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Sample records for dissolution test method

  1. Dissolution testing of sublingual tablets: a novel in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Ousama; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2011-06-01

    In the sublingual (SL) cavity, compared with the gastrointestinal tract, tablets are subjected to minimal physiological agitation, and a limited volume of saliva is available to facilitate disintegration and dissolution. None of the official compendial dissolution apparatuses and methods simulate these SL conditions. In this study, a custom-made dissolution apparatus was constructed, and a novel in vitro method that simulates SL conditions was evaluated. Several epinephrine 40 mg SL tablet formulations under development and two commercial SL tablets, isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg and nitroglycerin 0.6 mg, were studied. The dissolution medium was 2 mL of distilled water at 25°C. Dissolution was measured at 60 and 120 s. The novel in vitro method was validated for accuracy, reproducibility, and discrimination capability, and was compared with the official US Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method using apparatus 2 (Paddle). The data obtained following the novel in vitro method were accurate and reproducible. This method was capable of detecting minor changes in SL formulations that could not be detected using other in vitro tests. Results from the official USP dissolution method and our novel in vitro method were significantly different (p < 0.05). Results reflecting the dissolution of rapidly disintegrating tablets using simulated SL conditions were obtained using the novel in vitro dissolution method. PMID:21523516

  2. Small Volume Dissolution Testing as a Powerful Method during Pharmaceutical Development

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Scheubel; Marc, Lindenberg; Eric, Beyssac; Jean-Michel, Cardot

    2010-01-01

    Standard compendia dissolution apparatus are the first choice for development of new dissolution methods. Nevertheless, limitations coming from the amount of material available, analytical sensitivity, lack of discrimination or biorelevance may warrant the use of non compendial methods. In this regard, the use of small volume dissolution methods offers strong advantages. The present study aims primarily to evaluate the dissolution performance of various drug products having different release mechanisms, using commercially available small volume USP2 dissolution equipment. The present series of tests indicate that the small volume dissolution is a useful tool for the characterization of immediate release drug product. Depending on the release mechanism, different speed factors are proposed to mimic common one liter vessel performance. In addition, by increasing the discriminating power of the dissolution method, it potentially improves know how about formulations and on typical events which are evaluated during pharmaceutical development such as ageing or scale–up. In this regard, small volume dissolution is a method of choice in case of screening for critical quality attributes of rapidly dissolving tablets, where it is often difficult to detect differences using standard working conditions.

  3. Simulating the postprandial stomach: biorelevant test methods for the estimation of intragastric drug dissolution.

    PubMed

    Koziolek, Mirko; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Neumann, Marco; Weitschies, Werner

    2013-06-01

    Intragastric drug release from solid oral dosage forms can be affected by altered physicochemical and mechanical conditions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Food effects may lead to changes of one or more pharmacokinetic parameters and, hence, influence drug plasma levels. This can result in severe consequences such as adverse drug reactions or even therapy failure. This review highlights different examples of drug performance under fed conditions. Various reasons such as delayed gastric emptying and pH-dependent solubility of the API as well as intragastric location and movement profiles of solid dosage forms can account for changed drug dissolution. Over the past years, several biorelevant media (e.g., fed state simulated gastric fluid) have been developed with the aim to approach the physiological situation regarding parameters such as pH, buffer capacity, surface tension, and osmolality. It was shown in different in vitro experiments that all of these factors can have an impact on drug dissolution. Besides the application of complex media such as milk or nutritional drinks, the dynamic changes of the gastric content were depicted in recent studies. The capabilities, limitations, and applicability of newly established test setups for the biorelevant simulation of intragastric drug delivery behavior are discussed. Simple test devices (e.g., rotating beaker or dissolution stress test) are mainly used for the biopharmaceutical evaluation of certain problems such as the impact of pressure or shear forces. On the other hand, complex biorelevant test devices (e.g., TNO TIM-1, Dynamic Gastric Model) have recently been introduced aiming at the simulation of multiple parameters characteristic for the postprandial upper GI tract. The different test methods are reviewed with respect to the spectrum of the simulated physiological factors and the degree of complexity. PMID:23654347

  4. Comparative Application of PLS and PCR Methods to Simultaneous Quantitative Estimation and Simultaneous Dissolution Test of Zidovudine - Lamivudine Tablets.

    PubMed

    Üstünda?, Özgür; Dinç, Erdal; Özdemir, Nurten; Tilkan, M Günseli

    2015-01-01

    In the development strategies of new drug products and generic drug products, the simultaneous in-vitro dissolution behavior of oral dosage formulations is the most important indication for the quantitative estimation of efficiency and biopharmaceutical characteristics of drug substances. This is to force the related field's scientists to improve very powerful analytical methods to get more reliable, precise and accurate results in the quantitative analysis and dissolution testing of drug formulations. In this context, two new chemometric tools, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) were improved for the simultaneous quantitative estimation and dissolution testing of zidovudine (ZID) and lamivudine (LAM) in a tablet dosage form. The results obtained in this study strongly encourage us to use them for the quality control, the routine analysis and the dissolution test of the marketing tablets containing ZID and LAM drugs. PMID:26085428

  5. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  6. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page...

  7. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page...

  8. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page...

  9. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page...

  10. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page...

  11. Effects of vessel geometric irregularity on dissolution test results.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zongming; Ahadi, Shafiq; Moore, Terry W; Doub, William H; Westenberger, B J; Buhse, Lucinda F

    2011-03-01

    Dissolution testing of pharmaceutical products is an important technique used extensively for both product development and quality control, but there are many variables that can affect dissolution results. In this study, the effect of the inner shape of standard 1-L dissolution vessels on drug dissolution results was investigated. The geometric dimensions and irregularities of commercially available vessels (obtained from four different manufacturers) were examined using a three-dimensional video-based measuring machine (VMM). The same analyst, dissolution test assembly, and experimental conditions were used for dissolution testing involving 10 mg of prednisone tablets (NCDA #2) with dissolution apparatus 2 (paddle). Mechanical calibration of the dissolution apparatus was performed prior to dissolution testing with each set of vessels. Geometric characteristics varied within and among the sets of vessels, but the overall averages and standard deviations of dissolution results (six vessels) showed no statistical significant differences among the vessel sets. However, some dissolution differences were noted when comparing individual vessels. With these types of comparisons, the vessel concentricity, sphericity, and radius of sphere were found to possibly influence the amount of prednisone dissolved, but flatness of vessel flange, cylindricity, and circularity showed no effect on dissolution results. The study shows that VMM is a technique that could be used to qualify dissolution vessels. PMID:20803604

  12. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2002-09-01

    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  13. A new biorelevant dissolution method for orodispersible films.

    PubMed

    Krampe, Raphael; Sieber, Daniel; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Specific knowledge about the dissolution behavior under biorelevant conditions is of high interest for the rational development of orodispersible films (ODFs). As the conditions in the oral cavity strongly differ from those in the gastrointestinal tract and from those performed with the pharmacopoeial test setups, a biorelevant dissolution setup was developed in this work, considering the mechanical force of the tongue, the saliva flow, the small fluid volume and the saliva composition. Especially in the initial phase, dissolution profiles of KTP (ketoprofen) ODFs observed by the new method showed a slower drug release than obtained with setups based on conventional dissolution methods. 27.47% KTP release after 100s was detected using the new method, compared to 59.29-82.55% detected without considering the in vivo conditions. Furthermore, an influence of the simulated in vivo conditions on the dissolution profile was observed. By simulating either saliva flow or mechanical force, the KTP release after 100s was two to three times higher (18.78% and 14.18%) compared to the profiles, measured without considering one of the parameters (6.76%). Further studies have to show, whether obtained data are comparable to in vivo data to predict drug release profiles of ODFs in the oral cavity. PMID:26515261

  14. A new method for evaluating the dissolution of orodispersible films.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yiran; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Huiping; Luo, Chunlin

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and assess a new dissolution apparatus for orodispersible films (ODFs). The new apparatus was based on a flow-through cell design which requires only a limited amount of dissolution medium and can automatically collect samples in short-time intervals. Compared with the dissolution method in Chinese Pharmacopeia, our method simulated the flow condition of the oral cavity and resulted in reproducible dissolution data and remarkably discriminating capability. Therefore, we concluded that the proposed dissolution method was particularly suitable for evaluating the dissolution of ODFs and should also be applicable to other fast-dissolving solid dosage forms. PMID:24483710

  15. Development and Validation of Discriminating and Biorelevant Dissolution Test for Lornoxicam Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Anumolu, P. D.; Sunitha, G.; Bindu, S. Hima; Satheshbabu, P. R.; Subrahmanyam, C. V. S.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of biorelevant and discriminating dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility is a useful technique for qualitative forecasting of the in vivo behavior of formulations. It also characterizes the drug product performance in pharmaceutical development. Lornoxicam, a BCS class-II drug is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug of the oxicam class, has no official dissolution media available in the literature. The objective of present work was to develop and validate a discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablet dosage forms. To quantify the lornoxicam in dissolution samples, UV spectrophotometric method was developed using 0.01M sodium hydroxide solution as solvent at ?ma×376 nm. After evaluation of saturation solubility, dissolution, sink conditions and stability of lornoxicam bulk drug in different pH solutions and biorelevant media, the dissolution method was optimized using USP paddle type apparatus at 50 rpm rotation speed and 500 ml simulated intestinal fluid as discriminating and biorelevant dissolution medium. The similarity factor (f2) were investigated for formulations with changes in composition and manufacturing variations, values revealed that dissolution method having discriminating power and method was validated as per standard guidelines. The proposed dissolution method can be effectively applied for routine quality control in vitro dissolution studies of lornoxicam in tablets and helpful to pharmacopoeias. PMID:26180277

  16. Prediction of in vivo drug release behavior of controlled-release multiple-unit dosage forms in dogs using a flow-through type dissolution test method.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Kengo; Tagawa, Kozo; Kobayashi, Masao; Osawa, Takashi

    2003-06-01

    A newly designed flow-through type dissolution test method (FT method) was applied to predict in vivo drug release behaviors in dogs of controlled-release multiple unit dosage forms. The in vivo drug release behaviors were directly observed by measuring the residual amount of drugs in preparations recovered from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral administration. Theophylline (TP), acetaminophen (AA), and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA), which have different solubility, were used as model drugs. In vivo drug release behaviors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of dogs were similar to the results of the Wagner-Nelson method. In vivo release behaviors of TP and AA, until 2h after administration, were well correlated to in vitro behaviors obtained by the paddle method at 100 rpm. However, the in vivo release rates of TP and AA were gradually decreased because of a lack of fluid in the lower region of the GI tract, their poor solubility, the difference of the release rates, and so on. Non-sink conditions, which would reflect TP and AA release in the lower region of the GI tract, were obtained by the FT method at a cell volume of 0.5 ml and a flow rate of 0.37 ml/h (TP), 0.48 ml/h (AA), respectively. The in vitro release profiles obtained by the FT method combining sink and non-sink conditions were similar to their in vivo profiles. On the other hand, in the case of PPA, the in vivo release profiles were considerably similar to the in vitro ones obtained by both the paddle method and the FT method. In conclusion, the FT method combining sink and non-sink conditions will give a good in vitro/in vivo correlation regarding release behavior for controlled-release multiple unit dosage forms. PMID:12753751

  17. Applications of a Biorelevant In Vitro Dissolution Method Using USP Apparatus 4 in Early Phase Formulation Development

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Vivian Ku

    2013-08-31

    drug's lifecycle. To that end, one of the most important and useful applications of dissolution testing is to predict the in vivo performance of solid oral dosage forms. However, there are several limitations of the traditional dissolution method...

  18. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  19. Hydrodynamic investigation of USP dissolution test apparatus II.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Armenante, Piero M; Plank, Russell V; Gentzler, Michael; Ford, Kenneth; Harmon, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The USP Apparatus II is the device commonly used to conduct dissolution testing in the pharmaceutical industry. Despite its widespread use, dissolution testing remains susceptible to significant error and test failures, and limited information is available on the hydrodynamics of this apparatus. In this work, laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used, respectively, to experimentally map and computationally predict the velocity distribution inside a standard USP Apparatus II under the typical operating conditions mandated by the dissolution test procedure. The flow in the apparatus is strongly dominated by the tangential component of the velocity. Secondary flows consist of an upper and lower recirculation loop in the vertical plane, above and below the impeller, respectively. A low recirculation zone was observed in the lower part of the hemispherical vessel bottom where the tablet dissolution process takes place. The radial and axial velocities in the region just below the impeller were found to be very small. This is the most critical region of the apparatus since the dissolving tablet will likely be at this location during the dissolution test. The velocities in this region change significantly over short distances along the vessel bottom. This implies that small variations in the location of the tablet on the vessel bottom caused by the randomness of the tablet descent through the liquid are likely to result in significantly different velocities and velocity gradients near the tablet. This is likely to introduce variability in the test. PMID:17573698

  20. Accelerated dissolution testing for controlled release microspheres using the flow-through dissolution apparatus.

    PubMed

    Collier, Jarrod W; Thakare, Mohan; Garner, Solomon T; Israel, Bridg'ette; Ahmed, Hisham; Granade, Saundra; Strong, Deborah L; Price, James C; Capomacchia, A C

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline controlled release capsules (THEO-24 CR) were used as a model system to evaluate accelerated dissolution tests for process and quality control and formulation development of controlled release formulations. Dissolution test acceleration was provided by increasing temperature, pH, flow rate, or adding surfactant. Electron microscope studies on the theophylline microspheres subsequent to each experiment showed that at pH values of 6.6 and 7.6 the microspheres remained intact, but at pH 8.6 they showed deterioration. As temperature was increased from 37-57 degrees C, no change in microsphere integrity was noted. Increased flow rate also showed no detrimental effect on integrity. The effect of increased temperature was determined to be the statistically significant variable. PMID:18785078

  1. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test for Meloxicam and Pridinol Mesylate from Combined Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Vignaduzzo, S. E.; Castellano, P. M.; Kaufman, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    The association of meloxicam and pridinol is indicated for treating muscular contractures and low back pain. A dissolution test for the meloxicam-pridinol combined tablet formulation was developed and validated, using a suitable HPLC method for simultaneously quantitating both dissolved drugs. The optimized conditions include the use of USP apparatus 2 at a paddle rotation rate of 75 rpm and 900 ml of 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH= 7.5) as dissolution medium, at 37.0±0.5°. The test, which demonstrated to be robust against small changes in bath temperature, paddle rotation speed and pH of the dissolution medium, was applied to two different brands of tablets; the corresponding dissolution profiles were constructed and both brands showed to dissolve at least 75% of the drugs at the 45 min time point. PMID:20838523

  2. Interlaboratory study of the reproducibility of the single-pass flow-through test method : measuring the dissolution rate of LRM glass at 70 {sup {degree}}C and pH 10.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-28

    An international interlaboratory study (ILS) was conducted to evaluate the precision with which single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests can be conducted by following a method to be standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials - International. Tests for the ILS were conducted with the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass developed previously for use as a glass test standard. Tests were conducted at 70 {+-} 2 C using a LiCl/LiOH solution as the leachant to impose an initial pH of about 10 (at 70 C). Participants were provided with LRM glass that had been crushed and sieved to isolate the -100 +200 mesh size fraction, and then washed to remove fines. Participants were asked to conduct a series of tests using different solution flow rate-to-sample mass ratios to generate a range of steady-state Si concentrations. The glass dissolution rate under each test condition was calculated using the steady-state Si concentration and solution flow rate that were measured in the test. The glass surface area was estimated from the mass of glass used in the test and the Si content of LRM glass was known. A linear relationship between the rate and the steady-state Si concentration (at Si concentrations less than 10 mg/L) was used to estimate the forward dissolution rate, which is the rate in the absence of dissolved Si. Participants were asked to sample the effluent solution at least five times after reaction times of between 3 and 14 days to measure the Si concentration and flow rate, and to verify that steady-state was achieved. Results were provided by seven participants and the data sets provided by five participants were sufficient to determine the forward rates independently.

  3. [Dissolution testing combined with computer simulation technology to evaluate the bioequivalence of domestic amoxicillin capsule].

    PubMed

    Pan, Rui-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Wan-Li; Li, Yu-Lan; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2014-08-01

    Re-evaluation of bioequivalence of generic drugs is one of the key research focus currently. As a means to ensure consistency of the therapeutic effectiveness of drug products, clinical bioequivalence has been widely accepted as a gold standard test. In vitro dissolution testing based on the theory of the BCS is the best alternative to in vivo bioequivalence study. In this article, the conventional dissolution method and flow-through cell method were used to investigate the dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules in different dissolution media, and the absorption behavior of the drugs with different release rates (t85% = 15-180 min) in the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by Gastro Plus. The flow-through cell method was thought better to reflect the release characteristics in vivo, and amoxicillin capsules with regard to the release rates up to 45 min (t85% = 45 min) were having a satisfied bioequivalence with the oral solution according to the C(max) and AUC. Although two different dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules were found by flow-through cell methods, prediction results revealed that domestic capsules were probably bioequivalent to each other. PMID:25322558

  4. Solar Radiation Management and Olivine Dissolution Methods in Climate Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kone, S.

    2014-12-01

    An overview of solar radiation management and olivine dissolution methods allows to discuss, comparatively, the benefits and consequences of these two geoengineering techniques. The combination of those two techniques allows to concomitantly act on the two main agents intervening in global warming: solar radiation and carbon dioxide. The earth surface temperature increases due mainly to carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) that keeps the solar radiation and causes the global warming. Two complementary methods to mitigate climate change are overviewed: SRM method, which uses injected aerosols, aims to reduce the amount of the inbound solar radiation in atmosphere; and olivine dissolution in water, a key chemical reaction envisaged in climate engineering , aiming to reduce the amount of the carbon dioxide in extracting it from atmosphere. The SRM method works on scenarios of solar radiation decrease and the olivine dissolution method works as a carbon dioxide sequestration method. Olivine dissolution in water impacts negatively on the pH of rivers but positively in counteracting ocean acidification and in transporting the silica in ocean, which has benefits for diatom shell formation.

  5. Clinical relevance of dissolution testing in quality by design.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Paul A; Lee, Wang Wang; Stott, Paul W; Townsend, Andy I; Smart, John P; Ghahramani, Parviz; Hammett, Tracey; Billett, Linda; Behn, Sheena; Gibb, Ryan C; Abrahamsson, Bertil

    2008-06-01

    Quality by design (QbD) has recently been introduced in pharmaceutical product development in a regulatory context and the process of implementing such concepts in the drug approval process is presently on-going. This has the potential to allow for a more flexible regulatory approach based on understanding and optimisation of how design of a product and its manufacturing process may affect product quality. Thus, adding restrictions to manufacturing beyond what can be motivated by clinical quality brings no benefits but only additional costs. This leads to a challenge for biopharmaceutical scientists to link clinical product performance to critical manufacturing attributes. In vitro dissolution testing is clearly a key tool for this purpose and the present bioequivalence guidelines and biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) provides a platform for regulatory applications of in vitro dissolution as a marker for consistency in clinical outcomes. However, the application of these concepts might need to be further developed in the context of QbD to take advantage of the higher level of understanding that is implied and displayed in regulatory documentation utilising QbD concepts. Aspects that should be considered include identification of rate limiting steps in the absorption process that can be linked to pharmacokinetic variables and used for prediction of bioavailability variables, in vivo relevance of in vitro dissolution test conditions and performance/interpretation of specific bioavailability studies on critical formulation/process variables. This article will give some examples and suggestions how clinical relevance of dissolution testing can be achieved in the context of QbD derived from a specific case study for a BCS II compound. PMID:18686045

  6. Systematic error associated with apparatus 2 of the USP dissolution test IV: effect of air dissolved in the dissolution medium.

    PubMed

    Cox, D C; Furman, W B; Page, D P

    1983-09-01

    Acceptable concentrations of gases in a medium are not well defined in USP dissolution tests. A sample of 10-mg prednisone tablets, known to be sensitive to dissolved gases, was tested with batches of purified water that contained different concentrations of air. The data suggest that the results from Apparatus 2 can be influenced by the concentration of air in the dissolution medium unless the medium remains unsaturated with air for the duration of the test. The repeatability of means of six results was markedly improved when the air concentration in the medium was accurately controlled at the beginning of the test. PMID:6631694

  7. Enzymes in the dissolution testing of gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Marques, Margareth R C

    2014-12-01

    Gelatin capsules are a widely used dosage form both for pharmaceutical drug products as well as dietary supplements. Gelatin in the presence of certain compounds, mainly aldehydes, or in high humidity and high temperature conditions can cross-link. Cross-linking involves covalent bonding of the amine group of a lysine side chain of one gelatin molecule to a similar amine group on another molecule. The covalent bonding is, for practical purposes, irreversible. Cross-linking results in the formation of a pellicle on the internal or external surface of the gelatin capsule shell that prevents the capsule fill from being released. In vitro dissolution testing of cross-linked gelatin capsules can result in slower release of the drug or no release at all. The data obtained by the Gelatin Capsule Working Group, created in the early 90s to investigate noncompliance of gelatin capsules, was used to establish the type and amounts of enzymes that can be added to the dissolution medium in the case of test failure to the presence of cross-linking in the gelatin. The two-tier dissolution testing was included in the US Pharmacopeia and it recommends the addition of pepsin (pH below 6.8) or pancreatin (pH above 6.8) to the medium depending on its pH. Pepsin shows good protease activity up to pH 4 and pancreatin above pH 6 leaving a gap where neither one has good activity. Possible proteolytic enzymes that could be used for the pH range 4-6.8 could be papain or bromelain. PMID:24942315

  8. Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  9. Development and evaluation of methods for starch dissolution using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part I: Dissolution of amylopectin.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated methods of starch dissolution with the aim of finding an optimum method to completely dissolve starch granules to form a molecularly dissolved starch solution without degradation of the polymers. Glycogen was used as a model molecule for amylopectin, to identify the dissolution conditions under which the degradation of the polymers was limited or not present. Dissolution was performed in water with temperatures up to 200 °C, facilitated by the use of heating in an autoclave or a microwave oven, or in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 100 °C. Waxy maize starch was chosen due to its high content of amylopectin and very low content of amylose. The degree of starch dissolution under different conditions was determined enzymatically. The effect of different dissolution conditions on the molar mass and root-mean-square radius of the polymers was determined with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index (AF4-MALS-dRI) detectors under aqueous conditions. The results suggest that reliable and accurate size separation and characterization of amylopectin can be obtained by dissolution of starch granules in an aqueous environment at 140 °C by autoclaving or in DMSO at 100 °C. The results also clearly show an upper limit for heat treatment of starch, above which degradation cannot be avoided. PMID:25925852

  10. MRI studies of the hydrodynamics in a USP 4 dissolution testing cell.

    PubMed

    Shiko, G; Gladden, L F; Sederman, A J; Connolly, P C; Butler, J M

    2011-03-01

    We present a detailed study of hydrodynamics inside the flow-through dissolution apparatus when operated according to USP recommendations. The pulsatile flow inside the flow-through cell was measured quantitatively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a spatial resolution of 234 × 234 ?m(2) and slice thickness of 1 mm. We report the experimental protocols developed for in situ MRI studies and the effect that the operating conditions and tablet orientation have on the hydrodynamics inside commercial flow cells. It was found that the flow field inside the dissolution cells was, at most operating conditions, heterogeneous, rather than fully developed laminar flow, and characterised by re-circulation and backward flow. A model tablet was shown to be contacted by a wide distribution of local velocities as a function of position and orientation in the flow cell. The use of 1 mm beads acted as a distributor of the flow but did not suffice to ensure a fully developed laminar flow profile. These results emphasise the necessity to understand the influence of test conditions on dissolution behaviour in defining robust flow-through dissolution methods. PMID:20949631

  11. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.: Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed.

  12. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack.

  13. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  14. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  15. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  16. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  17. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Aspirin, alumina, and magnesium oxide tablets. Aspirin in combination with alumina, and magnesium oxide in a tablet dosage form must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin, alumina, and magnesium...

  18. Developing dissolution testing methodologies for extended-release oral dosage forms with supersaturating properties. Case example: Solid dispersion matrix of indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Tomokazu; Morita, Shigeaki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Mimura, Hisahi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Reppas, Christos; Kitamura, Satoshi

    2015-07-25

    The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro dissolution test method with discrimination ability for an extended-release solid dispersion matrix of a lipophilic drug using the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Apparatus 4, flow-through cell apparatus. In the open-loop configuration, the sink condition was maintained by manipulating the flow rate of the dissolution medium. To evaluate the testing conditions, the drug release mechanism from an extended-release solid dispersion matrix containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers was investigated. As the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) maintained concentrations of indomethacin higher than the solubility in a dissolution medium, the release of HPMC into the dissolution medium was also quantified using size-exclusion chromatography. We concluded that the USP Apparatus 4 is suitable for application to an in vitro dissolution method for orally administered extended-release solid dispersion matrix formulations containing poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:26022889

  19. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Krot, N N.; Shilov, V P.; Fedoseev, A M.; Budantseva, N A.; Nikonov, M V.; Yusov, A B.; Garnov, A Y.; Charushnikova, I A.; Perminov, V P.; Astafurova, L N.; Lapitskaya, T S.; Makarenkov, V I.

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup -} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported. The present systematic tests investigated oxygen gas, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium persulfate oxidants to dissolve Cr(III) under alkaline conditions to form soluble chromate. Permanganate and ozone also were considered for testing but were thought to be of secondary interest because of the insoluble residue (MnO{sub 2} from permanganate) and complex equipment (necessary to generate ozone) implicit with use of these reagents. The oxygen and hydrogen peroxide reagents leave no condensable residue and sodium persulfate only leaves soluble sodium sulfate. Crystalline Cr(OH){sub 3}, various hydrothermally aged amorphous Cr(III) oxide hydrates, mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) oxide hydrates, and nickel and iron Cr(III) spinels, all of which have been identified or are likely constituents in Hanford tank wastes, were prepared and characterized for the dissolution tests. The effects of reagent and hydroxide concentrations, reaction temperature, and transition metal catalysts on reaction progress were investigated for each reagent as functions of reaction time. Reaction progress was measured by monitoring chromate concentration. Oxidation of chromium compounds by dissolved oxygen was found to increase linearly with oxygen partial pressure and NaOH concentration. The rate also increased with temperature at low activation energy, 26-36 kJ/mol, reflecting the opposing influences of decreasing oxygen volubility and increasing underlying chemical reaction rate. The reaction apparently proceeds by way of dissolved Cr(III) species, is catalyzed by Ni(II), and is slower for the hydrothermally aged materials. Dissolution rates ranged from about 7 x 10{sup -5} to 2.4 x 10{sup -4} moles Cr(III)/liter-hour in 80 C, 3-M NaOH with one atmosphere pure oxygen for the various Cr(III) compounds tested. These low dissolution rates commend the use of oxygen reagent to waste tank processing where extended residence times maybe practical. Oxidative dissolution of Cr(III) compounds by hydrogen peroxide was hampered in the presence of greater than 0.5 g Fe(III)/liter and other catalysts for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition and was less effective for materials that had undergone prolonged aging at high temperatures. Leaching was optimized at low excess NaOH and high temperatures (activation energy of {approx}82 kJ/mol). To prevent excessive loss of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to catalytic decomposition, the peroxide reagent must be added slowly and with intense stirring. Treatment of waste solids with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may only be attractive for freshly formed Cr(III) hydroxides [formed, for example, by alkaline metathesis of Cr(III)-bearing sludges] in the absence of decomposition catalysts such as Fe(III).

  20. High-Speed Intrinsic Dissolution Rate in One Minute Using the Single-Particle Intrinsic Dissolution Rate Method.

    PubMed

    Svanbäck, Sami; Ehlers, Henrik; Antikainen, Osmo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-11-01

    Intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) has traditionally been determined from a constant surface area of a substance. Here we present an optofluidic single-particle intrinsic dissolution rate (SIDR) method, by means of which real-time determination of IDR from continuously changing effective surface areas of dissolving individual microparticles, is possible. The changing surface area of the individual microparticles is characterized through continuous random orientation 3D particle morphology characterization during the dissolution process. Using noninvasive optical monitoring and nonspecific image analysis, we determined IDRs of a diverse set of substances from individual pure-substance microparticles (14-747 ?g) with an average relative standard deviation of 9.4%. A linear fit between SIDR and literature equilibrium solubility values (R(2) = 0.999) was achieved and kinetic solubility equivalent SIDRs were obtained, for all substances, in as little as 1 min. Such miniaturized methods could become valuable tools in drug discovery, by providing resource sparing higher quality data acquisition means to replace current high-throughput solubility methods. PMID:26439135

  1. Evaluation of USP apparatus 3 for dissolution testing of immediate-release products.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Wang, Jin T; Hussain, Ajaz S

    2002-01-01

    We sought to evaluate whether U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 3 can be used as an alternative to USP apparatus 2 for dissolution testing of immediate-release (IR) dosage forms. Highly soluble drugs, metoprolol and ranitidine, and poorly soluble drugs, acyclovir and furosemide, were chosen as model drugs. The dissolution profiles of both innovator and generic IR products were determined using USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm and apparatus 3 at 5, 15, and 25 dips per minute (dpm). The dissolution profiles from USP apparatus 3 were compared to those from USP apparatus 2 using the f(2) similarity test. The dissolution profile from USP apparatus 3 generally depends on the agitation rate, with a faster agitation rate producing a faster dissolution rate. It was found that USP apparatus 3 at the extreme low end of the possible agitation range, such as 5 dpm, gave hydrodynamic conditions equivalent to USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm. With appropriate agitation rate, USP apparatus 3 can produce similar dissolution profiles to USP apparatus 2 or distinguish dissolution characteristics for the IR products of metoprolol, ranitidine, and acyclovir. Incomplete dissolution was observed for the furosemide tablets using USP apparatus 3. Although it is primarily designed for the release testing of extended-release products, USP apparatus 3 may be used for the dissolution testing of IR products of highly soluble drugs, such as metoprolol and ranitidine, and some IR products of poorly soluble drugs, such as acyclovir. USP apparatus 3 offers the advantages of avoiding cone formation and mimicking the changes in physiochemical conditions and mechanical forces experienced by products in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12049485

  2. Improvement of the dissolution rate of nitrendipine using a new pulse combustion drying method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Cui, Fu-De; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2007-08-01

    Solid dispersions (SDs) of nitrendipine (NTD), a poorly water-soluble drug, were prepared with the Hypulcon pulse combustion dryer system, and the physicochemical properties of particles were investigated and compared with those of particles prepared with a spray dryer. The SD particles prepared with Hypulcon using Aerosil and Tween 80 as carriers showed improved properties over those prepared with a conventional spray dryer, such as smaller particle size, tighter particle size distribution, and no agglomeration. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry evaluation showed that the drug in the NTD-Aerosil SD prepared with 5% (v/v) Tween 80 solution was dispersed in an amorphous state. Fourier transformation IR spectroscopy indicated the presence of hydrogen bonds between NTD and Aerosil. Aerosil had greater ability to improve the dissolution of NTD than Sylysia and other polymers. The highest drug supersaturation concentration was maintained continuously during the dissolution test of the NTD-Aerosil SD prepared with 5% (v/v) Tween 80 solution using Hypulcon. The good hydrophilicity and dispersibility of Aerosil, solubilization of Tween 80, and actions of shock waves and ultrasonic waves might account for the amorphization of NTD and improved dissolution rate of SDs. Pulse combustion drying with low drying costs and high thermal efficiency is a promising method for the preparation of SD particles with improved properties without using organic solvent. PMID:17666831

  3. EVALUATION OF ARG-1 SAMPLES PREPARED BY CESIUM CARBONATE DISSOLUTION DURING THE ISOLOK SME ACCEPTABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently completed the evaluation of one of these opportunities - the possibility of using an Isolok sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard valve for taking DWPF process samples at the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The use of an Isolok for SME sampling has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time, and decrease CPC cycle time. The SME acceptability testing for the Isolok was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 and was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNLRP-2011-00145. RW-0333P QA requirements applied to the task, and the results from the investigation were documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00693. Measurement of the chemical composition of study samples was a critical component of the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. A sampling and analytical plan supported the investigation with the analytical plan directing that the study samples be prepared by a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) fusion dissolution method and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The use of the cesium carbonate preparation method for the Isolok testing provided an opportunity for an additional assessment of this dissolution method, which is being investigated as a potential replacement for the two methods (i.e., sodium peroxide fusion and mixed acid dissolution) that have been used at the DWPF for the analysis of SME samples. Earlier testing of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method yielded promising results which led to a TTR from Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) to SRNL for additional support and an associated TTQAP to direct the SRNL efforts. A technical report resulting from this work was issued that recommended that the mixed acid method be replaced by the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method for the measurement of magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and zirconium (Zr) with additional testing of the method by DWPF Laboratory being needed before further implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method at that laboratory. While the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok does not address any of the open issues remaining after the publication of the recommendation for the replacement of the mixed acid method by the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method (since those issues are to be addressed by the DWPF Laboratory), the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} testing associated with the Isolok testing does provide additional insight into the performance of the method as conducted by SRNL. The performance is to be investigated by looking to the composition measurement data generated by the samples of a standard glass, the Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1), that were prepared by the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method and included in the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. The measurements of these samples were presented as part of the study results, but no statistical analysis of these measurements was conducted as part of those results. It is the purpose of this report to provide that analysis, which was supported using JMP Version 7.0.2.

  4. Development and validation of a discriminative dissolution method for atorvastatin calcium tablets using in vivo data by LC and UV methods.

    PubMed

    Machado, J C; Lange, A D; Todeschini, V; Volpato, N M

    2014-02-01

    A dissolution method to analyze atorvastatin tablets using in vivo data for RP and test pilot (PB) was developed and validated. The appropriate conditions were determined after solubility tests using different media, and sink conditions were established. The conditions used were equipment paddle at 50 rpm and 900 mL of potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.0 as dissolution medium. In vivo release profiles were obtained from the bioequivalence study of RP and the generic candidate PB. The fraction of dose absorbed was calculated using the Loo-Riegelman method. It was necessary to use a scale factor of time similar to 6.0, to associate the values of absorbed fraction and dissolved fraction, obtaining an in vivo-in vitro correlation level A. The dissolution method to quantify the amount of drug dissolved was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and validated according to the USP protocol. The discriminative power of dissolution conditions was assessed using two different pilot batches of atorvastatin tablets (PA and PB) and RP. The dissolution test was validated and may be used as a discriminating method in quality control and in the development of the new formulations. PMID:24265014

  5. Dissolution profiles of perindopril and indapamide in their fixed-dose formulations by a new HPLC method and different mathematical approaches.

    PubMed

    Gumieniczek, Anna; M?czka, Paulina; Komsta, ?ukasz; Pietra?, Rafa?

    2015-09-01

    A new HPLC method was introduced and validated for simultaneous determination of perindopril and indapamide. Validation procedure included specificity, sensitivity, robustness, stability, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method was used for the dissolution test of perindopril and indapamide in three fixed-dose formulations. The dissolution procedure was optimized using different media, different pH of the buffer, surfactants, paddle speed and temperature. Similarity of dissolution profiles was estimated using different model-independent and model-dependent methods and, additionally, by principal component analysis (PCA). Also, some kinetic models were checked for dissolved amounts of drugs as a function of time. PMID:26431103

  6. A description of forsterite dissolution using ab initio methods

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Christin; Kubicki, James D.; Mueller, Karl; Cole, David R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular clusters representative of protonated, neutral, and deprotonated sites on a forsterite (Mg2SiO4) surface were employed to facilitate examination of Mg Obr bond-breaking via DFT calculations with the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) methodology. Hydrolysis reactions of the molecular clusters with a H2O molecule yielded barrier heights of 21, 54, and 39 kJ/mol for protonated, neutral, and deprotonated sites in the gas-phase, respectively, and the rate constants calculated using these barrier heights were 5.7x108, 2.7x104, and 2.2x106 s-1, respectively. Aqueous-phase calculations on the gas-phase structures were also performed, and the barrier heights were 33, 40, and 21 kJ/mol for the protonated, neutral, and deprotonated models. Rate constants were 4.3x106, 6.1x105, and 6.0x108 s-1. For models energy-minimized in the aqueous-phase the barrier heights were 42, 44, and 40 kJ/mol, and the rate constants were 1.4x107, 3.0x104, and 9.9x105 s-1, respectively. These differences highlight the importance of modeling structures with inclusion of solvent effects. Rates of Mg2+ release from the forsterite surface were predicted using these rate constants and models of the reactive site density and the H+ or OH surface speciation. These calculations are consistent with a more rapid rate of Mg2+ release under acidic conditions even though the activation energy barriers are equivalent within computational uncertainty. A comparison of these results to previous data shows that the predicted rates are much faster than experimentally measured dissolution rates, and this suggests that the Mg Obr bond break is a rapid process which is a component of Mg2+ release from the surface consistent with previous experimental observation of preferential Mg2+ leaching from forsterite. A dissolution mechanism involving polymerization and hydrolysis of Si Obr Si linkages is discussed that is consistent with the discrepancy between Mg2+ release rates and dissolution rates of forsterite.

  7. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver solutions as a function of reaction (dissolution) time, by analyzing offgas generation rate and composition, and by analyzing intermittent and final acid-insoluble solids at the end of the dissolution. The testing was conducted in a system designed to assess parameters that can influence sludge dissolution and provide information that can be used to determine operating conditions for the actual system.

  8. Field test of a calcite dissolution rate law: Fort's Funnel Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Slunder, J.S. ); Groves, C.G. . Center for Cave and Karst Studies)

    1994-03-01

    The laboratory-derived calcite dissolution rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) is the most widely used and mechanistically detailed expression currently available for predicting dissolution rates as a function of water chemistry. Such rate expressions are of great use in understanding timescales associated with limestone karst development. Little work has gone into the field testing of the rate law under natural conditions. This work measured dissolution rates by a crystal weight loss experiment in Buffalo Creek within Fort's funnel Cave, which lies within a pristine, forested catchment of Mammoth Cave National Park. Continuous water chemistry sampling over the same period allowed a time-integrated prediction of the dissolution based on the Plummer et al. (1978) expression. Results indicate that the rate law overpredicted dissolution by a factor of about ten. This concurs with earlier laboratory work suggesting that the law tends to overpredict rates in solutions close to equilibrium with respect to calcite, as were the waters within this part of the groundwater flow system.

  9. Observation of the dissolution process of Globigerina bulloides tests (planktic foraminifera) by X-ray microcomputed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Kimoto, Katsunori; Sasaki, Osamu; Kano, Harumasa; Honda, Makio C.; Okazaki, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    We performed a 9 day dissolution experiment with tests of the planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides at pH 6.7 ± 0.1 in water undersaturated with respect to calcite. The initial stage of the dissolution process, which is not recognizable from the surface structure of the tests, was quantitatively evaluated by X-ray microcomputed tomography (XMCT). XMCT revealed three distinct test structures: early-developed calcite formed during the juvenile stage of G. bulloides, an inner calcite layer, and an outer calcite layer. The test ultrastructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and CT number evaluated the density distribution in the test. The early-developed calcite and inner calcite layer had low CT numbers (500-1300; low density, porous) and were sensitive to dissolution, whereas the outer calcite layer had high CT numbers (<1300 high density) and resisted dissolution. Both the modes and the frequencies of the CT numbers decreased with progress of dissolution. Changes in the CT number histogram with progress of dissolution were quantified in terms of the percentage of calcite volume accounted for by low-density calcite (% Low-CT-number calcite). A clear linear relationship (R2 = 0.87) between % Low-CT-number calcite and % Test weight loss was found. This relationship indicates that the amount of test dissolution can be estimated from the distribution of CT numbers. We propose that XMCT measurements will be useful for quantitatively estimating the amount of carbonate loss from foraminiferal tests by dissolution.

  10. Development and Characterization of Solid Dispersion for Dissolution Improvement of Furosemide by Cogrinding Method

    PubMed Central

    Siahi-Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Valizadeh, Hadi; Taherpoor, Alireza; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Barzegar-Jalali, Azim; Adibkia, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize solid dispersion formulation of furosemide to enhance dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersions with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared by cogrinding method using crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose as carrier. The physical state and interactions between the drug and carrier were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) and X ray diffraction (XRD). Results: Solid dispersions (especially with drug: Carrier ratio of 1:2) showed a higher dissolution rate than their respective physical mixture and pure furosemide. Dissolution rate in pH 5.8 was also higher than pH 1.2. The XRD analysis showed that crystalline form was changed to the amorphous state in the solid dispersions. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interactions in the solid dispersion formulations. Release kinetic of formulations were fitted best to the Weibull and Wagner log probability (linear kinetic) as well as suggested 2 and Gompertz (non-linear kinetic) models. Conclusion: The dissolution properties of furosemide were improved with the use of hydrophilic carriers in solid dispersions due to change in the crystalline form of the drug and more intimate contact between drug and carriers which was dependent on the type and ratio of carrier as well as dissolution medium pH. PMID:25436197

  11. Turbine blade testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

  12. Production and dissolution of nuclear explosive melt glasses at underground test sites in the Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Smith, D.K.

    1998-11-06

    From 1975 to 1996 the French detonated 140 underground nuclear explosions beneath the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa in the South Pacific; from 1965 to 1971 the United States detonated three high yield nuclear tests beneath Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain. Approximately 800 metric tons of basalt is melted per kiloton of nuclear yield; almost lo7 metric tons of basalt were melted in these tests. Long-lived and toxic radionuclides are partitioned into the melt glass at the time of explosion and are released by dissolution with seawater under saturated conditions. A glass dissolution model predicts that nuclear melt glasses at these sites will dissolve in lo6 to lo7 yea

  13. Method for dissolution and stabilization of silica-rich fibers

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01

    A method for dissolving silica-rich fibers such as borosilicate fibers, fiberglass and asbestos to stabilize them for disposal. The method comprises (1) immersing the fibers in hot, five-weight-percent sodium hydroxide solution until the concentration of dissolved silica reaches equilibrium and a only a residue is left (about 48 hours), then immersing the residue in hot, five-weight-percent nitric acid until the residue dissolves (about 96 hours). After adjusting the pH of the dissolved fibers to be caustic, the solution can then be added to a waste vitrification stream for safe disposal. The method is useful in disposing contaminated HEME and HEPA filters.

  14. Method for dissolution and stabilization of silica-rich fibers

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for dissolving silica-rich fibers such as borosilicate fibers, fiberglass and asbestos to stabilize them for disposal. The method comprises (1) immersing the fibers in hot, five-weight-percent sodium hydroxide solution until the concentration of dissolved silica reaches equilibrium and a only a residue is left (about 48 hours), then immersing the residue in hot, five-weight-percent nitric acid until the residue dissolves (about 96 hours). After adjusting the pH of the dissolved fibers to be caustic, the solution can then be added to a waste vitrification stream for safe disposal. The method is useful in disposing contaminated HEME and HEPA filters. 1 fig.

  15. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Selective chemical dissolution of sulfides: An evaluation of six methods applicable to assaying sulfide-bound nickel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klock, P.R.; Czamanske, G.K.; Foose, M.; Pesek, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six analytical techniques for the selective chemical dissolution of sulfides are compared with the purpose of defining the best method for accurately determining the concentration of sulfide-bound nickel. Synthesized sulfide phases of known elemental content, mixed with well-analyzed silicates, were used to determine the relative and absolute efficiency, based on Ni and Mg recovery, of the techniques. Tested leach-methods purported to dissolve sulfide from silicate phases include: brominated water, brominated water-carbon tetrachloride, nitric-hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide-ammonium citrate, bromine-methanol and hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid. Only the hydrogen peroxide-ammonium citrate method did not prove adequate in dissolving the sulfide phases. The remaining five methods dissolved the sulfide phases, but the indicated amount of attack on the silicate portion ranged from 3% to 100%. The bromine-methanol method is recommended for assaying sulfide-Ni deposits when Ni is also present in silicate phases. ?? 1986.

  17. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  18. Dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursunoglu, Sait; Kaya, Muammer

    2015-11-01

    The dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method was investigated. The effects of the type of organic acid, acid concentration, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the lateritic nickel ore were examined. Organic acids were used individually prior to sequential leaching. Citric acid was more effective than the other two acids for the selective leaching of nickel and cobalt. An increase in the citric acid concentration negligibly affected the dissolution of the metals, whereas temperature exhibited a strong beneficial effect. Oxalic acid was determined to be the most appropriate organic acid for the second leaching step. After 8 h (4 h + 4 h) of leaching with organic acids (0.5 M citric + 0.5 M oxalic) in sequence at 90°C, 89.63% Ni, 82.89% Co, and 69.63% Fe were leached from the lateritic nickel ore. A sequential citric + oxalic acid leaching method could represent a viable alternative for the dissolution of metals from lateritic nickel ore.

  19. Corrosion tests to determine temperature and pH dependencies of the dissolution rates of sodalite, binder glass, and ceramic waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S.-Y.; Fanning, T. H.; Morss, L. R.; Ebert, W. L.

    2003-02-12

    A glass bonded-sodalite ceramic waste form (CWF) has been developed to immobilize salt wastes from electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. The CWF is a composite of salt-loaded sodalite and a binder glass formed at high temperature (850-950 C) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or pressureless-consolidation (PC) processes. A waste form degradation and radionuclide release model has been developed to support qualification of the CWF for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Six series of tests were conducted in conjunction with the development of that model. (1) Static tests were conducted to measure the dissolution rate of sodalite, HIP binder glass, and HIP CWF at 40, 70, and 90 C in pH range 4.8-9.8 buffer solution. The parameter values in the degradation model were calculated from the dissolution rates measured by the static tests. (2) Static tests were conducted at 70 C in noncomplexing tertiary amine pH buffers to confirm that the dissolution rate measured with traditional buffers was not affected by the complexation of metal ions. The results showed that the difference between dissolution rate determined with noncomplexing buffer and that determined with traditional buffers was negligible. (3) Static tests were conducted in five buffer solutions in the pH range 4.8-9.8 at 20 C with HIP sodalite, HIP glass, and HIP CWF. The results showed that the model adequately predicts the dissolution rate of these materials at 20 C. (4) Static tests at 20 and 70 C with CWF made by the PC process indicated that the model parameters extracted from the results of tests with HIP CWF could be applied to PC CWF. (5) The dissolution rates of a modified glass made with a composition corresponding to 80 wt% glass and 20 wt% sodalite were measured at 70 C to evaluate the sensitivity of the rate to the composition of binder glass in the CWF. The dissolution rates of the modified binder glass were indistinguishable from the rates of the binder glass. (6) The dissolution rate of a simple five-component glass (CSG) was measured at 70 C using static tests and single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests. Rates were similar for the two methods; however, the measured rates are about 10X higher than the rates measured previously at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for a glass having the same composition using an SPFT test method. Differences are attributed to effects of the solution flow rate on the glass dissolution rate and how the specific surface area of crushed glass is estimated. This comparison indicates the need to standardize the SPFT test procedure.

  20. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Initial Results From Dissolution Testing of Spent Fuel Under Acidic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Brady D.; Friese, Judah I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.

    2004-12-01

    Flow through dissolution tests using leachants with pH in the range 2 to 7 have been conducted on a moderate burnup Light Water Reactor spent fuel. Such low pH conditions have been modeled as possibly occurring in a failed waste package at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The release of total uranium, 99Tc, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239&240Pu were measured for up to 90% total reaction of the specimens. The reaction rates, determine both from the cumulative release and the release normalized to surface area, were found to decrease with increasing pH and with increasing extent of reaction. The implications to instantaneous release and long-term behavior in a geologic repository are discussed.

  2. An investigation of dissolution methods for Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope studies in zircon-and garnet-bearing

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    An investigation of dissolution methods for Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope studies in zircon- and garnet-bearing dissolution for garnet-bearing samples is anomalously high 176 Lu/177 Hf ratios relative to 176 Hf/177 Hf are not attained for garnet- or zircon-bearing rocks. High-temperature and pressure dissolution such as that which

  3. TRANSPORT OF REACTING SOLUTES SUBJECT TO A MOVING DISSOLUTION BOUNDARY: NUMERICAL METHODS AND SOLUTIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Catherine; Rubin, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we consider examples of chemistry-affected transport processes in porous media. A moving boundary problem which arises during transport with precipitation-dissolution reactions is solved by three different numerical methods. Two of these methods (one explicit and one implicit) are based on an integral formulation of mass balance and lead to an approximation of a weak solution. These methods are compared to a front-tracking scheme. Although the two approaches are conceptually different, the numerical solutions showed good agreement. As the ratio of dispersion to convection decreases, the methods based on the integral formulation become computationally more efficient. Specific reactions were modeled to examine the dependence of the system on the physical and chemical parameters.

  4. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  5. Selective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acidammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction method--I. Synthetic samples

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Selective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acid­ammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction of magnetite and maghemite in the acid­ammonium oxalate method to see whether the method is suitable mechanism during the experiments (see Appendix A), we used an adapted version of the acid­ammonium oxalate

  6. Improvement of dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drug by novel dry coating method using planetary ball mill.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Ryoichi; Horibe, Masashi; Oshima, Takao; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2008-09-01

    The dissolution property of a poorly water-soluble drug, flurbiprofen (FP), was improved by a novel dry coating method using a planetary ball mill. Several mixtures composed of water-soluble additives (D-mannitol, lactose, and erythritol), light anhydrous silicic acid, and flurbiprofen were prepared. These mixtures and several starches were co-ground in a planetary ball mill, and the surface of the starches was dry coated with the mixtures. The size, appearance, yield, and drug dissolution property of the dry coated preparations were evaluated, and the optimal formulation which improved the dissolution property of poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen was determined. The dissolution rate of FP was increased by dry coating of the surface of starches with microparticulated FP. It was further increased by co-grinding of FP, starch, and a water-soluble additive, or dry coating of the starch surface with microparticulated FP and light anhydrous silicic acid, as a glidant. These co-ground and dry coated preparations could be recovered from the pot of the planetary ball mill readily without adhesion to the inside wall of the pot. These are considered to be novel, industrially applicable methods for improving the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:18758094

  7. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  8. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  9. Preparation of a solid dispersion by a dropping method to improve the rate of dissolution of meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Bashiri-Shahroodi, Amir; Nassab, Parya Reisi; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Rajkó, Róbert

    2008-07-01

    Application of a solid dispersion system is one of the methods used to increase the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Adaptation of the dropping method from the chemical industry as a formulation procedure may help the scaling-up process and simplify the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. Meloxicam (ME), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is poorly soluble in water, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, a water-soluble carrier, were formulated by using a dropping method in an attempt to improve the dissolution of ME. Pure ME and physical mixtures and tablets of ME-PEG 4000 (1:3 ratio) were compared as regards their dissolution with samples formulated by the dropping method. The results revealed that the round particles (solid drops) exhibited a higher dissolution rate than those of the physical mixtures, tablets, and pure ME. Self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) as a chemometric method was used to evaluate X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) data. The results demonstrated the presence of a new crystalline phase in the solid dispersion, which can help the fast and quantitative dissolution from the solid drops. The round particles can be adapted to individual therapy by using a distributor. PMID:18612916

  10. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  11. Assessing the risk of pH-dependent absorption for new molecular entities: a novel in vitro dissolution test, physicochemical analysis, and risk assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Neil R; Xu, Yan; Patel, Dhaval; Grass, Michael; Caldwell, Brett; Jager, Casey; Mullin, Jim; Hansen, Luke; Crison, John; Saari, Amy; Gesenberg, Christoph; Morrison, John; Vig, Balvinder; Raghavan, Krishnaswamy

    2013-11-01

    Weak base therapeutic agents can show reduced absorption or large pharmacokinetic variability when coadministered with pH-modifying agents, or in achlorhydria disease states, due to reduced dissolution rate and/or solubility at high gastric pH. This is often referred to as pH-effect. The goal of this study was to understand why some drugs exhibit a stronger pH-effect than others. To study this, an API-sparing, two-stage, in vitro microdissolution test was developed to generate drug dissolution, supersaturation, and precipitation kinetic data under conditions that mimic the dynamic pH changes in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro dissolution was assessed for a chemically diverse set of compounds under high pH and low pH, analogous to elevated and normal gastric pH conditions observed in pH-modifier cotreated and untreated subjects, respectively. Represented as a ratio between the conditions, the in vitro pH-effect correlated linearly with clinical pH-effect based on the Cmax ratio and in a non-linear relationship based on AUC ratio. Additionally, several in silico approaches that use the in vitro dissolution data were found to be reasonably predictive of the clinical pH-effect. To explore the hypothesis that physicochemical properties are predictors of clinical pH-effect, statistical correlation analyses were conducted using linear sequential feature selection and partial least-squares regression. Physicochemical parameters did not show statistically significant linear correlations to clinical pH-effect for this data set, which highlights the complexity and poorly understood nature of the interplay between parameters. Finally, a strategy is proposed for implementation early in clinical development, to systematically assess the risk of clinical pH-effect for new molecular entities that integrates physicochemical analysis and in vitro, in vivo and in silico methods. PMID:24032349

  12. Bio-relevant dissolution testing of hard capsules prepared from different shell materials using the dynamic open flow through test apparatus.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Grzegorz; Cadé, Dominique; Benameur, Hassan; Weitschies, Werner

    2014-06-16

    Current compendial dissolution and disintegrating testing is unable to mimic physiological conditions affecting gastric drug release from immediate release dosage forms. In order to obtain more realistic data, a novel test setup was developed that we term a 'dynamic open flow through test apparatus'. It is based on the previously described dissolution stress test device and attempts to simulate the intra-gastric dissolution conditions pertinent to immediate release dosage forms administered under fasting conditions with respect to flow rates, intra-gastric temperature profiles and gastric motility. The concept of the dynamic open flow through test apparatus has been tested using five different types of hard capsules: conventional hard gelatin capsules (HGC), three hypromellose based capsules (Vcaps, Vcaps Plus and DRcaps) and pullulan based capsules (Plantcaps). These were of different sizes but all contained 100mg caffeine in each formulation, adjusted to avoid buoyancy by addition of excipient. When the capsules were stressed in the apparatus under the dynamic flow conditions applying mild pressure simulating gastric motility, release from release from Vcaps Plus, Vcaps and Plantcaps capsules was very well comparable to HGC. Capsules are usually swallowed with cold water and the temperature dependency of release from gelatin was noted as a significant factor, since heat exchange in the stomach is slow. PMID:24021609

  13. Development and application of a validated HPLC method for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium drug products

    PubMed Central

    Collier, J.W.; Shah, R.B.; Bryant, A.R.; Habib, M.J.; Khan, M.A.; Faustino, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive gradient HPLC method was developed for the analysis of dissolution samples of levothyroxine sodium tablets. Current USP methodology for levothyroxine (l-T4) was not adequate to resolve co-elutants from a variety of levothyroxine drug product formulations. The USP method for analyzing dissolution samples of the drug product has shown significant intra- and inter-day variability. The sources of method variability include chromatographic interferences introduced by the dissolution media and the formulation excipients. In the present work, chromatographic separation of levothyroxine was achieved on an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC with a Waters Nova-pak column (250mm × 3.9mm) using a 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0)–methanol (55:45, v/v) in a gradient elution mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection UV wavelength of 225 nm. The injection volume was 800 µL and the column temperature was maintained at 28 °C. The method was validated according to USP Category I requirements. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and analytical range. The standard curve was found to have a linear relationship (r2 > 0.99) over the analytical range of 0.08–0.8 µg/mL. Accuracy ranged from 90 to 110% for low quality control (QC) standards and 95 to 105% for medium and high QC standards. Precision was <2% at all QC levels. The method was found to be accurate, precise, selective, and linear for l-T4 over the analytical range. The HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of dissolution samples of marketed levothyroxine sodium tablets. PMID:20947276

  14. Studies on the dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated materials using a novel dialysis tubing experimental method

    SciTech Connect

    Woolgar, P.J. Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling ); Jones, K.C. )

    1999-06-15

    Assessment of risk and remediation strategies at contaminated sites requires that both the amounts of contaminants present and their potential for release from materials and soils be evaluated. The release, or dissolution, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated materials to water was therefore investigated. To facilitate investigations of PAH dissolution from physically disparate materials such as solid coal tars, creosote, oil, and spent oxide, an experimental method for measuring dissolved PAHs was developed employing dialysis tubing in batch-type system. This was validated and compared to aqueous-phase PAH concentrations measured using more traditional techniques and also predicted using Raoult's law. The experimental procedure was successfully used to determine near equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PAHs, but it could only be used to determine relative rates of approach to equilibrium as the dialysis tubing effected the rate constants. It was found that the contaminant materials influenced dissolution, in particular the close to equilibrium concentrations. For materials chemically similar to PAHs, such as nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs), the concentrations could be predicted using Raoult's law. For materials that were chemically dissimilar to PAHs, such as spent oxide, release was more thermodynamically favorable than for NAPLs.

  15. Dissolution rate of borosilicate glass SON68: A method of quantification based upon interferometry and implications for experimental and natural weathering rates of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Steefel, Carl I.

    2015-05-01

    Rates of glass dissolution from laboratory and field studies are often considered to be irreconcilable, although potential causes for the difference, such as solution saturation state and increasing surface area from progressive weathering, have not been explored in depth. The dissolution rate of SON68 glass, the non-radioactive analog of the French R7T7 composition, was determined in a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) system at 90 °C and pH 9 over a silica-saturation interval. Dissolution rates were determined on both powdered and monolithic specimens by assaying the concentration of elements released from glass to effluent solution. In addition, rates of 12 monolithic specimens were quantified using a Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) method. The method entails measuring the difference in height between a reference and reaction surface. The height difference is proportional to the dissolution rate. By adjusting the relative position of the reacted surface to average surface roughness, the effects of surface area on the dissolution rate can be minimized. Values of the dissolution rate, based upon chemical assay of the effluent solution on the one hand, and VSI methods on the other, were compared. In general, rates determined by the two methods are within a factor of 2×. The difference in rates may be due to the presence of a reaction layer that develops on the glass surface, resulting in an underestimation of the height difference measurement. The dissolution rates of SON68 glass in silica-saturated solutions were then compared to rates previously determined on basalt glass in natural weathering environments (Gordon and Brady, 2002, Chem. Geol. 190, 113-122). When adjusted for differences in temperature and pH, the ranges of borosilicate and basalt glass dissolution rates overlap, indicating that laboratory and field rates can be reconciled and that the principal control on glass dissolution is solution saturation with respect to amorphous silica.

  16. Pore-scale study of the effect of secondary carbonate precipitation on the dissolution of primary minerals using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport processes involving dissolution and/or precipitation are pervasive in Earth, energy, and environmental systems. One typical example is geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Among these reactive processes, it is commonly encountered that a second phase precipitates while the primary phase dissolves, and the precipitation and dissolution reactions are fully coupled with each other. In the case of mineral trapping of CO2, the primary silicate mineral dissolves due to a decrease of pH caused by the dissolution of CO2 into the solution; meanwhile the dissolved CO2 can react with cations to form a secondary precipitate of carbonate mineral. Although the effect of precipitation of secondary solid phase on the dissolution of the primary solid phase has been studied extensively, the results reported in the literature are often inconclusive and sometimes even contradict one another. The reason is that the coupled dissolution and precipitation processes are controlled by several factors whose contribution is difficult to ascertain, including the dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, temperature and pressure, pH and species concentration of the solution, physicochemical properties of the primary and secondary minerals, as well as the nucleation and crystal mechanisms of the precipitates, etc. In this study, a pore-scale (mesoscopic) model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to investigate the effects of secondary precipitation on the dissolution of the primary mineral. The model can predict coupled multiple physicochemical processes including fluid flow, mass transport, chemical reaction, dissolution, precipitation consisting of nucleation and crystal growth, as well as dynamical evolution of pore geometries. Effects of dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, molar volumes of primary and secondary minerals, initial powder size and surface roughness of the primary mineral, as well as nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms on the dissolution and precipitation processes are investigated in terms of rate and amount of dissolution and precipitation. Several types of dissolution and precipitation processes are identified based on the morphology and structure of the precipitates and on the extent to which the precipitates affect the dissolution of the primary mineral. Simulation results are also compared with existing experimental results. Depending on the conditions, the effect of the precipitates spans the full range of possible behavior from trivial changes to enhanced or reduced dissolution rates of the primary phase.

  17. Field Test for Measurement of In-Situ CO2 Dissolution and Residual Phase Trapping at the Heletz Experimental CO2 Injection Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerlund, F. F.; Niemi, A. P.; Bensabat, J.; Shtivelman, V.

    2012-12-01

    The long-term fate of geologically stored CO2 depends on its trapping over large-scales in the target reservoirs. Field testing is a critical step to improve our knowledge on in-situ trapping mechanisms. In this study, we present an interwell test aimed at measuring dissolution of CO2 as well as residual phase trapping. The test is designed for the Heletz experimental CO2 injection field site. The sequence includes a hydraulic test to measure residual scCO2 saturation and a novel tracer technique, together with measurements of abstracted fluid compositions for quantification of the rate of CO2 dissolution in the reservoir. The proposed tracer technique uses a tracer with negligible aqueous solubility, which is injected with the scCO2 and enriched in the scCO2 phase as CO2 dissolves. Using numerical modeling, the test is evaluated for various CO2 trapping conditions that may occur due to uncertainty in trapping processes and parameters. We show that the tracer can provide direct information about the dissolution of mobile scCO2, and that the rate of abstracted dissolved CO2 can be used for the prediction of the total rate of CO2 dissolution. The latter, provided that the amount of dissolved CO2 in the formation stabilizes, which can be achieved with the proposed abstraction scheme. We conclude that the combination of these measurements is a promising tool for detailed field-scale characterization of residual and dissolution trapping processes.

  18. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Trevisan, Luca; Agartan, Elif; Mori, Hiroko; Vargas-Johnson, Javier; González-Nicolás, Ana; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2015-03-31

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods and research results.

  19. Simultaneous UV imaging and raman spectroscopy for the measurement of solvent-mediated phase transformations during dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Jesper; Wu, Jian X; Naelapää, Kaisa; Boetker, Johan P; Jensen, Henrik; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-04-01

    The current work reports the simultaneous use of UV imaging and Raman spectroscopy for detailed characterization of drug dissolution behavior including solid-state phase transformations during dissolution. The dissolution of drug substances from compacts of sodium naproxen in 0.1 HCl as well as theophylline anhydrate and monohydrate in water was studied utilizing a flow-through setup. The decreases in dissolution rates with time observed by UV imaging were associated with concomitant solid form changes detected by Raman spectroscopy. Sodium naproxen and theophylline anhydrate were observed to convert to the more stable forms (naproxen, and theophylline monohydrate) within approximately 5 min. Interestingly, the new approach revealed that three intermediate forms are involved in the dissolution process prior to the appearance of the neutral naproxen during dissolution in an acidic medium. The combination of UV imaging and Raman spectroscopy offers a detailed characterization of drug dissolution behavior in a time-effective and sample-sparing manner. PMID:24496995

  20. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R; Mäder, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time. PMID:25805363

  1. Dissolution-precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonoosamy, Jenna; Kosakowski, Georg; Van Loon, Luc R.; Mäder, Urs

    2015-06-01

    In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective-diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time.

  2. Fabrication of fenofibrate nanocrystals by probe sonication method for enhancement of dissolution rate and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ige, Pradum Pundlikrao; Baria, Rohan K; Gattani, Surendra G

    2013-08-01

    Fenofibrate (FBT) is lipophillic drug used in hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia having logP 5.375, low solubility (practically insoluble in water) and low oral bioavailability (36%). The purpose of work was to develop FBT nanocrystals for the enhancement of solubility and oral bioavailability. Fenofibrate nanosuspension was prepared using probe sonicator and transformed into dry powder using freeze drying and characterized by DSC, FTIR, XRPD, SEM, particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, solubility, in vitro dissolution, in vivo bioavailability and stability studies. Formulation FNS3 and pure drug exhibited the in vitro dissolution about 73.89% and 8.53% in 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) media, respectively. When the particle size reduced from 80,000±923nm to 460±20nm, saturation solubility was significantly increased. The saturation solubility of formulation FNS3 in 0.5% and 1% of SLS media found to be 67.51±1.5?g/mL and 107±1.9?g/mL, respectively. While, the saturation solubility of pure drug in 0.5% and 1% of SLS was found to be 6.02±1.51?g/ml and 23.54±1.54?g/ml, respectively. The pharmacokinetic study of optimized nanocrystals (FNS3) conducted in New Zealand white rabbits showed 4.73-fold increase in relative bioavailability than that of pure drug. Long term stability studies showed that there was no significant change in the mean particle size and PDI at 5°C±3°C after 180 days. This enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of fenofibrate nanocrystals could be the promising approach for oral delivery. PMID:23602990

  3. Physical and dissolution characterization of cilostazol solid dispersions prepared by hot melt granulation (HMG) and thermal adhesion granulation (TAG) methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiou, Jiun-Da; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of poorly water-soluble drug have been discovered, but the poor bioavailability is a critical problem. In this study, physical properties and dissolution profiles of cilostazol solid dispersions prepared by hydrophilic/lipophilic excipients (Kollidon(®) VA64, tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), vitamine E) with hot-melt and thermal adhesion granulation (TAG) method to adsorb Fujicalin(®) and Microcel(®) were characterized. Results demonstrate the angle of repose in formulations with Fujicalin(®) was improved than those with Microcel(®), but the difference disappeared when more TPGS or vitamin E was added. Compared the formulation made by hot-melt and TAG method, both improved flowability. The hardness decreased with the increased amount of TPGS and vitamin E. The formulations with Microcel(®) had lower hardness than those with Fujicalin(®), because Microcel(®) has weaker adsorption ability and cannot afford much TPGS and vitamin E, leading to lower hardness. Furthermore, the solubility was almost three-fold higher than that of Pletaal(®) (7.68 ± 0.20 ?g/mL) in compositions containing TPGS and vitamin E made by hot-melt or TAG method, in which a controlled drug release pattern was demonstrated. There is no significant difference on dissolution profile between hot-melt and TAG method. However, the procedure of TAG is easier, indicating its potential pharmaceutical use. PMID:25089508

  4. Enhancement of the dissolution rate and bioavailability of fenofibrate by a melt-adsorption method using supercritical carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Park, Junsung; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of fenofibrate, a poorly water-soluble drug, using a melt-adsorption method with supercritical CO2. Methods: Fenofibrate was loaded onto Neusilin® UFL2 at different weight ratios of fenofibrate to Neusilin UFL2 by melt-adsorption using supercritical CO2. For comparison, fenofibrate-loaded Neusilin UFL2 was prepared by solvent evaporation and hot melt-adsorption methods. The fenofibrate formulations prepared were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder x-ray diffractometry, specific surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. In vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability were also investigated. Results: Fenofibrate was distributed into the pores of Neusilin UFL2 and showed reduced crystal formation following adsorption. Supercritical CO2 facilitated the introduction of fenofibrate into the pores of Neusilin UFL2. Compared with raw fenofibrate, fenofibrate from the prepared powders showed a significantly increased dissolution rate and better bioavailability. In particular, the area under the drug concentration-time curve and maximal serum concentration of the powders prepared using supercritical CO2 were 4.62-fold and 4.52-fold greater than the corresponding values for raw fenofibrate. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the usefulness of the melt-adsorption method using supercritical CO2 for improving the bioavailability of fenofibrate. PMID:23118538

  5. Assessment of In Vivo Clinical Product Performance of a Weak Basic Drug by Integration of In Vitro Dissolution Tests and Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Wesley, James A; Burns, Lee J; Coutant, Carrie A

    2015-11-01

    Effective integration of in vitro tests and absorption modeling can greatly improve our capability in understanding, comparing, and predicting in vivo performances of clinical drug products. In this case, we used a proprietary drug candidate galunisertib to describe the procedures of designing key in vitro tests, analyzing relevant experimental and trial data, and integrating them into physiologically based absorption models to evaluate the performances of its clinical products. By simulating the preclinical study result, we estimated high in vivo permeability for the drug. Given the high sensitivity of its solubility to pH, supersaturation may play an important role in the absorption of galunisertib. Using the dynamic dissolution test, i.e., artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) model and simulation, we concluded galunisertib in solution or tablet products could maintain supersaturation during the transit in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). A physiologically based absorption model was established by incorporating these key inputs in the simulation of Trial 1 results of galunisertib solution. To predict the performance of three tablet products, we developed z-factor dissolution models from the multi-pH USP dissolution results and integrate them into the absorption model. The resultant biopharmaceutical models provided good prediction of the extent of absorption of all three products, but underestimated the rate of absorption of one tablet product. Leveraging the ASD result and optimization with the dissolution model, we identified the limitation of the model due to complexity of estimating the dissolution parameter z and its in vitro-in vivo correlation. PMID:26126932

  6. Evaluation of modal testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-C.

    1984-01-01

    Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.

  7. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy Visualizes Pharmaceutical Tablets During Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Andrew L.; Kleinebudde, Peter; Herek, Jennifer; Strachan, Clare J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and structure can change during dissolution, it is essential to monitor it during dissolution testing. In this work coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is used to image the surface of tablets during dissolution while UV absorption spectroscopy is simultaneously providing inline analysis of dissolved drug concentration for tablets containing a 50% mixture of theophylline anhydrate and ethyl cellulose. The measurements showed that in situ CARS microscopy is capable of imaging selectively theophylline in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Additionally, the theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution, with needle-shaped crystals growing on the tablet surface during dissolution. The conversion of theophylline anhydrate to monohydrate, combined with reduced exposure of the drug to the flowing dissolution medium resulted in decreased dissolution rates. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring pharmaceutical tablet dissolution and correlating surface changes with changes in dissolution rate. PMID:25045833

  8. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy visualizes pharmaceutical tablets during dissolution.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Andrew L; Kleinebudde, Peter; Herek, Jennifer; Strachan, Clare J; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2014-01-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and structure can change during dissolution, it is essential to monitor it during dissolution testing. In this work coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is used to image the surface of tablets during dissolution while UV absorption spectroscopy is simultaneously providing inline analysis of dissolved drug concentration for tablets containing a 50% mixture of theophylline anhydrate and ethyl cellulose. The measurements showed that in situ CARS microscopy is capable of imaging selectively theophylline in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Additionally, the theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution, with needle-shaped crystals growing on the tablet surface during dissolution. The conversion of theophylline anhydrate to monohydrate, combined with reduced exposure of the drug to the flowing dissolution medium resulted in decreased dissolution rates. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring pharmaceutical tablet dissolution and correlating surface changes with changes in dissolution rate. PMID:25045833

  9. Relation between acid dissolution time in the vacuum test tube and time required for graphitization for AMS target preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yousuke; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Tsunomori, Fumiaki

    2007-06-01

    Availability of an effective graphitization system is essential for the successful operation of an AMS laboratory for radiocarbon measurements. We have set up a graphitization system consisting of metal vacuum lines for cleaning CO2 sample gas which is then converted to graphite. CO2 gas from a carbonate sample is produced in vacuum in a test tube by injecting concentrated phosphoric acid. The tube is placed into a heated metal block to accelerate dissolution. However, we have observed systematic differences in the time required to convert the CO2 gas to graphite under a hydrogen atmosphere, from less than 3 h to over 10 h. We have conducted a series of experiments including background measurements and yield measurements to monitor secondary carbon contamination and changes in isotopic fractionation. All of the tests show that the carbon isotope ratios remain unaffected by the duration of the process. We also used a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to identify possible contaminant gases. Contaminant peaks were identified at high mass (larger than 60) only for long duration experiments. This suggests a possible reaction between the rubber cap and acid fumes producing a contaminant gas that impeded the reduction of CO2.

  10. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  11. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  12. Predicting in vivo absorption behavior of oral modified release dosage forms containing pH-dependent poorly soluble drugs using a novel pH-adjusted biphasic in vitro dissolution test.

    PubMed

    Heigoldt, Ulrich; Sommer, Florian; Daniels, Rolf; Wagner, Karl-Gerhard

    2010-09-01

    The focus of in vitro dissolution testing during early development of modified release (MR) formulations is to provide predictive estimates of drug release in respect to in vivo performance of a drug product. However, there are enormous challenges in MR drug development to establish proper dissolution conditions for a predictive test. To overcome limitations of dissolution testing at constant pH, a modified USP apparatus 2 was developed, combining biphasic dissolution with a pH-gradient in the aqueous dissolution medium. Quasi sink conditions in the aqueous phase were introduced by the removal of dissolved active via distribution to an organic phase. Results from in vitro drug-release studies and in vivo absorption studies of four MR formulations made by different technologies comprising the pH-dependent poorly soluble drugs, dipyridamole and the investigational drug BIMT 17, indicated that dissolution testing using the biphasic approach enabled an improved forecast of the in vivo behavior and bioavailability of modified release formulations compared to conventional dissolution testing at pH 1, pH 5.5, or pH 6.8. It can be concluded that the novel pH-adjusted dissolution test might be a useful tool in early drug development to develop, select, and optimize MR prototypes of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) II compounds. PMID:20472059

  13. Short-core acoustic resonant bar test and x-ray CT imaging on sandstone samples during super-critical CO2 flooding and dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 requires accurate monitoring of the spatial distribution and pore-level saturation of super-critical (sc-) CO2 for both optimizing reservoir performance and satisfying regulatory requirements. Fortunately, thanks to the high compliance of sc-CO2 compared to brine under in-situ temperatures and pressures, injection of sc-CO2 into initially brine-saturated rock will lead to significant reductions in seismic velocity and increased attenuation of seismic waves. Because of the frequency-dependent nature of this relationship, its determination requires testing at low frequencies (10 Hz-10 kHz) that are not usually employed in the laboratory. In this paper, we present the changes in seismic wave velocities and attenuation in sandstone cores during sc-CO2 core flooding and during subsequent brine re-injection and CO2 removal via convection and dissolution. The experiments were conducted at frequencies near 1 kHz using a variation of the acoustic resonant bar technique, called the Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) method, which allows measurements under elevated temperatures and pressures (up to 120°C, 35 MPa), using a short (several cm long) core. Concurrent x-ray CT scanning reveals sc-CO2 saturation and distribution within the cores. The injection experiments revealed different CO2 patch size distributions within the cores between the injection phase and the convection/dissolution phase of the tests. The difference was reflected particularly in the P-wave velocities and attenuation. Also, compared to seismic responses, which were separately measured during a gas CO2 injection/drainage test, the seismic responses from the sc-CO2 test showed measurable changes over a wider range of brine saturation. Considering the proximity of the frequency band employed by our measurement to the field seismic measurements, this result implies that seismic monitoring of sc-CO2, if constrained by laboratory data and interpreted using a proper petrophysical model, can be conducted with greater accuracy for determining the sc-CO2 saturation and distribution within reservoir rock, than typically predicted by the Gassmann model and/or by a natural gas reservoir analogue.

  14. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  15. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  16. Influence of the Efavirenz Micronization on Tableting and Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Eduardo Costa; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; da Silva Honório, Thiago; da Silva Ascenção Barros, Rita de Cássia; Castro, Helena Carla Rangel; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Esteves, Valéria Sant'Anna Dantas; Rocha, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose an analytical procedure that provides the effects of particle size and surface area on dissolution of efavirenz. Five different batches obtained by different micronization processes and with different particle size distribution and surface area were studied. The preformulation studies and dissolution curves were used to confirm the particle size distribution effect on drug solubility. No polymorphic variety or amorphization was observed in the tested batches and the particle size distribution was determined as directly responsible for the improvement of drug dissolution. The influence of the preparation process on the tablets derived from efavirenz was observed in the final dissolution result in which agglomeration, usually seen in non-lipophilic micronized material, was avoided through the use of an appropriate wet granulation method. For these reasons, micronization may represent one viable alternative for the formulation of brick dust drugs. PMID:24300301

  17. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  18. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever. PMID:20963379

  19. Studies on the dissolution of glucose in ionic liquids and extraction using the antisolvent method.

    PubMed

    Hassan, El-Sayed R E; Mutelet, Fabrice; Pontvianne, Steve; Moïse, Jean-Charles

    2013-03-19

    Biomass, the fibrous material derived from plant cell walls, is a potentially clean and renewable nonfood feedstock for liquid fuel and chemical production in future biorefineries. The capability of ionic liquids to act as selective solvents and catalysts for biomass processing has already been proven. Thus, they are considered as an alternative to conventional solvents. Nevertheless, phase equilibria with biomass derived compounds is still lacking in the literature. To overcome the lack of experimental data on phase equilibria of biomass carbohydrates in ionic liquids, the solubility of d-glucose in four ionic liquids was measured within a temperature range from 283 to 373 K. Solubility data were successfully correlated with local composition thermodynamic models such as NRTL and UNIQUAC. In this work, the possibility of extracting glucose from these ionic liquids using the antisolvent method has been also evaluated. The parameters affecting the extraction process are the ionic liquid type, ethanol/ionic liquid ratio, temperature, water content, and time. Results indicate that ethanol can be successfully used as an antisolvent to separate glucose from ionic liquids. PMID:23398175

  20. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133 Transportation...DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be...

  1. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133 Transportation...DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be...

  2. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133 Transportation...DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be...

  3. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133 Transportation...DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be...

  4. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOEpatents

    Ohi, James (Denver, CO); De La Cruz, Jose L. (San Antonio, TX); Lacey, Paul I. (Wexford, IE)

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  5. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  6. Special test methods for batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-09-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  7. Dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 and partial separation of (226)Ra from radium/barium sulfate: A new treatment method for NORM waste from petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al Masri, M S; Amin, Yusr

    2016-01-01

    Complete dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 precipitate was successfully performed using NaNO2 as a reducing agent in acidic solution at room temperature. Results showed a significant effect of acid and NaNO2 concentrations and temperature on the dissolution efficiency. The method was successfully used for separation of radium from NORM scale samples from the petroleum industry; sufficient volume reduction of NORM waste was achieved. The obtained (226)Ra solution was purified using two separation methods. The dissolution method can be of great interest in the development of radiochemical analysis of radium isotopes. PMID:26623931

  8. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in...) Knowledge tests: (1) States must use the FMCSA pre-approved pool of test questions to develop...

  9. Nanotechnology versus other techniques in improving drug dissolution.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    Many newly discovered drug molecules have low aqueous solubility, which results in low bioavailability. One way to improve their dissolution is to formulate them as nanoparticles, which have high specific surface areas, consequently increasing the dissolution rate and solubility. Nanoparticles can be produced via top-down or bottom-up methods. Top-down techniques such as wet milling and high pressure homogenisation involve reducing large particles to nano-sizes. Some pharmaceutical products made by these processes have been marketed. Bottom-up methods such as precipitation and controlled droplet evaporation form nanoparticles from molecules in solution. To minimise aggregation upon drying and promote redispersion of the nanoparticles upon reconstitution or administration, hydrophilic matrix formers are added to the formulation. However, the nanoparticles will eventually agglomerate together after dispersing in the liquid and hinders dissolution. Currently there is no pharmacopoeial method specified for nanoparticles. Amongst the current dissolution apparatus available for powders, the flow-through cell has been shown to be the most suitable. Regulatory and pharmacopoeial standards should be established in the future to standardise the dissolution testing of nanoparticles. More nanoparticle formulations of new hydrophobic drugs are expected to be developed in the future with the advancement of nanotechnology. However, the agglomeration problem is inherent and difficult to overcome. Thus the benefit of dissolution enhancement often cannot be fully realised. On the other hand, chemical strategies such as modifying the parent drug molecule to form a more soluble salt form, prodrug, or cyclodextrin complexation are well established and have been shown to be effective in enhancing dissolution. Thus the value of nanoformulations needs to be interpreted in the light of their limitations. Chemical approaches should also be considered in new product development. PMID:23651399

  10. A versatile pore-scale multicomponent reactive transport approach based on lattice Boltzmann method: Application to portlandite dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ravi A.; Perko, Janez; Jacques, Diederik; De Schutter, Geert; Van Breugel, Klaas; Ye, Guang

    A versatile lattice Boltzmann (LB) based pore-scale multicomponent reactive transport approach is presented in this paper. This approach is intended to capture mineral phase and pore structure evolution resulting from geochemical interactions applicable, for example to model microstructural evolution of hardened cement paste during chemical degradation. In the proposed approach heterogeneous reactions are conceptualized as pseudo-homogenous (volumetric) reactions by introducing an additional source term in the fluid node located at the interface adjacent to a solid node, and not as flux boundaries as used in previously proposed approaches. This allows a complete decoupling of transport and reaction computations, thus different reaction systems can be introduced within the LB framework through coupling with external geochemical codes. A systematic framework for coupling an external geochemical code with the LB including pore geometry evolution is presented, with the generic geochemical code PHREEQC as an example. The developed approach is validated with a set of benchmarks. A first example demonstrates the ability of the developed approach to capture the influence of pH on average portlandite dissolution rate and surface evolution. This example is further extended to illustrate the influence of reactive surface area and spatial arrangement of mineral grains on average dissolution rate. It was demonstrated that both location of mineral grains and surface area play a crucial role in determining average dissolution rate and pore structure evolution.

  11. Polymer Testing 26 (2007) 614618 Short Communication: Test Method

    E-print Network

    Natelson, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    -line measurements using, e.g. the pressure filter test [3], ultrasonic testing [4] and spectroscopic monitoring concentrations and does not work with fibres. Ultrasonic testing is limited to applications that only requirePOLYMER TESTING Polymer Testing 26 (2007) 614­618 Short Communication: Test Method Determination

  12. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl...

  15. 49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Testing methods. (a) All tests shall be constructed in... contain at least 30 items, exclusive of the number of items testing air brake knowledge. Each...

  16. Characterization and evaluation of a modified PVPA barrier in comparison to Caco-2 cell monolayers for combined dissolution and permeation testing.

    PubMed

    Gantzsch, Sandra P; Kann, Birthe; Ofer-Glaessgen, Monika; Loos, Petra; Berchtold, Harald; Balbach, Stefan; Eichinger, Thomas; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Windbergs, Maike

    2014-02-10

    Aim of this study was to implement a modified phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay (PVPA) barrier as alternative to Caco-2 cell monolayers in a combined dissolution and permeation system for testing of solid dosage forms. Commercially available Transwell® inserts were coated with egg phospholipids (Lipoid E 80) and characterized by confocal Raman microscopy. The modified PVPA barrier was then evaluated in permeation studies with solutions of different drugs as well as in combined dissolution and permeation studies utilizing an immediate and an extended release tablet formulation. Raman cross section images demonstrated complete filling of the membrane pores with lipids and the formation of a continuous lipid layer of increasing thickness on top of the membrane during the stepwise coating procedure. Furthermore, it could be shown that this lipid coating remains intact for at least 18h under dynamic flow conditions, significantly exceeding the viability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. Permeability data for both drug solutions as well as for a fast and slow release tablet formulation were in excellent correlation with those data obtained for Caco-2 cell monolayers. Especially under the dynamic flow conditions prevailing in such a setup, the modified PVPA barrier is more robust and easier to handle than epithelial cell monolayers and can be prepared rather easily at a fraction of costs and time. The modified PVPA barrier may therefore represent a valuable alternative to Caco-2 cell monolayers in such context. PMID:24361370

  17. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, A. R.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-10-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO4.7H2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO4 and Na2SO4 as well as Mg(OH)2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting.

  18. DATE: __________________ NVLAP LAB CODE: _________________ Test Method

    E-print Network

    DATE: __________________ NVLAP LAB CODE: _________________ Test Method Designation Short Title _____ 30/DISC00A ANSI/INCITS 423.1 (2008) Information Technology - Conformance Testing Methodology Standard for Biometric Data Interchange Format Standards - Part 1: Generalized Conformance Testing Methodology _____ 30

  19. Implication of Carbonate Dissolution Dynamics based on Multifractality of microstrures on Rock Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuyun; He, Zhiliang; Fang, Yang; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Dianwei; Bao, Zhengyu

    2015-04-01

    It is of great significance to study the dissolution kinetics of carbonate rocks for evaluating the microstructures of the rocks and the potential of the reservoir. Dissolution potential and the effects of carbonate dissolution rates can be evaluated from quantitative descriptions of geomographical rock surface roughness. And the carbonate dissolution difference can be quantitaively characterized by the multifractality of element distribution patterns on thin-section surfaces. The present study therefore aimed to apply the method of moments to obtain multifractal parameters to measure dissolute carbonate rock surface roughness and the element distribution patterns on thin-sections, and then to assess the dissolution degree of different rock samples. Based on the interpretation of grey scales of ESEM micro-topographic shadows, this new procedure is primarily designed for use in the analysis of rock surface geometry after acid dissolution. The principle is based on the direct relationship between rock surface roughness and the shadows cast by rock micro-structures under fixed color conditions. The parameters obtained with multifractal analysis were compared to the dissolution rates of the carbonate rocks based on dynamic dissolution experiments. The tests were conducted on carbonate rocks collected from Sichuan and Xinjian Basins from China and their ESEM photographs before and after the chemical dissolution. The highly significant correlation between the rough surface multifractality and the dissolution rate shows well that rock surface geometry may affect the dissolution processes to a certain degree. The fractal and multifractal analysis indicates that the dissolution process is controlled by differences between the element distribution heterogeneity of Ca,Mg and Si. The reaction surface heterogeneity of oolitic limestone with high Ca content and low Mg content is weak, while the heterogeneity of oolitic dolomite with low Ca content and high Mg content is strong. Additionally, large difference of composition, strong heterogeneity of elements distribution can promote the dissolution reaction. Such kind of study may provide new insights into the study of carbonate dissolution dynamics and will be helpful for carbonate reservoir assessment.

  20. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  1. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  2. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  3. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this...) of this section. (i) From tests conducted using EPA reference method 25d. (ii) By...

  4. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  5. NISTIR 7942 Metrics and Test Methods for

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7942 Metrics and Test Methods for Industrial Kit Building Stephen Balakirsky Thomas Kramer and Test Methods for Industrial Kit Building Stephen Balakirsky Thomas Kramer Zeid Kootbally Anthony;Metrics and Test Methods for Industrial Kit Building Stephen Balakirsky, Thomas Kramer, Zeid Kootbally

  6. Methods and functions: Breath tests.

    PubMed

    Braden, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Breath tests provide a valuable non-invasive diagnostic strategy to in vivo assess a variety of enzyme activities, organ functions or transport processes. Both the hydrogen breath tests and the (13)C-breath tests using the stable isotope (13)C as tracer are non-radioactive and safe, also in children and pregnancy. Hydrogen breath tests are widely used in clinical practice to explore gastrointestinal disorders. They are applied for diagnosing carbohydrate malassimilation, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and for measuring the orocecal transit time. (13)C-breath tests non-invasively monitor the metabolisation of a (13)C-labelled substrate. Depending on the choice of the substrate they enable the assessment of gastric bacterial Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric emptying, liver and pancreatic function as well as measurements of many other enzyme activities. The knowledge of potential pitfalls and influencing factors are important for correct interpretation of breath test results before drawing clinical conclusions. PMID:19505663

  7. [Development and application of six-channel fiber optic sensing drug dissolution monitor].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Shen, Jing; Li, Li; Li, Xin-Xia; Chen, Jian

    2014-09-01

    The drug dissolution test is an important examination of drug testing, which plays a very important role in the drug quality assessment. Automation and proceduring monitoring of drug dissolution can be implemented by the optical fiber sensing technology. Two modes of detection of UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence quenching were established by software implementation, with xenon lamp, deuterium lamp or halogen tungsten lamp as fluorescence, UV and visible light source, branch Y type optical fiber as light path transmission medium, UV-Vis probe and fluorescence molecular probe as light response devices, and CCD as detector. Optical fiber sensing drug dissolution monitor not only solves the current problems of time-consuming, and sampling of off-line analysis, but also provides real-time information of drug dissolution process. Thus, our study may provide a better evaluation method for the drug quality control. PMID:25532369

  8. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  9. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  10. A novel method for dissolution and stabilization of non-mulberry silk gland protein fibroin using anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

    2008-04-15

    The importance of silk protein has increased because of its potential use as a natural biopolymer for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. In this report we show a novel and ecofriendly method for dissolution of gland silk protein fibroin. Non-mulberry silk fibroin from mature fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta was found to be optimally soluble in 1% (w/v) anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Regenerated fibroin showed distinct bands of approximately 395 and 197 kDa on electrophoresis in non-reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Enhanced fibroin dissolution via internalization of hydrophobic amino groups inside a hydrophilic amino acid core in the form of micelles was observed. Prolonged storage stability without gelation of SDS-extracted fibroin was seen. Atomic force microscopy showed micellar aggregation with mean micellar aggregation size of 8 nm. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed predominantly helical conformation due to surfactant addition with internal protein conformational changes as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopic studies. PMID:17969177

  11. [Methods of testing inactivated antirabies vaccines].

    PubMed

    Nedosekov, V V; Vishniakov, I F; Gruzdev, K N

    2001-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the potency of inactivated rabies vaccines are reviewed. Shortcomings of the traditional NIH method and advantages of modern rapid immunological in vitro methods (antibody binding test, radial immunodiffusion test, enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay) for estimation of antigenic activity of vaccines are discussed. PMID:11715712

  12. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    E-print Network

    Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies.

  13. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  14. Theoretical Comparison of Testing Methods Richard Hamlet

    E-print Network

    Hamlet, Richard

    Theoretical Comparison of Testing Methods Richard Hamlet Computer Science Department Portland State University Portland, OR 97207 USA (503)464-3216 hamlet@cs.pdx.edu Abstract Comparison of software testing

  15. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  16. Validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, L H; Carr, G J; Curren, R D; Chamberlain, M

    1998-01-01

    Before nonanimal toxicity tests may be officially accepted by regulatory agencies, it is generally agreed that the validity of the new methods must be demonstrated in an independent, scientifically sound validation program. Validation has been defined as the demonstration of the reliability and relevance of a test method for a particular purpose. This paper provides a brief review of the development of the theoretical aspects of the validation process and updates current thinking about objectively testing the performance of an alternative method in a validation study. Validation of alternative methods for eye irritation testing is a specific example illustrating important concepts. Although discussion focuses on the validation of alternative methods intended to replace current in vivo toxicity tests, the procedures can be used to assess the performance of alternative methods intended for other uses. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599695

  17. A novel determination of calcite dissolution kinetics in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, Adam V.; Rollins, Nick E.; Berelson, William M.; Dong, Sijia; Erez, Jonathan; Adkins, Jess F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel determination of the dissolution kinetics of inorganic calcite in seawater. We dissolved 13 C -labeled calcite in unlabeled seawater, and traced the evolving ?13 C composition of the fluid over time to establish dissolution rates. This method provides sensitive determinations of dissolution rate, which we couple with tight constraints on both seawater saturation state and surface area of the dissolving minerals. We have determined dissolution rates for two different abiotic calcite materials and three different grain sizes. Near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, and are well normalized by geometric surface area, giving an empirical dissolution rate dependence on saturation state (?) of: This result substantiates the non-linear response of calcite dissolution to undersaturation. The bulk dissolution rate constant calculated here is in excellent agreement with those determined in far from equilibrium and dilute solution experiments. Plots of dissolution versus undersaturation indicates the presence of at least two dissolution mechanisms, implying a criticality in the calcite-seawater system. Finally, our new rate determination has implications for modeling of pelagic and seafloor dissolution. Nonlinear dissolution kinetics in a simple 1-D lysocline model indicate a possible transition from kinetic to diffusive control with increasing water depth, and also confirm the importance of respiration-driven dissolution in setting the shape of the calcite lysocline.

  18. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  19. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  20. PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…

  1. The dilemma of disappearing diatoms: Incorporating diatom dissolution data into palaeoenvironmental modelling and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryves, David B.; Battarbee, Richard W.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.

    2009-01-01

    Taphonomic issues pose fundamental challenges for Quaternary scientists to recover environmental signals from biological proxies and make accurate inferences of past environments. The problem of microfossil preservation, specifically diatom dissolution, remains an important, but often overlooked, source of error in both qualitative and quantitative reconstructions of key variables from fossil samples, especially those using relative abundance data. A first step to tackling this complex issue is establishing an objective method of assessing preservation (here, diatom dissolution) that can be applied by different analysts and incorporated into routine counting strategies. Here, we establish a methodology for assessment of diatom dissolution under standard light microscopy (LM) illustrated with morphological criteria for a range of major diatom valve shapes. Dissolution data can be applied to numerical models (transfer functions) from contemporary samples, and to fossil material to aid interpretation of stratigraphic profiles and taphonomic pathways of individual taxa. Using a surface sediment diatom-salinity training set from the Northern Great Plains (NGP) as an example, we explore a variety of approaches to include dissolution data in salinity inference models indirectly and directly. Results show that dissolution data can improve models, with apparent dissolution-adjusted error (RMSE) up to 15% lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Internal validation suggests improvements are more modest, with bootstrapped prediction errors (RMSEP) up to 10% lower. When tested on a short core from Devils Lake, North Dakota, which has a historical record of salinity, dissolution-adjusted models infer higher values compared to unadjusted models during peak salinity of the 1930s-1940s Dust Bowl but nonetheless significantly underestimate peak values. Site-specific factors at Devils Lake associated with effects of lake level change on taphonomy (preservation and re-working, implied by dissolution data) may override model improvements incorporating dissolution. Dissolution-adjusted salinity models are also applied to a 150-year sediment record from Spiritwood Lake, North Dakota, which suggests that this lake has a damped and lagged response to major regional climate forcing of salinity during the Dust Bowl. At this site, dissolution data also suggest different taphonomic behaviour of taxa related to their seasonal patterns of growth and sedimentation. Thus, dissolution data can improve models, and aid interpretation of sedimentary profiles as records of limnological, ecological and environmental change, filtered by taphonomy.

  2. A Proposed Framework of Test Administration Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread application of personal computers to educational and psychological testing has substantially increased the number of test administration methodologies available to testing programs. Many of these mediums are referred to by their acronyms, such as CAT, CBT, CCT, and LOFT. The similarities between the acronyms and the methods

  3. Methods in Scaling the Basic Competence Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shun-Wen

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of employing the linear, normalizing, and arcsine transformation methods for constructing scale scores on the Basic Competence Test (BCTEST). Tests in three subject areas (Chinese, English, and Mathematics) were studied using the data of test administrations from 2001 to 2003. The resulting scale scores for each…

  4. Dissolution properties and physical characterization of telmisartan-chitosan solid dispersions prepared by mechanochemical activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin; Zhu, Xingyi; Luo, Xiaofang; Su, Weike

    2013-06-01

    Solid dispersion systems of telmisartan (a poorly water-soluble antihypertension drug) with biopolymer carrier chitosan have been investigated in this study. The mechanism of solubilization of chitosan for drug has been studied. In addition, the influence of several factors was carefully examined, including the preparation methods, the drug/carrier weight ratios, and the milling time. Drug dissolution and physical characterization of different binary systems were studied by in vitro dissolution test, particle size distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results presented that the weak basic property of chitosan appeared as the main driving force for the drug dissolution enhancement. Other effects such as decreased drug crystallinity and size played a positive contributory role. Among the preparation methods, cogrinding was the best method showing strong drug amorphization, reduced particle size, and enhanced dissolution. The drug dissolution markedly improved with increasing the amount of chitosan in solid mixtures. As a result, a significant effect of chitosan increasing telmisartan dissolution has been demonstrated, and cogrinding in a roll ball mill was the best way to prepare solid dispersions, which had high degree of uniformity in drug content and had a practical application in manufacturing. PMID:23430728

  5. Methods of Testing Thermal Insulation and Associated Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The system and method for testing thermal insulation uses a cryostatic insulation tester having a vacuum chamber and a cold mass including a test chamber and upper and lower guard chambers adjacent thereto. The thermal insulation is positioned within the vacuum chamber and adjacent the cold mass. Cryogenic liquid is supplied to the test chamber, upper guard and lower guard to create a first gas layer in an upper portion of the lower guard chamber and a second gas layer in an upper portion of the test chamber. Temperature are sensed within the vacuum chamber to test the thermal insulation.

  6. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO{sub 2} in contact with small volumes of water within a several month period when the radiolysis product H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is added to the groundwater solution. The test setup has been mocked up for operation with spent fuel in the hot-cell.

  7. Dimensionality reduction, and function approximation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) micro- and nanoparticle dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Varun Kumar; Jackowski, Konrad; Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) micro- and nanoparticles’ dissolution rates plays a significant role in pharmaceutical and medical industries. The prediction of PLGA dissolution rate is crucial for drug manufacturing. Therefore, a model that predicts the PLGA dissolution rate could be beneficial. PLGA dissolution is influenced by numerous factors (features), and counting the known features leads to a dataset with 300 features. This large number of features and high redundancy within the dataset makes the prediction task very difficult and inaccurate. In this study, dimensionality reduction techniques were applied in order to simplify the task and eliminate irrelevant and redundant features. A heterogeneous pool of several regression algorithms were independently tested and evaluated. In addition, several ensemble methods were tested in order to improve the accuracy of prediction. The empirical results revealed that the proposed evolutionary weighted ensemble method offered the lowest margin of error and significantly outperformed the individual algorithms and the other ensemble techniques. PMID:25709436

  8. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl...

  10. The Method of Manufactured Universes for Testing Uncertainty Quantification Methods 

    E-print Network

    Stripling, Hayes Franklin

    2011-02-22

    December 2010 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering THE METHOD OF MANUFACTURED UNIVERSES FOR TESTING UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION METHODS A Thesis by HAYES FRANKLIN STRIPLING IV Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful... OF MANUFACTURED UNIVERSES FOR TESTING UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION METHODS A Thesis by HAYES FRANKLIN STRIPLING IV Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of [BMIM]bromide using microwave-assisted organic synthesis method and its application for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Arianie, Lucy; Wahyuningrum, Deana Nurrachman, Zeily Natalia, Dessy

    2014-03-24

    The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch is crucial for the next application of cellulose as raw material for various biofuel and its derivatives. The aim of this research is to decrease the cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbromide or [BMIM] bromide which has been synthesized using Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. Conventional reaction method has also been carried out to synthesize [BMIM]bromide for comparison as well. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. The results showed that MAOS method is up to 90% faster in producing [BMIM]bromide compare to the conventional method. The application of [BMIM]bromide for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch showed that cellulose and lignin could be extracted using stirring process for 20 hours. The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index and its morphology changes were identified using FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscope.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of [BMIM]bromide using microwave-assisted organic synthesis method and its application for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianie, Lucy; Wahyuningrum, Deana; Nurrachman, Zeily; Natalia, Dessy

    2014-03-01

    The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch is crucial for the next application of cellulose as raw material for various biofuel and its derivatives. The aim of this research is to decrease the cellulose crystallinity index of palm empty fruit bunch using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbromide or [BMIM] bromide which has been synthesized using Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. Conventional reaction method has also been carried out to synthesize [BMIM]bromide for comparison as well. The characterization of synthesized product using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-MS showed that these reactions have been carried out successfully. The results showed that MAOS method is up to 90% faster in producing [BMIM]bromide compare to the conventional method. The application of [BMIM]bromide for dissolution of palm empty fruit bunch showed that cellulose and lignin could be extracted using stirring process for 20 hours. The decrease of cellulose crystallinity index and its morphology changes were identified using FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscope.

  13. [Process monitoring of dissolution of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets by fiber-chemical sensor assisted by mathematical separation model of linear equations].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hai-Yan; Li, Gai-Ru; Yu, Ying-Ge; Guo, Wei; Zhi, Ling; Li, Xin-Xia

    2014-04-01

    A method for on-line monitoring the dissolution of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets assisted by mathematical separation model of linear equations was established. UV spectrums of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were overlapping completely at the maximum absorption wavelength respectively. According to the Beer-Lambert principle of absorbance additivity, the absorptivity of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide was determined at the maximum absorption wavelength, and the dissolubility of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets was detected by fiber-optic dissolution test (FODT) assisted by the mathematical separation model of linear equations and compared with the HPLC method. Results show that two ingredients were real-time determined simultaneously in given medium. There was no significant difference for FODT compared with HPLC (p > 0.05). Due to the dissolution behavior consistency, the preparation process of different batches was stable and with good uniformity. The dissolution curves of valsartan were faster and higher than hydrochlorothiazide. The dissolutions at 30 min of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were concordant with US Pharmacopoeia. It was concluded that fiber-optic dissolution test system assisted by the mathematical separation model of linear equations that can detect the dissolubility of Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide simultaneously, and get dissolution profiles and overall data, which can directly reflect the dissolution speed at each time. It can provide the basis for establishing standards of the drug. Compared to HPLC method with one-point data, there are obvious advantages to evaluate and analyze quality of sampling drug by FODT. PMID:25007628

  14. Development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    1 Development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for Flavobacterium columnare and F Broth dilution · 22 °C and 28 °C Method development Methods & QC parameters Flavobacteria · Gram hours Recommended supplementation cannot be made but may include cations, NaCl, or horse or fetal calf

  15. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, P.M.; Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament. 2 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, Patrick M. (Dayton, OH); Merten, Jr., Charles W. (West Carrollton, OH)

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament.

  17. Experiment analysis of freeform testing based on absolute testing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Xu, Fuchao; Xing, Tingwen

    2014-07-01

    Requirements for the measurement resolution in the sub-nanometer range have become quite common which includes not only the repeatability or reproducibility but also the absolute measurement accuracy. The freeform lens for wavefront compensating contains some medium spatial frequency terms. The wavefront error of lithographic object lens is very small. One method to reduce the wavefront error of lithographic object lens is to use the freeform lens. The freeform lens for compensation needs more accuracy than the object lens. We can also use freeform lens of sphere or aspheric for compensation. The testing accuracy of sphere and aspheric lens are hard to achieve 1nm. The sphere and aspheric will contain the power term and are hard to find the cat-eye. The ion beam figure system (IBF) is the best polishing machine for nanometer manufacture which will polish the PV of 2um for several weeks even months. Usually we use the PV 200nm lens for compensation. So the freeform for compensation looks like a flat. In this paper we will show the testing experiment of the freeform and the testing problem. The freeform surface is created by 66 Zernike polynomials which are based on the flat lens. The freeform flat is polished by the ion figuring machine of NTG. The environment such as temperature, vibration, humidity is controlled well. The Zygo's interferometer Verifire Ashpere with absolute testing method is used to test the freeform. Position Accuracy is a problem in optical testing and manufacture. The high accuracy testing can't be determined by one method, we need the different method to compare the result especially these method will contain some defects. The defects of the recently absolute testing method are discussed.

  18. Using differential absorption radiography and acid dissolution to determine crystal size distributions of zircons: Methods and application to volcano-pluton connections in the Searchlight Magmatic System (Nevada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. R.; Pamukcu, A.; Gualda, G. A.; Miller, C. F.; Rivers, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    A ~10 km vertical cross section of the tilted Miocene Searchlight pluton is exposed in the Colorado River extensional corridor in southern Nevada. The pluton can be divided into three distinct units and stages of evolution. Significant mineralogical and geochemical similarities exist between rocks of similar ages in the Searchlight pluton and the nearby Highland Range volcanic sequence. For example, in the Searchlight pluton the contact between the lower, oldest unit and a more silicic middle unit marks a distinct compositional transition from quartz monzonite to granite. The compositions on both sides of this contact have been dated by zircon U-Pb at ~16.1 Ma. In the Highland Range, a transition of similar age and composition is observed, from trachydacite below the contact to rhyolite above. These parallels provide a unique opportunity to assess volcano-pluton connections. We are investigating connections between volcanoes and plutons in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor by using two methods of textural analysis on samples from both the pluton and the volcanic sequence. In the first method, differential absorption radiography, radiographs of samples are taken directly above and below the zircon absorption edge at 17.9 keV and 18.1 keV. The change in attenuation for these energies is minimal, except for Zr-rich phases, which absorb much more significant above edge than below edge. Consequently, the difference between above-edge and below-edge radiographs corresponds to a Zr map that uniquely reveals Zr-rich phases, particularly zircon. Combination of these Zr maps with regular radiographs allows zircons to be viewed in the context of other coexisting phases. In the second method, acid dissolution, 3-5 g samples of rock are dissolved in fluoroboric acid and zircon crystals are separated under a microscope. These crystals are then photographed under a petrographic microscope. Both radiographs and micrographs are analyzed with ImageJ to determine crystal size distributions (CSD). CSDs from differential absorption and acid dissolution show that they are complementary techniques. Radiography confidently resolves crystals <100 µm, but small sample size limits the number of larger crystals present. On the other hand, acid dissolution is effective for quantifying crystals >100 µm, but suffers from loss of the small crystals during processing. Combining these two methods allows CSDs over a wide range of sizes (10-1000 µm) to be determined. CSDs show that volcanic rocks are enriched in smaller crystals and have a paucity of crystals >120 µm, yielding relatively steep CSD slopes. Plutonic rocks have fewer small crystals but have a much larger number density of crystals >120 µm, with corresponding shallower CSD slopes. The contrast in CSD slopes is compatible with expectations of more prolonged crystallization intervals for the plutonic rocks. Preliminary data suggest that rocks on either side of the contact studied so far have similar CSDs.

  19. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  20. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods...of this section for continuous web cleaning machines, each owner or operator of a batch vapor or in-line solvent cleaning machine complying with an...

  1. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods...of this section for continuous web cleaning machines, each owner or operator of a batch vapor or in-line solvent cleaning machine complying with an...

  2. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods...of this section for continuous web cleaning machines, each owner or operator of a batch vapor or in-line solvent cleaning machine complying with an...

  3. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods...of this section for continuous web cleaning machines, each owner or operator of a batch vapor or in-line solvent cleaning machine complying with an...

  4. Oxygen isotopes in an oolitic ironstone and the determination of goethite. delta. sup 18 O values by selective dissolution of impurities: The 5 M NaOH method

    SciTech Connect

    Yapp, C.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Treatment of iron (III) oxides with hot 5 M NaOH solution can selectively dissolve silicate impurities (Kampf and Schwertmann, 1982). In the current work 5M NaOH solutions enriched in {sup 18}O (+670 {per thousand}) were employed to determine if this method could be used to purify goethites for {delta}{sup 18}O analysis. These experiments suggest that the structural stoichiometric oxygen in well-crystallized goethites does not exchange with hot 5 M NaOH solution. Therefore, this selective dissolution method appears to be isotopically viable. {sup 18}O- normal' 5 M NaOH treatments were applied to goethite-dominated ooids of the Upper Ordovician Neda Fm. ironstone. While not completely removed by successive NaOH treatments, the impurities were incrementally dissolved in constant elemental proportions (within analytical error). Consequently, the {delta}{sup 18}O value of the endmember goethite could be determined by material balance calculations. This goethite {delta}{sup 18} value is {minus}1.0{per thousand} for all analyzed samples of Neda Fm. ooids, including those from occurrences about 200 km apart. The spatial uniformity of the oolitic goethite {delta}{sup 18}O values suggest uniform conditions of goethite formation. The conditions might have been those of a low latitude continental weathering environment.

  5. Oxygen isotopes in an oolitic ironstone and the determination of goethite ?18O values by selective dissolution of impurities: The 5M NaOH method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapp, Crayton J.

    1991-09-01

    Treatment of iron (III) oxides with hot 5 M NaOH solution can selectively dissolve silicate impurities (KAMPF and SCHWERTMANN, 1982). In the current work 5M NaOH solutions enriched in 18O (+670%.) were employed to determine if this method could be used to purify goethites for ?18O analysis. These experiments suggest that the structural stoichiometric oxygen in well-crystallized goethites does not exchange with hot 5 M NaOH solution. Therefore, this selective dissolution method appears to be isotopically viable. 18O-"normal" 5 M NaOH treatments were applied to goethite-dominated ooids of the Upper Ordovician Neda Fm. ironstone. While not completely removed by successive NaOH treatments, the impurities were incrementally dissolved in constant elemental proportions (within analytical error). Consequently, the ?18O value of the endmember goethite could be determined by material balance calculations. This goethite ?18O value is -1.0%. for all analyzed samples of Neda Fm. ooids, including those from occurrences about 200 km apart. The spatial uniformity of the oolitic goethite ?18O values suggests uniform conditions of goethite formation. The conditions might have been those of a low latitude continental weathering environment.

  6. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  7. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  8. Thermal Insulation Testing Method and Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.

  9. Thermal insulation testing method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a desired warm temperature. The first surface is maintained at a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.

  10. Formal methods for test case generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.

  11. Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

  12. The effect of calcination temperature on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based composite nanotubes prepared by an in situ template dissolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiajie; Zhao, Li; Yu, Jiaguo; Liu, Gang

    2012-09-01

    TiO2-based composite nanotubes, based on an in situ template dissolution method, were one-step fabricated in a mixed aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid using ZnO nanorods as templates, and then the samples were calcined at different temperatures. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decoloration of Methyl Orange (MO) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under UV light. The results showed that the prepared sample possessed nanoscale tubular morphology with a wall thickness of ca. 30-50 nm, inner diameters of ca. 50-150 nm and lengths of ca. 400-2000 nm. The calcined samples exhibited excellent stabilization of the anatase phase in a wide temperature range of 300-800 °C. The un-calcined and calcined samples possessed hierarchically macro-mesoporous structures. The sample calcined at 600 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, corresponding to the maximal formation rate of \\z.rad OH on the photocatalyst. This is attributed to the improvement of anatase TiO2 crystallization, the formation of multi-phase structures including anatase, cubic Zn2TiO4, hexagonal ZnTiO3 and cubic ZnTiO3, and the presence of hierarchically macro-mesoporous structures.

  13. Development of test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.

  14. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  15. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  16. Development of In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation/Relationship Modeling Approaches for Immediate Release Formulations Using Compartmental Dynamic Dissolution Data from “Golem”: A Novel Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    ?ulen, Martin; Tuszy?ski, Pawe? K.; Polak, Sebastian; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander; Dohnal, Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    Different batches of atorvastatin, represented by two immediate release formulation designs, were studied using a novel dynamic dissolution apparatus, simulating stomach and small intestine. A universal dissolution method was employed which simulated the physiology of human gastrointestinal tract, including the precise chyme transit behavior and biorelevant conditions. The multicompartmental dissolution data allowed direct observation and qualitative discrimination of the differences resulting from highly pH dependent dissolution behavior of the tested batches. Further evaluation of results was performed using IVIVC/IVIVR development. While satisfactory correlation could not be achieved using a conventional deconvolution based-model, promising results were obtained through the use of a nonconventional approach exploiting the complex compartmental dissolution data. PMID:26120580

  17. Comparison of three preservation techniques for slowing dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic rich sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Schultz, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to halt or reduce dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic and/or pyrite-rich sediments, three different methods of short-term storage preservation were tested for efficacy: vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, and buffered water. Abundance counts of calcareous nannofossil assemblages over a six month period showed that none of the three preservation methods were consistently effective in reducing assemblage loss due to dissolution. In most cases, the control slides made at the drill site had more abundant calcareous nannofossil assemblages than those slides made from sediments stored via vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, or buffered water. Thin section and XRD analyses showed that in most cases, <1% pyrite was needed to drive the oxidation-reduction reaction that resulted in dissolution, even in carbonate-rich sediments.

  18. IMPROVED TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a fractional filtration efficiency test protocol for residential electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that avoids the limitations of the ASHRAE 52.2 method. Specifically, the objectives were to a) determine the change in efficiency that ...

  19. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  20. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O`Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination.

  1. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Jin, X; Ren, X; Zhu, Y; Liu, Z; Gao, X

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to detect simultaneously six active ingredients for quantification and dissolution study (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, apigenin, oleanolic acid). As we observed, contents of main active ingredients were close in the two formulations for daily dose. In each medium, more ingredients dissolved from formula granule with higher Ymax and Ka. The mean dissolution time of the most ingredients in granule was significantly shorter than that in pill in acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Furthermore, salidroside, specnuezhenide and luteolin dissolved more than 80% in 30 min from formula granule, which indicated higher solubility along the intestinal tract according to biopharmaceutics classification system. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its purposes and could be applied for quality control of herbal medicine. This work also can be used to provide necessary information on absorption for its biopharmaceutical properties. PMID:26664054

  2. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M.; Jin, X.; Ren, X.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Gao, X.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to detect simultaneously six active ingredients for quantification and dissolution study (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, apigenin, oleanolic acid). As we observed, contents of main active ingredients were close in the two formulations for daily dose. In each medium, more ingredients dissolved from formula granule with higher Ymax and Ka. The mean dissolution time of the most ingredients in granule was significantly shorter than that in pill in acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Furthermore, salidroside, specnuezhenide and luteolin dissolved more than 80% in 30 min from formula granule, which indicated higher solubility along the intestinal tract according to biopharmaceutics classification system. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its purposes and could be applied for quality control of herbal medicine. This work also can be used to provide necessary information on absorption for its biopharmaceutical properties.

  3. Mergers, Annexations, Dissolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Consolidations come in all shapes and sizes, including mergers, annexations and dissolutions. They do not all take place under state mandate, however. A handful of districts consolidate every year in some states like Illinois that have large numbers of small districts, many of them dual districts that serve K-8 or 9-12 in the same geographic area.…

  4. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  5. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  6. Methods and instruments for materials testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansma, Paul (Inventor); Drake, Barney (Inventor); Rehn, Douglas (Inventor); Adams, Jonathan (Inventor); Lulejian, Jason (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and instruments for characterizing a material, such as the properties of bone in a living human subject, using a test probe constructed for insertion into the material and a reference probe aligned with the test probe in a housing. The housing is hand held or placed so that the reference probe contacts the surface of the material under pressure applied either by hand or by the weight of the housing. The test probe is inserted into the material to indent the material while maintaining the reference probe substantially under the hand pressure or weight of the housing allowing evaluation of a property of the material related to indentation of the material by the probe. Force can be generated by a voice coil in a magnet structure to the end of which the test probe is connected and supported in the magnet structure by a flexure, opposing flexures, a linear translation stage, or a linear bearing. Optionally, a measurement unit containing the test probe and reference probe is connected to a base unit with a wireless connection, allowing in the field material testing.

  7. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOEpatents

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  8. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented.

  9. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Application of partial dissolution techniques to geochemical exploration has advanced from an early empirical approach to an approach based on sound geochemical principles. This advance assures a prominent future position for the use of these techniques in geochemical exploration for concealed mineral deposits. Partial dissolution techniques are classified as single dissolution or sequential multiple dissolution depending on the number of steps taken in the procedure, or as "nonselective" extraction and as "selective" extraction in terms of the relative specificity of the extraction. The choice of dissolution techniques for use in geochemical exploration is dictated by the geology of the area, the type and degree of weathering, and the expected chemical forms of the ore and of the pathfinding elements. Case histories have illustrated many instances where partial dissolution techniques exhibit advantages over conventional methods of chemical analysis used in geochemical exploration. ?? 1984.

  10. Using noble gas tracers to estimate residual CO2 saturation in the field: results from the CO2CRC Otway residual saturation and dissolution test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2013-12-01

    Residual CO2 saturation is a critically important parameter in CO2 storage as it can have a large impact on the available secure storage volume and post-injection CO2 migration. A suite of single-well tests to measure residual trapping was conducted at the Otway test site in Victoria, Australia during 2011. One or more of these tests could be conducted at a prospective CO2 storage site before large-scale injection. The test involved injection of 150 tonnes of pure carbon dioxide followed by 454 tonnes of CO2-saturated formation water to drive the carbon dioxide to residual saturation. This work presents a brief overview of the full test sequence, followed by the analysis and interpretation of the tests using noble gas tracers. Prior to CO2 injection krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) tracers were injected and back-produced to characterise the aquifer under single-phase conditions. After CO2 had been driven to residual the two tracers were injected and produced again. The noble gases act as non-partitioning aqueous-phase tracers in the undisturbed aquifer and as partitioning tracers in the presence of residual CO2. To estimate residual saturation from the tracer test data a one-dimensional radial model of the near-well region is used. In the model there are only two independent parameters: the apparent dispersivity of each tracer and the residual CO2 saturation. Independent analysis of the Kr and Xe tracer production curves gives the same estimate of residual saturation to within the accuracy of the method. Furthermore the residual from the noble gas tracer tests is consistent with other measurements in the sequence of tests.

  11. Inclusion complexes of chlorzoxazone with ?- and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin: Characterization, dissolution, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peixiao; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Lili; Yang, Hongqin; Yan, Jin; Li, Hui

    2015-10-20

    This study aimed to improve the water solubility and reduce the toxicity of chlorzoxazone via complexation with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD). Inclusion complexes between chlorzoxazone and the two cyclodextrins (CDs) were prepared by freeze-drying method. Formation of the complexes was confirmed by FT-IR, PXRD, (1)H NMR, DSC, and SEM. The water solubility and dissolution rates of chlorzoxazone were significantly increased by complexation with the two CDs. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that the complexes are less toxic to normal liver cells than free chlorzoxazone. In general, the HP-?-CD complex exhibited better dissolution properties than the ?-CD complex in various dissolution media. Therefore, the HP-?-CD complex can be used to design novel formulations of chlorzoxazone. PMID:26256188

  12. Control system health test system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Baker, Thomas M.

    2006-08-15

    A method is provided for testing multiple elements of a work machine, including a control system, a component, a sub-component that is influenced by operations of the component, and a sensor that monitors a characteristic of the sub-component. In one embodiment, the method is performed by the control system and includes sending a command to the component to adjust a first parameter associated with an operation of the component. Also, the method includes detecting a sensor signal from the sensor reflecting a second parameter associated with a characteristic of the sub-component and determining whether the second parameter is acceptable based on the command. The control system may diagnose at least one of the elements of the work machine when the second parameter of the sub-component is not acceptable.

  13. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  14. Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25°C: a test of a calcite dissolution model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Plummer, L. Neil; Busenberg, E.

    1981-01-01

    A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25°C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (< 10?3 atm). Good agreement was found between observed crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978).

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of... Integrity Test (Method 1310B) Note: The EP (Method 1310B) is published in “Test Methods for Evaluating...

  16. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  17. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more »as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  18. Improved method for azole antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, M A; Lapa, E W; Passero, P G

    1988-01-01

    A reproducible method is described for the determination of the MICs of ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole with sharp endpoints when employed with either yeasts or molds. A semisolid medium is used with controlled pH and standardized inoculum. The time of reading results is a critical factor in the conduct of this test. The medium is simple to prepare and has a relatively long refrigerator shelf life in a user-ready state, requiring only the addition of a freshly prepared inoculum after restoration to room temperature. Images PMID:2846651

  19. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

  20. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

  1. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR...to reduce the number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances...

  2. Analysis of Formation and Interfacial WC Dissolution Behavior of WC-Co/Invar Laser-TIG Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P. Q.; Ren, J. W.; Zhang, P. L.; Gong, H. Y.; Yang, S. L.

    2013-02-01

    During the valve fabrication, hard metal is welded to stainless steel or invar alloy for sealing purposes because of its good heat resistance operating at 500 °C. However, WC (tungsten carbide) dissolution in weld pool softens the hard metal and decreases mechanical properties near the hard metal/weld interface. In order to analyze the WC dissolution in welded joint, joining of hard metal and invar alloy was carried out using laser-tungsten inert gas hybrid welding method. Microstructures of the weld region, chemical composition were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and EDAX, respectively. Mechanical properties such as microhardness and four-point bend strength test were performed. Larger and smaller WC dissolution and WC dissolution through transition layer based on thermo-dynamics were discussed. The results thus indicate that WC dissolution led to cellular microstructure, columnar crystal, and transition layer under the effect of laser beam and tungsten arc. WC dissolution was affected by metal ions Fe+, Ni+, Co+ exchange in W-M-C system, and WC grain growth was driven by forces caused by laser beam and tungsten arc in larger WC, smaller WC, and liquid Fe, Ni systems.

  3. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  4. Dissolution on Titan and on Earth: Towards the age of Titan's karstic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, T.; Cordier, D.; Le Bahers, T.; Bourgeois, O.; Fleurant, C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    The morphology of Titan's lacustrine depressions led to comparisons with terrestrial depressions developed by karstic dissolution. We tested this hypothesis by computing dissolution rates of Titan's solids in liquid methane. We inferred from these rates the timescales needed to create dissolution landforms of a given depth. Dissolution would be a very efficient geological process to shape Titan's surface, on timescales generally shorter than 100 Myrs, consistent with the youth of Titan's surface (<1 Gyr).

  5. Method for testing vapor recovery lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tuma, J.E.

    1993-06-22

    A method for testing the integrity of the vapor recovery unit of a gasoline station dispensing station where the vapor recovery unit has phase 11 capability is described, comprising the steps of: sealing the vapor recovery unit from the dispensing station at the point most proximal to the dispensing station; sealing the vapor recovery unit from the gasoline reservoir; installing means for drawing a vacuum in the riser of the vapor recovery unit; sealing the vent of the vapor recovery unit; drawing a vacuum in the sealed vapor recovery unit until the vacuum reaches a predetermined level; and monitoring the vacuum pressure relative to the predetermined level in the modified vapor recovery unit for a preselected period of time to determine whether the vapor recovery unit is leaking.

  6. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemons, T. G.; Riddell, W. T.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Wawrzynek, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate NASCRAC (trademark) version 2.0, a second generation fracture analysis code, for verification and validity. NASCRAC was evaluated using a combination of comparisons to the literature, closed-form solutions, numerical analyses, and tests. Several limitations and minor errors were detected. Additionally, a number of major flaws were discovered. These major flaws were generally due to application of a specific method or theory, not due to programming logic. Results are presented for the following program capabilities: K versus a, J versus a, crack opening area, life calculation due to fatigue crack growth, tolerable crack size, proof test logic, tearing instability, creep crack growth, crack transitioning, crack retardation due to overloads, and elastic-plastic stress redistribution. It is concluded that the code is an acceptable fracture tool for K solutions of simplified geometries, for a limited number of J and crack opening area solutions, and for fatigue crack propagation with the Paris equation and constant amplitude loads when the Paris equation is applicable.

  7. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Using Formal Methods To Derive Test Frames In CategoryPartition Testing

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    Using Formal Methods To Derive Test Frames In Category­Partition Testing Paul Ammann \\Lambda Jeff Engineering George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 Abstract Testing is a standard method of assuring is a specification­ based testing method. An important aspect of category­ partition testing is the construction

  9. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in several ways, including the following: Anti-MuSK Antibody testing----a blood test for the remaining 15% ... confirm a clinical diagnosis of MG. Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody — a blood test for the abnormal antibodies can ...

  10. Correction to ``Evaluating Testing Methods by Delivered Reliability''

    E-print Network

    Frankl, Phyllis G.

    Correction to ``Evaluating Testing Methods by Delivered Reliability'' Phyllis Frankl Dick Hamlet: Distributions of \\Theta with means and variances for several testing scenarios. 1 Frankl, Hamlet, Littlewood

  11. Evaluation of the test method activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Y.; Nagase, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-12-01

    The test method of activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD was critically carried out and compared with other test methods. Investigation of test conditions showed that the moderate deviation from the test conditions defined by the OECD Test Guidelines did not have much effect on the result, and some modifications were proposed to improve the method. This method had a poor detection limit compared with the LC50 test with Oryzias latipes and EC50 of the growth inhibition test with Tetrahymena pyriformis. The susceptivity of the method was particularly poor for the chemicals which were highly toxic in the other two tests.

  12. Reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbs, Jasmine J.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Reinsch, Brian C.; Lowry, Gregory V.; Banerjee, Subir K.; Penn, R. Lee

    2010-06-01

    Ferrihydrites were prepared by coprecipitation (COP) or adsorption (ADS) of arsenate, and the products were characterized using solid-state methods. In addition, the kinetics of reductive dissolution by hydroquinone of these well-characterized materials were quantified. Characterization and magnetism results indicate that the 10 wt% As COP ferrihydrite is less crystalline and possibly has smaller crystallite size than the other ferrihydrites, which all have similar crystallinity and particle size. The results from reductive dissolution experiments show similar reaction rates, reaction mechanism, and activation energy for ferrihydrite precipitated with or without added arsenate. However, a marked decrease in reactivity was observed for 10 wt% As ADS ferrihydrite. The decrease is not attributed to differences in activation energy but rather the preferential blocking of active sites on the ferrihydrite surface. Results demonstrate that arsenic may be released by the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing ferrihydrite regardless of whether the arsenic is coprecipitated with or adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite. However, under these reaction conditions, release from materials with adsorbed arsenate greatly exceeds that from materials with coprecipitated arsenate. In fact, a considerable amount of arsenic was released from the 10 wt% ADS ferrihydrite before reductive dissolution was initiated. Therefore, the characterization of arsenate-bearing iron oxide materials to determine the method of arsenate incorporation into structures—perhaps by quantification of Fe-Fe coordination with EXAFS spectroscopy—may lead to improved predictions of the large-scale release of arsenic within aquifer systems under reducing conditions.

  13. Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Swingle, R.F.; Reeves, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1983 Salt Decontamination Demonstration Test and should not be considered as the rate determining step. Current analytical models for predicting the time to reach the composite lower flammability limit assume that the lag time is not more than 6 hours, and the data supports this assumption (i.e., dissolution by itself requires much less than 6 hours). The data suggests that another step--such as mass transport, the reaction of a benzene precursor or the mixing behavior--is the rate determining factor for benzene release to the vapor space in Tank 48H. In addition, preliminary results from this program show that the degree of agitation employed is not a significant parameter in determining the rate of NaTPB dissolution. As a result of this study, an improved equation for predicting equilibrium tetraphenylborate solubility with respect to temperature and sodium ion concentration has been determined.

  14. TEST METHOD EVALUATIONS AND EMISSIONS TESTING FOR RATING WOOD STOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of three sampling methods for wood burning stoves: the EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5), the Oregon Method 7 (OM7), and the ASTM proposed Method P180. It also addresses the effect that emission format (grams per hour, grams per kilogram wood bu...

  15. An eco-friendly strategy, using on-line monitoring and dilution coupled to a second-order chemometric method, for the construction of dissolution curves of combined pharmaceutical associations.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, economic and minimally operator-dependent method was developed under green analytical chemistry principles, for the simultaneous construction of the dissolution curves of a pharmaceutical association in short time and without employing organic solvents, allowing important savings of labor and resources. The carvedilol (CAR) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) combined formulation was employed as a model. The method (OD/UV-MCR) involves on-line sample dilution (OD) and UV detection of the analytes, coupled to multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). OD/UV-MCR proved to be robust and was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines, fulfilling acceptance criteria for specificity (r(2) of spectral correlation>0.950), linearity [r>0.999 (N=25) in the ranges 1.00-31.1mg l(-1) and 0.51-15.2mg l(-1) for CAR and HCT, respectively] and precision (RSD<2%). Accuracy was assessed by point-to-point comparison between the dissolution profiles furnished by the proposed method with those provided by HPLC analysis, evidencing the usefulness of this monitoring system. In addition, OD/UV-MCR was successfully employed for the comparative analysis of three lots of commercial formulations of the CAR-HCT pharmaceutical association, belonging to a couple of different brands, employing Moore and Flanner's f2 similarity indicator. PMID:24291800

  16. Dissolution rate of alpha-doped UO2 in natural groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, Kaija; Myllykylä, Emmi; Tanhua-Tyrkkö, Merja; Lavonen, Tiina

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this work is to determine whether the presence of trace elements in natural groundwaters affects the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide in the presence of alpha radiation that causes radiolysis of water. The study is a part of the project Reducing Uncertainty in Performance Prediction (REDUPP) under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The project aims to reduce uncertainties related to the extrapolation of the results of laboratory experiments to the conditions expected under geologic disposal. Thus far, synthetic groundwater has been normally used in the experiments. The synthetic groundwaters used do not contain all of the chemical elements that occur in natural groundwaters. Three natural groundwaters were chosen for the dissolution experiments with 0%, 5%, and 10% 233U-doped UO2 samples. These include a brackish groundwater, a saline groundwater and a low ionic strength groundwater. At the time of writing this paper, the dissolution experiments have been finished in the first groundwater, which was a moderately saline, brackish groundwater. The groundwater samples for the experiments were taken from a borehole in the Olkiluoto site in Finland. The measurements for dissolution rates were conducted under reducing conditions established using metallic iron in solution and an argon atmosphere in the glove box. The isotope dilution method was used to decrease uncertainties due to precipitation and sorption effects. The resulting dissolution rates in OL-KR6 natural groundwater were generally somewhat higher than the rates measured previously in synthetic groundwaters under similar redox conditions. No clear effect of alpha radiolysis could be seen for tests with lower SA/V, while those for higher SA/V indicated that the dissolution rate was higher for the 10% 233U-doped UO2, suggesting the effect of alpha radiolysis under these conditions.

  17. [Study on holes testing methods of natural latex rubber condoms].

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Li, Miao; Wu, Bitao; Wu, Mingjun

    2013-01-01

    Designed a contrast pinhole detect testing including water leak method, electrical method and improved electrical method, and concluded that the water leak method is most suitable as the arbitration method, and recommended the national standard add the requirement on electrolytic liquid filling volume of electrical test in order to improve detection accuracy. PMID:23668044

  18. Testing methods for custom LSI circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, E. D., Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The various testing methodologies (manufacturer, user, commercial, and hi-rel), characterization schemes and equipment required, specified requirements for testing custom circuits, and projects testing trends through the mid eighties are discussed. The emphasis is on testing custom digital LSI circuits for application in hi-rel/military systems. The relationship between the required test vector set and the design engineering function is explored. Because of the prodigious amount of test data generated a display mechanism such as histogram or schmoo plot for data analysis is required. The use of schmoo plots and wafer mapping techniques for process/circuit fabrication control are described. Commonly used tester/testing terminology is defined and a discussion is presented regarding the complexity of test requirements associated with the popular device technologies (CMOS, MNOS, Linear, etc.). A brief survey of commercially available LSI test equipment is presented.

  19. Testing methods and techniques: Environmental testing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Various devices and techniques are described for testing hardware and components in four special environments: low temperature, high temperature, high pressure, and vibration. Items ranging from an automatic calibrator for pressure transducers to a fixture for testing the susceptibility of materials to ignition by electric spark are included.

  20. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  1. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  2. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.

    1985-10-01

    Dissolution of (/sup 111/In)labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of (/sup 111/In)lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a (/sup 111/In)salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system.

  3. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  4. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  5. Dissolution enhancement of chlorzoxazone using cogrinding technique

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Mihir K.; Patel, Jaydeep M.; Parikh, Rajesh K.; Sheth, Navin R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to improve rate of dissolution and processing parameters of BCS class II drug, chlorzoxazone using cogrinding technique in the presence of different excipients as a carrier. Materials and Methods: The drug was coground with various carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E50LV, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)K30, Kaolin and Neusilin US2 using ball mill, where only PEG 4000 improved dissolution rate of drug by bringing amorphization in 1:3 ratio. The coground mixture after 3 and 6 h was evaluated for various analytical, physicochemical and mechanical parameters. Results: The analysis showed conversion of Chlorzoxazone from its crystalline to amorphization form upon grinding with PEG 4000. Coground mixture as well as its directly compressed tablet showed 2.5-fold increment in the dissolution rate compared with pure drug. Directly compressible tablets prepared from pure drug required a large quantity of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) during compression. The coground mixture and formulation was found stable in nature even after storage (40°C/75% relative humidity). Conclusions: Cogrinding can be successfully utilized to improve the rate of dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs and hence bioavailability. PMID:26682195

  6. Evaluating Testing Methods by Delivered Reliability \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Frankl, Phyllis G.

    INTRODUCTION -- RELIABILITY VS. DEBUG­ GING There are two main goals in testing software. On the one hand, testing can be seen as a means of achieving reliability: here the objective is to probe the software

  7. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c)...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2.1A clearly written test method, preferably in the format of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A Test... reference from other methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons... of a test method at the level of the applicable standard. The procedures involve (a)...

  9. A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhu; William E. Seyfried

    2005-01-01

    Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. One strategy that potentially enhances CO{sub 2} solubility and reduces the risk of CO{sub 2} leak back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and precipitation of secondary carbonate phases, which increases the brine pH and immobilizes CO{sub 2}. Clearly, the rates at which these dissolution and precipitation reactions occur directly determine the efficiency of this strategy. However, one of the fundamental problems in modern geochemistry is the persistent two to five orders of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory-measured and field derived feldspar dissolution rates. To date, there is no real guidance as to how to predict silicate reaction rates for use in quantitative models. Current models for assessment of geological carbon sequestration have generally opted to use laboratory rates, in spite of the dearth of such data for compositionally complex systems, and the persistent disconnect between lab and field applications. Therefore, a firm scientific basis for predicting silicate reaction kinetics in CO{sub 2} injected geological formations is urgently needed to assure the reliability of the geochemical models used for the assessments of carbon sequestration strategies. The funded experimental and theoretical study attempts to resolve this outstanding scientific issue by novel experimental design and theoretical interpretation to measure silicate dissolution rates and iron carbonate precipitation rates at conditions pertinent to geological carbon sequestration. In the first year of the project, we have successfully developed a sample preparation method and completed three batch feldspar dissolution experiments at 200 C and 300 bars. The changes of solution chemistry as dissolution experiments progressed were monitored with on-line sampling of the aqueous phase at the constant temperature and pressure. These data allow calculating overall apparent feldspar dissolution rates and secondary mineral precipitation rates as a function of saturation states. State-of-the-art atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe was used to characterize the reactants (feldspars before experiments). We experimented with different sample preparation methods for TEM study, and found excellent images and chemical resolution with reactants, which shows promise of the technology and establishes the baseline for comparison with products (feldspars after the experiments). Preliminary electron microscopic characterization shows that the reacted feldspars have etch pits and are covered with secondary sheet silicate phases. Reaction-path geochemical modeling is used to interpret the experimental results. We have established the software and database, and are making great progress. Also during the first year, our education goal of graduate student training has been achieved. A Ph. D. student at Indiana University is progressing well in the degree program and has taken geochemical modeling, SEM, and TEM courses, which will facilitate research in the second and third year. A Ph. D. student at University of Minnesota is progressing well in conducting the experiments, and is near graduation. With the success of training of graduate students and excellent experimental data in the first year, we anticipate a more fruitful year in the second year.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...parameter values for the minimum scrubber makeup water flow rate and, for scrubbers that operate with recirculation, the minimum recirculation water flow rate. During the emission test, each operating parameter must be monitored...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...parameter values for the minimum scrubber makeup water flow rate and, for scrubbers that operate with recirculation, the minimum recirculation water flow rate. During the emission test, each operating parameter must be monitored...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...parameter values for the minimum scrubber makeup water flow rate and, for scrubbers that operate with recirculation, the minimum recirculation water flow rate. During the emission test, each operating parameter must be monitored...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...parameter values for the minimum scrubber makeup water flow rate and, for scrubbers that operate with recirculation, the minimum recirculation water flow rate. During the emission test, each operating parameter must be monitored...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...parameter values for the minimum scrubber makeup water flow rate and, for scrubbers that operate with recirculation, the minimum recirculation water flow rate. During the emission test, each operating parameter must be monitored...

  15. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... testing toxic substances. Guidelines for testing the toxicity of substances, including testing that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500.232. A... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances....

  16. DATE: ____________________ NVLAP LAB CODE: __________________ Test Method

    E-print Network

    and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products ______ 23/F03 ASTM E1354 Heat and Visible Smoke ASTM D2395 (Method A) Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Base Materials, Method A: Volume by Measurement (Method A) Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials, Method A: Primary Oven

  17. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  18. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  19. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  20. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or 25A... 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. Sources complying with PS 8 are exempt from the relative...

  1. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  2. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  3. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  4. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  5. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method... to separate the HDDs/HDFs from the sample matrix. Methods are reviewed in the Guidelines under § 766... meet the requirements of the chemical matrix. (d) Analysis. The method of choice is High Resolution...

  6. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  7. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  8. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method... to separate the HDDs/HDFs from the sample matrix. Methods are reviewed in the Guidelines under § 766... meet the requirements of the chemical matrix. (d) Analysis. The method of choice is High Resolution...

  9. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method... to separate the HDDs/HDFs from the sample matrix. Methods are reviewed in the Guidelines under § 766... meet the requirements of the chemical matrix. (d) Analysis. The method of choice is High Resolution...

  10. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method... to separate the HDDs/HDFs from the sample matrix. Methods are reviewed in the Guidelines under § 766... meet the requirements of the chemical matrix. (d) Analysis. The method of choice is High Resolution...

  11. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method... to separate the HDDs/HDFs from the sample matrix. Methods are reviewed in the Guidelines under § 766... meet the requirements of the chemical matrix. (d) Analysis. The method of choice is High Resolution...

  12. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for sample and velocity traverse. (B) Method... furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for sample and... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  13. Testing a method for modelling pronunciation variation. 

    E-print Network

    Kessens, Judith M; Wester, Mirjam; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method for improving the performance of a continuous speech recognizer by modelling pronunciation variation. Although the results obtained with this method are in line with those reported by ...

  14. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Products. (b) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,...

  15. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Products. (b) Chemical. Chemical analysis shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,...

  16. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion methods using DWPF simulated glass (part 1) and (to the extent possible) using DWPF radioactive glass (part 2). (3) Recommend specific equipment to implement the new methods and work with SRNL's Equipment Engineering Section (EES) to ensure compatibility of the equipment with the DWPF shielded cells. The focus of this report is major task activity No.2 (parts 1 and 2). The other two major task activities are to be addressed separately. The measurements supporting task activity No.1 are being conducted at the DWPF. EES is currently designing and fabricating the DWPF cell equipment needed for the new method as part of major task activity No.3.

  17. Uranium-Molybdenum Dissolution Flowsheet Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2007-03-01

    The Super Kukla (SK) Prompt Burst Reactor operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. The SK material is a uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight at approximately 20% 235U enrichment. H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) requested that the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) define a flowsheet for safely and efficiently dissolving the SK material. The objective is to dissolve the material in nitric acid (HNO3) in the H-Canyon dissolvers to a U concentration of 15-20 g/L (3-4 g/L 235U) without the formation of precipitates or the generation of a flammable gas mixture. Testing with SK material validated the applicability of dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature for various U and U-Mo metals. Based on the data, the SK material can be dissolved in boiling 3.0-6.0 M HNO3 to a U concentration of 15-20 g/L and a corresponding Mo concentration of 1.7-2.2 g/L. The optimum flowsheet will use 4.0-5.0 M HNO3 for the starting acid. Any nickel (Ni) cladding associated with the material will dissolve readily. After dissolution is complete, traditional solvent extraction flowsheets can be used to recover and purify the U. Dissolution rates for the SK material are consistent with those reported in the literature and are adequate for H-Canyon processing. When the SK material dissolved at 70-100 o C in 1-6 M HNO3, the reaction bubbled vigorously and released nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas. Gas generation tests in 1 M and 2 M HNO3 at 100 o C generated less than 0.1 volume percent hydrogen (H2) gas. It is known that higher HNO3 concentrations are less favorable for H2 production. All tests at 70-100 o C produced sufficient gas to mix the solutions without external agitation. At room temperature in 5 M HNO3, the U-Mo dissolved slowly and the U-laden solution sank to the bottom of the dissolution vessel because of its greater density. The effect of the density difference insures that the SK material cannot dissolve and concentrate within the charge bundles. Solubility behavior of the SK material during dissolution at 70 o C reflected data reported in the literature for 100 o C. When solutions containing solids at 70 o C were heated to 105 o C, the solids dissolved. After 21 days, the samples that had been heated closely resembled the non-heated ones with respect to solids content. Super-saturated solutions of U-Mo have been produced which can be stable for more than 10 days, but these conditions are outside of the bounds of the recommended flowsheet. It is not known how the different dissolution pathways affect solution stability, but the results agree with the fact that solubility should not be affected by the dissolution pathway. Therefore, the literature data should be used as the bounding condition for solubility. Dissolution of the SK material consumed 2.8-8.0 moles of acid per mole of metal dissolved, which agrees with behavior reported elsewhere for U and U-Mo metals. The acid consumption values confirmed that a starting acid concentration in the dissolver of 4.0-5.0 M HNO3 will allow H-Canyon Operations to avoid adjusting the feed from the dissolver prior to solvent extraction while providing maximum operating margin for avoiding precipitate formation.

  18. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  19. Comparison of modal test methods on the Voyager payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, B. R.; Miserentino, R.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Wada, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of modern modal data analysis methods on test data from the Voyager Jupiter/Saturn payload is presented. Four different test/data-analysis combinations are compared - multiple-point sine excitation tests, single-point random-excitation tests using two different techniques of manipulating Fourier transform data, and a time-domain method for analyzing random data. Results indicate that all four methods can give comparable results. Of the four, the time-domain approach detects more modes in the test data and, at the same time, shows the greatest promise for reducing the time and cost of modal testing.

  20. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...test. (d) Compliance with the face velocity requirements under § 63.544(b...Owners and operators shall calculate face velocity using the procedures in paragraphs...operating conditions. (iv) Face velocity shall be determined by dividing...

  1. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...test. (d) Compliance with the face velocity requirements under § 63.544(b...Owners and operators shall calculate face velocity using the procedures in paragraphs...operating conditions. (iv) Face velocity shall be determined by dividing...

  2. Subscale Test Methods for Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Sisco, J. C.; Long, M. R.; Sung, I.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Stated goals for long-life LRE s have been between 100 and 500 cycles: 1) Inherent technical difficulty of accurately defining the transient and steady state thermochemical environments and structural response (strain); 2) Limited statistical basis on failure mechanisms and effects of design and operational variability; and 3) Very high test costs and budget-driven need to protect test hardware (aversion to test-to-failure). Ambitious goals will require development of new databases: a) Advanced materials, e.g., tailored composites with virtually unlimited property variations; b) Innovative functional designs to exploit full capabilities of advanced materials; and c) Different cycles/operations. Subscale testing is one way to address technical and budget challenges: 1) Prototype subscale combustors exposed to controlled simulated conditions; 2) Complementary to conventional laboratory specimen database development; 3) Instrumented with sensors to measure thermostructural response; and 4) Coupled with analysis

  3. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, G

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity. PMID:9182035

  4. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  5. 40 CFR 60.93 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Facilities § 60.93 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.93 Section 60.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  6. 40 CFR 60.93 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Facilities § 60.93 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.93 Section 60.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  7. 40 CFR 60.93 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Facilities § 60.93 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.93 Section 60.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  8. 40 CFR 60.93 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Facilities § 60.93 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.93 Section 60.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  9. 40 CFR 60.93 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Facilities § 60.93 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.93 Section 60.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  10. FORTEST: Formal Methods and Testing Jonathan P. Bowen

    E-print Network

    Harman, Mark

    FORTEST: Formal Methods and Testing Jonathan P. Bowen South Bank University, Centre for Applied software testing. A number of different possibili- ties for the use of formal methods are explored and ques of test cases for software-based products. In this context, the topics to be covered to promote discussion

  11. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... with additional strips and should fit snugly around the trunk of the animal. The ends of the sleeve...

  12. Miniaturization of powder dissolution measurement and estimation of particle size.

    PubMed

    Avdeef, Alex; Tsinman, Konstantin; Tsinman, Oksana; Sun, Na; Voloboy, Dmytro

    2009-11-01

    The objective was to investigate the applicability and limitations of an approach for estimating particle size from powder dissolution measurement using as little as 50 microg of sample in 1 ml of buffer solutions. The powder dissolution profiles of five sparingly-soluble drugs (hydrochlorothiazide, phenazopyridine hydrochloride, 2-naphthoic acid, indomethacin, and dipyridamole) were evaluated with a novel biexponential spherical particle equation and also the Wang-Flanagan spherical particle non-sink equation. The results were compared to particle sizing based on measured specific surface area by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and also based on Coulter counting. With the exception of hydrochlorothiazide, the model compounds indicated some agglomeration in the dissolution media. The dry-state specific surface area was larger than expected from either the Coulter method or the powder-dissolution data, especially for phenazopyridine hydrochloride. The particle radii estimated by the powder dissolution method ranged from 10 to 68 microm, with equilibrium solubilities spanning from 5 microg/ml (dipyridamole) to 911 microg/ml (hydrochlorothiazide). Powder dissolution data collected with the miniaturized apparatus can be used to determine particle size, with estimated values agreeing reasonably with those measured by the Coulter counter method. PMID:19937817

  13. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF METHOD 1312-QA SUPPORT FOR RCRA TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of how to access the risks associated with ground water contamination from soils containing toxic substances is a critical issue for the Agency. A major limitation of using Method 1310 and 1311 for this purpose is the fact that the sanitary landfill codisposal scenar...

  14. 77 FR 1129 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... pollution control. A redline/strikeout document comparing the proposed revisions to the appropriate sections.... Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (Subpart IIII) Part 60 P. Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (Subpart JJJJ) Part 60 Q. Method 1 of Appendix A-1 of Part 60...

  15. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...involvement with national and international efforts (see Background...methods and testing strategies for skin sensitization...methods and testing strategies for skin sensitization...between domestic and international research efforts in...sensitization test methods and strategies meet U.S....

  16. Statistical Tests for Evaluating Earthquake Prediction Methods Kurt S. Riedel

    E-print Network

    Statistical Tests for Evaluating Earthquake Prediction Methods Kurt S. Riedel Courant Institute test is discussed. Unequal prediction probabili­ ties can be included in the null hypothesis test using a gener­ alization of the central limit theorem. A test for determining the enhancement factor over random

  17. STANDARD METHODS FOR TESTING MOSQUITO REPELLENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological assays (bioassay) comprise the set of methods and techniques that are used to determine the biological activity of mosquito repellents in the laboratory and the field. An array of repellent bioassay systems has been developed in the preceding 50 years, although the various methods do not...

  18. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number of... gas analysis to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4) Method 4 shall be used to... lead compound emission standards. The minimum sample volume shall be 0.85 dry standard cubic meters...

  19. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number of... gas analysis to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4) Method 4 shall be used to... lead compound emission standards. The minimum sample volume shall be 0.85 dry standard cubic meters...

  20. Respiration, dissolution, and the lysocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Burke

    2003-12-01

    Here I synthesize the results of several types of measurements of organic carbon respiration and calcium carbonate dissolution rates in pelagic seafloor sediments. Measurements of pore water oxygen demonstrate that most of the respiration takes place very near the sediment-water interface, with a scale depth of a few millimeters. The remainder of the oxic respiration occurs much deeper in the sediments, with a scale depth of several centimeters. All measures of respiration from locations as disparate as the tropical Pacific and Atlantic, and the subtropical North Atlantic agree that pelagic seafloor rates of oxic respiration of organic carbon are relatively independent of depth and location, with the exception of sediments beneath the Pacific eastern equatorial upwelling zone. Calcite dissolution in seafloor sediments requires forcing by respiration-produced CO2, and rates are consistent with a first-order dependence on pore water undersaturation, solubility as determined by [1983] at atmospheric pressure, and locally variable mass-specific dissolution rate constants. Respiration-driven calcite dissolution fluxes predicted by this combination of respiration and dissolution rate expressions are significantly lower than many previous estimates. Comparison of dissolution fluxes in the oligotrophic open ocean measured by other researchers with benthic chamber incubation techniques with those predicted by this combination of rate expressions is, within stated uncertainties, in agreement in all but one case, questioning the need for complicated mechanisms such as surface buffering or authigenic precipitation to explain seafloor calcite diagenesis. Applying these kinetics to a simple one-dimensional, steady state model of the bulk calcite content and sediment accumulation rates of the sediment mixed layer yields results consistent with observations of the seafloor lysocline, the region of transition from high calcite to low-calcite sediments, on the Ceara Rise in the western tropical North Atlantic and the Ontong-Java Plateau in the western equatorial Pacific. Scenarios ignoring dissolution driven by respiration-produced CO2 in pore waters and using the high-order dependence on undersaturation and very large dissolution rate constants implied by some earlier laboratory studies do not simulate these observations. While the scheme represented here does, in fact, imply a strong shift in the locus of carbonate dissolution toward the sediment water interface as bottom-water saturation decreases, as implied by the observations of [2000], no simple combination of sediment transport coefficients and reaction kinetics can reproduce the observation of increasing 14C age as dissolution progresses. These results emphasize the importance of accurate knowledge of the kinetics of respiration and dissolution to interpretation of either the present-day or paleolysocline.

  1. Alunite dissolution rates: Dissolution mechanisms and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. L.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Pritchett, B. N.; Elwood Madden, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) is a hydrated aluminous sulfate mineral associated with acidic, oxidizing aqueous environments on Earth. Additionally, orbiting spacecraft and rovers on Mars have reported spectral data that indicate a range of mono- and polyhydrated sulfate phases and hydroxysulfate phases, suggesting such conditions also existed on Mars in the past. This study examines alunite dissolution rates in aqueous systems with varying pH, temperature, and solution chemistry conditions. Alunite dissolution rates in dilute solutions are 2-3 orders of magnitude slower than jarosite dissolution rates measured under analogous conditions. Similar to jarosite, alunite dissolution rates vary as a function of activity of H+ and OH- following the rate law log r (mol m-2 s-1) = -0.133(±0.02)pH - 10.65(±0.07) at pH < 5 and log r = 0.194(±0.04)pH - 12.53(±0.26) at pH > 5. However, minimum alunite dissolution rates are shifted to higher pH (5-5.5), likely due to differences in Fe and Al speciation. Alunite and jarosite rates converge in saturated NaCl and CaCl2 brines as the activity of water decreases, suggesting that differences in water exchange rates with Fe3+ and Al3+ control dissolution rates in dilute solutions, while metal-Cl- complexation occurs at similar rates within the brines. Particle lifetimes based on measured dissolution rates in dilute solutions show that alunite particles are expected to be preserved two orders of magnitude longer than jarosite particles over a range of pH and temperature conditions. In particular, alunite is more likely to be preserved in neutral to moderately alkaline systems compared to jarosite, which is expected to be preserved in more acidic conditions. Alunite dissolution produced amorphous Al-rich alteration products at moderate to high pH. Unlike jarosite, alunite dissolution does not show a clear trend as a function of temperature; alunite dissolution rates do not increase with increasing temperature, likely due to lower alunite solubility at higher temperature. Therefore, alunite is expected to be more prevalent in hydrothermal systems compared to jarosite.

  2. 40 CFR 60.64 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants § 60.64 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8,...

  3. STATUS AND APPLICATIONS OF ECHINOID (PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA) TOXICITY TEST METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrolus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). he status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are descri...

  4. 40 CFR 60.344 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.344 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  5. 40 CFR 60.344 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.344 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  6. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  7. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  8. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  9. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  10. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  11. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge...

  12. 40 CFR 60.675 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.675 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  13. 40 CFR 60.675 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.675 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  14. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  15. 40 CFR 60.675 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.675 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  16. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  17. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  18. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  19. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  20. 40 CFR 60.675 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.675 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  1. 40 CFR 60.675 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.675 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  2. 40 CFR 61.125 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.125 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator of a source required to test...

  3. 40 CFR 61.125 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.125 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator of a source required to test...

  4. 40 CFR 61.125 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.125 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator of a source required to test...

  5. 40 CFR 61.125 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.125 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator of a source required to test...

  6. 40 CFR 61.125 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.125 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator of a source required to test...

  7. 40 CFR 60.736 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.736 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  8. 40 CFR 60.736 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.736 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  9. 40 CFR 60.374 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.374 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  10. 40 CFR 60.214 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.214 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  11. 40 CFR 60.204 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.204 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  12. 40 CFR 60.204 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.204 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  13. 40 CFR 60.374 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.374 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  14. 40 CFR 60.214 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.214 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  15. 40 CFR 60.374 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.374 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  16. 40 CFR 60.214 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.214 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.374 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.374 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  18. 40 CFR 60.374 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.374 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required...

  19. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-10-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  20. Multiple Testing with Modified Bonferroni Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianmin; And Others

    This paper discusses the issue of multiple testing and overall Type I error rates in contexts other than multiple comparisons of means. It demonstrates, using a 5 x 5 correlation matrix, the application of 5 recently developed modified Bonferroni procedures developed by the following authors: (1) Y. Hochberg (1988); (2) B. S. Holland and M. D.…

  1. Dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitina, G.P.; Zhukova, I.N.; Egorova, V.P.

    1995-07-01

    Two alternative procedures of the electrochemical dissolution of plasmothermal plutonium dioxide in nitric acid were studied: reductive dissolution in the presence of U(IV) stabilized by hydrazine and dissolution in hot nitric acid at the alternating current supply. The current field accelerates dissolution of PuO{sub 2}.

  2. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3..., or 3B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4)...

  3. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  4. Solving SOC test scheduling problem using cross-entropy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Libao; Qiao, Liyan; Peng, Xiyuan

    2010-08-01

    With the increase of the number of IP cores integrated in SOC, the functions of SOC are becoming more complexed. Test time and test cost grow rapidly, therefore it becomes bottleneck of SOC test. Test scheduling is one of the efficient approaches to solve the forenamed question. Cross-entropy method, which is based on probability density function, has been used to solve the SOC test scheduling problem. Experimental results on ITC'02 benchmarks show that the proposed method provides better test time results compared to the Linear-Programming.

  5. Electrochemical polishing of thread fastener test specimens of nickel-chromium iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, Alan R. (Scotia, NY)

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical polishing device and method for selective anodic dissolution of the surface of test specimens comprised, for example, of nickel-chromium-iron alloys, which provides for uniform dissolution at the localized sites to remove metal through the use of a coiled wire electrode (cathode) placed in the immediate proximity of the working, surface resulting in a polished and uniform grain boundary.

  6. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR 60.745 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.745 Test methods and procedures. Methods in appendix A of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.745 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.745 Test methods and procedures. Methods in appendix A of...

  9. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  10. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standard Test Methods for Aromatics in Mineral Spirits by Gas Chromatography (incorporation by reference—see § 63.14). In determining...ASTM Method E260-91 or 96: Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography [incorporation by reference—see §...

  11. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standard Test Methods for Aromatics in Mineral Spirits by Gas Chromatography (incorporation by reference—see § 63.14). In determining...ASTM Method E260-91 or 96: Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography [incorporation by reference—see §...

  12. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Standard Test Methods for Aromatics in Mineral Spirits by Gas Chromatography (incorporation by reference—see § 63.14). In determining...ASTM Method E260-91 or 96: Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography [incorporation by reference—see §...

  13. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Standard Test Methods for Aromatics in Mineral Spirits by Gas Chromatography (incorporation by reference—see § 63.14). In determining...ASTM Method E260-91 or 96: Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography [incorporation by reference—see §...

  14. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Standard Test Methods for Aromatics in Mineral Spirits by Gas Chromatography (incorporation by reference—see § 63.14). In determining...ASTM Method E260-91 or 96: Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography [incorporation by reference—see §...

  15. Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include extreme/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating material allowables for MIL-HDBK-17. Attention is also given to a test method to measure the response of composite materials under reversed cyclic loads, a through-the-thickness strength specimen for composites, the use of torsion tubes to measure in-plane shear properties of filament-wound composites, the influlence of test fixture design on the Iosipescu shear test for fiber composite materials, and a method for monitoring in-plane shear modulus in fatigue testing of composites.

  16. Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: myth, magic, or method?

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M

    1991-01-01

    The demand for susceptibility testing of anaerobes has increased, yet consensus as to procedure and interpretation in this area has not been achieved. While routine testing of anaerobic isolates is not needed, certain isolates in specific clinical settings should be tested. Also, laboratories may monitor their local antibiograms by doing periodic surveillance batch testing. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has published a protocol of methods approved for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Both agar and broth microdilution are included; however, the broth disk elution method is no longer approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards because of method-related interpretive errors. A number of newer methods are undergoing evaluation and seem promising. Clinicians and microbiologists reviewing susceptibility reports should be aware of sources of variability in the test results. Variables in susceptibility testing of anaerobes include the media and methods used, organisms chosen for testing, breakpoints chosen for interpretation, antibiotic, and determination of endpoint. Clustering of MICs around the breakpoint may lead to significant variability in test results. Adherence of testing laboratories to approved methods and careful descriptions of the method and the breakpoints used for interpretation would facilitate interlaboratory comparisons and allow problems of emerging resistance to be noted. A variety of resistance mechanisms occurs in anaerobic bacteria, including the production of beta-lactamase and other drug-inactivating enzymes, alteration of target proteins, and inability of the drug to penetrate the bacterial wall. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States and abroad are described. PMID:1747863

  17. Low-cycle fatigue testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurade, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The good design of highly stressed mechanical components requires accurate knowledge of the service behavior of materials. The main methods for solving the problems of designers are: determination of the mechanical properties of the material after cyclic stabilization; plotting of resistance to plastic deformation curves; effect of temperature on the life on low cycle fatigue; and simulation of notched parts behavior.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods Pollutant Measurement Methods From Various Waste Media

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator of an affected source subject to requirements under 40 CFR part 63 can use to validate an alternative test method to a test method required in 40 CFR part 63 or to validate a stand-alone alternative... the minimum procedures that you must use to validate an alternative test method to meet 40 CFR part...

  2. The improvement of the dissolution rate of ziprasidone free base from solid oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Zakowiecki, Daniel; Cal, Krzysztof; Kaminski, Kamil; Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Swinder, Lech; Kaminska, Ewa; Garbacz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    This work aims at increasing solubility and dissolution rate of ziprasidone free base-Biopharmaceutics Classifaction System (BCS) class II compound. The authors describe a practical approach to amorphization and highlight problems that may occur during the development of formulations containing amorphous ziprasidone, which was obtained by grinding in high-energy planetary ball mills or cryogenic mills. The release of ziprasidone free base from the developed formulations was compared to the reference drug product containing crystalline ziprasidone hydrochloride-Zeldox® hard gelatin capsules. All preparations were investigated using compendial tests (USP apparatuses II and IV) as well as novel, biorelevant dissolution tests. The novel test methods simulate additional elements of mechanical and hydrodynamic stresses, which have an impact on solid oral dosage forms, especially during gastric emptying. This step may prove to be particularly important for many formulations of BCS class II drugs that are often characterized by narrow absorption window, such as ziprasidone. The dissolution rate of the developed ziprasidone free base preparations was found to be comparable or even higher than in the case of the reference formulation containing ziprasidone hydrochloride, whose water solubility is about 400 times higher than its free base. PMID:25588366

  3. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  4. Standard test method for laboratory aging of sandwich constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of the resistance of sandwich panels to severe exposure conditions as measured by the change in selected properties of the material after exposure. The exposure cycle to which the specimen is subjected is an arbitrary test having no correlation with natural weathering conditions. Tests for selected properties are made on specimens of the material as received and after exposure to prescribed aging conditions and the results compared. The tests include the following; shear test, compressive strength, delamination strength, tension test, flatwise flexure test and climbing drum peel test.

  5. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  7. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  8. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  9. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  10. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  11. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  12. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  13. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  15. 40 CFR 264.1034 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements: (1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60. (2) The detection... 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate. (ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR... (incorporated by reference under 40 CFR 260.11) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,...

  16. Electric-vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    SciTech Connect

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-04-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  17. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  18. State-recycling method for testing contextuality

    E-print Network

    Marek Wajs; Su-Yong Lee; Pawel Kurzynski; Dagomir Kaszlikowski

    2015-05-08

    Quantum nonlocality and contextuality are two phenomena stemming from nonclassical correlations. Whereas the former requires entanglement that is consumed in the measurement process the latter can occur for any state if one chooses a proper set of measurements. Despite this stark differences experimental tests of both phenomena were similar so far. For each run of the experiment one had to use a different copy of a physical system prepared according to the same procedure, or the system had to be brought to its initial state. Here we show that this is not necessary and that the state-independent contextuality can be manifested in a scenario in which each measurement round is done on an output state from the previous round.

  19. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  20. Eddy Current Method for Fatigue Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor using a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. A ferrous shield isolates a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. Use of the magnetic shield produces a null voltage output across the receiving coil in presence of an unflawed sample. Redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws. eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. Maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. By obtaining position of maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. Accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output resulting in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip enabling the search region to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion causes incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. Low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of thickness of the test sample. Fatigue testing a conductive material is accomplished by applying load to the material, applying current to the sensor, scanning the material with the sensor, monitoring the sensor output signal, adjusting material load based on the sensor output signal of the sensor, and adjusting position of the sensor based on its output signal.

  1. 40 CFR 63.565 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 63.565... Standards for Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations § 63.565 Test methods and procedures. (a) Performance... as possible to the connection with the marine tank vessel; and (3) During the performance...

  2. 40 CFR 60.335 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.335 Section 60.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.335 Test methods and...

  3. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator may use the following...

  7. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2.1A clearly written test method, preferably in the format of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A Test... reference from other methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons... of the charging system, start the stopwatch. Stop the watch when VE are no longer observed...

  9. 40 CFR 60.754 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.754 Section 60.754 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.754 Test methods...

  10. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust continuously during the first evacuation using the procedure found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A... outlined in the test methods listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (B) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR... concentration required in § 63.364(e), follow the procedures in PS 8 or PS 9 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix...

  11. 40 CFR 60.195 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.195 Section 60.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 60.195 Test methods...

  12. PREDICTIVE TEST METHODS: PERMEATION OF POLYMERIC MEMBRANES BY ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the result of screening elastomeric materials that may be suitable for formulating chemical-protective clothing, a simple test method has been developed that allows the prediction of the permeation of an organic solvent through a polymeric membrane. The test method, based on l...

  13. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of...

  14. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of...

  15. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  16. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  17. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  18. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  19. Standardizable method for testing foil-substrate adherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, Karel J.; Klinker, Han; van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    2002-04-01

    An increasing number of currencies is provided with an Optically Variable Device (OVD) as a counterfeit deterrent. The device is adhered to the substrate by a hot melt adhesive. Adherence is generally tested with an adhesive tape, a practical test that sufficed up to now. Nevertheless, the question may be raised if a method can be developed with a better discriminating power as well as a larger potential for standardization. A feasibility test with the IGT printability tester, using a high viscosity pick up oil, shows promising results. This paper presents the testing method, shows a few preliminary results and discusses these results with respect to the foil application method.

  20. Interval Methods in NonDestructive Testing of Material Structures

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    is not OK, then the whole battery of often expensive and time­consuming tests is used to detect what exactlyInterval Methods in Non­Destructive Testing of Material Structures Keith Worden 1 ; Roberto situations, e.g., in aerospace applications and in mammography, it is important to test the structural

  1. Interval Methods in NonDestructive Testing of Material Structures

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Interval Methods in Non­Destructive Testing of Material Structures Keith Worden 1 ; Roberto at the early stage, when it is still possible to cure it. Several non­destructive testing techniques situations, e.g., in aerospace applications and in mammography, it is important to test the structural

  2. Simulation of in vitro dissolution behavior using DDDPlus™.

    PubMed

    Almukainzi, May; Okumu, Arthur; Wei, Hai; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2015-02-01

    Dissolution testing is a performance test for many dosage forms including tablets and capsules. The objective of this study was to evaluate if computer simulations can predict the in vitro dissolution of two model drugs for which different dissolution data were available. Published montelukast sodium and glyburide dissolution data was used for the simulations. Different pharmacopeial and biorelevant buffers, volumes, and rotations speeds were evaluated. Additionally, a pH change protocol was evaluated using these buffers. DDDPlus™ 3, Beta version (Simulation Plus, Inc.), was used to simulate the in vitro dissolution data. The simulated data were compared with the in vitro data. A regression coefficient between predicted and observed data was used to assess the simulations. The statistical analysis of Montelukast sodium showed that there was a significant correlation between the in vitro release data and the predicted data for all cases except for one buffer. For glyburide, there was also a significant correlation between the experimental data and the predicted data using single pH conditions. Using the dynamic pH protocol, a correlation was significant for one biorelevant media. The simulations showed that both in vitro drug releases were sensitive to solubility effects which confirmed their BCS class II category. Computer simulations of the in vitro release using DDDPlus™ have the potential to estimate the in vivo dissolution at an early stage in the drug development process. This might be used to choose the most appropriate dissolution condition to establish IVIVC and to develop biorelevant in vitro performance tests to capture critical product attributes for quality control procedures in quality by design environments. PMID:25409918

  3. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  4. Method and apparatus for globally-accessible automated testing

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P. (Los Angeles, CA); Beugelsdijk, Tony J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sharing integrated testing services with a plurality of autonomous remote clients is disclosed. In the disclosed method, in response to an access request message, a process controller transmits an access enabling message to the remote client. The access enabling message includes instructions performable by a remote client to generate test equipment commands. A process controller interprets and transforms these commands into automated test instrument suite commands, which are provided to laboratory modules to perform the indicated tests. Test data results are then obtained and transmitted to the remote client.

  5. A Test of Two Earthquake Modeling Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrill, C.; Richards-Dinger, K.; Dieterich, J.; Oglesby, D. D.

    2007-12-01

    A primary challenge in earthquake modeling is to decide which fundamental mechanisms are required to accurately reproduce the earthquake process, and which are less important. With this in mind, we compared two modeling methods that incorporate different levels of approximation in the earthquake process. The first model, DYNA3D, solves the full dynamic equations of motion (including the frictional interaction on the fault and wave propagation) by the finite element method, but uses a simple slip-weakening friction law. The second model rapidly simulates large earthquake sequences by applying quasi-static approximations with rate- and state- dependent friction and long-range elastic interactions. We investigated how different aspects of the model (e.g. initial stress, and rupture location) affect different features of the simulated ruptures (e.g. slip and stress drop) and to what extent the models agreed with each other on the resulting properties. We found the quasi-static model can qualitatively reproduce the general slip and stress drop patterns of earthquake rupture given by the fully dynamic model as well as produce different modes of rupture (crack-like and rupture pulses). As expected, rupture velocity and the details of the slip rate function agreed the least.

  6. Dissolution of quartz in aqueous basic solution, 106-236 C - Surface kinetics of 'perfect' crystallographic faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Bird, Peter; Quiro, Glenn B.

    1990-01-01

    A highly accurate method, called the negative crystal method, for determining the rate of dissolution on specific crystallographic faces of crystals was developed, in which the dissolution rates of nominally perfect crystal faces are obtained by measuring the size of individual negative crystals during a sequence of dissolution steps. The method was applied to determine the apparent activation energy and rate constants for the dissolution of quartz in 0.01 M KOH solutions at temperatures from 106 to 236 C. Also investigated were the effects of hydroxyl activity and ionic strength. The apparent activation energies for the dissolution of the prism and of the rhomb were determined.

  7. Standard test method for size of anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covering screen analysis of anthracite is used to determine the percentage of undersize or oversize in ny given commercial size. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Procedure, in case th coal is wet, air-dryit before screening. Determine the undersize first. For broken, egg, and stove sizes, up-end each piece by hand on the screen, to determine whether in any position it passes through the screen. For nut, pea, buckwheat, and rice sizes, shake the screens gently with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so as to avoid breakage ofthe coal, until practically no more coal will pass through the openings. Screen the coal in such increments as will allow the pieces to be in direct contact with the screen openings after the completion of the shaking of each increment.

  8. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2993 What test methods must I use in conducting...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2993 What test methods must I use in conducting...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2993 What test methods must I use in conducting...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2993 What test methods must I use in conducting...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2993 What test methods must I use in conducting...

  13. Applicability of ultrasonic testing for the determination of volume fraction of particulates in alumina-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.K.; Fang, R.L.; Weng, W.P.; Chuang, T.H.

    1999-10-01

    An ultrasonic testing technique was employed to determine the volume fraction of alumina particulate reinforcement in 6061 aluminum matrix composites. this study was performed on various composites with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nominal volume fractions of 10, 15, and 20%. For comparison, other techniques were employed as well, including the Archimedes method, metallographic image analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid dissolution. Observations indicated that ultrasonic testing and acid dissolution methods are more reliable than the other techniques, while ultrasonic testing is faster than the acid dissolution method.

  14. WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

    2008-04-28

    The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus under-added. Although the sludge was rheologically thick throughout the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles, this may have been due to the under addition of acid. Aluminum dissolution did, however, impact analyses of the SRAT receipt material. Two methods for determining total base yielded significantly different results. The high hydroxide content and the relatively high soluble aluminum content of the washed post aluminum dissolution sludge likely contributed to this difference and the ultimate under addition of acid. It should be noted that the simulant used to provide input for the SRAT cycle was an inadequate representation of the waste in terms of acid demand, likely due to the differences in the form of aluminum and hydroxide in the simulant and actual waste. Based on the results of this task, it is recommended that: (1) Sludge settling and rheology during washing of the forthcoming Sludge Batch 5 qualification sample be monitored closely and communicated to the Tank Farm. (2) SRNL receive a sample of Tank 51 after all chemical additions have been made and prior to the final Sludge Batch 5 decant for rheological assessment. Rheology versus wt% insoluble solids will be performed to determine the maximum amount of decant prior to the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer. (3) As a result of the problem with measuring total base and subsequently under-calculating acid for the DWPF CPC processing of the post aluminum dissolution sludge; (4) Studies to develop understanding of how the sludge titrates (i.e., why different titration methods yield different results) should be performed. (5) Simulants that better match the properties of post aluminum dissolution sludge should be developed. (6) Work on developing an acid calculation less dependant on the total base measurement should be continued.

  15. Bioequivalence of tacrolimus formulations with different dynamic solubility and in-vitro dissolution profiles.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Minchang; Yeom, Daeil; Kim, Nam Ah; Choi, Du Hyung; Park, Junsang; Wang, Hunsik; Yoo, Sun Dong; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two tacrolimus formulations which had different in vitro drug release profiles. Dynamic solubility, in vitro dissolution profiles of the two formulations, and their influence on pharmacokinetics were examined. The male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single 1-mg capsule of the test or reference formulation and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. The two formulations released >85 % of tacrolimus in water within 30 min, which passed the criterion of evaluating the test formulation. However, the test formulation produced a faster initial release rate and plateaued in about 15 min, while the reference showed almost zero order initial release profiles. The AUC0-? values were 145.92 (reference) and 140.49 ng h/mL (test). The mean Cmax was 15.70 (reference) and 16.08 ng/mL (test) with Tmax values of 1.63 and 1.60 h, respectively. The t1/2 for the reference and test formulations was 29.12 and 27.85 h, respectively. Relative bioavailability was calculated to be 96.28 %. The point estimates for the mean ratio of the test to reference for the AUC0-t and Cmax were 0.969 and 1.026, respectively, satisfying the criterion for bioequivalence. The results suggest that the test formulation is pharmacokinetically equivalent to the reference in terms of both rate and extent of absorption. Even though the in vitro dissolution profiles of the formulations might not be equivalent, the pharmacokinetics indicated bioequivalence. Therefore, when developing poorly soluble drugs, it might be beneficial to pay attention to the dynamic solubility as well as dissolution profiles. PMID:24627339

  16. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemmons, T. G.; Lambert, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Verification and validation of the basic information capabilities in NASCRAC has been completed. The basic information includes computation of K versus a, J versus a, and crack opening area versus a. These quantities represent building blocks which NASCRAC uses in its other computations such as fatigue crack life and tearing instability. Several methods were used to verify and validate the basic information capabilities. The simple configurations such as the compact tension specimen and a crack in a finite plate were verified and validated versus handbook solutions for simple loads. For general loads using weight functions, offline integration using standard FORTRAN routines was performed. For more complicated configurations such as corner cracks and semielliptical cracks, NASCRAC solutions were verified and validated versus published results and finite element analyses. A few minor problems were identified in the basic information capabilities of the simple configurations. In the more complicated configurations, significant differences between NASCRAC and reference solutions were observed because NASCRAC calculates its solutions as averaged values across the entire crack front whereas the reference solutions were computed for a single point.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS...

  18. Testing prediction methods: Earthquake clustering versus the Poisson model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Testing earthquake prediction methods requires statistical techniques that compare observed success to random chance. One technique is to produce simulated earthquake catalogs and measure the relative success of predicting real and simulated earthquakes. The accuracy of these tests depends on the validity of the statistical model used to simulate the earthquakes. This study tests the effect of clustering in the statistical earthquake model on the results. Three simulation models were used to produce significance levels for a VLF earthquake prediction method. As the degree of simulated clustering increases, the statistical significance drops. Hence, the use of a seismicity model with insufficient clustering can lead to overly optimistic results. A successful method must pass the statistical tests with a model that fully replicates the observed clustering. However, a method can be rejected based on tests with a model that contains insufficient clustering. U.S. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khang, S.J.

    1996-07-31

    Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

  20. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  1. Synergistic effect of hydrotrope and surfactant on solubility and dissolution of atorvastatin calcium: screening factorial design followed by ratio optimization.

    PubMed

    Patel, V F; Sarai, J

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of hydrotrope and surfactant on poor solubility of atorvastatin calcium. Excipients screening followed by factorial design was performed to study effect of excipients and manufacturing methods on solubility of drug. Three independent factors (carrier, surfactant and manufacturing method) were evaluated at two levels using solubility as a dependant variable. Solid-state characterisation was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Optimised complex were incorporated into orally disintegrating micro tablets and in vitro dissolution test was performed. Nicotinamide, Plasdone and sodium dodecyl sulphate were emerged as promising excipients from excipient screening. General regression analysis revealed only the type of carrier has significantly enhanced (P<0.05) the solubility of drug while other factors were found to be nonsignificant. Ratio optimisation trial revealed that drug to nicotinamide ratio is more critical in enhancing the solubility of drug (40 fold increases in solubility compared to pure drug) in comparison to drug-surfactant ratio; however the presence of surfactant deemed essential. Significantly higher rate and extent of dissolution was observed from solid dispersion complex and tablets compared to dissolution of pure drug (P<0.05). Study revealed hydrotrope and surfactant have synergistic effect on solubility and dissolution of atorvastatin calcium and this can be explored further. PMID:25593381

  2. Synergistic Effect of Hydrotrope and Surfactant on Solubility and Dissolution of Atorvastatin Calcium: Screening Factorial Design Followed by Ratio Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Patel, V. F.; Sarai, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of hydrotrope and surfactant on poor solubility of atorvastatin calcium. Excipients screening followed by factorial design was performed to study effect of excipients and manufacturing methods on solubility of drug. Three independent factors (carrier, surfactant and manufacturing method) were evaluated at two levels using solubility as a dependant variable. Solid-state characterisation was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Optimised complex were incorporated into orally disintegrating micro tablets and in vitro dissolution test was performed. Nicotinamide, Plasdone and sodium dodecyl sulphate were emerged as promising excipients from excipient screening. General regression analysis revealed only the type of carrier has significantly enhanced (P<0.05) the solubility of drug while other factors were found to be nonsignificant. Ratio optimisation trial revealed that drug to nicotinamide ratio is more critical in enhancing the solubility of drug (40 fold increases in solubility compared to pure drug) in comparison to drug-surfactant ratio; however the presence of surfactant deemed essential. Significantly higher rate and extent of dissolution was observed from solid dispersion complex and tablets compared to dissolution of pure drug (P<0.05). Study revealed hydrotrope and surfactant have synergistic effect on solubility and dissolution of atorvastatin calcium and this can be explored further. PMID:25593381

  3. In vitro dissolution similarity factor (f2) and in vivo bioequivalence criteria, how and when do they match? Using a BCS class II drug as a simulation example.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feifan; Ji, Shan; Cheng, Zeneng

    2014-10-12

    The present study examined the agreement between in vitro dissolution f2 similarity and in vivo bioequivalence criteria for BCS class II drugs. Dissolution test profiles were generated using the First-order model with varied dissolution parameters around the standard values of a reference profile. The in vivo curves were derived from in vitro dissolution profiles with the drug's pharmacokinetics parameters by numerical convolution method. The Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-? obtained from in vivo test and reference concentration-time curves were compared, and the CmaxR (Cmax ratio), TmaxDif (Tmax difference), AUC0-tR (AUC0-t ratio) and AUC0-?R (AUC0-? ratio) were determined. The relationships between CmaxR, AUC0-tR, AUC0-?R, f2 and the First-order model parameters demonstrated that the Similarity Region 1 enclosed by the f2 contour line labeled 50 was completely within the Bioequivalence Region enclosed by the contour lines labeled 0.80 and 1.20 of AUC0-tR, AUC0-?R, and CmaxR, and the Similarity Region 2 enclosed by the f2 contour line labeled 35 was nearly overlapped with the Bioequivalence Region, but did not exactly match. The results indicate that the public standard for in vitro dissolution f2 similarity criterion (f2?50) is probably slightly conservative and may be widened to an appropriate lower critical value. PMID:25315411

  4. ON SCIENTIFIC METHOD AS A METHOD FOR TESTING THE LEGITIMACY OF CONCEPTS

    E-print Network

    Stone, Abraham

    13 ON SCIENTIFIC METHOD AS A METHOD FOR TESTING THE LEGITIMACY OF CONCEPTS ABRAHAM D. STONE research (Carnap). I argue that scientific method aims precisely at empirical testing of concepts, and that even the simplest scientific ex- periment or observation results in conceptual change. There are two

  5. The dissolution or growth of a sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N.; Wiltshire, Timothy J.; Subramanian, R. Shankar

    1984-01-01

    The problem of the dissolution or growth of an isolated stationary sphere in a large fluid body is analyzed. The motion of the boundary as well as the the resulting motion in the liquid are properly taken into account. The governing equations are solved using a recently developed technique (Subramanian and Weinberg, 1981) which employs an asymptotic expansion in time. Results for the radius of the sphere as a function of time are calculated. The range of utility of the present solution is established by comparison with a numerical solution of the governing equations obtained by the method of finite differences.

  6. Formulations for iron oxides dissolution

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  7. DISSOLUTION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULFITE PLATELETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO2 abs...

  8. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings...petition in a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably broken and shall set...

  9. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (a) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings...petition in a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably broken and shall set...

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Computer Based MCW-APM Test Scoring Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Bruno, James

    1989-01-01

    Reports the results of several test-reliability experiments which compared a modified confidence weighted-admissible probability measurement (MCW-APM) with conventional forced choice or binary type (R-W) test scoring methods. Psychometric properties using G theory and conventional correlational methods are examined, and their implications for…

  11. Overview of multi-input frequency domain modal testing methods with an emphasis on sine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Robert W.; Brown, David L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the current state of the art multiple-input, multiple-output modal testing technology is discussed. A very brief review of the current time domain methods is given. A detailed review of frequency and spatial domain methods is presented with an emphasis on sine testing.

  12. Comparison of bulk sediment and sediment elutriate toxicity testing methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elutriate bioassays are among numerous methods that exist for assessing the potential toxicity of sediments in aquatic systems. In this study, interlaboratory results were compared from 96-hour Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas static-renewal acute toxicity tests conduct...

  13. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.16 Developing the analytical test method. Because of the...

  14. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.16 Developing the analytical test method. Because of the...

  15. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.16 Developing the analytical test method. Because of the...

  16. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.16 Developing the analytical test method. Because of the...

  17. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or...

  18. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or...

  19. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or...

  1. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1385 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1385 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator shall use the following...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1385 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1385 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator shall use the following...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1385 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1385 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator shall use the following...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1385 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1385 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator shall use the following...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1385 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1385 Test methods and procedures. (a) The owner or operator shall use the following...

  7. 40 CFR 60.335 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.335 Test methods...normal operating range of the gas turbine, including the minimum point...achieved in practice. If the turbine combusts both oil and gas as primary or backup...

  8. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting...

  9. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting...

  10. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting...

  11. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of the wedge (see § 1509.5(a)) shall be placed...

  12. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of the wedge (see § 1509.5(a)) shall be placed...

  13. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 40 CFR 60.664 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Distillation Operations § 60.664 Test methods...control device, prior to any post-distillation dilution of the stream with air, and prior to any post-distillation introduction of halogenated...

  15. 40 CFR 60.664 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Distillation Operations § 60.664 Test methods...control device, prior to any post-distillation dilution of the stream with air, and prior to any post-distillation introduction of halogenated...

  16. 40 CFR 60.664 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Distillation Operations § 60.664 Test methods...control device, prior to any post-distillation dilution of the stream with air, and prior to any post-distillation introduction of halogenated...

  17. 40 CFR 60.664 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Distillation Operations § 60.664 Test methods...control device, prior to any post-distillation dilution of the stream with air, and prior to any post-distillation introduction of halogenated...

  18. 40 CFR 60.664 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI) Distillation Operations § 60.664 Test methods...control device, prior to any post-distillation dilution of the stream with air, and prior to any post-distillation introduction of halogenated...

  19. 40 CFR 60.46 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.46 Test methods...pairs of samples. (c) When combinations of fossil fuels or fossil fuel and wood residue are fired, the owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.46 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.46 Test methods...pairs of samples. (c) When combinations of fossil fuels or fossil fuel and wood residue are fired, the owner or...

  1. 40 CFR 60.46 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.46 Test methods...pairs of samples. (c) When combinations of fossil fuels or fossil fuel and wood residue are fired, the owner or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.244 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.244 Test methods and procedures. (a) The...

  3. 40 CFR 60.234 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.234 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  6. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.244 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.244 Test methods and procedures. (a) The...

  8. 40 CFR 60.204 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.204 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting...

  9. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.214 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.214 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.204 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.204 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting...

  12. 40 CFR 60.204 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.204 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting...

  13. 40 CFR 60.244 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.244 Test methods and procedures. (a) The...

  14. 40 CFR 60.214 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.214 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the...

  15. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods...hours, during which at least 300,000 liters of benzene are loaded. If the throughput criterion is...

  16. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods...hours, during which at least 300,000 liters of benzene are loaded. If the throughput criterion is...

  17. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods...hours, during which at least 300,000 liters of benzene are loaded. If the throughput criterion is...

  18. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods...hours, during which at least 300,000 liters of benzene are loaded. If the throughput criterion is...

  19. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods...hours, during which at least 300,000 liters of benzene are loaded. If the throughput criterion is...

  20. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.224 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance...

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING PRODUCTS TEST METHOD SELECTION LIST

    E-print Network

    -51:2000 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps - Electrical Measurements ______ 22/E14a IES LM-51:2013 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps - Electrical Measurements Instruction: Check each test method

  2. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  3. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  4. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  5. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  6. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  7. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.296 Test methods and procedures. (a) If a glass melting furnace with modified processes...to one without modified processes or if a glass melting furnace without modified...

  8. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.296 Test methods and procedures. (a) If a glass melting furnace with modified processes...to one without modified processes or if a glass melting furnace without modified...

  9. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.296 Test methods and procedures. (a) If a glass melting furnace with modified processes...to one without modified processes or if a glass melting furnace without modified...

  10. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.296 Test methods and procedures. (a) If a glass melting furnace with modified processes...to one without modified processes or if a glass melting furnace without modified...

  11. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.296 Test methods and procedures. (a) If a glass melting furnace with modified processes...to one without modified processes or if a glass melting furnace without modified...

  12. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures...lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs =concentration of NOX ...dscm/hr (dscf/hr). P=acid production rate, metric...

  13. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures...lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs =concentration of NOX ...dscm/hr (dscf/hr). P=acid production rate, metric...

  14. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures...lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs = concentration of NOX ...dscm/hr (dscf/hr). P=acid production rate, metric...

  15. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures...lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs =concentration of NOX ...dscm/hr (dscf/hr). P=acid production rate, metric...

  16. 40 CFR 60.144a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Emissions from Basic Oxygen Process Steelmaking Facilities for Which Construction is Commenced After January 20, 1983 § 60.144a Test methods...

  17. 40 CFR 60.275a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.275a Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.275a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.275a Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.144a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Emissions from Basic Oxygen Process Steelmaking Facilities for Which Construction is Commenced After January 20, 1983 § 60.144a Test methods...

  20. 40 CFR 60.275a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.275a Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 60.144a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Emissions from Basic Oxygen Process Steelmaking Facilities for Which Construction is Commenced After January 20, 1983 § 60.144a Test methods...

  2. 40 CFR 60.144a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Emissions from Basic Oxygen Process Steelmaking Facilities for Which Construction is Commenced After January 20, 1983 § 60.144a Test methods...

  3. 40 CFR 60.275a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.275a Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.275a - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.275a Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  5. A study of short test and charge retention test methods for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for testing nickel-cadmium cells for internal shorts and charge retention were studied. Included were (a) open circuit voltage decay after a brief charge, (b) open circuit voltage recovery after shorting, and (c) open circuit voltage decay and capacity loss after a full charge. The investigation included consideration of the effects of prior history, of conditioning cells prior to testing, and of various test method variables on the results of the tests. Sensitivity of the tests was calibrated in terms of equivalent external resistance. The results were correlated. It was shown that a large number of variables may affect the results of these tests. It is concluded that the voltage decay after a brief charge and the voltage recovery methods are more sensitive than the charged stand method, and can detect an internal short equivalent to a resistance of about (10,000/C)ohms where "C' is the numerical value of the capacity of the cell in ampere hours.

  6. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.

  7. Primer Stepper Motor Nomenclature, Definition, Performance and Recommended Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott; Shea, Cutter

    2014-01-01

    There has been an unfortunate lack of standardization of the terms and components of stepper motor performance, requirements definition, application of torque margin and implementation of test methods. This paper will address these inconsistencies and discuss in detail the implications of performance parameters, affects of load inertia, control electronics, operational resonances and recommended test methods. Additionally, this paper will recommend parameters for defining and specifying stepper motor actuators. A useful description of terms as well as consolidated equations and recommended requirements is included.

  8. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  9. Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, A.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

  10. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of...

  11. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... CFR 60.503 of this chapter, except a reading of 500 ppm shall be used to determine the level of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8...=emission rate of NOX as NO2, kg/metric ton (lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs=concentration of NOX...

  16. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8...=emission rate of NOX as NO2, kg/metric ton (lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs=concentration of NOX...

  17. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.85 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82...

  18. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8...=emission rate of NOX as NO2, kg/metric ton (lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs=concentration of NOX...

  19. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.85 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82...

  20. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in § 60.8...=emission rate of NOX as NO2, kg/metric ton (lb/ton) of 100 percent nitric acid. Cs=concentration of NOX...