studies of acyclovir solid dispersions with Pluronic F127 prepared by the kneading method.

    PubMed

    Karolewicz, Bożena; Nartowski, Karol; Pluta, Janusz; Górniak, Agata

    2016-03-01

    The dissolution rate of anhydrous acyclovir was improved by the preparation of physical mixtures and solid dispersions with the non-ionic polymer Pluronic F127 using the kneading method at different drug-to-polymer ratios. The obtained physical mixtures and solid dispersions were examined in terms of drug content and possible physical and chemical interactions between the drug and polymer using FTIR spectral studies, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The dissolution rate of acyclovir was determined using the rotating disk method. It was found that the minimal content of the polymer within the mixtures needed to increase the dissolution rate of the drug was 50 %. PMID:26959548

  15. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  16. Bubble size distribution in acoustic droplet vaporization via dissolution using an ultrasound wide-beam method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Zong, Yujin; Li, Wusong; Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-05-01

    Performance and efficiency of numerous cavitation enhanced applications in a wide range of areas depend on the cavitation bubble size distribution. Therefore, cavitation bubble size estimation would be beneficial for biological and industrial applications that rely on cavitation. In this study, an acoustic method using a wide beam with low pressure is proposed to acquire the time intensity curve of the dissolution process for the cavitation bubble population and then determine the bubble size distribution. Dissolution of the cavitation bubbles in saline and in phase-shift nanodroplet emulsion diluted with undegassed or degassed saline was obtained to quantify the effects of pulse duration (PD) and acoustic power (AP) or peak negative pressure (PNP) of focused ultrasound on the size distribution of induced cavitation bubbles. It was found that an increase of PD will induce large bubbles while AP had only a little effect on the mean bubble size in saline. It was also recognized that longer PD and higher PNP increases the proportions of large and small bubbles, respectively, in suspensions of phase-shift nanodroplet emulsions. Moreover, degassing of the suspension tended to bring about smaller mean bubble size than the undegassed suspension. In addition, condensation of cavitation bubble produced in diluted suspension of phase-shift nanodroplet emulsion was involved in the calculation to discuss the effect of bubble condensation in the bubble size estimation in acoustic droplet vaporization. It was shown that calculation without considering the condensation might underestimate the mean bubble size and the calculation with considering the condensation might have more influence over the size distribution of small bubbles, but less effect on that of large bubbles. Without or with considering bubble condensation, the accessible minimum bubble radius was 0.4 or 1.7 ?m and the step size was 0.3 ?m. This acoustic technique provides an approach to estimate the size distribution of cavitation bubble population in opaque media and might be a promising tool for applications where it is desirable to tune the ultrasound parameters to control the size distribution of cavitation bubbles. PMID:24360840

  17. A canine biorelevant dissolution method for predicting in vivo performance of orally administered sustained release matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Paul L; Bothe, Jameson R; Bhardwaj, Sunny; Hu, Mengwei; Nofsinger, Rebecca; Xia, Binfeng; Persak, Steven; Pennington, Justin; Bak, Annette

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical species are a crucial component of drug development, but critical differences in physiology and anatomy need to be taken into account when attempting to extrapolate to humans or between species. The same is true when trying to develop oral formulations for preclinical species, especially unconventional formulations, such as sustained release tablets. During the evaluation of such specialized dosage forms, dissolution can be a critical in vitro tool used to rank-order formulations and ultimately choose the desired release rate. Here, the development of a canine biorelevant dissolution method for the prediction of the in vivo performance of sustained release matrix tablets in beagle dogs is described. The method accounts for differences in physiology between humans and dogs such as gastrointestinal fluid composition, gastric emptying forces, and gastric residence time. The most critical dissolution method parameters were found to be the paddle speed used to simulate the gastric emptying forces as well as the time spent in simulated gastric fluid. The resulting differences in method conditions are further explored through in silico models of the hydrodynamic forces applied to a dosage form. Two case studies are reported showing that the method was able to obtain excellent in vitro-in vivo relationships (slopes ranging from 1.08-1.01) which are significantly (p < 0.01-0.05) improved compared to human biorelevant dissolution used to predict in vivo performance in humans (slopes ∼1.5-1.75). The quality of the method's predictive ability allows for it to help drive the development of matrix sustained release formulations intended for preclinical studies. PMID:26339722

  18. Development and application of a validated HPLC method for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium drug products

    PubMed Central

    Collier, J.W.; Shah, R.B.; Bryant, A.R.; Habib, M.J.; Khan, M.A.; Faustino, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive gradient HPLC method was developed for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium tablets. Current USP methodology for levothyroxine (l-T4) was not adequate to resolve co-elutants from a variety of levothyroxine drug product formulations. The USP method for analyzing dissolution samples of the drug product has shown significant intra- and inter-day variability. The sources of method variability include chromatographic interferences introduced by the dissolution media and the formulation excipients. In the present work, chromatographic separation of levothyroxine was achieved on an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC with a Waters Nova-pak column (250mm × 3.9mm) using a 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0)–methanol (55:45, v/v) in a gradient elution mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection UV wavelength of 225 nm. The injection volume was 800 µL and the column temperature was maintained at 28 °C. The method was validated according to USP Category I requirements. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and analytical range. The standard curve was found to have a linear relationship (r2 > 0.99) over the analytical range of 0.08–0.8 µg/mL. Accuracy ranged from 90 to 110% for low quality control (QC) standards and 95 to 105% for medium and high QC standards. Precision was <2% at all QC levels. The method was found to be accurate, precise, selective, and linear for l-T4 over the analytical range. The HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of dissolution samples of marketed levothyroxine sodium tablets. PMID:20947276

  19. Bio-relevant dissolution testing of hard capsules prepared from different shell materials using the dynamic open flow through test apparatus.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Grzegorz; Cadé, Dominique; Benameur, Hassan; Weitschies, Werner

    2014-06-16

    Current compendial dissolution and disintegrating testing is unable to mimic physiological conditions affecting gastric drug release from immediate release dosage forms. In order to obtain more realistic data, a novel test setup was developed that we term a 'dynamic open flow through test apparatus'. It is based on the previously described dissolution stress test device and attempts to simulate the intra-gastric dissolution conditions pertinent to immediate release dosage forms administered under fasting conditions with respect to flow rates, intra-gastric temperature profiles and gastric motility. The concept of the dynamic open flow through test apparatus has been tested using five different types of hard capsules: conventional hard gelatin capsules (HGC), three hypromellose based capsules (Vcaps, Vcaps Plus and DRcaps) and pullulan based capsules (Plantcaps). These were of different sizes but all contained 100mg caffeine in each formulation, adjusted to avoid buoyancy by addition of excipient. When the capsules were stressed in the apparatus under the dynamic flow conditions applying mild pressure simulating gastric motility, release from release from Vcaps Plus, Vcaps and Plantcaps capsules was very well comparable to HGC. Capsules are usually swallowed with cold water and the temperature dependency of release from gelatin was noted as a significant factor, since heat exchange in the stomach is slow. PMID:24021609

  20. Digoxin degradation in acidic dissolution medium.

    PubMed

    Sonobe, T; Hasumi, S; Yoshino, T; Kobayashi, Y; Kawata, H; Nagai, T

    1980-04-01

    The release of digoxin and its simultaneous conversion to digoxigenin bisdigitoxoside, digoxigenin monodigitoxoside, and digoxigenin in a USP dissolution test medium were followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Two products, Tablets A and B, were manufactured by solvent deposition and simple blending methods, respectively. Tablet A released digoxin faster than Tablet B in distilled water and in artificial intestinal juice, and no decomposition was observed. In the USP dissolution test medium, the rate of hydrolysis to digoxigenin bisdigitoxoside was almost equal to that of hydrolysis to digoxigenin monodigitoxoside, and a comparatively large formation rate of digoxigenin was observed. Concentrations of digoxin and its decomposition products were described by differential equations that included dissolution rates of digoxin (rapidly dissolving digoxin and digoxin crystals) and an apparent hydrolysis rate. In the earlier stage of dissolution, hydrolysis was rate determining; in the later stage, dissolution became the rate-determining step for overall digoxin degradation. To suppress digoxin hydrolysis in the USP dissolution test medium, a developmental formulation study was performed. The incorporation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide-aluminum hydroxide in the tablet formulations inhibited digoxin hydrolysis by 15.3 and 14.5%, respectively, after dissolution for 30 min without serious delay of drug release. PMID:7373535

  1. A silica-supported solid dispersion of bifendate using supercritical carbon dioxide method with enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Cuifang; Liu, Muhua; Li, Yun; Guo, Bei; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, to enhance the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of bifendate, a silica-supported solid dispersion (SD) of bifendate was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) technology. The properties of bifendate-silica SD were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscopy. The pharmacokinetic study was carried out in beagle dogs using commercial bifendate dropping pills as a reference which is a conventional SD formulation of bifendate and PEG6000. A novel method of Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPC(2)™-MS/MS) method was applied to determine bifendate concentration in plasma. The amorphous state of bifendate in bifendate-silica SD was revealed in X-RD and DSC when the ratios of bifendate and silica were 1:15 and 1:19, respectively. In vitro dissolution rate was significantly improved with cumulative release of 67% within 20 min relative to 8% for the physical mixture of bifendate and silica, and which was also higher than the commercial dropping pill of 52%. After storage at 75% relative humidity (RH) for 10 d, no recrystallization was found and reduced dissolution rate was obtained due to the absorption of moisture. In pharmacokinetic study, Cmax and AUC0-t for bifendate-silica SD were 153.1 ng/ml and 979.8 ng h/ml, respectively. AUC0-t of bifendate-silica SDs was ∼1.6-fold higher than that of the commercial dropping pills. These results suggest that adsorbing bifendate onto porous silica via ScCO2 technique could be a feasible method to enhance oral bioavailability together with a higher dissolution rate. PMID:26219343

  2. Dissolution behaviour of model basalt fibres studied by surface analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frster, T.; Scheffler, C.; Mder, E.; Heinrich, G.; Jesson, D. A.; Watts, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    New concepts of surface modifications aimed at the enhancement of alkali resistance of basalt fibres require research work on chemical composition of interacting surface layers as well as knowledge about fundamental processes of basaltic glass dissolution. Therefore, two model basalt fibres manufactured out of subalkaline and alkaline rock material were leached in NaOH solution at a temperature of 80 C for up to 11 days. The formation of a corrosion shell was observed in both cases and was analyzed by SEM/EDX. The model fibres out of subalkaline rocks show dissolution kinetic, which is two-staged, whereas the more alkaline fibre reflects a linear one. The complex composition of basalt fibre is detected by EDX and XPS. The surface of basalt fibres is rich in Si and Al. XPS high resolution spectra provide information on oxidation state of iron.

  3. Modulation of particle size and molecular interactions by sonoprecipitation method for enhancing dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Tran, Kiet Anh; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien

    2015-05-01

    Aim of present work was to originally elucidate the roles of ultrasonication method for modulating the size and molecular interactions in controlling release of poorly water-soluble drug. Curcumin was chosen as a model drug. Three types of polymers were investigated as carriers for preparation of polymeric nanoparticles under various ultrasonication conditions and polymer-drug ratios. Changes in drug crystallinity, particle size, and molecular interactions which would be factors enhancing drug dissolution rate were evaluated. Amorphous form of curcumin, size reduction of nanoparticles and interaction between drug and polymer in formulations were attributed to improved drug dissolution rate. Particle size was strongly affected by polymer type, polymer-drug ratio and ultrasonication conditions. Interestingly, control of those factors caused differences in molecular interactions of the hydroxyl groups and then, highly affected particle size of the nanoparticles. It was obvious that there was a reciprocal influence between the drug-polymer interactions and particle size of the nanoparticles. This relation could be modulated by polymers and ultrasonication processes for enhancing drug dissolution rate. PMID:25500098

  4. Dissolution rate of borosilicate glass SON68: A method of quantification based upon interferometry and implications for experimental and natural weathering rates of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Steefel, Carl I.

    2015-05-01

    Rates of glass dissolution from laboratory and field studies are often considered to be irreconcilable, although potential causes for the difference, such as solution saturation state and increasing surface area from progressive weathering, have not been explored in depth. The dissolution rate of SON68 glass, the non-radioactive analog of the French R7T7 composition, was determined in a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) system at 90 °C and pH 9 over a silica-saturation interval. Dissolution rates were determined on both powdered and monolithic specimens by assaying the concentration of elements released from glass to effluent solution. In addition, rates of 12 monolithic specimens were quantified using a Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) method. The method entails measuring the difference in height between a reference and reaction surface. The height difference is proportional to the dissolution rate. By adjusting the relative position of the reacted surface to average surface roughness, the effects of surface area on the dissolution rate can be minimized. Values of the dissolution rate, based upon chemical assay of the effluent solution on the one hand, and VSI methods on the other, were compared. In general, rates determined by the two methods are within a factor of 2×. The difference in rates may be due to the presence of a reaction layer that develops on the glass surface, resulting in an underestimation of the height difference measurement. The dissolution rates of SON68 glass in silica-saturated solutions were then compared to rates previously determined on basalt glass in natural weathering environments (Gordon and Brady, 2002, Chem. Geol. 190, 113-122). When adjusted for differences in temperature and pH, the ranges of borosilicate and basalt glass dissolution rates overlap, indicating that laboratory and field rates can be reconciled and that the principal control on glass dissolution is solution saturation with respect to amorphous silica.

  5. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R.; Mäder, Urs

    2015-06-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time.

  6. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R; Mäder, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time. PMID:25805363

  7. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  8. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as amore » function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.« less

  9. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Trevisan, Luca; Agartan, Elif; Mori, Hiroko; Vargas-Johnson, Javier; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2015-03-31

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods and research results.

  10. Enhancement of the dissolution rate and bioavailability of fenofibrate by a melt-adsorption method using supercritical carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Park, Junsung; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of fenofibrate, a poorly water-soluble drug, using a melt-adsorption method with supercritical CO2. Methods: Fenofibrate was loaded onto Neusilin® UFL2 at different weight ratios of fenofibrate to Neusilin UFL2 by melt-adsorption using supercritical CO2. For comparison, fenofibrate-loaded Neusilin UFL2 was prepared by solvent evaporation and hot melt-adsorption methods. The fenofibrate formulations prepared were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder x-ray diffractometry, specific surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. In vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability were also investigated. Results: Fenofibrate was distributed into the pores of Neusilin UFL2 and showed reduced crystal formation following adsorption. Supercritical CO2 facilitated the introduction of fenofibrate into the pores of Neusilin UFL2. Compared with raw fenofibrate, fenofibrate from the prepared powders showed a significantly increased dissolution rate and better bioavailability. In particular, the area under the drug concentration-time curve and maximal serum concentration of the powders prepared using supercritical CO2 were 4.62-fold and 4.52-fold greater than the corresponding values for raw fenofibrate. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the usefulness of the melt-adsorption method using supercritical CO2 for improving the bioavailability of fenofibrate. PMID:23118538

  11. Physical and dissolution characterization of cilostazol solid dispersions prepared by hot melt granulation (HMG) and thermal adhesion granulation (TAG) methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiou, Jiun-Da; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of poorly water-soluble drug have been discovered, but the poor bioavailability is a critical problem. In this study, physical properties and dissolution profiles of cilostazol solid dispersions prepared by hydrophilic/lipophilic excipients (Kollidon(®) VA64, tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), vitamine E) with hot-melt and thermal adhesion granulation (TAG) method to adsorb Fujicalin(®) and Microcel(®) were characterized. Results demonstrate the angle of repose in formulations with Fujicalin(®) was improved than those with Microcel(®), but the difference disappeared when more TPGS or vitamin E was added. Compared the formulation made by hot-melt and TAG method, both improved flowability. The hardness decreased with the increased amount of TPGS and vitamin E. The formulations with Microcel(®) had lower hardness than those with Fujicalin(®), because Microcel(®) has weaker adsorption ability and cannot afford much TPGS and vitamin E, leading to lower hardness. Furthermore, the solubility was almost three-fold higher than that of Pletaal(®) (7.68 ± 0.20 μg/mL) in compositions containing TPGS and vitamin E made by hot-melt or TAG method, in which a controlled drug release pattern was demonstrated. There is no significant difference on dissolution profile between hot-melt and TAG method. However, the procedure of TAG is easier, indicating its potential pharmaceutical use. PMID:25089508

  12. Accelerated Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Neural network systems were evaluated for use in predicting wear of mechanical systems. Three different neural network software simulation packages were utilized in order to create models of tribological wear tests. Representative simple, medium, and high complexity simulation packages were selected. Pin-on-disk, rub shoe, and four-ball tribological test data was used for training, testing, and verification of the neural network models. Results showed mixed success. The neural networks were able to predict results with some accuracy if the number of input variables was low or the amount of training data was high. Increased neural network complexity resulted in more accurate results, however there was a point of diminishing return. Medium complexity models were the best trade off between accuracy and computing time requirements. A NASA Technical Memorandum and a Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers paper are being published which detail the work.

  13. Evaluation of modal testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-C.

    1984-01-01

    Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.

  14. SB5 WITH THE ESTIMATED IMPACT OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION: PRELIMINARY FRITS FOR MELT RATE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T

    2008-03-11

    Composition projections for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) were developed to evaluate possible impacts of the Al-dissolution process on the availability of viable frit compositions for vitrification at the DWPF. The study included two projected SB5 compositions that bound potential outcomes (or degrees of effectiveness) of the Al-dissolution process, as well as a nominal SB5 composition projection based on the results of the recent Al-dissolution demonstration at SRNL. A Nominal Stage assessment was used to evaluate the two SB5 projections combined with an array of 19,305 frit compositions over a range of waste loading (WL) values against the DWPF process control models. The Nominal Stage results allowed for the down-selection of a small number of frits that provided reasonable projected operating windows (typically 25 to 40 wt %) and permitted some compositional flexibility (i.e., the ability to further tailor the frit to improve melt rate). Variation Stage assessments were then performed using the down-selected frits and the two SB5 composition projections with variation applied to each sludge component. The Variation Stage results showed that the operating windows were somewhat reduced in width, as expected when sludge variation is applied. Three of the down-selected frits continued to perform well for both SB5 projections through the Variation Stage, providing WL windows of approximately 26 to 35 wt %. The maximum WLs were limited by a processing constraint, TL, rather than a waste form affecting constraint (e.g., nepheline crystallization) in the Variation Stage assessments. Subsequent Nominal Stage assessments were performed with an updated SB5 projection based on the results of the Al-dissolution demonstration performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility (representing 40% removal of Al). The three frits identified in the earlier paper studies continued to perform well with this updated projection. The available operating windows were slightly wider, although maximum WL was limited by both the TL and nepheline constraints for all three frits. Changes in the projected SB5 composition are anticipated before processing begins at the DWPF, which will likely require additional paper study assessments as well as experimental frit development studies. This study identifies several frits which provide insight into potential operating windows for SB5 vitrification in DWPF. However, until experimental studies can be performed to gain information on melt rate and other parameters needed to optimize frit selection, no final frit recommendation can be made. Information regarding melt rate cannot be inferred from the paper study results. Experimental studies to evaluate this critical factor in DWPF processing must be performed to support frit optimization for any projected sludge composition. Five frit compositions were identified for melt rate testing at SRNL with simulated SB5 Case F SRAT product. The results of these tests will be used to evaluate the impact of the frit components--particularly B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O--that are expected to influence melt rate for SB5-like sludges. The results of the melt rate testing will be documented in a separate report and will be used to help guide the frit recommendation process as the final SB5 composition becomes clearer.

  15. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  16. Comparative in vitro dissolution study of carbamazepine immediate-release products using the USP paddles method and the flow-through cell system

    PubMed Central

    Medina, José Raúl; Salazar, Dulce Karina; Hurtado, Marcela; Cortés, Alma Rosa; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Dissolution profiles of four carbamazepine immediate-release generic products (200 mg tablets) and the reference product Tegretol® were evaluated using the USP paddles method and an alternative method with the flow-through cell system, USP Apparatus 4. Under official conditions all products met the Q specification, dissolution profiles of generic products were similar to the dissolution profile of the reference product (f2 > 50) and model-independent parameters showed non significant differences to the reference product except mean dissolution time for product A (p < 0.05). On the other hand, when the flow-through cell system was used, none of the products met the pharmacopeial specification at 15 min and product A did not reach dissolution criteria at 60 min, dissolution profiles of all generic products were not similar to the reference product profile (f2 < 50) and all model-independent parameters showed significant differences compared to the reference product (p < 0.05). Weibull’s model was more useful for adjusting the dissolution data of all products in both USP apparatuses and Td values showed significant differences compared to the reference product (p < 0.05) when USP Apparatus 4 was used. These results indicate that the proposed method, using the flow-through cell system, is more discriminative in evaluating both, rate and extent of carbamazepine dissolution process from immediate-release generic products. PMID:24648826

  17. Enhanced dissolution rate of felodipine using spherical agglomeration with Inutec SP1 by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method

    PubMed Central

    Tapas, A.R.; Kawtikwar, P.S.; Sakarkar, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Felodipine is a second generation calcium channel blocker widely used as antihypertensive and antianginal drug which belongs to BCS class II category. Hence, its low water solubility limits the pharmacological effect. The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate of felodipine using spherical agglomeration technique with acetone, water and dichloromethane as good solvent, poor solvent and bridging liquid, respectively. The quasi emulsion solvent diffusion technique was used as a method for spherical agglomeration. Inutec SP1 was used as an emulsion stabilizer and as hydrophilic polymer in agglomeration process. The FTIR and DSC results showed no change in the drug after crystallization process. PXRD studies showed sharp peaks in the diffractograms of spherical agglomerates with minor reduction in height of the peaks. The particle size of spherical agglomerates (FI-2) was about 134.33 ± 13.57 µm, n=3 and the dissolution efficiency of felodipine up to 120 min increased to about 4-fold in phosphate buffer containing 1.8% Tween 80 (pH 6.8). Spherical agglomerates showed enhanced solubility compared to untreated powder possibly due to the partial conversion to amorphous form. PMID:21589802

  18. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  19. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  20. Predicting the oral pharmacokinetic profiles of multiple-unit (pellet) dosage forms using a modeling and simulation approach coupled with biorelevant dissolution testing: case example diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Kambayashi, Atsushi; Blume, Henning; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the dissolution profile of a poorly soluble drug, diclofenac, from a commercially available multiple-unit enteric coated dosage form, Diclo-Puren® capsules, and to develop a predictive model for its oral pharmacokinetic profile. The paddle method was used to obtain the dissolution profiles of this dosage form in biorelevant media, with the exposure to simulated gastric conditions being varied in order to simulate the gastric emptying behavior of pellets. A modified Noyes-Whitney theory was subsequently fitted to the dissolution data. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for multiple-unit dosage forms was designed using STELLA® software and coupled with the biorelevant dissolution profiles in order to simulate the plasma concentration profiles of diclofenac from Diclo-Puren® capsule in both the fasted and fed state in humans. Gastric emptying kinetics relevant to multiple-units pellets were incorporated into the PBPK model by setting up a virtual patient population to account for physiological variations in emptying kinetics. Using in vitro biorelevant dissolution coupled with in silico PBPK modeling and simulation it was possible to predict the plasma profile of this multiple-unit formulation of diclofenac after oral administration in both the fasted and fed state. This approach might be useful to predict variability in the plasma profiles for other drugs housed in multiple-unit dosage forms. PMID:24462791

  1. Marital dissolution by sex of the petitioner: a test of the man-child affiliative bond.

    PubMed

    Mackey, W C

    1993-09-01

    The problems in disentangling the tabula rasa explanations, as opposed to the biocultural explanations, in the understanding and prediction of human behavior are deep, real, and difficult. This study tested two conflicting sets of predictions concerning divorce patterns in the United States: a socioeconomic set and a biocultural set. The socio-economic perspective predicts that the addition of one or more children to a marriage would increase the husband's (as compared with the wife's) motivation to petition for a divorce. The biocultural perspective posits that a man-to-child affiliative bond would add to a man's adherence to his child(ren) and, in turn, would lower his motivation (as compared with the woman's) to petition for a divorce. The biocultural perspective was supported in this study. PMID:8245909

  2. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  3. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  4. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  5. The difference between surface ocean carbonate chemistry and calcite dissolution in deep sea sediments as observed in tests of Globorotalia menardii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, M.; Mekik, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Globorotalia menardii Fragmentation Index (MFI) was developed to trace deep sea calcite dissolution within sediments. While this proxy has a multi-basin core top calibration ranging the tropical and subtropical world ocean, the effect of the surface ocean [CO32-] on thickness of whole G. menardii shells has not been previously tested. If the size-normalized shell weight (SNSW) of G. menardii tests were affected by the [CO32-] of ambient habitat waters, this would put constraints on the applicability of MFI as a reliable bulk sediment calcite dissolution proxy. We present new SNSW data from G. menardii shells within core tops in the eastern equatorial Pacific where there is both a strong gradient to surface ocean [CO32-] and calcite dissolution in the sediments. We compare our G.menardii SNSW data with that of other species in the region, such as Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata. While SNSW of both N. dutertrei and P. obliquiloculata have clear relationships with surface ocean [CO32-], we do not find a similar relationship between G. menardii SNSW and surface ocean parameters, particularly [CO32-]. This bolsters our confidence in the reliability of MFI as a deep sea carbonate dissolution tracer.

  6. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  7. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  8. Short-core acoustic resonant bar test and x-ray CT imaging on sandstone samples during super-critical CO2 flooding and dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 requires accurate monitoring of the spatial distribution and pore-level saturation of super-critical (sc-) CO2 for both optimizing reservoir performance and satisfying regulatory requirements. Fortunately, thanks to the high compliance of sc-CO2 compared to brine under in-situ temperatures and pressures, injection of sc-CO2 into initially brine-saturated rock will lead to significant reductions in seismic velocity and increased attenuation of seismic waves. Because of the frequency-dependent nature of this relationship, its determination requires testing at low frequencies (10 Hz-10 kHz) that are not usually employed in the laboratory. In this paper, we present the changes in seismic wave velocities and attenuation in sandstone cores during sc-CO2 core flooding and during subsequent brine re-injection and CO2 removal via convection and dissolution. The experiments were conducted at frequencies near 1 kHz using a variation of the acoustic resonant bar technique, called the Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) method, which allows measurements under elevated temperatures and pressures (up to 120°C, 35 MPa), using a short (several cm long) core. Concurrent x-ray CT scanning reveals sc-CO2 saturation and distribution within the cores. The injection experiments revealed different CO2 patch size distributions within the cores between the injection phase and the convection/dissolution phase of the tests. The difference was reflected particularly in the P-wave velocities and attenuation. Also, compared to seismic responses, which were separately measured during a gas CO2 injection/drainage test, the seismic responses from the sc-CO2 test showed measurable changes over a wider range of brine saturation. Considering the proximity of the frequency band employed by our measurement to the field seismic measurements, this result implies that seismic monitoring of sc-CO2, if constrained by laboratory data and interpreted using a proper petrophysical model, can be conducted with greater accuracy for determining the sc-CO2 saturation and distribution within reservoir rock, than typically predicted by the Gassmann model and/or by a natural gas reservoir analogue.

  9. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy visualizes pharmaceutical tablets during dissolution.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Andrew L; Kleinebudde, Peter; Herek, Jennifer; Strachan, Clare J; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2014-01-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and structure can change during dissolution, it is essential to monitor it during dissolution testing. In this work coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is used to image the surface of tablets during dissolution while UV absorption spectroscopy is simultaneously providing inline analysis of dissolved drug concentration for tablets containing a 50% mixture of theophylline anhydrate and ethyl cellulose. The measurements showed that in situ CARS microscopy is capable of imaging selectively theophylline in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Additionally, the theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution, with needle-shaped crystals growing on the tablet surface during dissolution. The conversion of theophylline anhydrate to monohydrate, combined with reduced exposure of the drug to the flowing dissolution medium resulted in decreased dissolution rates. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring pharmaceutical tablet dissolution and correlating surface changes with changes in dissolution rate. PMID:25045833

  10. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy Visualizes Pharmaceutical Tablets During Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Andrew L.; Kleinebudde, Peter; Herek, Jennifer; Strachan, Clare J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and structure can change during dissolution, it is essential to monitor it during dissolution testing. In this work coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is used to image the surface of tablets during dissolution while UV absorption spectroscopy is simultaneously providing inline analysis of dissolved drug concentration for tablets containing a 50% mixture of theophylline anhydrate and ethyl cellulose. The measurements showed that in situ CARS microscopy is capable of imaging selectively theophylline in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Additionally, the theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution, with needle-shaped crystals growing on the tablet surface during dissolution. The conversion of theophylline anhydrate to monohydrate, combined with reduced exposure of the drug to the flowing dissolution medium resulted in decreased dissolution rates. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring pharmaceutical tablet dissolution and correlating surface changes with changes in dissolution rate. PMID:25045833

  11. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM, PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY PEROXIDE DISSOLUTION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-08-18

    A method is described for separating U/sup 233/ from thorium and fission products. The separation is effected by forming a thorium-nitric acid solution of about 3 pH, adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium and thorium peroxide, treating the peroxides with sodium hydroxide to selectively precipitate the uranium peroxide, and reacting the separated solution with nitric acid to re- precipitate the uranium peroxide.

  12. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  13. Effects of the Preparation Method on the Formation of True Nimodipine SBE-β-CD/HP-β-CD Inclusion Complexes and Their Dissolution Rates Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Semcheddine, Farouk; Guissi, Nida El Islem; Liu, XueYin; Wu, ZuoMin; Wang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of nimodipine (ND) by preparing the inclusion complexes of ND with sulfobutylether-b-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and to study the effect of the preparation method on the in vitro dissolution profile in different media (0.1 N HCl pH 1.2, phosphate buffer pH 7.4, and distilled water). Thus, the inclusion complexes were prepared by kneading, coprecipitation, and freeze-drying methods. Phase solubility studies were conducted to characterize the complexes in the liquid state. The inclusion complexes in the solid state were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (X-RD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Stable complexes of ND/SBE-β-CD and ND/HP-β-CD were formed in distilled water in a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex as indicated by an AL-type diagram. The apparent stability constants (Ks) were 1334.4 and 464.1 M(-1) for ND/SBE-β-CD and ND/HP-β-CD, respectively. The water-solubility of ND was significantly increased in an average of 22- and 8-fold for SBE-β-CD and HP-β-CD, respectively. DSC results showed the formation of true inclusion complexes between the drug and both SBE-β-CD and HP-β-CD prepared by the kneading method. In contrast, crystalline drug was detectable in all other products. The dissolution studies showed that all the products exhibited higher dissolution rate than those of the physical mixtures and ND alone, in all mediums. However, the kneading complexes displayed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison with drug and other complexes, confirming the influence of the preparation method on the physicochemical properties of the products. PMID:25511809

  14. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance testing and test methods... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods....

  15. In vitro dissolution and physicochemical characterizations of novel PVP-based solid dispersions containing valsartan prepared by a freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Juan; Liu, Yan; Shi, Li-Li; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri

    2014-11-01

    Valsartan (VAL) shows poor oral bioavailability mainly as a result of its low water solubility at low pH. This study is designed to investigate the dissolution properties and physicochemical characteristics of novel PVP-based solid dispersions (SDs) containing VAL. The SDs were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) as a hydrophilic polymer, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 (F68) as a surfactant, without using any organic solvents by a freeze-drying method. The dissolution study was carried out and the physicochemical properties of SDs were also characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rates of SDs were significantly improved at pH1.2 and pH6.8 compared to that of pure drug. The results of physicochemical properties suggested that some interactions between VAL and carriers had occurred in the molecular level and the drug presented in the SDs was amorphous. It was concluded that the novel PVP-based SDs has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method, resulting in significant dissolution improvement of VAL. PMID:25362604

  16. Design of a two-well field test to determine in-situ residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in a deep saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerlund, F.; Niemi, A.; Bensabat, J.; Shtivelman, V.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 trapping as immobile residual phase and by dissolution to brine are critical processes for CO2 storage security and reservoir capacity in many geological settings in consideration for geological CO2 storage. While laboratory and numerical modelling studies have provided valuable information on the topic, further field testing is critical to improve understanding of how the CO2 trapping will take place in-situ and to assess the relative importance of the different trapping mechanisms at field sites for geological storage. Given the challenge to measure fluid flow and trapping processes in kilometre-deep reservoirs with few boreholes and limited knowledge of the spatial distribution of geological parameters, the design of field tests that can accurately quantify the CO2 trapping is also challenging. Using modelling applied to the EU MUSTANG project's field testing site at Heletz, Israel, this study investigates how a two-well dipole test configuration can be used to study migration and trapping of CO2 in-situ under influence of geological heterogeneity between two boreholes. A two-well dipole test sequence for quantifying both residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in situ is presented. The test uses a relatively small amount of injected CO2 which is monitored by a combination of hydraulic, thermal and tracer measurement techniques. Hydraulic and thermal tests are shown to be sensitive to CO2 saturation and residual trapping. Furthermore we present a novel tracer technique, employing a non-water-soluble tracer in the CO2 phase, which is used to quantify the effective in-situ dissolution rate. Our modelling results show that the combination of these measurements in the two-well dipole configuration together with a mass balance of injected and abstracted fluids constitute an effective tool for characterization of in-situ trapping of geologically stored CO2 at the field scale.

  17. METHOD OF TESTING HERMETIC CONTAINERS

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1959-02-17

    A method is presented for testing hermetic containers enclosing a material capable of chemically combining with a fluid at elevated temperatures. In accordance with the invention, the container to be tested is weighed together with the material therein. The container and its contents are then immersed in the fluid and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to cause a reaction to take place between the contents and the fluid and maintained under such conditions for a definite period of time. The container and its contents are then cooled and re-weighed. The rate of change in weight is determined and utilized as an index to determine the possibility of container failure.

  18. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  19. A dynamic system for the simulation of fasting luminal pH-gradients using hydrogen carbonate buffers for dissolution testing of ionisable compounds.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Grzegorz; Ko?odziej, Bartosz; Koziolek, Mirko; Weitschies, Werner; Klein, Sandra

    2014-01-23

    The hydrogen carbonate buffer is considered as the most biorelevant buffer system for the simulation of intestinal conditions and covers the physiological pH range of the luminal fluids from pH 5.5 to about pH 8.4. The pH value of a hydrogen carbonate buffer is the result of a complex and dynamic interplay of the concentration of hydrogen carbonate ions, carbonic acid, the concentration of dissolved and solvated carbon dioxide and its partial pressure above the solution. The complex equilibrium between the different ions results in a thermodynamic instability of hydrogen carbonate solutions. In order to use hydrogen carbonate buffers with pH gradients in the physiological range and with the dynamics observed in vivo without changing the ionic strength of the solution, we developed a device (pHysio-grad) that provides both acidification of the dissolution medium by microcomputer controlled carbon dioxide influx and alkalisation by degassing. This enables a continuous pH control and adjustment during dissolution of ionisable compounds. The results of the pH adjustment indicate that the system can compensate even rapid pH changes after addition of a basic or acidic moiety in amounts corresponding up to 90% of the overall buffer capacity. The results of the dissolution tests performed for a model formulation containing ionizable compounds (Nexium 20mg mups) indicate that both the simulated fasting intraluminal pH-profiles and the buffer species can significantly affect the dissolution process by changing the lag time prior to initial drug release and the release rate of the model compound. A prediction of the in vivo release behaviour of this formulation is thus most likely strongly related to the test conditions such as pH and buffer species. PMID:24095865

  20. Measurement of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride dissolution using chloride-ion electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T; Thompson, R C; Poust, R I

    1981-11-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the suitability of using a chloride-ion electrode for the measurement of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride dissolution from commercially available compressed tablets. Dissolution experiments were carried out in 500 ml of distilled water using the USP paddle method at 100 rpm. Both chloride ion and pseudoephedrine (UV spectrophotometry) were measured at six different sampling times. Percent dissolved versus time values were linearized on a log-normal probability basis. The slopes of individual lines obtained from the chloride and pseudoephedrine measurements were compared using a Student t test and did not differ significantly (t = 0.415, df = 5, p greater than 0.05). In addition to providing an efficient, inexpensive, and simple method for measuring pseudoephedrine hydrochloride dissolution rates, the chloride-ion electrode could be used in the measurement of dissolution rates for a wide variety of drugs available as hydrochloride salts. PMID:7299681

  1. Understanding gas hydrate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, Laura; Chanton, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Ian; Martens, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    In order to understand the role gas hydrates play in climate change or their potential as an energy source, we must first understand their basic behaviors. One such behavior not well understood is their dissolution and the factors that control it. Theoretically, hydrates are stable in areas of high pressure, low temperature, moderate salt concentrations, and saturated methane. Yet in nature, we observe hydrate to outcrop seafloor sediments into overlying water that is under-saturated with respect to methane. How do these hydrates not dissolve away? To address this question, we combine both field and laboratory experiments. In the field, we have collected pore-waters directly surrounding gas hydrate outcrops and measured for in situ methane concentrations. This gives us an understanding of the concentration gradients, and thus methane flux, directly from the hydrate to the surrounding environment. From these samples, we found that methane concentrations decreased further from hydrate yet are always under-saturated with respect to methane hydrate. The resulting low methane gradients were then used to calculate low dissolution rates. This result suggests that hydrates are meta-stable in the environment. What controls their apparent meta-stability? We hypothesize that surrounding oils or microbial slimes help protect the hydrate and slow down their dissolution. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments where hydrate was formed at in situ pressure and temperature and the source gas removed; first with no oils, then with oils. Dissolved methane concentrations were then measured in surrounding fluids over time and dissolution rates calculated. To date, both methane and mixed gas hydrate (methane, ethane, and propane) have similar dissolution rates of 0.12 mM/hr. Future experiments will add oils to determine how different hydrate dissolves with such contaminants. This study will further our understanding of factors that control hydrate stability in nature.

  2. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; AJ Schmidt; EW Hoppe; KH Pool; KL Silvers; BM Thornton

    1999-01-04

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.

  3. Use of the co-grinding method to enhance the dissolution behavior of a poorly water-soluble drug: generation of solvent-free drug-polymer solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiujuan; Wang, Jing; An, Zhiqian

    2012-01-01

    The solid dispersion (SD) technique is the most effective method for improving the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present work, SDs of the Ca2+ channel blocker dipfluzine (DF) with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) and poloxamer 188 (PLXM) were prepared by the powder solid co-grinding method under a solvent-free condition. The properties of all SDs and physical mixtures were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, dissolution test, and particles size determination. Eutectic compounds were produced between the DF and PLXM matrix during the co-grinding process, whereas glass suspension formed in the SDs with PVP carrier. Hydrogen bond formation was not observed between DF and carriers and DF was microcrystalline state in the PVP and PLXM matrices. The solubility of DF in different concentration of carriers at 25, 31, and 37°C was investigated; the values obtained were used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of interaction between DF and carriers. The Gibbs free energy (ΔrGθ) values were negative, indicating the spontaneous nature of dispersing DF into the carriers. Moreover, entropy is the drive force when DF disperses into the matrix of PVP, while, enthalpy-driven dispersing encounters in the PLXM carrier. All the SDs of DF/carriers showed a considerably higher dissolution rate than pure DF and the corresponding physical mixtures. The cumulative dissolution rate at 10 min of the SD with a 1 : 3 DF/carrier ratio increased 5.1-fold for PVP and 5.5-fold for PLXM. PMID:22790815

  4. Impact of vibration and agitation speed on dissolution of USP prednisone tablets RS and various IR tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Nicole; Lange, Sigrid; Klein, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Dissolution testing is an in vitro procedure which is widely used in quality control (QC) of solid oral dosage forms and, given that real biorelevant test conditions are applied, can also be used as a predictive tool for the in vivo performance of such formulations. However, if a dissolution method is intended to be used for such purposes, it has to deliver results that are only determined by the quality of the test product, but not by other variables. In the recent past, more and more questions were arising on how to address the effects of vibration on dissolution test results. The present study was performed to screen for the correlation of prednisone dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS with vibration caused by a commercially available vibration source as well as to investigate how drug release from a range of immediate release formulations containing class 1-4 drugs of the biopharmaceutical classification scheme is affected by vibration when performing dissolution experiments at different agitation rates. Results of the present study show that the dissolution process of oral drug formulations can be affected by vibration. However, it also becomes clear that the degree of which a certain level of vibration impacts dissolution is strongly dependent on several factors such as drug properties, formulation parameters, and the design of the dissolution method. To ensure the establishment of robust and predictive dissolution test methods, the impact of variation should thus be considered in method design and validation. PMID:26104919

  5. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOEpatents

    Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  6. Development of a modified - solid dispersion in an uncommon approach of melting method facilitating properties of a swellable polymer to enhance drug dissolution.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong Ngoc-Gia; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thanh Van; Vo, Toi Van; Truong-DinhTran, Thao

    2015-04-30

    The study aimed to develop a modified-solid dispersion method using a swellable hydrophilic polymers accompanied by a conventional carrier to enhance the dissolution of a drug that possesses poor water solubility. Two swellable polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide) were swelled in melted polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) in different ratios and under different conditions. The type, amount, and, especially, incorporation method of the swellable polymers were crucial factors affecting the dissolution rate, crystallinity, and molecular interaction of the drug. Interestingly, the method in which the swellable polymer was thoroughly mixed with the melted PEG 6000 as the first step was more effective in increasing drug dissolution than the method in which the drug was introduced to the melted PEG 6000 followed by the addition of the swellable polymer. This system has potential for controlling drug release due to high swelling capabilities of these polymers. Therefore, the current study can be considered to be a promising model for formulations of controlled release systems containing solid dispersions. PMID:25735669

  7. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance testing and test methods... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods....

  8. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance testing and test methods... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods....

  9. The Relationship Between the Evolution of an Internal Structure and Drug Dissolution from Controlled-Release Matrix Tablets.

    PubMed

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Hudy, Wiktor; Mendyk, Aleksander; Juszczyk, Ewelina; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Dorożyński, Przemysław

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, imaging has been introduced as a supplementary method to the dissolution tests, but a direct relationship of dissolution and imaging data has been almost completely overlooked. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of relating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dissolution data to elucidate dissolution profile features (i.e., kinetics, kinetics changes, and variability). Commercial, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose-based quetiapine fumarate controlled-release matrix tablets were studied using the following two methods: (i) MRI inside the USP4 apparatus with subsequent machine learning-based image segmentation and (ii) dissolution testing with piecewise dissolution modeling. Obtained data were analyzed together using statistical data processing methods, including multiple linear regression. As a result, in this case, zeroth order release was found to be a consequence of internal structure evolution (interplay between region's areas-e.g., linear relationship between interface and core), which eventually resulted in core disappearance. Dry core disappearance had an impact on (i) changes in dissolution kinetics (from zeroth order to nonlinear) and (ii) an increase in variability of drug dissolution results. It can be concluded that it is feasible to parameterize changes in micro/meso morphology of hydrated, controlled release, swellable matrices using MRI to establish a causal relationship between the changes in morphology and drug dissolution. Presented results open new perspectives in practical application of combined MRI/dissolution to controlled-release drug products. PMID:26335419

  10. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR..., “Determination of Hydrogen Halide and Halogen Emissions from Stationary Sources—Isokinetic Method,” to...

  11. Enzymatic activity in the presence of surfactants commonly used in dissolution media, Part 1: Pepsin

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Maria L; Marques, Margareth R; Olivera ME, Maria E; Stippler, Erika S

    2016-01-01

    The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapters Dissolution 〈711〉 and Disintegration and Dissolution of Dietary Supplements 〈2040〉 allows the use of enzymes in dissolution media when gelatin capsules do not conform to dissolution specifications due to cross linking. Possible interactions between enzymes and surfactants when used together in dissolution media could result in loss of the enzymatic activity. Pepsin is an enzyme commonly used in dissolution media, and in this work, the activity of pepsin was determined in the presence of different surfactants as usually found in case of dissolution tests of certain gelatin capsule formulations. Pepsin enzymatic activity was determined according to the Ninth Edition of the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) 9 method, in dissolution conditions: simulated gastric fluid, 37 °C and 50 rpm. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) and octoxynol 9 (Triton X100) in concentrations above and below their critical micellar concentrations were selected. Results showed a significant reduction in the activity of pepsin at all the concentrations of SDS assayed. On the contrary, CTAB, Tween 80, and Triton X100 did not alter the enzymatic activity at of pepsin any of the concentration assayed. This data demonstrates a rational selection of the surfactant to be used when pepsin is required in dissolution test. PMID:27047734

  12. Dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 and partial separation of (226)Ra from radium/barium sulfate: A new treatment method for NORM waste from petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al Masri, M S; Amin, Yusr

    2016-01-01

    Complete dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 precipitate was successfully performed using NaNO2 as a reducing agent in acidic solution at room temperature. Results showed a significant effect of acid and NaNO2 concentrations and temperature on the dissolution efficiency. The method was successfully used for separation of radium from NORM scale samples from the petroleum industry; sufficient volume reduction of NORM waste was achieved. The obtained (226)Ra solution was purified using two separation methods. The dissolution method can be of great interest in the development of radiochemical analysis of radium isotopes. PMID:26623931

  13. A versatile pore-scale multicomponent reactive transport approach based on lattice Boltzmann method: Application to portlandite dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ravi A.; Perko, Janez; Jacques, Diederik; De Schutter, Geert; Van Breugel, Klaas; Ye, Guang

    A versatile lattice Boltzmann (LB) based pore-scale multicomponent reactive transport approach is presented in this paper. This approach is intended to capture mineral phase and pore structure evolution resulting from geochemical interactions applicable, for example to model microstructural evolution of hardened cement paste during chemical degradation. In the proposed approach heterogeneous reactions are conceptualized as pseudo-homogenous (volumetric) reactions by introducing an additional source term in the fluid node located at the interface adjacent to a solid node, and not as flux boundaries as used in previously proposed approaches. This allows a complete decoupling of transport and reaction computations, thus different reaction systems can be introduced within the LB framework through coupling with external geochemical codes. A systematic framework for coupling an external geochemical code with the LB including pore geometry evolution is presented, with the generic geochemical code PHREEQC as an example. The developed approach is validated with a set of benchmarks. A first example demonstrates the ability of the developed approach to capture the influence of pH on average portlandite dissolution rate and surface evolution. This example is further extended to illustrate the influence of reactive surface area and spatial arrangement of mineral grains on average dissolution rate. It was demonstrated that both location of mineral grains and surface area play a crucial role in determining average dissolution rate and pore structure evolution.

  14. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in...'s “2005 CDL Test System (July 2010 Version) 2005 Test Item Summary Forms,” which FMCSA has...

  15. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in...'s “2005 CDL Test System (July 2010 Version) 2005 Test Item Summary Forms,” which FMCSA has...

  16. Pore-scale simulation of coupled reactive transport and dissolution in fractures and porous media using the level set interface tracking method

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Huang; Xiaoyi Li

    2011-01-01

    A level set simulation methodology developed for modeling coupled reactive transport and structure evolution has been applied to dissolution in fracture apertures and porous media. The coupled processes such as fluid flow, reactant transport and dissolution at the solid-liquid interfaces are handled simultaneously. The reaction-induced evolution of solid-liquid interfaces is captured using the level set method, with the advantage of representing the interface with sub-grid scale resolution. The coupled processes are simulated for several geometric models of fractures and porous media under various flow conditions and reaction rates. Quantitative relationships between permeability and porosity are obtained from some of the simulation results and compared with analytical constitutive relations (i.e., the conventional cubic law and the Carman-Kozeny law) based on simplified pore space geometries and reaction induced geometric evolutions. The drastic deviation of the simulation results from these analytical theories is explained by the development of large local concentration gradients of reactants within fracture apertures and individual pores observed in the simulation results and consequently the complex geometric evolution patterns of fracture apertures and pores due to mineral dissolution. The simulation results support the argument that traditional constitutive relations based on simplified geometries and conditions have limited applicability in predicting field scale reactive transport and that incorporation of micro-scale physics is necessary.

  17. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, A. R.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-10-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO4.7H2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO4 and Na2SO4 as well as Mg(OH)2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting.

  18. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in... and provides to all State Driver Licensing Agencies. (2) The State method of generating...

  19. Development of a biphasic dissolution test for Deferasirox dispersible tablets and its application in establishing an in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Al Durdunji, Amal; AlKhatib, Hatim S; Al-Ghazawi, Mutasim

    2016-05-01

    In a biphasic dissolution medium, the integration of the in vitro dissolution of a drug in an aqueous phase and its subsequent partitioning into an organic phase is hypothesized to simulate the in vivo drug absorption. Such a methodology is expected to improve the probability of achieving a successful in vitro-in vivo correlation. Dissolution of Dispersible tablets of Deferasirox, a biopharmaceutics classification system type II compound, was studied in a biphasic dissolution medium using a flow-through dissolution apparatus coupled to a paddle apparatus. The experimental parameters associated with dissolution were optimized to discriminate between Deferasirox dispersible tablets of different formulations. The dissolution profiles obtained from this system were subsequently used to construct a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation. PMID:26898545

  20. Methods and functions: Breath tests.

    PubMed

    Braden, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Breath tests provide a valuable non-invasive diagnostic strategy to in vivo assess a variety of enzyme activities, organ functions or transport processes. Both the hydrogen breath tests and the (13)C-breath tests using the stable isotope (13)C as tracer are non-radioactive and safe, also in children and pregnancy. Hydrogen breath tests are widely used in clinical practice to explore gastrointestinal disorders. They are applied for diagnosing carbohydrate malassimilation, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and for measuring the orocecal transit time. (13)C-breath tests non-invasively monitor the metabolisation of a (13)C-labelled substrate. Depending on the choice of the substrate they enable the assessment of gastric bacterial Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric emptying, liver and pancreatic function as well as measurements of many other enzyme activities. The knowledge of potential pitfalls and influencing factors are important for correct interpretation of breath test results before drawing clinical conclusions. PMID:19505663

  1. Sandwich beam compressive test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests presented show that the sandwich beam in four-point bending could be used to obtain reliable compressive elastic constants for graphite/polyimide laminates although some difficulties were encountered measuring composite compressive strengths. Data were obtained for ultimate stress, ultimate strain, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio values in 117K, room temperature, and 589K test environments for the HTS1/PMR-15 material system. A total of 36 compressive tests on various laminates were performed. Also, 24 tensile tests on the same laminate orientations were performed to obtain input to the analytical portion of this program. A portion of the beam test section was analyzed using a linear elastic finite element computer program to predict the stress state in the graphite/polyimide composite. The influence of the honeycomb core of this stress state was analytically determined.

  2. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating

  3. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  4. Well testing apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, I.I.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes a test tool for testing a well to be run on a flexible line and anchored in a downhole receptacle having anchor means therein, the test tool being openable and closable by tensioning and relaxing the flexible line to permit and prohibit flow therethrough. The test tool consists of: tubular mandrel means having a lateral flow port near its upper end and means near its lower end engageable with the anchor means in the receptacle; tubular housing means having a lateral flow port intermediate its ends, means on its upper end for connection with a flexible line, and having its other end telescoped over the upper end portion of the tubular mandrel means for limited longitudinal movement relative thereto between upper and lower positions responsive to tensioning and relaxing the flexible line while the test tool is anchored in the downhole receptacle for opening and closing the test tool; means biasing the housing means toward its lower position relative to the mandrel means; and means on the mandrel means and the housing means coengageable for retaining the housing means in its upper position relative to the mandrel means, whereby the flexible line may be slacked when the housing means is retained in such upper position.

  5. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  6. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  7. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  8. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  9. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this...) of this section. (i) From tests conducted using EPA reference method 25d. (ii) By...

  10. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  11. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  12. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  13. Nanotechnology versus other techniques in improving drug dissolution.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kwok PC; Chan HK

    2014-01-01

    Many newly discovered drug molecules have low aqueous solubility, which results in low bioavailability. One way to improve their dissolution is to formulate them as nanoparticles, which have high specific surface areas, consequently increasing the dissolution rate and solubility. Nanoparticles can be produced via top-down or bottom-up methods. Top-down techniques such as wet milling and high pressure homogenisation involve reducing large particles to nano-sizes. Some pharmaceutical products made by these processes have been marketed. Bottom-up methods such as precipitation and controlled droplet evaporation form nanoparticles from molecules in solution. To minimise aggregation upon drying and promote redispersion of the nanoparticles upon reconstitution or administration, hydrophilic matrix formers are added to the formulation. However, the nanoparticles will eventually agglomerate together after dispersing in the liquid and hinders dissolution. Currently there is no pharmacopoeial method specified for nanoparticles. Amongst the current dissolution apparatus available for powders, the flow-through cell has been shown to be the most suitable. Regulatory and pharmacopoeial standards should be established in the future to standardise the dissolution testing of nanoparticles. More nanoparticle formulations of new hydrophobic drugs are expected to be developed in the future with the advancement of nanotechnology. However, the agglomeration problem is inherent and difficult to overcome. Thus the benefit of dissolution enhancement often cannot be fully realised. On the other hand, chemical strategies such as modifying the parent drug molecule to form a more soluble salt form, prodrug, or cyclodextrin complexation are well established and have been shown to be effective in enhancing dissolution. Thus the value of nanoformulations needs to be interpreted in the light of their limitations. Chemical approaches should also be considered in new product development.

  14. Nanotechnology versus other techniques in improving drug dissolution.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    Many newly discovered drug molecules have low aqueous solubility, which results in low bioavailability. One way to improve their dissolution is to formulate them as nanoparticles, which have high specific surface areas, consequently increasing the dissolution rate and solubility. Nanoparticles can be produced via top-down or bottom-up methods. Top-down techniques such as wet milling and high pressure homogenisation involve reducing large particles to nano-sizes. Some pharmaceutical products made by these processes have been marketed. Bottom-up methods such as precipitation and controlled droplet evaporation form nanoparticles from molecules in solution. To minimise aggregation upon drying and promote redispersion of the nanoparticles upon reconstitution or administration, hydrophilic matrix formers are added to the formulation. However, the nanoparticles will eventually agglomerate together after dispersing in the liquid and hinders dissolution. Currently there is no pharmacopoeial method specified for nanoparticles. Amongst the current dissolution apparatus available for powders, the flow-through cell has been shown to be the most suitable. Regulatory and pharmacopoeial standards should be established in the future to standardise the dissolution testing of nanoparticles. More nanoparticle formulations of new hydrophobic drugs are expected to be developed in the future with the advancement of nanotechnology. However, the agglomeration problem is inherent and difficult to overcome. Thus the benefit of dissolution enhancement often cannot be fully realised. On the other hand, chemical strategies such as modifying the parent drug molecule to form a more soluble salt form, prodrug, or cyclodextrin complexation are well established and have been shown to be effective in enhancing dissolution. Thus the value of nanoformulations needs to be interpreted in the light of their limitations. Chemical approaches should also be considered in new product development. PMID:23651399

  15. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  16. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  17. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  18. METHOD OF TESTING FOR LEAKS

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-07-22

    A method is described for detecting minute holes In fuel element jackets. The method comprises submerging the jacketed body in an atmosphere of a radioactive gas under pressure, the radioactive emanations from said gas being sufficientiy penetratIng to penetrate the jacket of the jacketed body. After the jacketed body is removed from the radtoactive gas atmosphere, it is exannined for the presence of emanations from radioactive gas which entered the jacketed body through the minute holes. In this manner, the detectton of radioactive emanations is a positive indication that the fuel element is not perfectly sealed.

  19. The biogenic content of process streams from mechanical-biological treatment plants producing solid recovered fuel. Do the manual sorting and selective dissolution determination methods correlate?

    PubMed

    Séverin, Mélanie; Velis, Costas A; Longhurst, Phil J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-07-01

    The carbon emissions trading market has created a need for standard methods for the determination of biogenic content (chi(B)) in solid recovered fuels (SRF). We compare the manual sorting (MSM) and selective dissolution methods (SDM), as amended by recent research, for a range of process streams from a mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant. The two methods provide statistically different biogenic content values, as expressed on a dry mass basis, uncorrected for ash content. However, they correlate well (r(2)>0.9) and the relative difference between them was <5% for chi(B) between 21% (w)/w(d) and 72% (w)/w(d) (uncorrected for ash content). This range includes the average SRF biogenic content of ca. 68% (w)/w(d). Methodological improvements are discussed in light of recent studies. The repeatability of the SDM is characterised by relative standard deviations on triplicates of <2.5% for the studied population. PMID:20116991

  20. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  1. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  2. Ignitability test method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Bailey, James W. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for testing ignitability of an initiator includes a body having a central cavity, an initiator holder for holding the initiator over the central cavity of the body, an ignition material holder disposed in the central cavity of the body and having a cavity facing the initiator holder which receives a measured quantity of ignition material to be ignited by the initiator. It contains a chamber in communication with the cavity of the ignition material and the central cavity of the body, and a measuring system for analyzing pressure characteristics generated by ignition of the ignition material by the initiator. The measuring system includes at least one transducer coupled with an oscillograph for recording pressure traces generated by ignition.

  3. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section...

  4. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... standard shall be determined by the average of three consecutive runs or by the average of any three of... operations. (3) Compliance is achieved if either the average collection efficiency as determined by the...

  6. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved. PMID:23427555

  7. Evaluation of a three compartment in vitro gastrointestinal simulator dissolution apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-11-01

    In vitro dissolution tests are performed for new formulations to evaluate in vivo performance, which is affected by the change of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, in the GI tract. Thus, those environmental changes should be introduced to an in vitro dissolution test. Many studies have successfully shown the improvement of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) by introducing those physiological changes into dissolution tests. The gastrointestinal simulator (GIS), a multicompartment in vitro dissolution apparatus, was developed to evaluate in vivo drug dissolution. A gastric-emptying rate along with transit rate are key factors to evaluate in vivo drug dissolution and, hence, drug absorption. Dissolution tests with the GIS were performed with Biopharmaceutical Classification System class I drugs at five different gastric-emptying rates in the fasted state. Computational models were used to determine in vivo gastric-emptying time for propranolol and metoprolol based on the GIS dissolution results. Those were compared with published clinical data to determine the gastric half-emptying time. In conclusion, the GIS is a practical tool to assess dissolution properties and can improve IVIVC. PMID:25251982

  8. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  9. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  10. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  11. Implication of Carbonate Dissolution Dynamics based on Multifractality of microstrures on Rock Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuyun; He, Zhiliang; Fang, Yang; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Dianwei; Bao, Zhengyu

    2015-04-01

    It is of great significance to study the dissolution kinetics of carbonate rocks for evaluating the microstructures of the rocks and the potential of the reservoir. Dissolution potential and the effects of carbonate dissolution rates can be evaluated from quantitative descriptions of geomographical rock surface roughness. And the carbonate dissolution difference can be quantitaively characterized by the multifractality of element distribution patterns on thin-section surfaces. The present study therefore aimed to apply the method of moments to obtain multifractal parameters to measure dissolute carbonate rock surface roughness and the element distribution patterns on thin-sections, and then to assess the dissolution degree of different rock samples. Based on the interpretation of grey scales of ESEM micro-topographic shadows, this new procedure is primarily designed for use in the analysis of rock surface geometry after acid dissolution. The principle is based on the direct relationship between rock surface roughness and the shadows cast by rock micro-structures under fixed color conditions. The parameters obtained with multifractal analysis were compared to the dissolution rates of the carbonate rocks based on dynamic dissolution experiments. The tests were conducted on carbonate rocks collected from Sichuan and Xinjian Basins from China and their ESEM photographs before and after the chemical dissolution. The highly significant correlation between the rough surface multifractality and the dissolution rate shows well that rock surface geometry may affect the dissolution processes to a certain degree. The fractal and multifractal analysis indicates that the dissolution process is controlled by differences between the element distribution heterogeneity of Ca,Mg and Si. The reaction surface heterogeneity of oolitic limestone with high Ca content and low Mg content is weak, while the heterogeneity of oolitic dolomite with low Ca content and high Mg content is strong. Additionally, large difference of composition, strong heterogeneity of elements distribution can promote the dissolution reaction. Such kind of study may provide new insights into the study of carbonate dissolution dynamics and will be helpful for carbonate reservoir assessment.

  12. Comparison of X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance in estimating crystalline fraction of tacrolimus in sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion and development of discriminating dissolution method.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Bykadi, Srikant; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-05-01

    The focus of present investigation was to explore X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques for amorphous and crystalline tacrolimus quantification in the sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), and to propose discriminating dissolution method that can detect crystalline drug. The ASD and crystalline physical mixture was mixed in various proportions to make sample matrices containing 0%-100% crystalline-amorphous tacrolimus. Partial-least-square regression and principle component regression were applied to the spectral data. Dissolution of the ASD in the US FDA recommended dissolution medium with and without surfactant was performed. R(2) > 0.99 and slope was close to one for all the models. Root-mean-square of prediction, standard error of prediction, and bias were higher in ssNMR-based models when compared with XRPD data models. Dissolution of the ASD decreased with an increase in the crystalline tacrolimus in the formulations. Furthermore, detection of crystalline tacrolimus in the ASD was progressively masked with an increase in the surfactant level in the dissolution medium. XRPD and ssNMR can be used equally to quantitate the crystalline and amorphous fraction of tacrolimus in the ASD with good accuracy; however, ssNMR data collection time is excessively long, and minimum surfactant level in the dissolution medium maximizes detection of crystalline reversion in the formulation. PMID:25753829

  13. Validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, L H; Carr, G J; Curren, R D; Chamberlain, M

    1998-01-01

    Before nonanimal toxicity tests may be officially accepted by regulatory agencies, it is generally agreed that the validity of the new methods must be demonstrated in an independent, scientifically sound validation program. Validation has been defined as the demonstration of the reliability and relevance of a test method for a particular purpose. This paper provides a brief review of the development of the theoretical aspects of the validation process and updates current thinking about objectively testing the performance of an alternative method in a validation study. Validation of alternative methods for eye irritation testing is a specific example illustrating important concepts. Although discussion focuses on the validation of alternative methods intended to replace current in vivo toxicity tests, the procedures can be used to assess the performance of alternative methods intended for other uses. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599695

  14. Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization and In-vitro Dissolution Studies of Diosmin-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Fengwei; Ma, Yingli; Wang, Jiayu; Li, Yanfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diosmin, a vascular-protecting agent, is practically insoluble in water, and its oral absorption is limited by its extremely low dissolution rate. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were obtained to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of diosmin. Phase solubility studies of diosmin with βCD and HPβCD in distilled water were conducted to characterize the complexes in liquid state. The solid-state characterization of the complexes prepared with different methods was performed by fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy analyses, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dissolution studies were carried out in distilled water using US pharmacopeia dissolution rate testing equipment. The complexation of diosmin with βCD and HPβCD both indicated an AL type of phase-solubility diagrams, and the apparent stability constants (Kc) was found to be 222.13 and 200.08 M−1, respectively. The Kc values indicated the βCD and HPβCD showed the similar equal complexation ability with diosmin, HPβCD provided higher solubility for diosmin due to its higher water solubility. The dissolution studies suggest that the inclusion complexes provide higher dissolution rate compared with the physical mixtures and the drug alone. Furthermore, the inclusion complex prepared by freeze drying method presented higher dissolution rate than kneading method. PMID:25587299

  15. PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…

  16. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary Lead Smelting § 63.547 Test methods. (a) The following test methods... determine compliance with the emission standards for lead compounds under §§ 63.543(a), 63.544 (c), and (d... lead compound emission standards. The minimum sample volume shall be 0.85 dry standard cubic meters...

  17. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...

  18. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...

  19. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above the underside of the...

  20. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above the underside of the...

  1. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...

  2. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above the underside of the...

  3. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...

  4. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above the underside of the...

  5. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...

  6. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...

  7. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above the underside of the...

  8. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...

  9. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  10. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  11. Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.

  12. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of...

  13. FIP position paper on qualification of paddle and basket dissolution apparatus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cynthia K; Buhse, Lucinda; Friedel, Horst-Dieter; Keitel, Susanne; Kraemer, Johannes; Morris, J Michael; Stickelmeyer, Mary; Yomota, Chikako; Shah, Vinod P

    2009-01-01

    The qualification process for ensuring that a paddle or basket apparatus is suitable for its intended use is a highly debated and controversial topic. Different instrument qualification and suitability methods have been proposed by the pharmacopeias and regulatory bodies. In an effort to internationally harmonize dissolution apparatus suitability requirements, the International Pharmaceutical Federation's (FIP) Dissolution/Drug Release Special Interest Group (SIG) reviewed current instrument suitability requirements listed in the US, European, and Japanese pharmacopeias and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Topic Q4B on harmonization of pharmacopoeial methods, in its Annex 7, Dissolution Test General. In addition, the SIG reviewed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Draft Guidance for Industry, "The Use of Mechanical Calibration of Dissolution Apparatus 1 and 2-Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP)" and the related ASTM Standard E2503-07. Based on this review and several in-depth discussions, the FIP Dissolution/Drug Release SIG recommends that the qualification of a dissolution test instrument should be performed following the calibration requirements as indicated in the FDA (draft) guidance. If additional system performance information is desired, a performance verification test using US Pharmacopeia Reference Standard tablet or an established in-house reference product can be conducted. Any strict requirement on the use of a specific performance verification test tablet is not recommended at this time. PMID:19609681

  14. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  15. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO{sub 2} in contact with small volumes of water within a several month period when the radiolysis product H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is added to the groundwater solution. The test setup has been mocked up for operation with spent fuel in the hot-cell.

  16. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  17. Absorbing Software Testing into the Scrum Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomikoski, Janne; Tervonen, Ilkka

    In this paper we study, how to absorb software testing into the Scrum method. We conducted the research as an action research during the years 2007-2008 with three iterations. The result showed that testing can and even should be absorbed to the Scrum method. The testing team was merged into the Scrum teams. The teams can now deliver better working software in a shorter time, because testing keeps track of the progress of the development. Also the team spirit is higher, because the Scrum team members are committed to the same goal. The biggest change from test manager’s point of view was the organized Product Owner Team. Test manager don’t have testing team anymore, and in the future all the testing tasks have to be assigned through the Product Backlog.

  18. [Development and application of six-channel fiber optic sensing drug dissolution monitor].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Shen, Jing; Li, Li; Li, Xin-Xia; Chen, Jian

    2014-09-01

    The drug dissolution test is an important examination of drug testing, which plays a very important role in the drug quality assessment. Automation and proceduring monitoring of drug dissolution can be implemented by the optical fiber sensing technology. Two modes of detection of UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence quenching were established by software implementation, with xenon lamp, deuterium lamp or halogen tungsten lamp as fluorescence, UV and visible light source, branch Y type optical fiber as light path transmission medium, UV-Vis probe and fluorescence molecular probe as light response devices, and CCD as detector. Optical fiber sensing drug dissolution monitor not only solves the current problems of time-consuming, and sampling of off-line analysis, but also provides real-time information of drug dissolution process. Thus, our study may provide a better evaluation method for the drug quality control. PMID:25532369

  19. SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied. PMID:25051629

  20. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, Patrick M.; Merten, Jr., Charles W.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament.

  1. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, P.M.; Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament. 2 figs.

  2. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790

  3. Synthesis and characterization of [BMIM]bromide using microwave-assisted organic synthesis method and its application for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Arianie, Lucy; Wahyuningrum, Deana Nurrachman, Zeily Natalia, Dessy

    2014-03-24

    The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch is crucial for the next application of cellulose as raw material for various biofuel and its derivatives. The aim of this research is to decrease the cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbromide or [BMIM] bromide which has been synthesized using Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. Conventional reaction method has also been carried out to synthesize [BMIM]bromide for comparison as well. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. The results showed that MAOS method is up to 90% faster in producing [BMIM]bromide compare to the conventional method. The application of [BMIM]bromide for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch showed that cellulose and lignin could be extracted using stirring process for 20 hours. The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index and its morphology changes were identified using FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscope.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of [BMIM]bromide using microwave-assisted organic synthesis method and its application for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianie, Lucy; Wahyuningrum, Deana; Nurrachman, Zeily; Natalia, Dessy

    2014-03-01

    The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch is crucial for the next application of cellulose as raw material for various biofuel and its derivatives. The aim of this research is to decrease the cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbromide or [BMIM] bromide which has been synthesized using Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. Conventional reaction method has also been carried out to synthesize [BMIM]bromide for comparison as well. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. The results showed that MAOS method is up to 90% faster in producing [BMIM]bromide compare to the conventional method. The application of [BMIM]bromide for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch showed that cellulose and lignin could be extracted using stirring process for 20 hours. The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index and its morphology changes were identified using FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscope.

  5. A novel determination of calcite dissolution kinetics in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, Adam V.; Rollins, Nick E.; Berelson, William M.; Dong, Sijia; Erez, Jonathan; Adkins, Jess F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel determination of the dissolution kinetics of inorganic calcite in seawater. We dissolved 13 C -labeled calcite in unlabeled seawater, and traced the evolving δ13 C composition of the fluid over time to establish dissolution rates. This method provides sensitive determinations of dissolution rate, which we couple with tight constraints on both seawater saturation state and surface area of the dissolving minerals. We have determined dissolution rates for two different abiotic calcite materials and three different grain sizes. Near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, and are well normalized by geometric surface area, giving an empirical dissolution rate dependence on saturation state (Ω) of: This result substantiates the non-linear response of calcite dissolution to undersaturation. The bulk dissolution rate constant calculated here is in excellent agreement with those determined in far from equilibrium and dilute solution experiments. Plots of dissolution versus undersaturation indicates the presence of at least two dissolution mechanisms, implying a criticality in the calcite-seawater system. Finally, our new rate determination has implications for modeling of pelagic and seafloor dissolution. Nonlinear dissolution kinetics in a simple 1-D lysocline model indicate a possible transition from kinetic to diffusive control with increasing water depth, and also confirm the importance of respiration-driven dissolution in setting the shape of the calcite lysocline.

  6. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Tracie Lee

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum alloys when compared with published experimental results. The influence of inter-particle spacing is examined and shown to have a significant effect on dissolution kinetics. Finally, the impact of multiple particles of various sizes interacting in an aluminum matrix is investigated. It is shown that smaller particles dissolve faster, as expected, but influence the dissolution of larger particles through soft-impingement, even after the smaller particles have disappeared.

  7. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests...

  8. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  9. Chlorhexidine gel associated with papain in pulp tissue dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Couto De Oliveira, Gabriel; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Andrade Júnior, Carlos Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with 8% papain gel in comparison with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. Materials and Methods Ninety bovine pulps of standardized sizes were used and fragmented into 5-mm sizes. The fragments were removed from the root middle third region. They were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 15), 1) 8% papain; 2) 2% chlorhexidine; 3) 2% chlorhexidine associated with 8% papain; 4) 0.9% saline solution; 5) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; and 6) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. The pulp fragments were weighed and put into immobile test tubes for dissolution for time intervals of 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results The 5.25% sodium hypochlorite had greater dissolution potential than the pure papain, and when associated with chlorhexidine, both promoted greater dissolution than did the saline solution and 2% chlorhexidine groups (p < 0.05). The 2.5% sodium hypochlorite promoted dissolution to a lesser extent than the groups with papain within a period of 30 min (p < 0.05), but, was comparable to the saline solution and chlorhexidine. After 120 min, the 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite promoted dissolution of 100% of the pulp fragments, and papain, 61%, while chlorhexidine associated with papain and chlorhexidine alone dissolved only 55% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions The 8% papain in gel, both alone and in association with chlorhexidine, was able to dissolve bovine pulp tissue, but to a lesser extent than did 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. PMID:24303355

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamical model for spent fuel dissolution rate

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    A non-equilibrium thermodynamic model is developed for the dissolution response of uranium oxide spent fuels waste forms. The objective is to derive function forms for the dissolution rate that are consistent with quasi-static, irreversible thermodynamic processes. These function forms contain thermodynamic chemical potentials of both the solid (spent fuels) and the solution (water chemistries) along with a set of coefficients and parameters that can be evaluated by numerical regression of dissolution test data. Currently, detailed knowledge is not available for the atomic (mechanistic) steps and the sequence of chemical/electro-chemical reaction steps to describe the dissolution process over the range of spent fuel inventory, potential water chemistries, and temperatures. The existing approach is obtaining an experimental data base of dissolution rates for a subset of spent fuels over a range of controlled, aggressive water chemistries and temperatures. With a numerical regression algorithm, these data are used to evaluate empirical parameters in a rate law. The function form of this rate law is a product polynomial of the bulk water chemistry concentrations and temperature. In its present form, this function form does not have an explicit thermodynamic dependence on the uranium oxide waste form. In addition, the use of bulk concentrations in the function form for the regression analysis of the dissolution data would not explicitly account for a dependence from possible surface to bulk concentration differences due to surface adsorption and dipole layers. The following thermodynamic model uses analysis methods and physical concepts taken primarily from classical mechanics, colloidal foundations, thermodynamics, electro-chemistry, and geochemistry.

  11. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  12. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods.

    PubMed

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion and the bacterial density cannot be estimated separately, not even in a multiple dilution experiment. Only the product can be estimated, changing the interpretation of the most probable number estimator. The asymptotic power of the likelihood ratio statistic for comparing an alternative method with the compendial method, is optimal for a single dilution experiment. The bacterial density should either be close to two CFUs per test unit or equal to zero, depending on differences in the model parameters between the two test methods. The proposed strategy for method validation is to use these two dilutions and test for differences in the two model parameters, addressing the validation parameters specificity and accuracy. Robustness of these two parameters might still be required, but all other validation parameters can be omitted. A confidence interval-based approach for the ratio of the detection proportions for the two methods is recommended, since it is most informative and close to the power of the likelihood ratio test. PMID:25412584

  13. Nondestructive test methods for structural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegman, Raymond F.

    This publication sets forth the fundamental concepts of nondestructive testing for composite materials and lists the testing methods that can be employed during the production and in-service periods. The volume describes composite materials generally including reinforcement materials, matrices, solid laminates, and sandwich construction. The availability and limitations of NDT methods are examined encompassing visual and optical techniques such as microscopy and holography, ultrasonic NDT, and acoustic emission techniques. Specific treatment is given to vibrothermography, mechanical impedance, and radiographic methods such as fluoroscopic, neutron, and gamma radiography. The NDT methods are shown to have applications during the fabrication of solid laminates, during cure monitoring and sandwich construction, and for the evaluation of a wide range of end products. Also detailed are novel techniques for the testing of incoming materials, in-process NDT, and the evaluation of composite structures with acoustoultrasonics.

  14. Thermal insulation testing method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a desired warm temperature. The first surface is maintained at a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.

  15. Thermal Insulation Testing Method and Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.

  16. Uranium dioxide dissolution under acidic aqueous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, S.A.; Mones, E.T.

    1995-11-20

    Understanding of the long-term dissolution of waste forms in groundwater is required for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste in a geologic repository, because waste-form radionuclides could be released by dissolution and transported in groundwater. The dissolution of the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) matrix in spent nuclear fuel is considered the rate-limiting step for release of radioactive fission products. The intrinsic UO{sub 2} dissolution rate sets an upper limit on the aqueous radionuclide release rate. Unsaturated spent fuel tests have shown that pH`s of leachates have decreased to a range of 4 to 6, presumably due to air radiolysis that oxidizes nitrogen, producing nitric acid. Dissolution rates under such acidic conditions may be different than those previously reported for alkaline groundwater conditions. No dissolution rate measurements of UO{sub 2} or spent fuel have been reported for acidic conditions possibly relevant to a geologic repository. The purpose of our work has been to measure the intrinsic dissolution rates of uranium dioxide under acidic conditions that are relevant to a repository and allow for modeling. Experiments have been completed at room-temperature and 75 C, pH`s of 4 and 6, and air and oxygen saturated aqueous solutions. These are compared with earlier work on spent fuel and UO{sub 2} using alkaline solutions.

  17. Formal methods for test case generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.

  18. The dilemma of disappearing diatoms: Incorporating diatom dissolution data into palaeoenvironmental modelling and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryves, David B.; Battarbee, Richard W.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.

    2009-01-01

    Taphonomic issues pose fundamental challenges for Quaternary scientists to recover environmental signals from biological proxies and make accurate inferences of past environments. The problem of microfossil preservation, specifically diatom dissolution, remains an important, but often overlooked, source of error in both qualitative and quantitative reconstructions of key variables from fossil samples, especially those using relative abundance data. A first step to tackling this complex issue is establishing an objective method of assessing preservation (here, diatom dissolution) that can be applied by different analysts and incorporated into routine counting strategies. Here, we establish a methodology for assessment of diatom dissolution under standard light microscopy (LM) illustrated with morphological criteria for a range of major diatom valve shapes. Dissolution data can be applied to numerical models (transfer functions) from contemporary samples, and to fossil material to aid interpretation of stratigraphic profiles and taphonomic pathways of individual taxa. Using a surface sediment diatom-salinity training set from the Northern Great Plains (NGP) as an example, we explore a variety of approaches to include dissolution data in salinity inference models indirectly and directly. Results show that dissolution data can improve models, with apparent dissolution-adjusted error (RMSE) up to 15% lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Internal validation suggests improvements are more modest, with bootstrapped prediction errors (RMSEP) up to 10% lower. When tested on a short core from Devils Lake, North Dakota, which has a historical record of salinity, dissolution-adjusted models infer higher values compared to unadjusted models during peak salinity of the 1930s-1940s Dust Bowl but nonetheless significantly underestimate peak values. Site-specific factors at Devils Lake associated with effects of lake level change on taphonomy (preservation and re-working, implied by dissolution data) may override model improvements incorporating dissolution. Dissolution-adjusted salinity models are also applied to a 150-year sediment record from Spiritwood Lake, North Dakota, which suggests that this lake has a damped and lagged response to major regional climate forcing of salinity during the Dust Bowl. At this site, dissolution data also suggest different taphonomic behaviour of taxa related to their seasonal patterns of growth and sedimentation. Thus, dissolution data can improve models, and aid interpretation of sedimentary profiles as records of limnological, ecological and environmental change, filtered by taphonomy.

  19. Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

  20. CHROMagar Salmonella Detection Test Kit. Performance Tested Method 020502.

    PubMed

    Webb, Katana; Ritter, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures. PMID:20166616

  1. Re-evaluation of in vitro dissolution techniques for supersaturating drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Saumitra; Mukherjee, Tusharmouli; Plakogiannis, Fotios

    2012-01-01

    Conventional dissolution testing using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was evaluated against fiber optic dissolution method for studying supersaturable drug delivery systems. Two self-microemulsifying (SME) formulations of albendazole (ABZ) (15 mg/capsule and 5 mg/capsule) were prepared. Dissolution study was performed in medium with pH 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4. Samples were analyzed simultaneously by HPLC and online fiber optic dissolution system. For 15 mg/capsule formulation, the profiles obtained using HPLC data showed almost 80-100% releases at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4, whereas fiber optic data showed less than 40% release at the end of 60 min. The observed precipitation was due to pH-dependent solubility of ABZ in water and data analysis revealed a supersaturation phenomenon. This difference in release profiles was due to the presence of oil and water phase in the dissolution sample that upon dilution with high organic mobile phase resulted in quantification of the total drug and not the dissolved drug. The 5 mg/capsule formulation showed no difference in release profiles between methods as the concentration was under the saturation solubility. These results pointed out a considerable error in the development of a complex SME formulation, and use of fiber optic dissolution method was found beneficial. PMID:21284575

  2. Dissolution properties and physical characterization of telmisartan-chitosan solid dispersions prepared by mechanochemical activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin; Zhu, Xingyi; Luo, Xiaofang; Su, Weike

    2013-06-01

    Solid dispersion systems of telmisartan (a poorly water-soluble antihypertension drug) with biopolymer carrier chitosan have been investigated in this study. The mechanism of solubilization of chitosan for drug has been studied. In addition, the influence of several factors was carefully examined, including the preparation methods, the drug/carrier weight ratios, and the milling time. Drug dissolution and physical characterization of different binary systems were studied by in vitro dissolution test, particle size distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results presented that the weak basic property of chitosan appeared as the main driving force for the drug dissolution enhancement. Other effects such as decreased drug crystallinity and size played a positive contributory role. Among the preparation methods, cogrinding was the best method showing strong drug amorphization, reduced particle size, and enhanced dissolution. The drug dissolution markedly improved with increasing the amount of chitosan in solid mixtures. As a result, a significant effect of chitosan increasing telmisartan dissolution has been demonstrated, and cogrinding in a roll ball mill was the best way to prepare solid dispersions, which had high degree of uniformity in drug content and had a practical application in manufacturing. PMID:23430728

  3. Development of test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.

  4. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  5. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  6. Calcite saturation, foraminiferal test mass, and Mg/Ca-based temperatures dissolution corrected using XDX—A 150 ka record from the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Heather J. H.; Kiefer, Thorsten; Elderfield, Henry; Schulz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    record of deep-sea calcite saturation >(Δ>[CO 32->]>), derived from X-ray computed tomography-based foraminifer dissolution index, XDX, was constructed for the past 150 ka for a core from the deep (4157 m) tropical western Indian Ocean. G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei recorded a similar dissolution history, consistent with the process of calcite compensation. Peaks in calcite saturation (˜15 µmol/kg higher than the present-day value) occurred during deglaciations and early in MIS 3. Dissolution maxima coincided with transitions to colder stages. The mass record of G. sacculifer better indicated preservation than did that of N. dutertrei or G. ruber. Dissolution-corrected Mg/Ca-derived SST records, like other SST records from marginal Indian Ocean sites, showed coolest temperatures of the last 150 ka in early MIS 3, when mixed layer temperatures were ˜4°C lower than present SST. Temperatures recorded by N. dutertrei showed the thermocline to be ˜4°C colder in MIS 3 compared to the Holocene (8 ka B.P.).

  7. The effect of calcination temperature on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based composite nanotubes prepared by an in situ template dissolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiajie; Zhao, Li; Yu, Jiaguo; Liu, Gang

    2012-09-01

    TiO2-based composite nanotubes, based on an in situ template dissolution method, were one-step fabricated in a mixed aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid using ZnO nanorods as templates, and then the samples were calcined at different temperatures. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decoloration of Methyl Orange (MO) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under UV light. The results showed that the prepared sample possessed nanoscale tubular morphology with a wall thickness of ca. 30-50 nm, inner diameters of ca. 50-150 nm and lengths of ca. 400-2000 nm. The calcined samples exhibited excellent stabilization of the anatase phase in a wide temperature range of 300-800 °C. The un-calcined and calcined samples possessed hierarchically macro-mesoporous structures. The sample calcined at 600 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, corresponding to the maximal formation rate of \\z.rad OH on the photocatalyst. This is attributed to the improvement of anatase TiO2 crystallization, the formation of multi-phase structures including anatase, cubic Zn2TiO4, hexagonal ZnTiO3 and cubic ZnTiO3, and the presence of hierarchically macro-mesoporous structures.

  8. Dissolution of two-phase microsystems: Gas and liquid microparticle dissolution and dehydration of biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Phillip Brent

    A main focus of this research is to develop techniques to study the dissolution process of two-phase microsystems on a single microparticle basis. This dissertation introduces a systematic approach to investigate the formation of microparticles to fulfill the need for rational design of microspheres for a range of applications. This novel method is based on the micropipet manipulation technique and can essentially test any system, where the continuous phase is a liquid and the dispersed phase is practically any phase, a gas (foam), a liquid (emulsion), or a solid (suspension). It is possible to study single microparticle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter scale, which is on the same size-scale as particles created in bulk suspensions, microsphere processes, and applications. The ability to create, isolate, observe, and manipulate individual gas, liquid or solid microparticles in a well-defined and controlled liquid environment was found to be ideal to study gas microbubbles and microparticles, liquid microdroplets, and the dehydration of dissolved solutes. Subsequently, one can directly measure the dissolution rate and, when a solute is present, calculate its concentration during the dissolution process. Microbubble or microdroplet dissolution in a second phase is driven by two independent factors, a concentration gradient (undersaturation of the dispersed phase in the continuous phase) and a pressure gradient (due to the Laplace-overpressure inside the microparticle created by the surface tension). Experimentally, each of these driving forces can be independently tested. Both the gas microparticle and pure liquid microdroplet dissolution can be predicted by a simple theory based on the diffusion coefficient and solubility limit of the dispersed phase in the continuous phase. The dehydration of a salt ion solution microdroplet results in the nucleation and growth of a crystal, while the dehydration of proteins leads to glassification of the protein. The water remaining in the glassified protein microsphere is on the order of a water monolayer surrounding each protein molecule. Both observation and measurement of dehydration within a single microdroplet is the basis to understanding microparticle formation for use in drug delivery systems and biomolecule preservation.

  9. Prediction of dissolution profiles by non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy in tablets subjected to different levels of strain.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Eduardo; Pawar, Pallavi; Keyvan, Golshid; Wang, Yifan; Velez, Natasha; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Muzzio, Fernando J; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-01-01

    This study describes how the strain on formulation components affects dissolution and how near infrared spectroscopy can be used to predict dissolution. Strain (exposure to shear stress) applied during powder mixing affects the interaction between formulation components. Particles experience shear strain when they move relative to each other in a process affecting the properties of the final product. This stress affects the dissolution of oral solid dosages forms. However, dissolution testing destroys the entire tablet, making it impossible to further evaluate tablet properties when an out of specification result is obtained. Thus, a nondestructive technique such as near infrared spectroscopy is desirable to predict dissolution. The aim of this study was to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain (shear) using near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. Shear was induced using a modified Couette cell on the powder mixture and tablets from these mixtures were produced using a tablet press emulator. Tablets produced with different strain levels were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained in diffuse reflectance mode and pretreated with baseline correction to maintain the physical and chemical information of the tablets. Dissolution profiles were obtained using USP Apparatus 2 as a reference method. Principal component analysis was used to study the sources of variation in the spectra obtained. Partial least squares 2 was used to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain. PMID:26604167

  10. Drug-testing methods and clinical interpretations of test results.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B M

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper, major issues related to drug testing are discussed. For example, drug-testing techniques measure the presence of a drug or drugs but are not sophisticated enough to measure impairment from drug use. Moreover, it is difficult to determine the route of drug administration, quantity or frequency, as well as when the drug was taken, on the basis of the laboratory results. Selection of the drug to be tested should depend on the local availability of the drug, its abuse potential and clinical effects, as well as on the availability of analytical technology and expertise in testing and in interpreting laboratory results. The most sophisticated drug-testing approach is gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which is regarded as a "gold standard"; it is used in confirmatory testing. Typically, GC/MS is preceded by a rapid immunoassay method to eliminate the majority of the "negative" samples. Despite the existence of sophisticated drug-testing methods, it is still possible to obtain incorrect test results. Such results may be caused by the presence of interfering substances or adulteration of the urine sample. A number of techniques can be employed to reduce the likelihood of obtaining erroneous results and to detect adulterated urine samples. A "positive" drug finding can have a serious impact on the livelihood of an individual, therefore, persons conducting such tests should adhere to the strictest standards of laboratory performance. Only qualified and experienced individuals with proper laboratory equipment should perform these analyses. The standards of laboratory performance must meet local legal and forensic requirements. Access to patient samples and laboratory records must be restricted in order to prevent the tampering of samples and results. In order to maintain confidentiality, the results must be communicated only to the medical review officer. Chain-of-custody documents and all file so that they can be examined in case of a legal challenge. The laboratory must have a complete record on quality control. Finally, specific initial and confirmatory testing requirements should be met. PMID:7920539

  11. Dimensionality reduction, and function approximation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) micro- and nanoparticle dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Varun Kumar; Jackowski, Konrad; Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) micro- and nanoparticles’ dissolution rates plays a significant role in pharmaceutical and medical industries. The prediction of PLGA dissolution rate is crucial for drug manufacturing. Therefore, a model that predicts the PLGA dissolution rate could be beneficial. PLGA dissolution is influenced by numerous factors (features), and counting the known features leads to a dataset with 300 features. This large number of features and high redundancy within the dataset makes the prediction task very difficult and inaccurate. In this study, dimensionality reduction techniques were applied in order to simplify the task and eliminate irrelevant and redundant features. A heterogeneous pool of several regression algorithms were independently tested and evaluated. In addition, several ensemble methods were tested in order to improve the accuracy of prediction. The empirical results revealed that the proposed evolutionary weighted ensemble method offered the lowest margin of error and significantly outperformed the individual algorithms and the other ensemble techniques. PMID:25709436

  12. Methods to Test Visual Attention Online

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Amanda; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Dale, Gillian; Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Online data collection methods have particular appeal to behavioral scientists because they offer the promise of much larger and much more representative data samples than can typically be collected on college campuses. However, before such methods can be widely adopted, a number of technological challenges must be overcome – in particular in experiments where tight control over stimulus properties is necessary. Here we present methods for collecting performance data on two tests of visual attention. Both tests require control over the visual angle of the stimuli (which in turn requires knowledge of the viewing distance, monitor size, screen resolution, etc.) and the timing of the stimuli (as the tests involve either briefly flashed stimuli or stimuli that move at specific rates). Data collected on these tests from over 1700 online participants were consistent with data collected in laboratory-based versions of the exact same tests. These results suggest that with proper care, timing/stimulus size dependent tasks can be deployed in web-based settings. PMID:25741746

  13. IMPROVED TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a fractional filtration efficiency test protocol for residential electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that avoids the limitations of the ASHRAE 52.2 method. Specifically, the objectives were to a) determine the change in efficiency that ...

  14. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 63.547 Section 63.547 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary...

  15. Equated Pooled Booklet Method in DIF Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Chen, Peihua; Qian, Jiahe; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is an important step in the data analysis of large-scale testing programs. Nowadays, many such programs endorse matrix sampling designs to reduce the load on examinees, such as the balanced incomplete block (BIB) design. These designs pose challenges to the traditional DIF analysis methods. For example,…

  16. Nondestructive test method accurately sorts mixed bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezeih, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis method sorts copper plated steel bolts from nickel plated steel bolts. Copper and nickel plated steel bolt specimens of the same configuration are irradiated with thermal neutrons in a test reactor for a short time. After thermal neutron irradiation, the bolts are analyzed using scintillation energy readout equipment.

  17. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  18. ``Retests'': A better method of test corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Physics instructors at all levels employ a variety of techniques to encourage students to reflect on and correct mistakes made on quizzes, unit tests, or exams. A thorough analysis of several methods was recently published in these pages that compared several variations of quiz corrections in college courses. One common method is to have students rewrite the solutions to the questions or problems that they missed, with the goal of earning some part of the missed points. While this method is helpful for some students, it often discourages students with already decent grades to reflect on their work. I use a method called "retesting" with my AP® Physics C students that I learned from my high school geometry teacher, Bill Kramer. I feel his clever method offers significant advantages over more traditional approaches.

  19. Methods and instruments for materials testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansma, Paul (Inventor); Drake, Barney (Inventor); Rehn, Douglas (Inventor); Adams, Jonathan (Inventor); Lulejian, Jason (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and instruments for characterizing a material, such as the properties of bone in a living human subject, using a test probe constructed for insertion into the material and a reference probe aligned with the test probe in a housing. The housing is hand held or placed so that the reference probe contacts the surface of the material under pressure applied either by hand or by the weight of the housing. The test probe is inserted into the material to indent the material while maintaining the reference probe substantially under the hand pressure or weight of the housing allowing evaluation of a property of the material related to indentation of the material by the probe. Force can be generated by a voice coil in a magnet structure to the end of which the test probe is connected and supported in the magnet structure by a flexure, opposing flexures, a linear translation stage, or a linear bearing. Optionally, a measurement unit containing the test probe and reference probe is connected to a base unit with a wireless connection, allowing in the field material testing.

  20. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOEpatents

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  1. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance Tested Method 060401.

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. A previous AOAC Performance Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. In this Emergency Response Validation extension, creamy peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser. Typhimurium. For low contamination level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.5 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method. For high-level and uninoculated control there was 100% agreement between the methods. PMID:20166612

  2. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented.

  3. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  4. Test Simulation using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. B.; Abdullah, S.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic responses of the standard Charpy impact machine are experimentally studied using the relevant data acquisition system, for the purpose of obtaining the impact response. For this reason, the numerical analysis by means of the finite element method has been used for experiment findings. Modelling of the charpy test was performed in order to obtain strain in the striker during the test. Two types of standard charpy specimens fabricated from different materials, i.e. aluminium 6061 and low carbon steel 1050, were used for the impact simulation testing. The related parameters on between different materials, energy absorbed, strain signal, power spectrum density (PSD) and the relationship between those parameters was finally correlated and discussed.

  5. Regolith simulant preparation methods for hardware testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouache, Thibault P.; Brunskill, Christopher; Scott, Gregory P.; Gao, Yang; Coste, Pierre; Gourinat, Yves

    2010-12-01

    To qualify hardware for space flight, great care is taken to replicate the environment encountered in space. Emphasis is focused on presenting the hardware with the most extreme conditions it might encounter during its mission lifetime. The same care should be taken when regolith simulants are prepared to test space system performance. Indeed, the manner a granular material is prepared can have a very high influence on its mechanical properties and on the performance of the system interacting with it. Three regolith simulant preparation methods have been tested and are presented here (rain, pour, vibrate). They should enable researchers and hardware developers to test their prototypes in controlled and repeatable conditions. The pour and vibrate techniques are robust but only allow reaching a given relative density. The rain technique allows reaching a variety of relative densities but can be less robust if manually controlled.

  6. Enhanced dissolution and stability of Tanshinone IIA base by solid dispersion system with nano-hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan-rong; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Huang, Sai-yan; Lu, Yan; Ma, Tian-tian; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) exhibits a variety of cardiovascular effects; however, it has low solubility in water. The preparation of poorly soluble drugs for oral delivery is one of the greatest challenges in the field of formulation research. Among the approaches available, solid dispersion (SD) technique has proven to be one of the most commonly used these methods for improving dissolution and bioavailability of drugs, because of its relative simplicity and economy in terms of both preparation and evaluation. Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the dissolution behavior and physical stability of SDs of TSIIA by employing nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp). Materials and Methods: The TSIIA SDs was prepared to use a spray-drying method. First, an in vitro dissolution test was performed to assess dissolution characteristics. Next, a set of complementary techniques (differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) was used to monitor the physicochemical properties of the SDs. The SDs was stored at 40°C/75% relative humidity for 6 months, after which their stability was assessed. Results: TSIIA dissolution remarkably improved because of the formulation of the SDs with n-HAp particles. Comparisons with the corresponding physical mixtures revealed changes in the SDs and explained the formation of the amorphous phase. In the stability test, virtually no time-dependent decrease was observed in either in vitro drug dissolution or drug content. Conclusion: SD formulation with n-HAp may be a promising approach for enhancing the dissolution and stability of TSIIA. PMID:25210322

  7. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO[sub 2] With uranium oxide (UO[sub 2]) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO[sub 2] with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO[sub 2] materials may warrant further study.

  8. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO{sub 2} typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO{sub 2} produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO{sub 2} in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO{sub 2} With uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO{sub 2} with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO{sub 2} materials may warrant further study.

  9. Mergers, Annexations, Dissolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Consolidations come in all shapes and sizes, including mergers, annexations and dissolutions. They do not all take place under state mandate, however. A handful of districts consolidate every year in some states like Illinois that have large numbers of small districts, many of them dual districts that serve K-8 or 9-12 in the same geographic area.…

  10. Control system health test system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Baker, Thomas M.

    2006-08-15

    A method is provided for testing multiple elements of a work machine, including a control system, a component, a sub-component that is influenced by operations of the component, and a sensor that monitors a characteristic of the sub-component. In one embodiment, the method is performed by the control system and includes sending a command to the component to adjust a first parameter associated with an operation of the component. Also, the method includes detecting a sensor signal from the sensor reflecting a second parameter associated with a characteristic of the sub-component and determining whether the second parameter is acceptable based on the command. The control system may diagnose at least one of the elements of the work machine when the second parameter of the sub-component is not acceptable.

  11. Testing methods and techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mechanical testing techniques, electrical and electronics testing techniques, thermal testing techniques, and optical testing techniques are the subject of the compilation which provides technical information and illustrations of advanced testing devices. Patent information is included where applicable.

  12. A new method of field MRTD test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Song, Yan; Liu, Xianhong; Xiao, Wenjian

    2014-09-01

    MRTD is an important indicator to measure the imaging performance of infrared camera. In the traditional laboratory test, blackbody is used as simulated heat source which is not only expensive and bulky but also difficult to meet field testing requirements of online automatic infrared camera MRTD. To solve this problem, this paper introduces a new detection device for MRTD, which uses LED as a simulation heat source and branded plated zinc sulfide glass carved four-bar target as a simulation target. By using high temperature adaptability cassegrain collimation system, the target is simulated to be distance-infinite so that it can be observed by the human eyes to complete the subjective test, or collected to complete objective measurement by image processing. This method will use LED to replace blackbody. The color temperature of LED is calibrated by thermal imager, thereby, the relation curve between the LED temperature controlling current and the blackbody simulation temperature difference is established, accurately achieved the temperature control of the infrared target. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the device in field testing of thermal imager MRTD can be limited within 0.1K, which greatly reduces the cost to meet the project requirements with a wide application value.

  13. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  14. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more » as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  15. Direct Measurement of Lipase Inhibition by Orlistat Using a Dissolution Linked In Vitro Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Daniel R; Liu, Dongzhou J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a bio-assay that would be able to directly test gastrointestinal and/or dissolution samples to determine lipase activity and inhibition by Orlistat. Methods Enzyme assays were performed with porcine pancreatic lipase and para-Nitrophenyl Palmitate (pNPP) in pH 8.0 reaction buffer at 37°C. Substrate hydrolysis was monitored by absorbance changes at 410 nm. The dissolution of two Orlistat formulations was tested with a USP II apparatus. Samples were HPLC analyzed to determine release profile in addition to being diluted and directly assayed for inhibitory effect. Results The lipase-pNPP system demonstrates linearity and Michalis-Menten kinetics with a Km=2.7 ± 0.2 μM and Kcat = 0.019 s−1. Orlistat showed highly potent and time dependent inhibition with 5 ng/ml effecting 50% activity after 5 minutes in the Lipase-pNPP system. Dissolution studies showed a correlation of the drug release profile to the inhibitory effect of dissolution samples in the assay. Conclusions The lipase-pNPP method can be used as an in vitro assay to monitor orlistat inhibition from drug release or dissolution samples. PMID:25419492

  16. Experimental determination of UO 2(cr) dissolution kinetics: Effects of solution saturation state and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, E. M.; Icenhower, J. P.; Serne, R. J.; Catalano, J. G.

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the release of uranium from natural ore deposits, spent nuclear fuel repositories, and REDOX permeable reactive barriers (PRB), knowledge of the fundamental reaction kinetics associated with the dissolution of uranium dioxide is necessary. Dissolution of crystalline uranium (IV) dioxide under environmental conditions has been studied for four decades but a cardinal gap in the published literature is the effect of pH and solution saturation state on UO2(cr) dissolution. To resolve inconsistencies, UO2 dissolution experiments have been conducted under oxic conditions using the single-pass flow-through system. Experiments were conducted as a function of total dissolved carbonate ([CO3-3 ]T) from 0.001 to 0.1 M; pH from 7.5 to 11.1; ratio of flow-through rate (q) to specific surface area (S), constant ionic strength (I) = 0.1 M, and temperatures (T) from 23 to 60 °C utilizing both powder and monolithic specimens. The results show that UO2 dissolution varies as a function of the ratio q/S and temperature. At values of log10 q/S > -7.0, UO2 dissolution becomes invariant with respect to q/S, which can be interpreted as evidence for dissolution at the forward rate of reaction. The data collected in these experiments show the rate of UO2 dissolution increased by an order of magnitude with a 30 °C increase in temperature. The results also show the overall dissolution rate increases with an increase in pH and decreases as the dissolved uranium concentration approaches saturation with respect to secondary reaction products. Thus, as the value of the reaction quotient, Q, approaches equilibrium, K, (with respect to a potential secondary phase) the dissolution rate decreases. This decrease in dissolution rate (r) was also observed when comparing measured UO2 dissolution rates from static tests where r = 1.7 ± 0.14 × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 to the rate for flow-through reactors where r = 3.1 ± 1.2 × 10-7 mol m-2 s-1. Thus, using traditional static test methods can result in an underestimation of the true forward rate of UO2(cr) dissolution. These results illustrate the importance of pH, solution saturation state, and the concentration of dissolved carbonate on the release of uranium from UO2 in the natural environment.

  17. Improved method for azole antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, M A; Lapa, E W; Passero, P G

    1988-01-01

    A reproducible method is described for the determination of the MICs of ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole with sharp endpoints when employed with either yeasts or molds. A semisolid medium is used with controlled pH and standardized inoculum. The time of reading results is a critical factor in the conduct of this test. The medium is simple to prepare and has a relatively long refrigerator shelf life in a user-ready state, requiring only the addition of a freshly prepared inoculum after restoration to room temperature. Images PMID:2846651

  18. Method and system for well testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fredd, J.V.

    1981-06-23

    A well testing system and method are claimed in which a by-pass valve is positioned in the tubing and a probe run on a line from the surface opens and closes the valve with vertical movement of the probe. The probe when landed in the valve is exposed to formation fluids and may transmit back to the surface, or may record information about the formation. The probe may also collect a sample of fluid to return to the surface with the probe.

  19. Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25°C: a test of a calcite dissolution model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Plummer, L. Neil; Busenberg, E.

    1981-01-01

    A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25°C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (< 10−3 atm). Good agreement was found between observed crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978).

  20. Extension of Pack Method for Compressive Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, C S

    1940-01-01

    The pack method for determining compressive stress-strain graphs described in NACA Report No. 649 has been modified to extend it's application to thinner gages and stronger materials. The principal modifications consisted in the provision of additional support against instability cementing the specimens of the pack together with fused shellac and the provision of special clamps to hold the specimens together while the test is in progress. The shellac was found to increase the buckling load of the pack without any appreciable effect on the compressive stress-strain graph of the material. The extended pack method described in this note has made possible the application of stresses in excess of 220 kips per square inch to sheet material having a thickness of only 0.02 inch.

  1. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  2. Regulatory Perspectives on Strength-Dependent Dissolution Profiles and Biowaiver Approaches for Immediate Release (IR) Oral Tablets in New Drug Applications.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Sharp, Sandra; Delvadia, Poonam R; Dorantes, Angelica; Duan, John; Externbrink, Anna; Gao, Zongming; Ghosh, Tapash; Miksinski, Sarah Pope; Seo, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Dissolution profile comparisons are used by the pharmaceutical industry to assess the similarity in the dissolution characteristics of two formulations to decide whether the implemented changes, usually minor/moderate in nature, will have an impact on the in vitro/in vivo performance of the drug product. When similarity testing is applied to support the approval of lower strengths of the same formulation, the traditional approach for dissolution profile comparison is not always applicable for drug products exhibiting strength-dependent dissolution and may lead to incorrect conclusions about product performance. The objective of this article is to describe reasonable biopharmaceutic approaches for developing a biowaiver strategy for low solubility, proportionally similar/non-proportionally similar in composition immediate release drug products that exhibit strength-dependent dissolution profiles. The paths highlighted in the article include (1) approaches to address biowaiver requests, such as the use of multi-unit dissolution testing to account for sink condition differences between the higher and lower strengths; (2) the use of a single- vs. strength-dependent dissolution method; and (3) the use of single- vs. strength-dependent dissolution acceptance criteria. These approaches are cost- and time-effective and can avoid unnecessary bioequivalence studies. PMID:26928450

  3. An Optical Method For Surface Curvature Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarisch, W.

    1985-01-01

    Inspection and measurement of surface quality play increasingly an important role in most machining and polishing processes. A typical example is the manufacturing of magnetic disks. The quality of a disk file essentially depends on the surface flatness of the substrate material. For many measurement aspects largearea topography variations are of less interest than high local changes of slope and curvature of the surface to be tested. Mathematically, the surface curvature is expressed as the second derivative of the profile function of the substrate, while the first derivative is known as the slope. Rapid local variations of the slope, that means high curvature values, cause high vertical accelerations of the magnetic head flying over the disk surface in fractions of a micrometer flight-height. Such irregularities of the substrate in the azimuthal disk direction would lead to uncontrolled fluctuations of the air gap between disk and head causing an attenuation of the write/read signal, to head vibrations, or even to a direct contact of the head with the disk (head crash). In the radial direction, the high-speed radial positioning of the head by voice coil driven motors also may cause a head crash at high local changes of the disk slope. Limits of the tolerable head accelerations, found by experience and theoretically by calculations, are listed in manufacturing specifications. For a fast, large area disk quality inspection and evaluation, a compact and highly sensitive measuring method has been developed. A testing tool based on this method displays the test area superimposed with a clear fringe pattern on a TV screen. The fringe pattern represents the surface curvature. From this, both components of the disk curvature, the azimuthal as well as the radial component, can be measured. Coherent optical interference and Moire techniques are the basic principles of the method providing the fringe pattern of the surface area under test. Each fringe interconnects locations of equal surface slopes. Consecutive, iso-slope fringes differ by a constant angular slope increment. The lateral spacing between adjacent iso-slope fringes - or generally the density of fringes - is proportional to the second derivative of the profile function of the disk and thus related to its radius of curvature. Therefore, the map of fringes indicates the areas of low and high head accelerations.

  4. Novel quantitative test method of laser range finder for range measurement: computerized instrument test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin

    1996-10-01

    The maximum rang finding ability of laser range finder (LRF) is greatly influenced by various factors under field conditions, and these factors are changing constantly. In this paper, the advantages and shortcomings of traditional test method 'dissipated light power ratio method' through field object target are analyzed. A computerized instrument is developed, this instrument has no influence with field environment and characteristics of targets, it is simple, effective, accurate and quantitative to test comprehensive ability of range measurement which LRF system itself has. This paper introduces optimal formulas by use of computerized instrument to estimate the measuring rang of LRF, studied the theory of equations of measuring range by laser, and made a breakthrough of test method at program control of time-delay simulating space range and transmission and receiving of LRF under field conditions. This computerized test instrument has highly practical application and theoretical guiding meaning in demarcating checking and accepting of product produced by factories.

  5. Comparison of three preservation techniques for slowing dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic rich sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Schultz, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to halt or reduce dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic and/or pyrite-rich sediments, three different methods of short-term storage preservation were tested for efficacy: vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, and buffered water. Abundance counts of calcareous nannofossil assemblages over a six month period showed that none of the three preservation methods were consistently effective in reducing assemblage loss due to dissolution. In most cases, the control slides made at the drill site had more abundant calcareous nannofossil assemblages than those slides made from sediments stored via vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, or buffered water. Thin section and XRD analyses showed that in most cases, <1% pyrite was needed to drive the oxidation-reduction reaction that resulted in dissolution, even in carbonate-rich sediments.

  6. Development of In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation/Relationship Modeling Approaches for Immediate Release Formulations Using Compartmental Dynamic Dissolution Data from “Golem”: A Novel Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Čulen, Martin; Tuszyński, Paweł K.; Polak, Sebastian; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander; Dohnal, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Different batches of atorvastatin, represented by two immediate release formulation designs, were studied using a novel dynamic dissolution apparatus, simulating stomach and small intestine. A universal dissolution method was employed which simulated the physiology of human gastrointestinal tract, including the precise chyme transit behavior and biorelevant conditions. The multicompartmental dissolution data allowed direct observation and qualitative discrimination of the differences resulting from highly pH dependent dissolution behavior of the tested batches. Further evaluation of results was performed using IVIVC/IVIVR development. While satisfactory correlation could not be achieved using a conventional deconvolution based-model, promising results were obtained through the use of a nonconventional approach exploiting the complex compartmental dissolution data. PMID:26120580

  7. Development of In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation/Relationship Modeling Approaches for Immediate Release Formulations Using Compartmental Dynamic Dissolution Data from "Golem": A Novel Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Čulen, Martin; Tuszyński, Paweł K; Polak, Sebastian; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander; Dohnal, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Different batches of atorvastatin, represented by two immediate release formulation designs, were studied using a novel dynamic dissolution apparatus, simulating stomach and small intestine. A universal dissolution method was employed which simulated the physiology of human gastrointestinal tract, including the precise chyme transit behavior and biorelevant conditions. The multicompartmental dissolution data allowed direct observation and qualitative discrimination of the differences resulting from highly pH dependent dissolution behavior of the tested batches. Further evaluation of results was performed using IVIVC/IVIVR development. While satisfactory correlation could not be achieved using a conventional deconvolution based-model, promising results were obtained through the use of a nonconventional approach exploiting the complex compartmental dissolution data. PMID:26120580

  8. Aqueous dissolution rates of uranium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, S. A.; Mones, E. T.

    1994-10-01

    An understanding of the long-term dissolution of waste forms in groundwater is required for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste in an underground repository. The main routes by which radionuclides could be released from a geological repository are the dissolution and transport processes in groundwater flow. Because uranium dioxide is the primary constituent of spent nuclear fuel, the dissolution of its matrix in spent fuel is considered the rate-limiting step for release of radioactive fission products. The purpose of our work has been to measure the intrinsic dissolution rates of uranium oxides under a variety of well-controlled conditions that are relevant to a repository and allow for modeling. The intermediate oxide phase U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, triuranium octaoxide, is quite stable and known to be present in oxidized spent fuel. The trioxide, UO{sub 3}, has been shown to exist in drip tests on spent fuel. Here we compare the results of essentially identical dissolution experiments performed on depleted U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and dehyrated schoepite or uranium trioxide monohydrate (UO{sub 3}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O). These are compared with earlier work on spent fuel and UO{sub 2} under similar conditions.

  9. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Application of partial dissolution techniques to geochemical exploration has advanced from an early empirical approach to an approach based on sound geochemical principles. This advance assures a prominent future position for the use of these techniques in geochemical exploration for concealed mineral deposits. Partial dissolution techniques are classified as single dissolution or sequential multiple dissolution depending on the number of steps taken in the procedure, or as "nonselective" extraction and as "selective" extraction in terms of the relative specificity of the extraction. The choice of dissolution techniques for use in geochemical exploration is dictated by the geology of the area, the type and degree of weathering, and the expected chemical forms of the ore and of the pathfinding elements. Case histories have illustrated many instances where partial dissolution techniques exhibit advantages over conventional methods of chemical analysis used in geochemical exploration. ?? 1984.

  10. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M.; Jin, X.; Ren, X.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Gao, X.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to detect simultaneously six active ingredients for quantification and dissolution study (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, apigenin, oleanolic acid). As we observed, contents of main active ingredients were close in the two formulations for daily dose. In each medium, more ingredients dissolved from formula granule with higher Ymax and Ka. The mean dissolution time of the most ingredients in granule was significantly shorter than that in pill in acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Furthermore, salidroside, specnuezhenide and luteolin dissolved more than 80% in 30 min from formula granule, which indicated higher solubility along the intestinal tract according to biopharmaceutics classification system. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its purposes and could be applied for quality control of herbal medicine. This work also can be used to provide necessary information on absorption for its biopharmaceutical properties. PMID:26664054

  11. An Accelerated Method for Soldering Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Ried, Paul; Olson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    An accelerated method for testing die soldering has been developed. High intensity ultrasonic vibrations have been applied to simulate the die casting conditions such as high pressure and high molten metal velocity on the pin. The soldering tendency of steels and coated pins has been examined. The results suggest that in the low carbon steel/Al system, the onset of soldering is 60 times faster with ultrasonic vibration than that without ultrasonic vibration. In the H13/A380 system, the onset of soldering reaction is accelerated to between 30-60 times. Coatings significantly reduce the soldering tendency. For purposes of this study, several commercial coatings from Balzers demonstrated the potential for increasing the service life of core pins between 15 and 180 times.

  12. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemons, T. G.; Riddell, W. T.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Wawrzynek, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate NASCRAC (trademark) version 2.0, a second generation fracture analysis code, for verification and validity. NASCRAC was evaluated using a combination of comparisons to the literature, closed-form solutions, numerical analyses, and tests. Several limitations and minor errors were detected. Additionally, a number of major flaws were discovered. These major flaws were generally due to application of a specific method or theory, not due to programming logic. Results are presented for the following program capabilities: K versus a, J versus a, crack opening area, life calculation due to fatigue crack growth, tolerable crack size, proof test logic, tearing instability, creep crack growth, crack transitioning, crack retardation due to overloads, and elastic-plastic stress redistribution. It is concluded that the code is an acceptable fracture tool for K solutions of simplified geometries, for a limited number of J and crack opening area solutions, and for fatigue crack propagation with the Paris equation and constant amplitude loads when the Paris equation is applicable.

  13. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... in several ways, including the following: Anti-MuSK Antibody testing----a blood test for the remaining 15% ... confirm a clinical diagnosis of MG. Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody — a blood test for the abnormal antibodies can ...

  14. 40 CFR 60.503 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.503... Terminals § 60.503 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  15. 40 CFR 60.154 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.154... Plants § 60.154 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  16. 40 CFR 60.154 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.154... Plants § 60.154 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  17. 40 CFR 60.503 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.503... Terminals § 60.503 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  18. 40 CFR 60.154 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.154... Plants § 60.154 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  19. 40 CFR 60.144 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.144....144 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A of this...

  20. 40 CFR 60.144 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.144....144 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A of this...

  1. 40 CFR 60.144 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.144....144 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A of this...

  2. 40 CFR 60.503 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.503... Terminals § 60.503 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  3. 40 CFR 60.154 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.154... Plants § 60.154 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  4. 40 CFR 60.144 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.144....144 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A of this...

  5. 40 CFR 60.503 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.503... Terminals § 60.503 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A...

  6. TEST METHOD EVALUATIONS AND EMISSIONS TESTING FOR RATING WOOD STOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of three sampling methods for wood burning stoves: the EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5), the Oregon Method 7 (OM7), and the ASTM proposed Method P180. It also addresses the effect that emission format (grams per hour, grams per kilogram wood bu...

  7. Dissolution DNP for in vivo preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Comment, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The tremendous polarization enhancement afforded by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be taken advantage of to perform preclinical in vivo molecular and metabolic imaging. Following the injection of molecules that are hyperpolarized via dissolution DNP, real-time measurements of their biodistribution and metabolic conversion can be recorded. This technology therefore provides a unique and invaluable tool for probing cellular metabolism in vivo in animal models in a noninvasive manner. It gives the opportunity to follow and evaluate disease progression and treatment response without requiring ex vivo destructive tissue assays. Although its considerable potential has now been widely recognized, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance by dissolution DNP remains a challenging method to implement for routine in vivo preclinical measurements. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art technology for preclinical applications and the challenges that need to be addressed to promote it and allow its wider dissemination in the near future. PMID:26920829

  8. Dissolution DNP for in vivo preclinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comment, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The tremendous polarization enhancement afforded by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be taken advantage of to perform preclinical in vivo molecular and metabolic imaging. Following the injection of molecules that are hyperpolarized via dissolution DNP, real-time measurements of their biodistribution and metabolic conversion can be recorded. This technology therefore provides a unique and invaluable tool for probing cellular metabolism in vivo in animal models in a noninvasive manner. It gives the opportunity to follow and evaluate disease progression and treatment response without requiring ex vivo destructive tissue assays. Although its considerable potential has now been widely recognized, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance by dissolution DNP remains a challenging method to implement for routine in vivo preclinical measurements. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art technology for preclinical applications and the challenges that need to be addressed to promote it and allow its wider dissemination in the near future.

  9. Testing methods and techniques: Environmental testing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Various devices and techniques are described for testing hardware and components in four special environments: low temperature, high temperature, high pressure, and vibration. Items ranging from an automatic calibrator for pressure transducers to a fixture for testing the susceptibility of materials to ignition by electric spark are included.

  10. In vitro dissolution-permeation evaluation of an electrospun cyclodextrin-based formulation of aripiprazole using μFlux™.

    PubMed

    Borbás, Enikő; Balogh, Attila; Bocz, Katalin; Müller, Judit; Kiserdei, Éva; Vigh, Tamás; Sinkó, Bálint; Marosi, Attila; Halász, Attila; Dohányos, Zoltán; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, György T; Nagy, Zsombor K

    2015-08-01

    Since it is a well-known fact that among the newly discovered active pharmaceutical ingredients the number of poorly water soluble candidates is continually increasing, dissolution enhancement of poorly water soluble drugs has become one of the central challenges of pharmaceutical studies. So far the preclinical studies have been mainly focused on formulation methods to enhance the dissolution of active compounds, in many cases disregarding the fact that the formulation matrix not only affects dissolution but also has an effect on the transport through biological membranes, changing permeation of the drug molecules. The aim of this study was to test an electrospun cyclodextrin-based formulation of aripiprazole with the novel μFlux apparatus, which monitors permeation together with dissolution, and by this means better in vitro-in vivo correlation is achieved. It was evinced that a cyclodextrin-based electrospun formulation of aripiprazole has the potential to ensure fast drug delivery through the oral mucosa owing to the ultrafast dissolution of the drug from the formulation and the enhanced flux across membranes as shown by the result of the novel in vitro dissolution and permeation test. PMID:26117189

  11. A Proposed Framework of Test Administration Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread application of personal computers to educational and psychological testing has substantially increased the number of test administration methodologies available to testing programs. Many of these mediums are referred to by their acronyms, such as CAT, CBT, CCT, and LOFT. The similarities between the acronyms and the methods…

  12. A one-pot method to enhance dissolution rate of low solubility drug molecules using dispersion polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Galia, Alessandro; Scialdone, Onofrio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Spanò, Tiziana

    2009-07-30

    The surfactant assisted polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone in supercritical carbon dioxide in the presence of Piroxicam, selected as a model of a low aqueous solubility drug, was studied in order to prepare in a single step a polymeric composite to enhance the rate of dissolution of the pharmaceutical compound. Reactive entrapping was carried out at 65 degrees C in the P range 21-38MPa. Under proper operative conditions we obtained the composite under the form of sub-micron spherical particles with relatively narrow particle size distribution. Drug loadings higher than 12% (w/w) were obtained and XRD and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the anti-inflammatory agent is dispersed in the matrix with a non-crystalline structure. The dissolution rate of the drug from the composites was significantly faster both than that of the pure compound and of its physical mixture with the polymer. Collected results suggest that the proposed one-pot process can be used to prepare polymer based composites to increase bioavailability of low solubility drugs without utilization of toxic solvents and under mild temperature conditions. PMID:19439168

  13. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Performance testing, test methods, and...: Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese § 63.1656 Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations. (a... test methods. (3) Each run must be conducted under conditions that are representative of normal...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance testing, test methods, and...: Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese § 63.1656 Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations. (a... test methods. (3) Each run must be conducted under conditions that are representative of normal...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance testing, test methods, and...: Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese § 63.1656 Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations. (a... test methods. (3) Each run must be conducted under conditions that are representative of normal...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Performance testing, test methods, and...: Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese § 63.1656 Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations. (a... test methods. (3) Each run must be conducted under conditions that are representative of normal...

  17. Diagnostic methods for CW laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan F.; Shah, Rashmi S.

    2004-06-01

    High performance optical coatings are an enabling technology for many applications - navigation systems, telecom, fusion, advanced measurement systems of many types as well as directed energy weapons. The results of recent testing of superior optical coatings conducted at high flux levels will be presented. The diagnostics used in this type of nondestructive testing and the analysis of the data demonstrates the evolution of test methodology. Comparison of performance data under load to the predictions of thermal and optical models shows excellent agreement. These tests serve to anchor the models and validate the performance of the materials and coatings.

  18. Evaluation of the test method activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Y.; Nagase, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-12-01

    The test method of activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD was critically carried out and compared with other test methods. Investigation of test conditions showed that the moderate deviation from the test conditions defined by the OECD Test Guidelines did not have much effect on the result, and some modifications were proposed to improve the method. This method had a poor detection limit compared with the LC50 test with Oryzias latipes and EC50 of the growth inhibition test with Tetrahymena pyriformis. The susceptivity of the method was particularly poor for the chemicals which were highly toxic in the other two tests.

  19. 49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such a way as to determine if the applicant possesses the required knowledge and skills contained in... scoring the knowledge and skills tests. (d) Passing scores must meet those standards contained in § 383.135. (e) Knowledge and skills tests shall be based solely on the information contained in the...

  20. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

  1. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  2. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  3. Robotic dissolution station

    SciTech Connect

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Temer, D.J.; Haggart, R.J.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a robotic station for dissolving active metals in acid in an automated fashion. A vessel with cap, containing the active metal is placed onto a shuttle which retracts to a point at which it is directly beneath a cap removing and retaining mechanism. After the cap is removed, a tube carrying an appropriate acid is inserted into the vessel, and the acid is introduced. The structure of the station forms an open hood which is swept of gases generated by the dissolution and the air removed to a remote location for scrubbing. After the reaction is complete, the shuttle extends and the vessel may be removed by a robot arm.

  4. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Products. (b) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,...

  5. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Products. (b) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,...

  6. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Products. (b) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,...

  7. An eco-friendly strategy, using on-line monitoring and dilution coupled to a second-order chemometric method, for the construction of dissolution curves of combined pharmaceutical associations.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, economic and minimally operator-dependent method was developed under green analytical chemistry principles, for the simultaneous construction of the dissolution curves of a pharmaceutical association in short time and without employing organic solvents, allowing important savings of labor and resources. The carvedilol (CAR) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) combined formulation was employed as a model. The method (OD/UV-MCR) involves on-line sample dilution (OD) and UV detection of the analytes, coupled to multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). OD/UV-MCR proved to be robust and was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines, fulfilling acceptance criteria for specificity (r(2) of spectral correlation>0.950), linearity [r>0.999 (N=25) in the ranges 1.00-31.1mg l(-1) and 0.51-15.2mg l(-1) for CAR and HCT, respectively] and precision (RSD<2%). Accuracy was assessed by point-to-point comparison between the dissolution profiles furnished by the proposed method with those provided by HPLC analysis, evidencing the usefulness of this monitoring system. In addition, OD/UV-MCR was successfully employed for the comparative analysis of three lots of commercial formulations of the CAR-HCT pharmaceutical association, belonging to a couple of different brands, employing Moore and Flanner's f2 similarity indicator. PMID:24291800

  8. Dissolution on Titan and on Earth: Towards the age of Titan's karstic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, T.; Cordier, D.; Le Bahers, T.; Bourgeois, O.; Fleurant, C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    The morphology of Titan's lacustrine depressions led to comparisons with terrestrial depressions developed by karstic dissolution. We tested this hypothesis by computing dissolution rates of Titan's solids in liquid methane. We inferred from these rates the timescales needed to create dissolution landforms of a given depth. Dissolution would be a very efficient geological process to shape Titan's surface, on timescales generally shorter than 100 Myrs, consistent with the youth of Titan's surface (<1 Gyr).

  9. Comparison of atomic absorption, mass and X-ray spectrometry techniques using dissolution-based and solid sampling methods for the determination of silver in polymeric samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schrijver, Isabel; Aramendia, Maite; Vincze, Laszlo; Resano, Martín; Dumoulin, Ann; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2007-11-01

    In this work, the capabilities and limitations of solid sampling techniques - laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRFS) and solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-ETAAS) - for the determination of silver in polymers have been evaluated and compared to those of acid digestion and subsequent Ag determination using pneumatic nebulization ICPMS (PN-ICPMS) or flame AAS (FAAS). In a first stage, two dissolution procedures were examined: conventional acid digestion in a Kjeldahl flask and the combination of dry ashing and microwave-assisted digestion. Accurate results for Ag could be obtained, although occasionally, problems of analyte losses and/or incomplete dissolution were observed. LA-ICPMS shows potential for direct analysis of solid materials, but calibration was found to be difficult. A polypropylene sample was used as standard. This approach provided satisfactory results for other polypropylene samples and even for other types of plastics, provided that the 13C + signal was used as internal reference, correcting for variations in ablation efficiency. However, the results for polyoxymethylene were overestimated. Similar calibration problems appeared with WD-XRFS, due to differences in absorption efficiency of X-rays. In this case, the accuracy could be improved by using a matrix correction procedure, which however required the matrix composition to be known into sufficient detail. SS-ETAAS, proved to be a fast approach that allowed accurate determination of Ag in polymers using aqueous standard solutions for calibration. Due to the high Ag content and the excellent sensitivity, the use of a 3-field mode Zeeman-effect background correction system was essential for the extension of the working range.

  10. 40 CFR 63.694 - Testing methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication No. SW... Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication No. SW-846, Third Edition... procedures in accordance with the requirements specified in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid...

  11. 40 CFR 63.694 - Testing methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication No. SW... Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication No. SW-846, Third Edition... procedures in accordance with the requirements specified in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid...

  12. Subscale Test Methods for Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Sisco, J. C.; Long, M. R.; Sung, I.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Stated goals for long-life LRE s have been between 100 and 500 cycles: 1) Inherent technical difficulty of accurately defining the transient and steady state thermochemical environments and structural response (strain); 2) Limited statistical basis on failure mechanisms and effects of design and operational variability; and 3) Very high test costs and budget-driven need to protect test hardware (aversion to test-to-failure). Ambitious goals will require development of new databases: a) Advanced materials, e.g., tailored composites with virtually unlimited property variations; b) Innovative functional designs to exploit full capabilities of advanced materials; and c) Different cycles/operations. Subscale testing is one way to address technical and budget challenges: 1) Prototype subscale combustors exposed to controlled simulated conditions; 2) Complementary to conventional laboratory specimen database development; 3) Instrumented with sensors to measure thermostructural response; and 4) Coupled with analysis

  13. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bignami, G

    1996-04-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity. PMID:9182035

  15. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF METHOD 1312-QA SUPPORT FOR RCRA TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of how to access the risks associated with ground water contamination from soils containing toxic substances is a critical issue for the Agency. A major limitation of using Method 1310 and 1311 for this purpose is the fact that the sanitary landfill codisposal scenar...

  16. Analysis of Formation and Interfacial WC Dissolution Behavior of WC-Co/Invar Laser-TIG Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P. Q.; Ren, J. W.; Zhang, P. L.; Gong, H. Y.; Yang, S. L.

    2013-02-01

    During the valve fabrication, hard metal is welded to stainless steel or invar alloy for sealing purposes because of its good heat resistance operating at 500 °C. However, WC (tungsten carbide) dissolution in weld pool softens the hard metal and decreases mechanical properties near the hard metal/weld interface. In order to analyze the WC dissolution in welded joint, joining of hard metal and invar alloy was carried out using laser-tungsten inert gas hybrid welding method. Microstructures of the weld region, chemical composition were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and EDAX, respectively. Mechanical properties such as microhardness and four-point bend strength test were performed. Larger and smaller WC dissolution and WC dissolution through transition layer based on thermo-dynamics were discussed. The results thus indicate that WC dissolution led to cellular microstructure, columnar crystal, and transition layer under the effect of laser beam and tungsten arc. WC dissolution was affected by metal ions Fe+, Ni+, Co+ exchange in W-M-C system, and WC grain growth was driven by forces caused by laser beam and tungsten arc in larger WC, smaller WC, and liquid Fe, Ni systems.

  17. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... may vary in size to accommodate smaller or larger subjects. In the testing of unctuous materials...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... may vary in size to accommodate smaller or larger subjects. In the testing of unctuous materials...

  19. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500.232. A... test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c)(1)(ii)(C) and (c)(2... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances....

  20. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... may vary in size to accommodate smaller or larger subjects. In the testing of unctuous materials...

  1. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR... number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c)(1)(ii)(C... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances....

  2. 40 CFR 60.644 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.644... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions 60.644 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in 60.8, the owner or operator shall use as reference methods and procedures the...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60....

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A...

  5. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 61.304... Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  6. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Developing the analytical test method... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method for sample selection, preparation, extraction and clean up is prescribed. For analysis,...

  7. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developing the analytical test method... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method for sample selection, preparation, extraction and clean up is prescribed. For analysis,...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60....

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60....

  12. Saltcake Dissolution FY 2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-09-27

    Laboratory tests were completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford saltcake waste from single-shell waste tanks 241-TX- 113, 241-BY-102, 241-BY-106, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 (henceforth referred to as TX-113, BY-102, BY-106, A-101, and S-102, respectively). This work was funded by the Tanks Focus Area (EM-50) under Technical Task Plan Number RL0-8-WT-41, ''PHMC Pretreatment--Saltcake Dissolution''. The tests performed on saltcake from tank TX-113 were similar in scope to those completed in previous years on waste from tanks BY-102, BY-106, B-106, A-101, and S-102 (Herting 1998, 1999). In addition to the ''standard'' dissolution tests, new types of tests were performed this year related to feed stability and radionuclide distribution. The River Protection Project (RPP) is tasked with retrieving waste from double-shell and single-shell tanks to provide feed for vitrification. The RPP organization needs chemical and physical data to evaluate technologies for retrieving the waste. Little significant laboratory testing has been done to evaluate in-tank dissolution parameters for the various types of saltcake wastes that exist in single-shell tanks. A computer modeling program known as the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), produced by OLI Systems, Inc of Morris Plains, New Jersey, is being used by the RPP organization to predict solubilities during dilution and retrieval of all tank waste types. Data from this task are provided to ESP users to support evaluation, refinement, and validation of the ESP model.

  13. Effect of different water conditions on dissolution of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Feng; Zhang, Hongyin; Lin, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the time-dependent dissolution of nanosilver (nAg) in common electrolytes and natural waters. nAg was synthesized via Tollens' method using sodium citrate as stabilizer; its morphology, UV-Vis spectrum, and particle size were characterized. The dissolved silver was monitored over time using filtration, centrifugation, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Our results indicated that nanoparticle aggregation, Cl(-) presence, and natural organic compounds could affect the dissolution behavior of nAg. The dissolution of nAg was highly dependent on Cl(-) concentration. Excessive Cl(-) enhanced nanoparticle dissolution, whereas natural organic compound inhibited the dissolution. The dissolution data fitted well with the first-order kinetic model, and the dissolution rate coefficients were calculated using the first-order equation. This study showed the dissolution of nAg under various water conditions. The obtained results may be helpful in predicting nAg behavior in relevant environmental aquatic systems. PMID:24185055

  14. Dissolution of nickel hydroxide in ammoniacal aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Masao; Maeda, Masafumi

    2006-04-01

    The dissolution of nickel hydroxide in ammoniacal solutions was investigated to develop a new recycling process for nickel-metal hydride batteries. The effects of temperature, total ammonia concentration, and pH of the solution were examined in the range of 30 °C to 60 °C, 3.0 to 5.0 M, and 9.0 to 10.7, respectively. All dissolution-time curves showed sigmoidal shapes, which could be approximately expressed by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Yerofeev-Kolmogrov (JMAYK) equation. The hydroxide particles were pitted, and some of them were broken into fragments in the course of the dissolution. An increase in the surface area of the hydroxide particles due to the formation of pits and fragmentation seemed to be the reason for the acceleration of dissolution in the early stage. The surface area of the hydroxide was measured by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and the dissolution rate per surface area was determined. The activation energy for the dissolution was obtained as 100±10 kJ mol-1, which confirmed that the dissolution was controlled by chemical reactions at the hydroxide/liquid interface. The dissolution rate was increased by the increase in ammonia concentration, and the highest rate was observed at pH ca. 10.

  15. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  16. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-10-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  17. Tracer Test Interpretation Methods for Reservior Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, George Michael

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop tools that can be used to interpret tracer tests and obtain estimates of reservoir and operational parameters. These tools (mostly in the form of spreadsheet applications) can be used to optimize geothermal resource management.

  18. Dissolution enhancement of chlorzoxazone using cogrinding technique

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Mihir K.; Patel, Jaydeep M.; Parikh, Rajesh K.; Sheth, Navin R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to improve rate of dissolution and processing parameters of BCS class II drug, chlorzoxazone using cogrinding technique in the presence of different excipients as a carrier. Materials and Methods: The drug was coground with various carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E50LV, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)K30, Kaolin and Neusilin US2 using ball mill, where only PEG 4000 improved dissolution rate of drug by bringing amorphization in 1:3 ratio. The coground mixture after 3 and 6 h was evaluated for various analytical, physicochemical and mechanical parameters. Results: The analysis showed conversion of Chlorzoxazone from its crystalline to amorphization form upon grinding with PEG 4000. Coground mixture as well as its directly compressed tablet showed 2.5-fold increment in the dissolution rate compared with pure drug. Directly compressible tablets prepared from pure drug required a large quantity of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) during compression. The coground mixture and formulation was found stable in nature even after storage (40°C/75% relative humidity). Conclusions: Cogrinding can be successfully utilized to improve the rate of dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs and hence bioavailability. PMID:26682195

  19. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3..., or 3B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3..., or 3B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4)...

  1. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3..., or 3B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4)...

  2. Handbook of test methods for evaluating chemical deicers

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelow, C.C.; McElroy, A.D.; Blackburn, R.R.; Darwin, D.; de Noyelles, F.G.

    1992-11-01

    The handbook contains a structured selection of specific test methods for complete characterization of deicing chemicals. Sixty-two specific test methods are defined for the evaluation of chemical deicers in eight principal property performance areas: (1) physicochemical characteristics; (2) deicing performance; (3) compatibility with bare and coated metals; (4) compatibility with metals in concrete; (5) compatibility with concrete and nonmetals; (6) engineering parameters; (7) ecological effects; and (8) health and safety aspects. The 62 specific chemical deicer test methods are composed of 12 primary and 50 supplementary test methods. The primary test methods, which were developed for conducting the more important evaluations, are identified in the report.

  3. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  4. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  5. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  6. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  7. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  8. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  9. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  10. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  11. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  12. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  13. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  14. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  15. 40 CFR 60.466 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.466... Surface Coating § 60.466 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A to this part...) Method 24, or data provided by the formulator of the coating, shall be used for determining the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.754 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.754... Waste Landfills § 60.754 Test methods and procedures. (a)(1) The landfill owner or operator shall... using Method 25 or 25C of appendix A of this part. Method 18 of appendix A of this part may be used...

  17. 40 CFR 60.466 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.466... Surface Coating § 60.466 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A to this part...) Method 24, or data provided by the formulator of the coating, shall be used for determining the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.466 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.466... Surface Coating § 60.466 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A to this part...) Method 24, or data provided by the formulator of the coating, shall be used for determining the...

  19. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion methods using DWPF simulated glass (part 1) and (to the extent possible) using DWPF radioactive glass (part 2). (3) Recommend specific equipment to implement the new methods and work with SRNL's Equipment Engineering Section (EES) to ensure compatibility of the equipment with the DWPF shielded cells. The focus of this report is major task activity No.2 (parts 1 and 2). The other two major task activities are to be addressed separately. The measurements supporting task activity No.1 are being conducted at the DWPF. EES is currently designing and fabricating the DWPF cell equipment needed for the new method as part of major task activity No.3.

  20. SOHIC testing methods and their service relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Siegmund, G.; Bruckhoff, W.; Schmitt, G.A.; Sadlowsky, B.

    1999-07-01

    In continuation of previous work environmental and materials related parameters were studied influencing the SOHIC susceptibility of linepipe steel. Steels according to API classification Grade 42 mainly differing in sulfur content and microstructure were tested with respect to the type and geometry of specimens (unnotched and notched 4-point bent and double beam specimens; compact and hollow tensile probes), type of media (NACE TM0177-96/Solution A, water-rich TEG pipeline fluid; low chloride water), hydrogen sulfide partial pressure (0.1 and 1.6 MPa), and exposure mode (submerged in and filmed with the corrosive liquid). The results are used to recommend predictive experimental procedures to test and investigate the SOHIC susceptibility of steels. Experiments with hollow tensile probes allow hydrogen permeation measurements under mechanical loading and corrosive conditions. They proved to be a useful tool to investigate environmental parameters affecting hydrogen embrittlement of steel, to quantify the hydrogen uptake, and to define critical conditions for SOHIC.

  1. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for sample and velocity traverse. (B) Method 2 for velocity and volumetric flowrate. (C) Method... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1...

  2. A method to assess the ranking importance of uncertainties of residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 on a large-scale storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, P.; Rohmer, J.; Manceau, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The long term fate of mobile CO2 remaining after the injection period is a crucial issue for regulators and operators. There are needs to evaluate properly the amount of gas free to migrate and to estimate the fluid movements at long time scales. Often the difficulty is to manage the computational time to assess the large time and dimension scale of the problem. The second limitation is the large level of uncertainty associated to the computation prediction. A variance-based global sensitivity analysis is proposed to assess the importance ranking of uncertainty sources, with regards to the behavior of the mobile CO2 during the post-injection period. We consider three output parameters which characterize the location and the quantity of mobile CO2, considering residual and dissolution trapping. To circumvent both (i) the large number of computationally intensive reservoir-scale flow simulations and (ii) the different nature of uncertainties whether linked to parameters (continuous variables) or to modeling assumptions (scenario-like variables) we propose to use advanced meta-modeling techniques of ACOSSO-type. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated using a potential site for CO2 storage in the Paris basin (France), for which the amount, nature and quality of the data available at disposal and the associated uncertainties can be seen as representative to those of a storage project at the post-screening stage. A special attention has been paid to confront the results of the sensitivity analysis with the physical interpretation of the processes.

  3. SEA URCHIN (STRONGYLOCENTROTUS PURPURATUS) FERTILIZATION TEST METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method measures the toxicity of effluents and receiving water to the gametes of a sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, during a 1 h sperm exposure and a subsequent 20 min exposure period following the addition of eggs for measuring the fertilizing capacity of the sperm...

  4. Low-cycle fatigue testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurade, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The good design of highly stressed mechanical components requires accurate knowledge of the service behavior of materials. The main methods for solving the problems of designers are: determination of the mechanical properties of the material after cyclic stabilization; plotting of resistance to plastic deformation curves; effect of temperature on the life on low cycle fatigue; and simulation of notched parts behavior.

  5. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.

    1985-10-01

    Dissolution of (/sup 111/In)labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of (/sup 111/In)lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a (/sup 111/In)salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system.

  6. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  7. A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhu; William E. Seyfried

    2005-01-01

    Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. One strategy that potentially enhances CO{sub 2} solubility and reduces the risk of CO{sub 2} leak back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and precipitation of secondary carbonate phases, which increases the brine pH and immobilizes CO{sub 2}. Clearly, the rates at which these dissolution and precipitation reactions occur directly determine the efficiency of this strategy. However, one of the fundamental problems in modern geochemistry is the persistent two to five orders of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory-measured and field derived feldspar dissolution rates. To date, there is no real guidance as to how to predict silicate reaction rates for use in quantitative models. Current models for assessment of geological carbon sequestration have generally opted to use laboratory rates, in spite of the dearth of such data for compositionally complex systems, and the persistent disconnect between lab and field applications. Therefore, a firm scientific basis for predicting silicate reaction kinetics in CO{sub 2} injected geological formations is urgently needed to assure the reliability of the geochemical models used for the assessments of carbon sequestration strategies. The funded experimental and theoretical study attempts to resolve this outstanding scientific issue by novel experimental design and theoretical interpretation to measure silicate dissolution rates and iron carbonate precipitation rates at conditions pertinent to geological carbon sequestration. In the first year of the project, we have successfully developed a sample preparation method and completed three batch feldspar dissolution experiments at 200 C and 300 bars. The changes of solution chemistry as dissolution experiments progressed were monitored with on-line sampling of the aqueous phase at the constant temperature and pressure. These data allow calculating overall apparent feldspar dissolution rates and secondary mineral precipitation rates as a function of saturation states. State-of-the-art atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe was used to characterize the reactants (feldspars before experiments). We experimented with different sample preparation methods for TEM study, and found excellent images and chemical resolution with reactants, which shows promise of the technology and establishes the baseline for comparison with products (feldspars after the experiments). Preliminary electron microscopic characterization shows that the reacted feldspars have etch pits and are covered with secondary sheet silicate phases. Reaction-path geochemical modeling is used to interpret the experimental results. We have established the software and database, and are making great progress. Also during the first year, our education goal of graduate student training has been achieved. A Ph. D. student at Indiana University is progressing well in the degree program and has taken geochemical modeling, SEM, and TEM courses, which will facilitate research in the second and third year. A Ph. D. student at University of Minnesota is progressing well in conducting the experiments, and is near graduation. With the success of training of graduate students and excellent experimental data in the first year, we anticipate a more fruitful year in the second year.

  8. Dissolution rate of alpha-doped UO2 in natural groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, Kaija; Myllykylä, Emmi; Tanhua-Tyrkkö, Merja; Lavonen, Tiina

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this work is to determine whether the presence of trace elements in natural groundwaters affects the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide in the presence of alpha radiation that causes radiolysis of water. The study is a part of the project Reducing Uncertainty in Performance Prediction (REDUPP) under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The project aims to reduce uncertainties related to the extrapolation of the results of laboratory experiments to the conditions expected under geologic disposal. Thus far, synthetic groundwater has been normally used in the experiments. The synthetic groundwaters used do not contain all of the chemical elements that occur in natural groundwaters. Three natural groundwaters were chosen for the dissolution experiments with 0%, 5%, and 10% 233U-doped UO2 samples. These include a brackish groundwater, a saline groundwater and a low ionic strength groundwater. At the time of writing this paper, the dissolution experiments have been finished in the first groundwater, which was a moderately saline, brackish groundwater. The groundwater samples for the experiments were taken from a borehole in the Olkiluoto site in Finland. The measurements for dissolution rates were conducted under reducing conditions established using metallic iron in solution and an argon atmosphere in the glove box. The isotope dilution method was used to decrease uncertainties due to precipitation and sorption effects. The resulting dissolution rates in OL-KR6 natural groundwater were generally somewhat higher than the rates measured previously in synthetic groundwaters under similar redox conditions. No clear effect of alpha radiolysis could be seen for tests with lower SA/V, while those for higher SA/V indicated that the dissolution rate was higher for the 10% 233U-doped UO2, suggesting the effect of alpha radiolysis under these conditions.

  9. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  10. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  11. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of testing. 230.45 Section 230.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  12. Methods and Models for the Construction of Weakly Parallel Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adema, Jos J.

    1992-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests based on a prespecified information function. A method is then described for selecting weakly parallel tests that are optimal with respect to the Maximin criterion. Numerical examples demonstrate the practicality of the tests. (SLD)

  13. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  14. Eddy Current Method for Fatigue Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor using a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. A ferrous shield isolates a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. Use of the magnetic shield produces a null voltage output across the receiving coil in presence of an unflawed sample. Redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws. eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. Maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. By obtaining position of maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. Accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output resulting in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip enabling the search region to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion causes incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. Low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of thickness of the test sample. Fatigue testing a conductive material is accomplished by applying load to the material, applying current to the sensor, scanning the material with the sensor, monitoring the sensor output signal, adjusting material load based on the sensor output signal of the sensor, and adjusting position of the sensor based on its output signal.

  15. Methods of Assessing Bias and Fairness in Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R.

    Several methods of assessing test item bias are described, and the concept of fair use of tests is examined. A test item is biased if individuals of equal ability have different probabilities of attaining the item correct. The following seven general procedures used to examine test items for bias are summarized and discussed: (1) analysis of…

  16. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 60. Conduct the test using a time period (t) for the pressure and vacuum tests of 5... leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section..., appendix A, 40 CFR Part 60. Conduct only the positive pressure test using a time period (t) of 5...

  17. Development of an oxygen impact-testing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, H. H.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a gaseous oxygen impact test method to aid in the selection of materials for high pressure oxygen systems is discussed. The objectives of the tests and the test equipment used are described. It is concluded that the impact test procedures are adequate for present purposes, but cannot be depended upon for establishing future standards.

  18. 40 CFR 75.22 - Reference test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Operation and Maintenance Requirements § 75.22 Reference test methods. (a) The... are produced in accordance with method 205 in Appendix M of 40 CFR Part 51; (ii) The sampling point... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference test methods. 75.22...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 61 - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Methods B Appendix B to Part 61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS Pt. 61, App. B Appendix B to Part 61—Test Methods Method 101—Determination of particulate...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 61 - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Methods B Appendix B to Part 61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS Pt. 61, App. B Appendix B to Part 61—Test Methods Method 101—Determination of particulate...

  1. 40 CFR 60.435 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.435... Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.435 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator... inks and related coatings used at the affected facility by: (1) Analysis using Method 24A of...

  2. Alunite dissolution rates: Dissolution mechanisms and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. L.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Pritchett, B. N.; Elwood Madden, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) is a hydrated aluminous sulfate mineral associated with acidic, oxidizing aqueous environments on Earth. Additionally, orbiting spacecraft and rovers on Mars have reported spectral data that indicate a range of mono- and polyhydrated sulfate phases and hydroxysulfate phases, suggesting such conditions also existed on Mars in the past. This study examines alunite dissolution rates in aqueous systems with varying pH, temperature, and solution chemistry conditions. Alunite dissolution rates in dilute solutions are 2-3 orders of magnitude slower than jarosite dissolution rates measured under analogous conditions. Similar to jarosite, alunite dissolution rates vary as a function of activity of H+ and OH- following the rate law log r (mol m-2 s-1) = -0.133(±0.02)pH - 10.65(±0.07) at pH < 5 and log r = 0.194(±0.04)pH - 12.53(±0.26) at pH > 5. However, minimum alunite dissolution rates are shifted to higher pH (5-5.5), likely due to differences in Fe and Al speciation. Alunite and jarosite rates converge in saturated NaCl and CaCl2 brines as the activity of water decreases, suggesting that differences in water exchange rates with Fe3+ and Al3+ control dissolution rates in dilute solutions, while metal-Cl- complexation occurs at similar rates within the brines. Particle lifetimes based on measured dissolution rates in dilute solutions show that alunite particles are expected to be preserved two orders of magnitude longer than jarosite particles over a range of pH and temperature conditions. In particular, alunite is more likely to be preserved in neutral to moderately alkaline systems compared to jarosite, which is expected to be preserved in more acidic conditions. Alunite dissolution produced amorphous Al-rich alteration products at moderate to high pH. Unlike jarosite, alunite dissolution does not show a clear trend as a function of temperature; alunite dissolution rates do not increase with increasing temperature, likely due to lower alunite solubility at higher temperature. Therefore, alunite is expected to be more prevalent in hydrothermal systems compared to jarosite.

  3. Evaluation of the Transwell System for Characterization of Dissolution Behavior of Inhalation Drugs: Effects of Membrane and Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Rohrschneider, Marc; Bhagwat, Sharvari; Krampe, Raphael; Michler, Victoria; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Hochhaus, Günther

    2015-08-01

    Assessing the dissolution behavior of orally inhaled drug products (OIDs) has been proposed as an additional in vitro test for the characterization of innovator and generic drug development. A number of suggested dissolution methods (e.g., commercially available Transwell or Franz cell systems) have in common a membrane which provides the separation between the donor compartment, containing nondissolved drug particles, and an acceptor (sampling) compartment into which dissolved drug will diffuse. The goal of this study was to identify and overcome potential pitfalls associated with such dissolution systems using the inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), viz., budesonide, ciclesonide, and fluticasone propionate, as model compounds. A respirable fraction (generally stage 4 of a humidity, flow, and temperature controlled Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) or a Next Generation Impactor (NGI)) was collected for the tested MDIs. The dissolution behavior of these fractions was assessed employing the original and an adapted Transwell system using dissolution media which did or did not contain surfactant (0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate). The rate with which the ICS transferred from the donor to the acceptor compartment was assessed by HPLC. Only a modified system that incorporated faster equilibrating membranes instead of the original 0.4 μm Transwell membrane resulted in dissolution and not diffusion being the rate-limiting step for the transfer of drug from the donor to the acceptor compartment. Experiments evaluating the nature of the dissolution media suggested that the presence of a surfactant (e.g., 0.5% SDS) is essential to obtain rank order of dissolution rates (e.g., for budesonide, fluticasone propionate, and ciclesonide) that is in agreement with absorption rates of these ICS obtained in studies of human pharmacokinetics. Using the optimized procedure, the in vitro dissolution behavior of budesonide, ciclesonide, and fluticasone propionate agreed approximately with descriptors of in vivo absorption. The optimized procedure, using membranes with increased permeability and surfactant containing dissolution medium, represents a good starting point to further evaluate in vitro/in vivo correlations. PMID:26091361

  4. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, J.L.

    1961-07-11

    The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

  5. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the large-scale ocean circulation, and examine methods of validating mixing parameterizations using large-scale ocean models.

  6. STATUS AND APPLICATIONS OF ECHINOID (PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA) TOXICITY TEST METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrolus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). he status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are descri...

  7. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  8. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  9. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  10. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  11. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  12. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  13. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  14. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  15. Dissolution and absorption of caffeine from guarana.

    PubMed

    Bempong, D K; Houghton, P J

    1992-09-01

    The rate of release of caffeine from capsules of guarana was compared with that from capsules containing an equivalent amount of caffeine using the British Pharmacopoeia dissolution test apparatus. Determinations were carried out in media of pH 2 and 6.8 and caffeine concentrations in the dissolution fluid were determined by HPLC. No significant differences in release rates were found between the two preparations at either pH. The rate of absorption of caffeine across rat intestine using the everted gut was also compared for a guarana suspension and a solution containing an equivalent amount of caffeine. Experiments were carried out using fluids of pH 4.0 and 7.4. No significant differences in absorption between the two preparations were observed. These results show that the release and uptake of caffeine from guarana is the same as for preparations containing free caffeine. PMID:1360532

  16. Uranium-Molybdenum Dissolution Flowsheet Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2007-03-01

    The Super Kukla (SK) Prompt Burst Reactor operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. The SK material is a uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight at approximately 20% 235U enrichment. H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) requested that the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) define a flowsheet for safely and efficiently dissolving the SK material. The objective is to dissolve the material in nitric acid (HNO3) in the H-Canyon dissolvers to a U concentration of 15-20 g/L (3-4 g/L 235U) without the formation of precipitates or the generation of a flammable gas mixture. Testing with SK material validated the applicability of dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature for various U and U-Mo metals. Based on the data, the SK material can be dissolved in boiling 3.0-6.0 M HNO3 to a U concentration of 15-20 g/L and a corresponding Mo concentration of 1.7-2.2 g/L. The optimum flowsheet will use 4.0-5.0 M HNO3 for the starting acid. Any nickel (Ni) cladding associated with the material will dissolve readily. After dissolution is complete, traditional solvent extraction flowsheets can be used to recover and purify the U. Dissolution rates for the SK material are consistent with those reported in the literature and are adequate for H-Canyon processing. When the SK material dissolved at 70-100 o C in 1-6 M HNO3, the reaction bubbled vigorously and released nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas. Gas generation tests in 1 M and 2 M HNO3 at 100 o C generated less than 0.1 volume percent hydrogen (H2) gas. It is known that higher HNO3 concentrations are less favorable for H2 production. All tests at 70-100 o C produced sufficient gas to mix the solutions without external agitation. At room temperature in 5 M HNO3, the U-Mo dissolved slowly and the U-laden solution sank to the bottom of the dissolution vessel because of its greater density. The effect of the density difference insures that the SK material cannot dissolve and concentrate within the charge bundles. Solubility behavior of the SK material during dissolution at 70 o C reflected data reported in the literature for 100 o C. When solutions containing solids at 70 o C were heated to 105 o C, the solids dissolved. After 21 days, the samples that had been heated closely resembled the non-heated ones with respect to solids content. Super-saturated solutions of U-Mo have been produced which can be stable for more than 10 days, but these conditions are outside of the bounds of the recommended flowsheet. It is not known how the different dissolution pathways affect solution stability, but the results agree with the fact that solubility should not be affected by the dissolution pathway. Therefore, the literature data should be used as the bounding condition for solubility. Dissolution of the SK material consumed 2.8-8.0 moles of acid per mole of metal dissolved, which agrees with behavior reported elsewhere for U and U-Mo metals. The acid consumption values confirmed that a starting acid concentration in the dissolver of 4.0-5.0 M HNO3 will allow H-Canyon Operations to avoid adjusting the feed from the dissolver prior to solvent extraction while providing maximum operating margin for avoiding precipitate formation.

  17. Hardness methods for testing maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2009-07-01

    Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to develop a suitable hardness method that could assist the maize industry in improving efficiency in processing as well as possibly providing a quality specification for maize growers, which could attract a premium. This paper focuses specifically on hardness and reviews a number of methodologies as well as important biochemical aspects of maize that contribute to maize hardness used internationally. Numerous foods are produced from maize, and hardness has been described as having an impact on food quality. However, the basis of hardness and measurement of hardness are very general and would apply to any use of maize from any country. From the published literature, it would appear that one of the simpler methods used to measure hardness is a grinding step followed by a sieving step, using multiple sieve sizes. This would allow the range in hardness within a sample as well as average particle size and/or coarse/fine ratio to be calculated. Any of these parameters could easily be used as reference values for the development of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations. The development of precise NIR calibrations will provide an excellent tool for breeders, handlers, and processors to deliver specific cultivars in the case of growers and bulk loads in the case of handlers, thereby ensuring the most efficient use of maize by domestic and international processors. This paper also considers previous research describing the biochemical aspects of maize that have been related to maize hardness. Both starch and protein affect hardness, with most research focusing on the storage proteins (zeins). Both the content and composition of the zein fractions affect hardness. Genotypes and growing environment influence the final protein and starch content and, to a lesser extent, composition. However, hardness is a highly heritable trait and, hence, when a desirable level of hardness is finally agreed upon, the breeders will quickly be able to produce material with the hardness levels required by the industry. PMID:19496585

  18. Overview of Non-Volatile Testing and Screening Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh

    2001-01-01

    Testing methods for memories and non-volatile memories have become increasingly sophisticated as they become denser and more complex. High frequency and faster rewrite times as well as smaller feature sizes have led to many testing challenges. This paper outlines several testing issues posed by novel memories and approaches to testing for radiation and reliability effects. We discuss methods for measurements of Total Ionizing Dose (TID).

  19. Chlorpheniramine dissolution and relative urinary excretion from commercial products.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H Y; Ayres, J W

    1989-10-01

    Dissolution profiles were determined for seven commercially available nonprescription solid dosage forms containing chlorpheniramine (four sustained release and three immediate release). An in vitro pH change method used to simulate GI transit produced dissolution profiles for some similarly labeled products which were significantly nonequivalent. One product failed to release its chlorpheniramine even when ground in a mortar and pestle in HCl solution, but did release drug in H3PO4 solution. A small (four subjects) relative bioavailability study based on average cumulative excretion of intact drug in urine gave results in parallel with substantially nonequivalent dissolution data for three products. PMID:2600791

  20. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemmons, T. G.; Lambert, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Verification and validation of the basic information capabilities in NASCRAC has been completed. The basic information includes computation of K versus a, J versus a, and crack opening area versus a. These quantities represent building blocks which NASCRAC uses in its other computations such as fatigue crack life and tearing instability. Several methods were used to verify and validate the basic information capabilities. The simple configurations such as the compact tension specimen and a crack in a finite plate were verified and validated versus handbook solutions for simple loads. For general loads using weight functions, offline integration using standard FORTRAN routines was performed. For more complicated configurations such as corner cracks and semielliptical cracks, NASCRAC solutions were verified and validated versus published results and finite element analyses. A few minor problems were identified in the basic information capabilities of the simple configurations. In the more complicated configurations, significant differences between NASCRAC and reference solutions were observed because NASCRAC calculates its solutions as averaged values across the entire crack front whereas the reference solutions were computed for a single point.

  1. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  2. Optical non-destructive testing methods of cultural heritage artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Miroslav; Bartl, Ján; Jacko, Vlado

    2005-08-01

    Optical methods are very powerful tools for non-destructive testing of works of art. There are several tasks connected with testing of works of art, which can be solved by use of optical methods, for example revealing of underdrawings in pictures, visualisation of artefacts that are due to degradation process invisible by naked eye, distinguishing between authentic and retouched parts of work of art, testing of degradation and ageing of works of art and many other tasks. In the contribution several selected optical testing methods will be described, among them ultraviolet fluorescence, infrared reflectography and laser scattering method.

  3. Standad test method for lead in gasoline: iodine monochloride method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method determines total lead in gasolines containing lead alkyls at concentrations between 0.12 and 6.0 g Pb/UK gal, 0.1 and 5.0 g Pb/US gal, and 0.026 and 1.3 g Pb/litre. A known volume of the sample is diluted with heavy distillate and shaken with aqueous iodine monochloride reagent. Any tetraalkyl lead compounds present react with the iodine monochloride and are extracted into the aqueous phase as the dialkyl lead compounds. The aqueous extract is separated from the gasoline and evaporated to low bulk to decompose free iodine monochloride. Any organic matter present is removed by oxidation with nitric acid, which also serves to convert the dialkyl lead compounds into inorganic lead compounds. The residue is dissolved in distilled water and buffered to pH 5 using sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer. The lead content of the buffered solution is determined by titration with EDTA using xylenol orange as indicator.

  4. Clinopyroxene Dissolution and Xenolith Digestion in Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Mg- and Ca-rich clinopyroxene dissolution in a basaltic melt was investigated at 1509-1790 K and 0.47-1.90 GPa using a piston-cylinder apparatus. Clinopyroxene saturation was treated as being determined by the product of MgO and CaO concentrations in the melt. Based on the experimental results, CMgO×CCaO at saturation is modeled as a function of T and P. Chen and Zhang (2008) modeled olivine saturation as being determined by the MgO concentration in the melt, and the saturation MgO concentration depends on T and P. The olivine and clinopyroxene saturation curves defined by the above two models cross in an MgO vs CaO plot, dividing the composition regime into four regions. The saturation status of olivine and clinopyroxene in a given melt at given T and P can be inferred from the position of the melt in the MgO-CaO composition regime. For example, if a melt composition falls to the right of the olivine saturation curve but to the left of the clinopyroxene saturation curve, clinopyroxene would dissolve but olivine would precipitate. The model is tested against xenolith dissolution experiments by Morgan and Liang (2005), in which olivine and clinopyroxene dissolved preferentially over orthopyroxene in a basaltic andesite, while clinopyroxene dissolved preferentially over olivine and orthopyroxene in an alkali basalt. The model prediction is consistent with the experimental results within model uncertainty. When the reaction textures of mantle xenoliths and the composition of the hosting basalt is known, the thermal history can be inferred by comparing the melt composition with the saturation curves in the MgO-CaO composition regime. For example, mantle xenolith in Cenozoic basalt from Northeast China show different reaction textures with the hosting magma (Chen et al. 2007). At Jingbohu, clinopyroxene display significant extent of dissolution, while olivine show smaller extent of dissolution or even possible overgrowth. Comparing the basalt composition at Jingbohu and the saturation curves at different T and small P in the MgO-CaO composition regime suggests that the eruption temperature of the basalt at Jingbohu is above 1473 K. At Kuandian, clinopyroxene display small extent of dissolution, while olivine show less dissolution or possible overgrowth. The eruption temperature of the basalt at Kuandian is inferred to be above 1450 K. References: Morgan Z. and Liang Y. (2005) CMP 150, 369-385. Chen Y., Zhang Y., Graham D., Su S. and Deng J. (2007) Lithos 96, 108-126. Chen Y. and Zhang Y. (2008) GCA. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.07.014.

  5. Ergodicity test of the eddy correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Hu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Lü, S.

    2014-07-01

    The turbulent flux observation in the near-surface layer is a scientific issue which researchers in the fields of atmospheric science, ecology, geography science, etc. are commonly interested in. For eddy correlation measurement in the atmospheric surface layer, the ergodicity of turbulence is a basic assumption of the Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory, which is confined to steady turbulent flow and homogenous surface; this conflicts with turbulent flow under the conditions of complex terrain and unsteady, long observational period, which the study of modern turbulent flux tends to focus on. In this paper, two sets of data from the Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (NaPlaCE) and the cooperative atmosphere-surface exchange study 1999 (CASE99) were used to analyze and verify the ergodicity of turbulence measured by the eddy covariance system. Through verification by observational data, the vortex of atmospheric turbulence, which is smaller than the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer (i.e., its spatial scale is less than 1000 m and temporal scale is shorter than 10 min) can effectively meet the conditions of the average ergodic theorem, and belong to a wide sense stationary random processes. Meanwhile, the vortex, of which the spatial scale is larger than the scale of the boundary layer, cannot meet the conditions of the average ergodic theorem, and thus it involves non-ergodic stationary random processes. Therefore, if the finite time average is used to substitute for the ensemble average to calculate the average random variable of the atmospheric turbulence, then the stationary random process of the vortex, of which spatial scale was less than 1000 m and thus below the scale of the boundary layer, was possibly captured. However, the non-ergodic random process of the vortex, of which the spatial scale was larger than that of the boundary layer, could not be completely captured. Consequently, when the finite time average was used to substitute for the ensemble average, a large rate of error would occur with use of the eddy correction method due to losing the low frequency component information of the larger vortex. When the multi-station observation was compared with the single-station observation, the wide sense of stationary random process originating from the multi-station observation expanded from a vortex which was about 1000 m smaller than a boundary layer scale to the turbulent vortex, which was larger than the boundary layer scale of 2000 m. Therefore, the calculation of the turbulence average or variance and turbulent flux could effectively meet the ergodic assumption, and the results would be approximate to the actual values. Regardless of vertical velocity and temperature, if the ergodic stationary random processes could be met, then the variance of the vortexes in the different temporal scales could follow M-O similarity theory; in the case of the non-ergodic random process, its vortex variance deviated from the M-O similarity relations. The exploration of ergodicity in the atmospheric turbulence measurements is doubtlessly helpful to understanding the issues in atmospheric turbulent flux observation, and provides a theoretical basis for overcoming related difficulties.

  6. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  7. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  10. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  11. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  12. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  13. Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include extreme/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating material allowables for MIL-HDBK-17. Attention is also given to a test method to measure the response of composite materials under reversed cyclic loads, a through-the-thickness strength specimen for composites, the use of torsion tubes to measure in-plane shear properties of filament-wound composites, the influlence of test fixture design on the Iosipescu shear test for fiber composite materials, and a method for monitoring in-plane shear modulus in fatigue testing of composites.

  14. Dissolution behavior of chemically amplified resist for advanced mask- and NIL mold-making as studied by dissolution rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Kazumasa; Oono, Kazuto; Negishi, Yoshiyuki; Inokuchi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Keishi; Tamura, Akira

    2006-05-01

    The dissolution behaviors of chemically amplified resists for electron beam lithography (EB CARs) have been investigated using the technique of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. We report the first direct measurement of the dissolution rate of EB CARs and the comparison with CAR of using KrF exposure in wafer fabrication. The EB CAR for nano-imprint lithography mold making was also evaluated by this technique, and then resolved 50 nm line and space patterns using conventional 50 KV variable shape beam writing system. The understanding of dissolution kinetics of EB CARs is capable of designing high performance resists in near future.

  15. Miniaturized INtrinsic DISsolution Screening (MINDISS) assay for preformulation.

    PubMed

    Alsenz, Jochem; Haenel, Elisabeth; Anedda, Aline; Du Castel, Pauline; Cirelli, Giorgio

    2016-05-25

    This study describes a novel Miniaturized INtrinsic DISsolution Screening (MINDISS) assay for measuring disk intrinsic dissolution rates (DIDR). In MINDISS, compacted mini disks of drugs (2-5mg/disk) are prepared in custom made holders with a surface area of 3mm(2). Disks are immersed, pellet side down, into 0.35ml of appropriate dissolution media per well in 96-well microtiter plates, media are stirred and disk-holders are transferred to new wells after defined periods of time. After filtration, drug concentration in dissolution media is quantified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) and solid state property of the disk is characterized by Raman spectroscopy. MINDISS was identified as an easy-to-use tool for rapid, parallel determination of DIDR of compounds that requires only small amounts of compound and of dissolution medium. Results obtained with marketed drugs in MINDISS correlate well with large scale DIDR methods and indicate that MINDISS can be used for (1) rank-ordering of compounds by intrinsic dissolution in late phase discovery and early development, (2) comparison of polymorphic forms and salts, (3) screening and selection of appropriate dissolution media, and (4) characterization of the intestinal release behavior of compounds along the gastro intestinal tract by changing biorelevant media during experiments. PMID:26360839

  16. Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: myth, magic, or method?

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M

    1991-01-01

    The demand for susceptibility testing of anaerobes has increased, yet consensus as to procedure and interpretation in this area has not been achieved. While routine testing of anaerobic isolates is not needed, certain isolates in specific clinical settings should be tested. Also, laboratories may monitor their local antibiograms by doing periodic surveillance batch testing. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has published a protocol of methods approved for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Both agar and broth microdilution are included; however, the broth disk elution method is no longer approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards because of method-related interpretive errors. A number of newer methods are undergoing evaluation and seem promising. Clinicians and microbiologists reviewing susceptibility reports should be aware of sources of variability in the test results. Variables in susceptibility testing of anaerobes include the media and methods used, organisms chosen for testing, breakpoints chosen for interpretation, antibiotic, and determination of endpoint. Clustering of MICs around the breakpoint may lead to significant variability in test results. Adherence of testing laboratories to approved methods and careful descriptions of the method and the breakpoints used for interpretation would facilitate interlaboratory comparisons and allow problems of emerging resistance to be noted. A variety of resistance mechanisms occurs in anaerobic bacteria, including the production of beta-lactamase and other drug-inactivating enzymes, alteration of target proteins, and inability of the drug to penetrate the bacterial wall. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States and abroad are described. PMID:1747863

  17. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

    2014-05-01

    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation.

  18. Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

  19. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Li, Jian; Yang, Mingshi; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-03-01

    Colistin is often the only effective antibiotic against the respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin-resistant multidrug-resistant isolates have been increasingly reported and combination therapy is preferred to combat resistance. In this study, five combination formulations containing colistin (COL) and rifampicin (RIF) were prepared by spray drying. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was measured for the formulation of COL/RIF = 4:1 with relatively high emitted doses (over 80%) and satisfactory fine particle fractions (over 60%). Data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nano-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed the surfaces of particles were mainly covered by rifampicin even for the formulation with a mass ratio of COL/RIF = 4:1. Because colistin is hygroscopic and rifampicin is hydrophobic, moisture absorption of combination formulations was significantly lower than the pure colistin formulation in the dynamic vapour sorption results. To investigate the dissolution characteristics, four dissolution test methods (diffusion Franz cell, modified Franz cell, flow-through and beaker methods) were employed and compared. The modified Franz cell method was selected to test the dissolution behaviour of aerosolised powder formulations to eliminate the effect of membrane on dissolution. The results showed that surface enrichment of hydrophobic rifampicin neither affected aerosolisation nor retarded dissolution rate of colistin in the combination formulations. For the first time, advanced surface characterisation techniques of XPS and ToF-SIMS have shown their capability to understand the effect of surface composition on the aerosolisation and dissolution of combination powders. PMID:26603890

  20. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1208 - What are the test methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission standard for dioxins and furans, you must use: (A) Method 0023A, Sampling Method... Sources, EPA Publication SW-846 (incorporated by reference—see § 63.14); or (B) Method 23, provided in... use Method 23 in the performance test plan required under § 63.1207(e)(i) and (ii). (2) In...

  3. 40 CFR 60.466 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Surface Coating § 60.466 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A to this part...) Method 24, or data provided by the formulator of the coating, shall be used for determining the VOC content of each coating as applied to the surface of the metal coil. In the event of a dispute, Method...

  4. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  5. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  6. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  7. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.496 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Method 4 for stack gas moisture. (b) For Method 24, the coating sample must be a 1-litre sample collected... volume must be 0.003 dscm except that shorter sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by... Surface Coating Industry § 60.496 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A...

  9. 40 CFR 60.496 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Method 4 for stack gas moisture. (b) For Method 24, the coating sample must be a 1-litre sample collected... volume must be 0.003 dscm except that shorter sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by... Surface Coating Industry § 60.496 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A...

  10. 40 CFR 60.496 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Method 4 for stack gas moisture. (b) For Method 24, the coating sample must be a 1-litre sample collected... volume must be 0.003 dscm except that shorter sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by... Surface Coating Industry § 60.496 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A...

  11. 40 CFR 60.496 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Method 4 for stack gas moisture. (b) For Method 24, the coating sample must be a 1-litre sample collected... volume must be 0.003 dscm except that shorter sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by... Surface Coating Industry § 60.496 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A...

  12. 40 CFR 60.466 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Surface Coating § 60.466 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A to this part...) Method 24, or data provided by the formulator of the coating, shall be used for determining the VOC content of each coating as applied to the surface of the metal coil. In the event of a dispute, Method...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  16. Saltcake Dissolution FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2002-09-26

    Laboratory tests were completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford saltcake waste from single-shell waste tanks 241-B-109 and 241-SX-101 (henceforth referred to as B-109 and SX-101). The River Protection Project (RPP) is tasked with retrieving waste from double-shell and single-shell tanks to provide feed for vitrification. The RPP organization needs chemical and physical data to evaluate technologies for retrieving the waste. Little relevant laboratory testing has been done to evaluate in-tank dissolution parameters for the various types of saltcake wastes that exist in single-shell tanks. A computer modeling program known as the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), produced by OLI Systems, Inc. of Morris Plains, New Jersey, is being used by the RPP organization to predict solubilities during dilution and retrieval of all tank waste types. Data from this task are provided to ESP users to support evaluation, refinement, and validation of the ESP model. Cascade (or ''stepwise'') dissolution tests were performed on composite saltcake samples from both tanks. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the solid/liquid phase distribution of chemicals and radionuclides during tank waste retrieval operations. Solid phase identification tests were also performed on saltcake from both tanks. Weight percent (wt%) dilution is defined in this report as 100 times the weight of diluent (water or 2 M NaOH solution) divided by the weight of undiluted saltcake composite sample. A 50% dilution, for example, would be 50 g of H{sub 2}O (or 50 g of 2 M NaOH) added to 100 g of undiluted composite sample. Volume percent (Vol%) dilution is defined as 100 times the volume of diluent divided by the calculated volume of undiluted sample. Weight percent dilutions are measured directly by weighing the undiluted sample and diluent. Volume percent dilutions are estimated from the known volume of diluent and calculated volume of undiluted sample.

  17. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Summary of test method. 1610.3 Section 1610... FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The Standard... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  18. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Summary of test method. 1610.3 Section 1610... FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The Standard... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  19. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Summary of test method. 1610.3 Section 1610... FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The Standard... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  20. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  1. 40 CFR 60.166 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.166 Section 60.166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Copper Smelters § 60.166 Test methods and...

  2. 40 CFR 60.186 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.186 Section 60.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Lead Smelters § 60.186 Test methods and procedures....

  3. 40 CFR 60.176 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.176 Section 60.176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.176 Test methods and procedures....

  4. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Summary of test method. 1610.3 Section 1610... FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The Standard... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  5. 40 CFR 60.446 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.446... Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations 60.446 Test methods and procedures. (a) The VOC content per unit of coating solids applied and compliance with 60.422(a)(1) shall be determined...

  6. 40 CFR 63.945 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures specified in Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... concentrations for the materials expected to be managed in the unit. During the test, the cover and closure... criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria...

  7. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust continuously during the first evacuation using the procedure found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A... outlined in the test methods listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (B) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR... concentration required in § 63.364(e), follow the procedures in PS 8 or PS 9 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix...

  8. 40 CFR 60.106 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.106 Section 60.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.106 Test methods and procedures....

  9. A Comparative Study of Methods of Equating TOEFL Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Marilyn M.

    Six methods of equating Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) test scores for samples consisting of the usual groups of examinees and groups controlled for native language representation were evaluated in terms of scale stability. The equating methods included three item response theory (IRT) variants (fixed b's scaling, a one-parameter…

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2.1A clearly written test method, preferably in the format of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A Test... reference from other methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons... not be airtight. On occasions, a puff of smoke observed at the drop sleeves is forced past the...

  11. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  12. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  13. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.296 Section 60.296 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.296 Test methods...

  14. 40 CFR 60.176 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.176 Section 60.176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.176 Test methods and procedures....

  15. 40 CFR 60.195 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.195 Section 60.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 60.195 Test methods...

  16. 40 CFR 60.344 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.344 Section 60.344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.344 Test methods and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.74 Section 60.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.624 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.624 Section 60.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.624 Test methods and...

  19. 40 CFR 60.123 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.123 Section 60.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Lead Smelters § 60.123 Test methods and...

  20. 40 CFR 60.186 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.186 Section 60.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Lead Smelters § 60.186 Test methods and procedures....

  1. 40 CFR 60.303 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.303 Section 60.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.303 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.386 Section 60.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods...

  3. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.85 Section 60.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.85 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  4. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary of test method. 1610.3 Section 1610.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The...

  5. 40 CFR 60.624 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.624 Section 60.624 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.624 Test methods and...

  6. Improved method for minimum inhibitory concentration testing of flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and reliable microdilution method has been developed to test the susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare to antibiotics in vitro. The method has been used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 23 F. columnare isolates. The tests were conducted at 28 °C using a stan...

  7. Equating Test Scores Using the Linear Method: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanguma, Jesus

    This paper describes four commonly used designs in equating test scores. These designs are: (1) single-group; (2) random-group; (3) equivalent-group; and (4) anchor-test. Each design requires that its data be collected according to specific guidelines. Three of the four methods are illustrated through hypothetical examples. All four methods try to…

  8. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  13. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of...

  14. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.424 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.424 Section 60.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.424 Test methods...

  16. A new method testing the orthogonality of different protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Ágoston, Károly; Ágoston, Ágnes; Dorgan, Colin R; Fügedi, Péter

    2015-12-11

    A new test was elaborated to identify a new set of orthogonal protecting groups. With the developed method eight different protecting groups were tested under various deprotection conditions and the complex reaction mixtures were analysed by HPLC. The developed method allows for quick identification of orthogonality using simple model structures. PMID:26580711

  17. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  18. PREDICTIVE TEST METHODS: PERMEATION OF POLYMERIC MEMBRANES BY ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the result of screening elastomeric materials that may be suitable for formulating chemical-protective clothing, a simple test method has been developed that allows the prediction of the permeation of an organic solvent through a polymeric membrane. The test method, based on l...

  19. Improved method of HIPOT testing of advanced ignition system product

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.C.

    1992-04-01

    A new method of high potential (HIPOT) testing of advanced ignition system (AIS) product was developed. The new incorporated using a silver-filled RTV silicone as the electrodes of the HIPOT tester instead of the preformed, semi-rigid aluminum electrodes of the current tester. Initial results indicate that the developed method was more sensitive to the testing requirements of the HIPOT test. A patent for the combination of the material used and the method of testing developed was attempted but was withdrawn following a patent search by the US Patent Office.

  20. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... time period for a performance test shall be not less than 6 hours, during which at least 300,000 liters... calculated as follows: Mi=FKVS C where: Mi=Mass of benzene emitted during testing interval i, kg....