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1

Sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer.  

PubMed

We report the first case of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. The patient is a 75-year-old man who presented with the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for cancer 2 years before presentation. CT scan showed a distended sigmoid colon with a mesenteric twist, or "whirl sign." Colonoscopy showed a mucosal spiral and luminal stenosis with dilated sigmoid colon distally and ischemic mucosa. The diagnosis of ischemic colonic necrosis due to sigmoid volvulus was established. Resection of the necrotic sigmoid colon was performed and a descending colon stoma was created. A long remnant sigmoid colon and chronic constipation may contribute to the development of sigmoid volvulus after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Prompt diagnosis is essential for adequate treatment, and colonoscopy aids in the diagnosis of ischemic changes in patients without definitive findings of a gangrenous colon. PMID:23879414

Sadatomo, Ai; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Zuiki, Toru; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

2013-08-01

2

Colouterine Fistula Caused by Diverticulitis of the Sigmoid Colon  

PubMed Central

Colouterine fistula is an extremely rare condition because the uterus is a thick, muscular organ. Here, we present a case of a colouterine fistula secondary to colonic diverticulitis. An 81-year-old woman was referred to the emergency department with abdominal pain and vaginal discharge. Computed tomography showed a myometrial abscess cavity in the uterus adherent to the thick sigmoid wall. Upon contrast injection via the cervical os for fistulography, we observed spillage of the contrast into the sigmoid colon via the uterine fundus. Inflammatory adhesion of the distal sigmoid colon to the posterior wall of the uterus was found during surgery. The colon was dissected off the uterus. Resection of the sigmoid colon, primary anastomosis, and repair of the fistula tract of the uterus were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case represents an unusual type of diverticulitis complication and illustrates diagnostic procedures and surgical management for a colouterine fistula. PMID:23346512

2012-01-01

3

Double tracking in the sigmoid colon.  

PubMed

Double tracking of barium in the sigmoid colon has been associated with granulomatous colitis by some; others consider it a sign of peridiverticulitis. Patients who showed no evidence of inflammatory disease elsewhere in the large intestine were analysed. The pathological diagnosis was diverticulitis in 29 of 35 cases, and granulomatous diverticulitis in only 1. In 5 the underlying process was perforated carcinoma of the sigmoid colon. In those with paracolonic sinus tracts due to peridiverticulitis, pathological study demonstrated tracts extrinsic to the muscularis and usually traceable to a perforated diverticulum. Long-term follow-up disclosed no evidence of subsequent inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:935479

Ferrucci, J T; Ragsdale, B D; Barrett, P J; Vickery, A L; Dreyfuss, J R

1976-08-01

4

Small intestinal complications of diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon  

SciTech Connect

The clinical and radiological manifestations of diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon are well recognized. Mild cases respond to medical therapy, while more severe and complicated cases require surgical intervention in approximately 25% to 33% of instances. The barium enema examination usually demonstrates the following: (1) paracolic abscess or fistula, (2) spasm of the sigmoid colon, (3) stricturing of the sigmoid, often with complete obstruction, and (4) fistulals to other viscera, particularly the urinary bladder. This study describes the less recognized clinical and radiological findings of small intestinal involvement as a complication of diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon.

Frager, D.; Wolf, E.L.; Frager, J.D.; Beneventano, T.C.

1986-12-19

5

Right sided descending and sigmoid colon: its embryological basis and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Anatomical variations of the colon are described by various authors, but the occurrence of right sided descending and sigmoid colon is rare and has not been reported. We found that the anomalous right-sided descending and sigmoid colon had four parts. The proximal segment of the first part consisted of the descending colon extending across the midline from the splenic flexure to the portion supplied by the left colic artery. The distal segment was supplied by the superior sigmoid artery. The second and third parts formed a loop in the right lumbar region anterior to the lumbar cecum. The fourth part was in the lesser pelvis, extending from right sacroiliac joint to the third sacral body. Parts two, three, and four were supplied by the inferior sigmoid artery, which arose from the right side of the inferior mesenteric artery. The ascending and transverse colon was normally placed. This is a rare anomaly that has not been reported so far in adults and is of immense importance to interventional radiologists and colorectal surgeons. The embryological basis of such an anomaly is defective fixation occurring as early as the 12th-17th week of intrauterine life. PMID:24386604

Tuli, Anita; Kaur, Sohinder; Raheja, Shashi

2013-01-01

6

[Non Hodgkin lymphoma of the sigmoid colon: case report].  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occurs in extranodal location in approximately 20% of patients with limited stage, high-grade disease. Colon is infrequently involved as a primary location, accounting for 4% of all extranodal NHL and far less than 1% of all colonic malignancies. Colonic NHL differs significantly in terms of presentation, therapy and outcome relative to other more common gastrointestinal sites, like stomach or small bowel. The most common location is the cecum (60-74% of cases), while the sigmoid is involved in 2.5-14%. Largely related to the lack of specific signs and symptoms, patients frequently present advanced locoregional disease. Moreover, more than half of patients require an emergent surgery, usually due to pain, bleeding, or obstruction. Therapy usually involves resection of the affected colon and regional lymph nodes followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or/and radiotherapy. Utilizing this approach 5 years survival rates range between 27-55%. We present a 59 years old man with weight loss,abdominal pain, palpable mass and intestinal obstruction. A sigmoidectomy was realized with histopathologic report of NHL. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy and abdominal radiation were administered. After a 6 month follow-up from initial procedure he is now asymptomatic with Karnofsky of 90. Therefore a surgeon should consider the possibility of NHL when evaluating such patients. PMID:19666296

Garza-Sánchez, J; Hernández-Ramírez, D A; Rocha-Ramírez, J L; Rojas-Illanes, M; Parrado-Montaño, W; Cancino-López, J A; Dorantes-Díaz, D E; Jonguitud-Muro, L A

2009-01-01

7

Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon is a rare occurrence in surgical practice. The aim of this article is to present a case of mesenteric panniculitis of the sigmoid colon and a short review of the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We reviewed the hospital record of a 63-year-old man who presented with a palpable mass in the left abdomen and

Angel I Popkharitov; Georgi N Chomov

2007-01-01

8

Position of a sigmoid colon in right iliac fossa in children: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim was to identify the position of sigmoid colon in children and discuss its clinical significance. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one contrast enema studies were retrospectively evaluated and the position of sigmoid colon categorized as below: Left lower quadrant, right lower quadrant, midline, and indeterminate. Results: The position of sigmoid colon in the right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant, midline, and indeterminate was 32 (35.16%), 33 (36.26%), 12 (13.19%), and 14 (15.38%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age (P = 0.87) or gender prevalence (P = 0.49) for different positions of the sigmoid colon. Conclusion: The sigmoid colon occupies the right lower quadrant in a large number of children. Awareness of this finding is of crucial importance in correct interpretation of abdominal radiographs in the emergency room. PMID:21897567

Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Tirumani, Sreeharsha; Mumtaz, Hina Arif; Narasimha Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-01-01

9

Rett syndrome with colon cancer presented with sigmoid volvulus: Report of a case  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Rett syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopment disorder in which MECP gene mutations are responsible and might be related to cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 22 year-old girl with Rett syndrome was hospitalized for abdominal distention and shock. Abdominal tenderness and distention were revealed in physical examination. Radiological investigations revealed sigmoid volvulus and colonic obstruction. Sigmoid volvulus, sigmoid colon perforation due to sigmoid cancer with liver metastasis were observed at laparotomy. Hartman procedure performed. The patient died on the second postoperative day. DISCUSSION Rett syndrome has several gastrointestinal pathologies related with inadequate parasympathetic control. Genetic mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) which has role in several cancer mechanisms is the reason of Rett syndrome. Colon cancer with the underlying gastrointestinal pathologies complicated our case. CONCLUSION Rett syndrome patients need a high level of concern for gastrointestinal emergencies with cancer risk. PMID:25108072

Yilmaz, Tonguc Utku; Gunes, Abdullah; Posteki, Gokhan; Okay, Erdem

2014-01-01

10

Abdominal Actinomycosis Associated with a Sigmoid Colon Perforation in a Patient with a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt  

PubMed Central

Abdominal actinomycosis causing hydronephrosis in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is very rare. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted complaining of lower abdominal pain. She had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery 10 years ago. Abdominal Ultrasonography and a CT scan demonstrated an inflammatory mass in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen causing obstructive hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Laparotomy revealed a diffusely infiltrating mass involving the small bowel, mesentery, and sigmoid colon, and a 1 cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. Actinomycosis was diagnosed upon histological examination. After treatment with antibiotics and surgery, the patient's condition improved. PMID:16941752

Jung, Eun-Young; Choi, Su-Nyoung; Park, Dong-Jun; You, Jin-Jong; Kim, Hyun-Jung

2006-01-01

11

Surgical treatment of perforated diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of 1353 cases of acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis treated surgically demonstrates that those\\u000a operations that resect or exteriorize the perforated segment at the first operation are associated with a lower operative\\u000a mortality rate than procedures that fail to remove the perforated segment at the initial operation. These results are true\\u000a for both diffuse peritonitis and localized abscess.

Jon M. Greif; Gregory Fried; Charles K. McSherry

1980-01-01

12

Potassium transport across guinea pig distal colon  

SciTech Connect

Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional /sup 42/K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 ..mu..M) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h. Epinephrine (5 ..mu..M, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart.

Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

1986-03-05

13

Active potassium absorption in rat distal colon.  

PubMed Central

1. Active potassium (K+) absorption in rat distal colon was investigated by measuring mucosal-to-serosal (JK, ms) and serosal-to-mucosal (JK, sm) 42K+ fluxes (mu equiv h-1 cm-2) across isolated stripped mucosa under short-circuit conditions in normal and dietary Na-depleted animals. As previously demonstrated, removal of Na+ from both mucosal and serosal solutions bathing the normal colon slightly increased net K+ absorption as a result of inhibition of JK, sm without affecting JK, ms, while in the Na-depleted group net K+ secretion (-0.54 +/- 0.11) was converted to a marked net K+ absorption (1.68 +/- 0.30, P less than 0.001). 2. In both groups of animals in Na(+)-free Ringer solution, JK, ms exhibited saturable and linear components, while JK, sm was a linear function of [K+]. Estimated affinity constants (mM) for saturable net K+ absorption were similar in normal (0.52 +/- 0.12) and Na-depleted (0.67 +/- 0.11) animals; however, there was a greater than 3-fold increase in the saturable flux (Jmax) from 0.54 +/- 0.04 in the normal colon to 1.78 +/- 0.08 mu equiv h-1 cm-2 in Na-depleted animals. 3. Mucosal orthovanadate (100 microM) inhibited JK, ms in both normal (control, 0.66 +/- 0.05 vs. orthovanadate, 0.36 +/- 0.03 mu equiv h-1 cm-2, P less than 0.001) and Na-depleted animals (control 1.20 +/- 0.13 vs. orthovanadate 0.77 +/- 0.07 mu equiv h-1 cm-2, P less than 0.01) without affecting JK, sm or the short-circuit current. In the Na-depleted group mucosal omeprazole or SCH28080 (100 microM), inhibitors of gastric K(+)-H(+)-ATPase, insignificantly or slightly reduced (by 10%) JK, ms respectively; in contrast, mucosal ouabain (1 mM) markedly inhibited JK, ms (control, 1.61 +/- 0.16 vs. ouabain, 0.83 +/- 0.98 mu equiv h-1 cm-2, P less than 0.001). 4. Mucosal Na+ appeared to be a competitor of K+ uptake across the apical membrane. 5. These results indicate that dietary Na-depletion increases electroneutral K+ absorption by increasing its transport capacity and suggest that the mechanism of this active K+ absorption process may involve an apical K(+)-ATPase with properties that are unlike the gastric K(+)-H(+)-ATPase but similar, in part, to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. PMID:2143781

Sweiry, J H; Binder, H J

1990-01-01

14

[A case report of inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder due to diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon].  

PubMed

A 65-year-old female presented to our hospital with a 6-month history of pollakuria, low-grade fever and urgent incontinence. Cystoscopy revealed a nonpapillary bladder tumor that was 50 mm in diameter in the trigon. Computed tomography showed the abscess between the urinary bladder and sigmoid colon. Transurethral resection was performed and the histology consisted of inflammatory lesions with inflammatory cell infiltration, which was diagnosed as an inflammatory pseudotumor due to diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Sigmoidectomy was subsequently performed. A fistula between the urinary bladder and the sigmoid colon was not detected. Cystoscopy 2 months after the operation revealed no signs of a bladder tumor. PMID:16119809

Kubota, Yasuaki; Nomura, Yuri; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishiwaki, Tadasi; Tashiro, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi

2005-07-01

15

Leiomyosarcoma of the sigmoid colon with multiple liver metastases and gastric cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the gastrointestinal tract is an extremely rare high-grade neoplasm with poor prognosis. For advanced LMS with distant metastasis, the decision as to the choice of the most appropriate therapeutic strategy, including chemotherapy and surgery, is difficult. Here, we present an unusual case of LMS of the sigmoid colon with liver metastases and gastric cancer. The survival of this patient was prolonged by a combined modality therapy involving chemotherapy and surgery. Case presentation A 66-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer and multiple liver metastases was referred to our hospital. The initial treatment with docetaxel and S-1 considerably reduced both the gastric cancer and liver tumors; consequently we performed surgical resection. Pathological examination revealed that no viable tumor cells remained in the stomach and chemotherapy resulted in complete remission of the gastric cancer. The liver tumors were immunohistochemically diagnosed as LMS. A tumor of the sigmoid colon was subsequently discovered and the liver tumors were found to have recurred. The surgically resected sigmoid colon and liver tumors were all immunohistochemically diagnosed as LMS. These findings indicated that the multiple liver metastases arose from the LMS in the sigmoid colon, and that they were accompanied by advanced gastric cancer. We performed another surgical resection and administered chemotherapy to treat the recurring liver metastases. The patient survived for 4?years and 10?months after initial presentation at our hospital. Conclusion Colonic LMS is rare and its joint occurrence with gastric cancer is extremely unusual. Although LMS is a high-grade neoplasm, a multimodal therapeutic approach can increase patient survival time even when multiple liver metastases are present. PMID:22849696

2012-01-01

16

Solitary myofibroma of the sigmoid colon: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

A 58-year-old woman presented with a solitary myofibroma that arose in the sigmoid colon. Computed tomography revealed a highly enhanced intramural mass (1.3-cm maximum diameter) in the proximal sigmoid colon. Histologically, the tumor exhibited a biphasic growth pattern, which comprised haphazardly arranged, interwoven fascicles of plump, myoid-appearing spindle cells with elongated nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and more cellular areas of primitive-appearing polygonal cells that were arranged in a hemangiopericytomatous pattern. The tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), and negative for desmin, h-caldesmon, CD34, cytokeratin, S100 protein, and CD117. The Ki-67 labeling index was not high (up to 7%). Based on these histologic and immunohistochemical features, our patient was diagnosed with a myofibroma of the sigmoid colon. The presence of solitary myofibroma in the intestine of an adult requires attention to avoid misdiagnosis as a more aggressive mesenchymal tumor. Virtual Slides The virtual silde(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2096403796957687 PMID:23742153

2013-01-01

17

Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (±0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

Losnegård, Are; Bolstad Hysing, Liv; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid

2010-09-01

18

The peptide transporter PEPT1 is expressed in distal colon in rodents and humans and contributes to water absorption.  

PubMed

The peptide transporter PEPT1, expressed in the brush border membrane of enterocytes, mediates the uptake of di- and tripeptides from luminal protein digestion in the small intestine. PEPT1 was proposed not to be expressed in normal colonic mucosa but may become detectable in inflammatory states such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. We reassessed colonic expression of PEPT1 by performing a systematic analysis of PEPT1 mRNA and protein levels in healthy colonic tissues in mice, rats, and humans. Immunofluorescence analysis of different mouse strains (C57BL/6N, 129/Sv, BALB/c) demonstrated the presence of PEPT1 in the distal part of the colon but not in proximal colon. Rat and human intestines display a similar distribution of PEPT1 as found in mice. However, localization in human sigmoid colon revealed immunoreactivity present at low levels in apical membranes but substantial staining in distinct intracellular compartments. Functional activity of PEPT1 in colonic tissues from mice was assessed in everted sac preparations using [¹?C]Gly-Sar and found to be 5.7-fold higher in distal compared with proximal colon. In intestinal tissues from Pept1-/- mice, no [¹?C]Gly-Sar transport was detectable but feces samples revealed significantly higher water content than in wild-type mice, suggesting that PEPT1 contributes to colonic water absorption. In conclusion, our studies unequivocally demonstrate the presence of PEPT1 protein in healthy distal colonic epithelium in mice, rats, and humans and proved that the protein is functional and contributes to electrolyte and water handling in mice. PMID:23660505

Wuensch, Tilo; Schulz, Stephan; Ullrich, Sina; Lill, Nicole; Stelzl, Tamara; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Loh, Gunnar; Chamaillard, Mathias; Haller, Dirk; Daniel, Hannelore

2013-07-01

19

[A case of advanced sigmoid colon cancer successfully treated with multimodality therapy].  

PubMed

A 61-year-old man underwent sigmoidectomy with partial cystectomy for advanced sigmoid colon cancer with unresectable multiple liver metastases at the Okayama University Hospital in June 2006. Pathological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pStage IV( pSI[ bladder], pN0, pH2, pP0, pM0), as per the Japanese Classification of Colorectal Carcinoma, seventh edition. The patient underwent systematic chemotherapy with irinotecan, 5-fluorouraci( l 5-FU), and folinic acid( FOLFIRI) and oxaliplatin, Leucovorin, and 5-FU( mFOLFOX6) for 13 months. In July 2007, hepatectomy was performed as the liver metastatic lesions had shrunk to a resectable size. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) in November 2009 revealed recurrence in the liver and lung. Subsequently, lateral segmentectomy was performed for the recurrent liver lesions, and radiofrequency ablation( RFA) was performed for the lung lesions. After having undergone RFA, the patient is doing well without any re-recurrence. We encountered a patient with advanced sigmoid colon cancer who was successfully treated with multimodality therapy. For patients with advanced or recurrent colorectal cancers, curative resection can lead to a good prognosis; however, in most patients, it is difficult to achieve curative resection by upfront surgery. Multimodality therapy could facilitate curative resection, thereby resulting in a good prognosis. PMID:24393979

Nishie, Naoki; Inada, Ryo; Mori, Yoshiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Uno, Futoshi; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Utsumi, Masashi; Umeda, Yuzo; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Yagi, Takahito; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

2013-11-01

20

Giant gas-filled cyst of sigmoid colon. Report of a case and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The largest recorded gas-filled cyst of the sigmoid colon, in a man of 67, is presented. The literature of the other recorded cases is reviewed. The gas in the cyst was analysed and a suggestion put forward that bacteria play some part in the aetiology of the gas in the cyst. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5024155

Sibson, D. E.; Edwards, A. J.

1972-01-01

21

[A case of locally advanced sigmoid colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy].  

PubMed

The patient was a 38-year-old woman who visited our hospital complaining of nausea and abdominal pain. A colonoscopy revealed an advanced cancer in the sigmoid colon. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed left hydronephrosis and lymph node metastasis to the left iliopsoas muscle and left ureter. No distant metastasis was found. Since the surgical margins were likely to be positive with a one-stage resection, 3 cycles of FOLFOX4 (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin)were administered after creating a transverse loop colostomy. Although the tumor decreased in size, the surgical margins were still suspected to be positive. For further regional tumor control, radiotherapy (1.8 Gy/day for 25 days) to the medial region of the left iliac bone and oral UFT/LV (uracil and tegafur/Leucovorin)were administered. A partial response(PR)was determined in accordance with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors(RECIST). Sigmoidectomy with partial resection of the left ureter was performed by laparotomy. The histologic response was assessed as Grade 2 and all surgical margins were negative. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy may be an effective therapeutic option for locally advanced colon cancer resistant to conventional preoperative chemotherapy. PMID:25248907

Yoshitomi, Mami; Hashida, Hiroki; Nomura, Akinari; Ueda, Shugo; Terajima, Hiroaki; Osaki, Nobuhiro

2014-09-01

22

Design and evaluation of matrix base with sigmoidal release profile for colon-specific delivery using a combination of Eudragit and non-ionic cellulose ether polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pH- and time-controlled drug delivery system with sigmoidal release profile was developed using Eudragit (L100 or S100)\\u000a in combination with hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) or hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) for sigmoidal release of indomethacin\\u000a in the potential treatment of colon cancer. The effect of varying proportions of polymer type on sigmoidal release was evaluated.\\u000a The prepared tablets were also

Laila Fatima Ali Asghar; Sajeev Chandran

2011-01-01

23

A Case of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with Skeinoid Fibers of the Sigmoid Colon  

PubMed Central

An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with rectal cancer and underwent Hartmann's procedure. Although no tumors were identified during the preoperative examination, gross examination of the resected specimen incidentally revealed a submucosal tumor that was 9 mm in diameter at the oral side and located in the proximal stump of the specimen from the sigmoid colon. We suspected a concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and performed a histopathological examination. An L-shaped nodular lesion measuring 9 × 6 mm was histologically composed of a patternless proliferation of spindle cells intermingled with eosinophilic globules. Cellular atypia, prominent mitotic figures and necrotic foci were not observed in the nodule. The spindle cells were positive for CD34, CD117 and vimentin, but negative for CD56, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. MIB-1 positivity was estimated to be as low as approximately 1–2%. Electron microscopy showed a bundle of wool-like fibers with a periodicity of approximately 40 nm. We therefore considered the lesion to be a low-risk GIST with skeinoid fibers in the large intestine. Although numerous previous reports have reported skeinoid fibers in the stomach and small intestines, there have been only 9 cases (including the present case) of skeinoid fibers in the large intestine.

Sumi, Tetsuo; Katsumata, Kenji; Shibuya, Makoto; Katayanagi, Sou; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Serizawa, Hiromi; Shimazu, Motohide; Tsuchida, Akihiko

2014-01-01

24

MRI findings of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the mid-sigmoid colon  

PubMed Central

Summary A remote vaginal metastasis from a colo-rectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only few cases have been described in the literature. The radiological appearances of a vaginal metastasis from colon-rectal cancer have not been extensively investigated. We report the MRI findings with clinical and pathological correlations of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing a mid-sigmoid adenocarcinoma in a 67 years old woman. PMID:24567770

D'Arco, Felice; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Romano, Federica; Natella, Valentina; Laccetti, Ettore; Storto, Giovanni; Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo

2014-01-01

25

A Case of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Sigmoid Colon Presenting as a Semipedunculated Polyp  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are characterized by lymphoepithelial lesions pathologically. Colonic MALT lymphomas are relatively rarer than lymphomas of the stomach or small intestine. Endoscopically, colonic MALT lymphoma frequently appears as a nonpedunculated protruding polypoid mass and/or an ulceration in the cecum and/or rectum. We report a unique case of a colonic MALT lymphoma presenting as a semipedunculated polyp. A 54-year-old man was found to have a 2-cm semipedunculated polyp in the sigmoid colon during screening colonoscopy. The polyp was removed by endoscopic mucosal resection. Histologic examination of the resected polyp revealed diffuse epithelial infiltration by discrete aggregates of lymphoma cells. We diagnosed the tumor as low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:24765604

Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Seon Young; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Sung, Woo Jung

2014-01-01

26

Modulation of Ion Transport Across Rat Distal Colon by Cysteine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify the actions of stimulation of endogenous production of H2S by cysteine, the substrate for the two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine-?-synthase and cystathionine-?-lyase, on ion transport across rat distal colon. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc) induced by cysteine were measured in Ussing chambers. Free cysteine caused a concentration-dependent, transient fall in Isc, which was sensitive to amino-oxyacetate and ?-cyano-L-alanine, i.e., inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes. In contrast, Na cysteinate evoked a biphasic change in Isc, i.e., an initial fall followed by a secondary increase, which was also reduced by these enzyme inhibitors. All responses were dependent on the presence of Cl? and inhibited by bumetanide, suggesting that free cysteine induces an inhibition of transcellular Cl? secretion, whereas Na cysteinate – after a transient inhibitory phase – activates anion secretion. The assumed reason for this discrepancy is a fall in the cytosolic pH induced by free cysteine, but not by Na cysteinate, as observed in isolated colonic crypts loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF. Intracellular acidification is known to inhibit epithelial K+ channels. Indeed, after preinhibition of basolateral K+ channels with tetrapentylammonium or Ba2+, the negative Isc induced by free cysteine was reduced significantly. In consequence, stimulation of endogenous H2S production by Na cysteinate causes, after a short inhibitory response, a delayed activation of anion secretion, which is missing in the case of free cysteine, probably due to the cytosolic acidification. In contrast, diallyl trisulfide, which is intracellularly converted to H2S, only evoked a monophasic increase in Isc without the initial fall observed with Na cysteinate. Consequently, time course and amount of produced H2S seem to strongly influence the functional response of the colonic epithelium evoked by this gasotransmitter. PMID:22403551

Pouokam, Ervice; Diener, Martin

2012-01-01

27

TRPV3, a thermosensitive channel is expressed in mouse distal colon epithelium  

SciTech Connect

The thermo-transient receptor potential (thermoTRP) subfamily is composed of channels that are important in nociception and thermo-sensing. Here, we show a selective expression of TRPV3 channel in the distal colon throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Expression analyses clearly revealed that TRPV3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in the superficial epithelial cells of the distal colon, but not in those of the stomach, duodenum or proximal colon. In a subset of primary epithelial cells cultured from the distal colon, carvacrol, an agonist for TRPV3, elevated cytosolic Ca{sup 2+}concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was inhibited by ruthenium red, a TRPV channel antagonist. Organotypic culture supported that the carvacrol-responsive cells were present in superficial epithelial cells. Moreover, application of carvacrol evoked ATP release in primary colonic epithelial cells. We conclude that TRPV3 is present in absorptive cells in the distal colon and may be involved in a variety of cellular functions.

Ueda, Takashi, E-mail: tueda@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan); Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: yamada-taka@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan); Ugawa, Shinya, E-mail: ugawa@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan); Ishida, Yusuke, E-mail: y.ishida@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Shoichi, E-mail: sshimada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan)

2009-05-22

28

Cellular site of active K absorption in the guinea-pig distal colonic epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian distal colon, which is composed of different cell types, actively transports Na, K and Cl in absorptive and\\u000a K and Cl in secretory directions. To further characterize the K absorption process and to identify the cells involved in K\\u000a absorption, unidirectional Rb fluxes and luminal Rb uptake into different epithelial cell types were determined in isolated\\u000a guinea-pig distal

A. Dörge; F. X. Beck; G. Rechkemmer

1998-01-01

29

Chicken or the leg: Sigmoid colon perforation by ingested poultry fibula proximal to an occult malignancy?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Colonic perforation by ingested foreign bodies is exceedingly rare, with the diagnosis made more challenging by patients infrequently recalling any inadvertent ingestion and the poor sensitivity of plain radiography. PRESENTATION OF CASE The presented case demonstrates that bony perforation of the large bowel might occur immediately proximal to an otherwise occult colonic malignancy. DISCUSSION Ingestion of foreign bodies is common and rarely results in colonic perforation. However, bony ingestion is not usually remembered and can be missed even with cross-sectional imaging. If present, consideration should be given to the presence of an adjacent concealed colon cancer. CONCLUSION The co-existence of separate pathology should be carefully assessed in these patients, since this has important implications for relevant investigations and appropriate surgical management. PMID:24060703

Terrace, J.D.; Samuel, J.; Robertson, J.H.; Wilson, R.G.; Anderson, D.N.

2013-01-01

30

Dietary calcium supplementation increases apoptosis in the distal murine colonic epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background—Increased dietary calcium might reduce colorectal cancer risk, possibly by reduction of colonic epithelial hyperproliferation, but not all studies have demonstrated this. Little is known about the effects of calcium on colonic apoptosis. Aim—To quantify the effects of increasing calcium on apoptosis and cell proliferation in normal murine colonic crypt epithelium. Methods—Twenty one day old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either control AIN-76 diet (0.5% calcium wt/wt; n = 10) or the same supplemented with calcium carbonate (1.0% calcium; n = 10) for 12 weeks. Apoptotic cells in proximal and distal segments were counted and expressed as an apoptotic index (AI: frequency of apoptosis/100 longitudinal crypts). The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling index was also determined. Differences were analysed by the student's t test. Results—In control animals, the AI was significantly higher in the caecum/proximal colon (mean, 28.6; SEM, 2.0) compared with the distal colon (mean, 19.9; SEM, 1.8; p = 0.004). In the calcium treated group, the AI in the caecum/proximal colon (mean, 30.6; SEM, 1.7) was similar to controls (p = 0.71) but the AI in the distal colon was significantly greater (mean, 32.6; SEM, 1.8; p = 0.001) than in control mice and was raised to values similar to those in the proximal colon. Calcium was also associated with reduced crypt cellularity and, in the proximal colon, a downward shift in the crypt position at which apoptosis occurred. There were no significant differences in the BrdU labelling index between groups or between proximal and distal colonic segments in each group. Conclusions—Increased dietary calcium is associated with the induction of apoptosis in normal mouse distal colonic epithelium without affecting cell proliferation. This might contribute to its putative chemopreventive role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether this effect is direct or indirect requires further study. Key Words: calcium • apoptosis • colonic neoplasms PMID:10823127

Penman, I; Liang, Q; Bode, J; Eastwood, M; Arends, M

2000-01-01

31

Implantation metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon into a perianal fistula: a case report  

PubMed Central

Implantation metastasis from a colorectal cancer into a perianal fistula is very rare. Such lesions are commonly mistaken as benign perianal abscesses or fistulas and diagnosed only after pathological analysis of surgically excised fistulas. Once diagnosed, the management of this condition remains controversial. We report a case of perianal fistula that was unexpectedly found to harbor adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Further investigation by colonoscopy and computed tomography scan revealed a sigmoid adenocarcinoma. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histology and immunohistochemical staining was identical in both primary and metastatic tumors. We herein review the literature on the metastasis of colorectal cancer to a benign perianal fistula presumably acquired through implantation of viable malignant cells shed from the primary tumor and discuss the approach to this rare scenario in colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:24975988

Gomes, Rachel M.; Kumar, Rajiv K.; Desouza, Ashwin; Saklani, Avanish

2014-01-01

32

The retroperitoneal surface in distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinoma: the Cinderella surgical margin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mesorectal margin tumour involvement is a predictor of local recurrence in rectal carcinoma and an indication for postoperative radiotherapy in suitable patients. However, the prevalence of non-peritonealised surgical margin involvement in ascending colon carcinoma is unknown.Aims: To test the hypothesis that retroperitoneal surgical margin (RSM) tumour involvement occurs in distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinoma.Methods\\/Results: One hundred right

A C Bateman; N J Carr; B F Warren

2005-01-01

33

Sigmoidorectal intussusception of adenoma of sigmoid colon treated by laparoscopic anterior resection after sponge-on-the-stick-assisted manual reduction  

PubMed Central

We present herein a case report of sigmoidorectal intussusception as an unusual case of sigmoid adenomatous polyp. The patient was a 56-year-old man who suffered from rectal bleeding for one day. He initially visited his general practitioner and was diagnosed as having an intraluminal mass of 15 cm from the anal verge. Several hours after admission to our coloproctology clinic, he suddenly presented with lower abdominal cramping pain with rectal bleeding during his bowel preparation using polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution. An emergency colonoscopy revealed that the invaginated colon with polypoid mass was protruded to the lower rectum. Gastrograffin enema showed that the invaginated bowel segment was 3 cm from the anal verge. CT scan showed the typical finding of intussusception. We performed laparoscopic anterior resection and anastomosis after the sponge-on-the-stick-assisted manual reduction. The permanent pathologic finding showed villotubular adenoma of the sigmoid colon. PMID:16440436

Park, Ki-Jae; Choi, Hong-Jo; Kim, Sung-Heun; Han, Sang-Young; Hong, Sook-Hee; Cho, Jin-Han; Kim, Hyung-Ho

2006-01-01

34

The effect of mosapride citrate on proximal and distal colonic motor function in the guinea-pig in vitro.  

PubMed

Mosapride citrate (mosapride), a substituted benzamide, is a selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, and is known to have prokinetic properties on the stomach. However, it is unclear whether mosapride also has a prokinetic effect on the colon. We previously found that mosapride significantly shortened colonic transit time in the guinea-pig, an animal with a distribution of colonic 5-HT(4) receptors similar to that of a human. So, we aimed to separately evaluate the effect of mosapride on proximal and distal colonic motor function in the guinea-pig. Proximal (approximately 8 cm from the ileocolic junction) and distal colon (approximately 8 cm from the anus) were removed. Both ends of the colon were connected to a chamber containing a Krebs-Henseleit solution. To measure colonic transit time, artificial faeces were inserted into the oral side of the lumen and moved towards the anal side by intraluminal perfusion via a peristaltic pump. A total of 6 cm of transit was observed and time was measured in 2 cm increments. A tissue bath study, using electrical stimulation, was performed to estimate the contractile activity of the circular musculature of the colon. Immunohistochemical staining for 5-HT(4) receptors was performed in the myenteric plexus and circular muscle in both proximal and distal colon, and the stained area was measured using a microscope and computer software. Mosapride enhanced contraction at 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol L(-1), coinciding with rapid transit both in proximal and distal colon. This pattern was more prominent in proximal colon. At the high dose (10(-6) mol L(-1)) mosapride had little or no effect on colonic contraction. This stimulatory effect was attenuated by GR113808, atropine and tetrodotoxin. In the myenteric plexus, the density of 5-HT(4) receptors was significantly greater in the proximal colon than in the distal colon, but in circular muscle the density was greater in the distal colon. Thus, mosapride accelerates transit through increased contraction in the proximal colon more than distal colon. The different distribution of neuronal and muscular 5-HT(4) receptors may support these findings. Therefore, mosapride may be a useful alternative to tegaserod and cisapride for constipation. PMID:17931343

Kim, H S; Choi, E J; Park, H

2008-02-01

35

[Successful treatment of advanced sigmoid colon cancer with liver metastases with cetuximab monotherapy as first-line treatment-a case report].  

PubMed

The prognosis for patients diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer with liver metastases is poor. Chemotherapy should be administered with caution in such patients because of complications due to severe liver dysfunction. We report here the successful management of a case of advanced sigmoid colon cancer, with icterus due to severe liver metastases, treated with cetuximab as first-line therapy. A 72-year-old man presented at our institution with complaints of severe general fatigue, tarry stools, and abdominal distention. He was diagnosed with advanced sigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver metastases. Clinical examination revealed the presence of ascites. The patient had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group(ECOG) performance status(PS)score of 3. A biopsy specimen of the primary tumor showed well-moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma without KRAS mutation. He was diagnosed with advanced sigmoid colon cancer with multiple hepatic metastases. Cetuximab monotherapy was initiated as first-line treatment. After 4 courses of cetuximab monotherapy, results of laboratory tests showed an improvement, and a computed tomography(CT)scan revealed a regression in the size of the liver metastases. Because the results of liver function tests and the ECOG PS scores improved, we initiated combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin, oxaliplatin(FOLFOX), and cetuximab. This regimen was well tolerated up to 14 courses, during which the only adverse reaction reported was a rash of grade 2 toxicity. Thereafter, disease progression in the form of liver metastases resulted in a change in the combination therapy to irinotecan and S-1(IRIS)as second-line chemotherapy. Thereafter, irinotecan and panitumumab were administered as third-line therapy. The patient continued chemotherapy on an outpatient basis; however, he died due to disease progression 18 months after his first visit. PMID:25131880

Harada, Kazuaki; Hatanaka, Kazuteru; Kinoshita, Kenji; Kawamoto, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Koji; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Naruse, Hirohito

2014-07-01

36

[A case of pathologically complete response in a patient with locally advanced sigmoid colon cancer after chemotherapy including bevacizumab/FOLFOX4].  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man complaining of abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. A diagnosis of colon ileus due to sigmoidal colon cancer was made. A stoma was created at the transverse colon, and elective surgery was scheduled. During the operation, the tumor was found to have invaded the bladder and the pelvic wall, making curative resection impossible. Chemotherapy consisting of bevacizumab/oxaliplatin, Leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil(FOLFOX4, intravenous drip infusion every 2 weeks)was started. After 12 courses of treatment, remarkable shrinkage of the tumor was noted, which led us to perform a sigmoidectomy and partial resection of the bladder wall. A histopathological study of the surgically resected specimen showed no cancer cells. Recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 17th postoperative day. In cases of advanced colon cancer, complete response of the primary tumor with preoperative chemotherapy is very unusual. We conclude that chemotherapy with bevacizumab/FOLFOX4 plays a role in the management of advanced/unresectable colon cancer. PMID:25129094

Mikami, Youshi; Tamura, Naoshi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Muraoka, Takeshi; Sakurai, Urara; Sawabe, Motoshi

2014-06-01

37

Giant Sigmoid Diverticula: A Review  

PubMed Central

Two patients with giant sigmoid diverticula are added to 13 cases reported in the literature and the clinical features of this rare complication of diverticulosis are reviewed. These lesions probably arise as pseudodiverticula of the sigmoid colon with herniation of the mucosa through the muscle wall. They become progressively inflated by colonic gas via a ball-valve type mechanism. They are best treated by resection of the diverticulum, in continuity with the involved sigmoid, and primary anastomosis. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4433171

Kempczinski, Richard F.; Ferrucci, Joseph T.

1974-01-01

38

Distinct subclassification of DRG neurons innervating the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra based on the electrophysiological current signature.  

PubMed

Spinal sensory neurons innervating visceral and mucocutaneous tissues have unique microanatomic distribution, peripheral modality, and physiological, pharmacological, and biophysical characteristics compared with those neurons that innervate muscle and cutaneous tissues. In previous patch-clamp electrophysiological studies, we have demonstrated that small- and medium-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be subclassified on the basis of their patterns of voltage-activated currents (VAC). These VAC-based subclasses were highly consistent in their action potential characteristics, responses to algesic compounds, immunocytochemical expression patterns, and responses to thermal stimuli. For this study, we examined the VAC of neurons retrogradely traced from the distal colon and the glans penis/distal urethra in the adult male rat. The afferent population from the distal colon contained at least two previously characterized cell types observed in somatic tissues (types 5 and 8), as well as four novel cell types (types 15, 16, 17, and 18). In the glans penis/distal urethra, two previously described cell types (types 6 and 8) and three novel cell types (types 7, 14, and 15) were identified. Other characteristics, including action potential profiles, responses to algesic compounds (acetylcholine, capsaicin, ATP, and pH 5.0 solution), and neurochemistry (expression of substance P, CGRP, neurofilament, TRPV1, TRPV2, and isolectin B4 binding) were consistent for each VAC-defined subgroup. With identification of distinct DRG cell types that innervate the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra, future in vitro studies related to the gastrointestinal and urogenital sensory function in normal as well as abnormal/pathological conditions may be benefitted. PMID:24872531

Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Brian Y; Johnson, Richard D

2014-09-15

39

A rhythmic motor pattern activated by circumferential stretch in guinea-pig distal colon  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous intracellular recordings were made from pairs of circular muscle (CM) cells, at the oral and anal ends of a segment of guinea-pig distal colon, to investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying faecal pellet propulsion. When a minimum degree of circumferential stretch was applied to sheet preparations of colon, recordings from CM cells revealed either no ongoing junction potentials, or alternatively, small potentials usually < 5 mV in amplitude. Maintained circumferential stretch applied to these preparations evoked an ongoing discharge of excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) at the oral recording site (range: 1-25 mV), which lasted for up to 6 h. The onset of each large oral EJP was time-locked with the onset of an inhibitory junction potential (IJP) at an anal recording electrode, located 2 cm from the oral recording. Similar results were obtained in isolated intact tube preparations of colon, when recordings were made immediately oral and anal of an artificial faecal pellet. The amplitudes of many large (> 5 mV) oral EJPs were linearly related to the amplitudes of anal IJPs occurring 20 mm apart. In the absence of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, action potentials occurred on each large oral EJP. Synchronized discharges of stretch-activated EJPs and IJPs were preserved following pretreatment with capsaicin (10 ?m), were unaffected by nifedipine (1 ?m) and did not require the mucosa or submucous plexus. EJPs and IJPs were abolished by hexamethonium (300 ?m) or tetrodotoxin (1 ?m), but persisted in the presence of pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 10 ?m) or an NK3 tachykinin receptor antagonist (Neurokinin A 4-10; 100 nm to 5 ?m). In summary, maintained circumferential stretch of the distal colon activates a population of intrinsic mechanosensory neurons that generate repetitive firing of ascending excitatory and descending inhibitory pathways to CM. These mechanosensory neurons, which may be interneurons, are stretch sensitive, rather than muscle tension sensitive, since they are resistant to muscular paralysis. We suggest the synchrony in onset of oral EJPs and anal IJPs over large regions of colon is due to synchronous synaptic activation of ascending and descending interneurons. PMID:12456839

Spencer, Nick J; Hennig, Grant W; Smith, Terence K

2002-01-01

40

The effects of biofeedback on rectal sensation and distal colonic motility in patients with disorders of rectal evacuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Abnormalities of descending colon motility reported in a subset of patients with rectal evacuation disorders are consistent with a rectocolonic inhibitory reflex. Our aims were to evaluate distal colon motor function and rectal sensation in such patients and assess effects of biofeedback (BF) training on these functions.METHODS:Seven patients (five women, two men; mean age 36 yr) with rectal evacuation disorders

Roland M. H. G. Mollen; Beatrice Salvioli; Michael Camilleri; Duane Burton; Louis J. Kost; Sidney F. Phillips; John H. Pemberton

1999-01-01

41

Colonic diverticula.  

PubMed

Diverticulosis is a condition that is associated with ageing. The older the individual the more likely they are to have diverticulosis, but this process is not necessarily inevitable. Diverticula are a herniation through the wall of the sigmoid colon and are likely to be a consequence of a weakness in the colonic wall or prolonged exposure to increased intracolonic pressure consequent on a low dietary fibre intake. The tensile strength of the colon declines with age and becomes least in the distal colon. Adult Africans living in Africa eat a high-fibre diet and are free from diverticulosis. Their colons are stronger, wider and thinner than those Scottish adults of the same age. The strength of the colon is in part dependent on collagen fibres and their diameter. The collagen fibrils on the left side of the colon are smaller and more tightly packed than those of the right side of the colon. Ageing and the presence of colonic diverticulosis are associated with smaller more-tightly-packed collagen fibrils. An animal model was established to investigate the effect of a lifelong high- and low-fibre diet on the development of colonic diverticulosis. The findings show that a high-fibre diet from birth, and preferably a maternal high-fibre diet, lessen the risk of diverticulosis with age. PMID:12740054

Eastwood, Martin

2003-02-01

42

Clofibrate relaxes the longitudinal smooth muscle of the mouse distal colon through calcium-mediated desensitisation of contractile machinery.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that exerts strong effects on metabolic pathways. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of clofibrate, a PPAR-? agonist, on the longitudinal muscle of the mouse distal colon. We initially found that clofibrate induced a relaxation response in this muscle. Notably, the PPAR-? antagonists GW9662 and T0070907 did not attenuate this clofibrate-induced relaxation. The structurally related PPAR-? agonists fenofibrate and bezafibrate induced relaxation in the distal colon as effectively as clofibrate. In contrast, wy-14643, which activates PPAR-? more selectively than clofibrate, had no effect. Furthermore, clofibrate-induced relaxation was not affected by N-nitro-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3- a]quinoxaline-1-one, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, or H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Tetrodotoxin, an Na? channel blocker, and glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin and XE991, various K? channel blockers, had no effect on clofibrate-induced relaxation. Importantly, clofibrate induced a relaxation response that was not accompanied by any alteration in the cytoplasmic Ca²? concentration in the longitudinal muscle of the mouse distal colon. Moreover, calyculin A, a myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor, attenuated clofibrate-induced relaxation. Our findings indicate that clofibrate relaxes the longitudinal smooth muscle of the mouse distal colon by regulating MLCP activity. PMID:21846997

Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Morioka, Ai; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

2011-01-01

43

Submucosal reflexes: distension-evoked ion transport in the guinea pig distal colon.  

PubMed

Muscle-stripped segments of distal colon from guinea pigs were mounted in modified flux chambers to determine the effect of distension on mucosal secretion. Ion secretion was monitored as changes in short-circuit current (Isc). Distending forces were pressure gradients established by controlled reduction in liquid volume of the submucosal compartment of the chamber. Volume removal for 10 s or 5 min evoked a monophasic or biphasic increase in Isc, which returned to baseline within 5-20 min. The amplitude of the response correlated with the volume removed and was reduced by bumetanide and Cl-free solutions but not by tetraethylammonium or amiloride. Tetrodotoxin and atropine also suppressed the response. Neither the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist ICS 205-930, or the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor piroxicam altered the response. Addition of prostaglandin D2 to the submucosal bath significantly enhanced the response. The results suggest that distension of the colon evokes anion secretion by activation of reflex circuits with cholinergic neurons and muscarinic synapses. Prostaglandins and 5-hydroxytryptamine acting at 5-HT3 receptors appear not to be signal substances in the reflex pathway, which evokes the secretory response to distension. PMID:1636721

Frieling, T; Wood, J D; Cooke, H J

1992-07-01

44

Laparoscopic Colectomy vs. Open Colectomy For Sigmoid Diverticular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The feasibility of laparoscopic colectomy for colon surgery has now been well established. Most of the studies on laparoscopic colectomies include all types of colonic pathologies without discrimination. Our goal was to compare laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy vs. open sigmoid colectomy for simple sigmoid diverticular disease, to assess whether it can be done safely and whether the proposed advantages could

Amit Dwivedi; Fadi Chahin; Sunita Agrawal; W. Y. Chau; A. Tootla; F. Tootla; Yvan J. Silva

2002-01-01

45

Neural mechanisms of peristalsis in the isolated rabbit distal colon: a neuromechanical loop hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Propulsive contractions of circular muscle are largely responsible for the movements of content along the digestive tract. Mechanical and electrophysiological recordings of isolated colonic circular muscle have demonstrated that localized distension activates ascending and descending interneuronal pathways, evoking contraction orally and relaxation anally. These polarized enteric reflex pathways can theoretically be sequentially activated by the mechanical stimulation of the advancing contents. Here, we test the hypothesis that initiation and propagation of peristaltic contractions involves a neuromechanical loop; that is an initial gut distension activates local and oral reflex contraction and anal reflex relaxation, the subsequent movement of content then acts as new mechanical stimulus triggering sequentially reflex contractions/relaxations at each point of the gut resulting in a propulsive peristaltic contraction. In fluid filled isolated rabbit distal colon, we combined spatiotemporal mapping of gut diameter and intraluminal pressure with a new analytical method, allowing us to identify when and where active (neurally-driven) contraction or relaxation occurs. Our data indicate that gut dilation is associated with propagating peristaltic contractions, and that the associated level of dilation is greater than that preceding non-propagating contractions (2.7 ± 1.4 mm vs. 1.6 ± 1.2 mm; P < 0.0001). These propagating contractions lead to the formation of boluses that are propelled by oral active neurally driven contractions. The propelled boluses also activate neurally driven anal relaxations, in a diameter dependent manner. These data support the hypothesis that neural peristalsis is the consequence of the activation of a functional loop involving mechanical dilation which activates polarized enteric circuits. These produce propulsion of the bolus which activates further anally, polarized enteric circuits by distension, thus closing the neuromechanical loop. PMID:24795551

Dinning, Phil G.; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Omari, Taher; Arkwright, John W.; Spencer, Nick J.; Brookes, Simon J. H.; Costa, Marcello

2014-01-01

46

Role of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 in the modulation of neuromuscular functions in the distal colon of humans and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cyclooxygenase isoforms (COX-1, COX-2) may exert differential regulatory actions on enteric motor functions under normal or pathological conditions.Aims: To examine the occurrence and functions of COX-1 and COX-2 in the neuromuscular compartment of normal distal colon using human and murine tissue.Methods: Gene expression (human, mouse), protein expression (human), gene deletion (mouse), and the effects of dual and isoform specific

M Fornai; C Blandizzi; R Colucci; L Antonioli; N Bernardini; C Segnani; B Baragatti; S Barogi; P Berti; R Spisni; M Del Tacca

2005-01-01

47

A patient who showed a pathologically complete response after undergoing treatment with XELOX plus bevacizumab for synchronous liver metastasis of grade H2 from sigmoid colon cancer  

PubMed Central

We herein report the case of a patient who showed a pathological complete response after undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab. The patient presented with synchronous solitary liver metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer. The maximum diameter of the liver deposit was 5.7 cm and the grade of the liver metastasis was H2 according to the Japanese classification. Deferred hepatectomy after sigmoidectomy was performed, followed by the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After undergoing sigmoidectomy, the patient received 1,000 mg/m2 of capecitabine and 130 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin without bevacizumab as the first cycle of chemotherapy followed by eight cycles of chemotherapy with bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) every three weeks. The liver deposit was reduced to 2.2 cm in diameter and the patient showed a partial response to chemotherapy. The patient then underwent metastasectomy of segment 8 of the liver instead of the central hepatectomy that was possibly needed before chemotherapy. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of fibrous tissue, and no cancer cells were detected in the resected specimen. A pathological complete response in a patient with H2 liver metastasis is considered rare and suggests that capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab are efficacious as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23730524

Hisatsune, Yasuhito; Mihara, Yoshitaka; Tobe, Naotaka; Ishibashi, Kazuyoshi; Shimamura, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Kei-ichi; Aida, Yoshio; Otsubo, Takehito

2013-01-01

48

Opposite role played by GABAA and GABAB receptors in the modulation of peristaltic activity in mouse distal colon.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of GABA on intestinal motility using as model the murine distal colon. Effects induced by GABA receptors recruitment were examined in whole colonic segments and isolated circular muscle preparations to analyze their influence on peristaltic reflex and on spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions. Using a modified Trendelenburg set-up, rhythmic peristaltic contractions were evoked by gradual distension of the colonic segments. Spontaneous and neurally-evoked mechanical activity of circular muscle strips were recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension. GABA, at low concentrations (10-50 µM), potentiated peristaltic activity and the neural cholinergic contractions, whilst it, at higher concentrations (500 µM-1mM), had inhibitory effects. GABA excitatory effects were mimicked by muscimol, GABAA-receptor agonist, and prevented by bicuculline, GABAA-receptor antagonist, which per se reduced peristaltic activity and the cholinergic contractile responses. Inhibitory effects were mimicked by baclofen, GABAB-receptor agonist, and antagonized by phaclofen, GABAB-receptor antagonist and by hexamethonium, neural nicotinic receptor antagonist. Guanethidine was ineffective on GABA effects. Non-cholinergic responses were not affected by GABA agents. All drugs failed to affect the response to carbachol. Lastly, GABAC receptor agonist/antagonist had any effect on colonic motility. In conclusion, GABA in mouse distal colon is a modulator of peristaltic activity via the regulation of acetylcholine release from cholinergic neurons through interaction with GABAA or GABAB receptors. GABAA receptors are recruited at low GABA concentrations, increasing acetylcholine release and propulsive activity. At high GABA concentrations the activation of GABAB receptors overrides GABAA receptor effects, decreasing acetylcholine release and peristaltic activity. PMID:24642362

Auteri, Michelangelo; Zizzo, Maria Grazia; Mastropaolo, Mariangela; Serio, Rosa

2014-05-15

49

Ileal and colonic epithelial metabolism in quiescent ulcerative colitis: increased glutamine metabolism in distal colon but no defect in butyrate metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that butyrate is an important energy source for the distal colon, and that its metabolism may be defective in ulcerative colitis (UC). A similar metabolic defect in the ileum might account for the occurrence of 'pouchitis' in UC patients after colectomy. A method has been developed that allows the measurement of metabolism in ileocolonoscopic biopsy specimens, and this has been used to assess butyrate and glutamine metabolism in quiescent UC and controls. Preliminary experiments showed optimal metabolism of butyrate at 1 mmol/l. In controls glutamine metabolism was greater in the ascending (mean (SD)) (4.9 (3.2) nmol/h/micrograms protein) than in the descending colon (1.4 0.7)) (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test), but butyrate metabolism was similar in the two regions (ascending 62.6 (44.2), descending 51.5 (32.0)). Consequently ratios of butyrate/glutamine metabolism were higher in the descending colon (20.6 (14.3)) than in the ascending colon (14.3 (9.6)) (p < 0.05). In UC, rates of butyrate metabolism were similar in the ascending (92.5 (58.3) nmol/h/micrograms protein) and descending (93.3 (115)) colon, and these were not significantly different from controls. In UC, glutamine metabolism was similar in the ascending (6.2 (7.7) nmol/h/micrograms protein) and descending colon (7.8 (7.9)); the metabolism in the descending colon was significantly greater than in controls (p < 0.01). Butyrate (135 (56) nmol/h/microgram protein) and glutamine (24.1 (16.2)) metabolism in the ileum in UC, were not significantly different from control values (butyrate 111 (57), glutamine 15.5 (15.6)). These results confirm that there is regional variation of nutrient utilisation throughout the colon, but they do not support the hypothesis that UC is caused by a deficiency of butyrate metabolism. PMID:8244143

Finnie, I A; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

1993-01-01

50

Age-Related Changes in Melatonin Release in the Murine Distal Colon  

PubMed Central

Constipation and fecal impaction are conditions of the bowel whose prevalence increases with age. Limited information is known about how these conditions manifest; however, functional deficits are likely to be due to changes in signaling within the bowel. This study investigated the effects of age on colonic mucosal melatonin (MEL) release and the consequences this had on colonic motility. Electrochemical measurements of MEL overflow demonstrated that both basal and mechanically stimulated MEL release decreased with age. The MEL/serotonin also decreased with increasing age, and the trend was similar to that of MEL overflow, suggestive that age-related changes were primarily due to a reduction in MEL levels. Levels of N-acetylserotonin and the N-acetylserotonin/serotonin ratio were reduced with age, providing an explanation for the reduction in MEL release. Decreases in colonic motility were observed in animals between 3 and 24 months old. Exogenous application of MEL could reverse this deficit in aged colon. In summary, we propose that the age-related decline in MEL release may be due to either decreases or alterations in mechanosensory channels and/or a loss in levels/activity of the N-acetyltransferase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin. Decreases in MEL release may explain the decreases in colonic motility observed in 24 month old animals and could offer a new potential therapeutic treatment for age-related constipation. PMID:23631514

2013-01-01

51

Laparoscopic resection of sigmoid diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the large bowel, resection of the sigmoid colon is the most commonly performed laparoscopic intervention because large\\u000a bowel lesions often are located in this part of the bowel and the procedure technically is the most favorable one. A number\\u000a of publications involving case series or the results of highly experienced individual surgeons already have confirmed the\\u000a feasibility of

F. Köckerling; C. Schneider; M. A. Reymond; H. Scheuerlein; J. Konradt; H. P. Bruch; C. Zornig; L. Köhler; E. Bärlehner; A. Kuthe; G. Szinicz; H. A. Richter; W. Hohenberger

1999-01-01

52

Gangrenous sigmoid volvulus in a pregnant woman.  

PubMed

A rare case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus in a pregnant woman causing intestinal obstruction is reported. The patient had intrauterine foetal death. Laparatomy for resection of sigmoid colon and hysterotomy for removal of dead foetus was carried out. Terminal iliac colostomy with closure of rectal stump was done in the first surgery. The patient underwent colorectal anastomosis 2 months after the first operation and recovered uneventfully. PMID:10695426

Joshi, M A; Balsarkar, D; Avasare, N; Pradhan, C; Pereira, G; Subramanyan, P; Shirahatti, R G; Changlani, T T

1999-01-01

53

A smooth muscle tone-dependent stretch-activated migrating motor pattern in isolated guinea-pig distal colon  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the tone dependence of the intrinsic nervous activity generated by localized wall distension in isolated segments of guinea-pig distal colon using mechanical recordings and video imaging of wall movements. A segment of colon was threaded through two partitions, which divided the colon for pharmacological purposes into oral, stimulation and anal regions. An intraluminal balloon was located in the stimulation region between the two partitions (12 mm apart). Maintained colonic distension by an intraluminal balloon or an artificial faecal pellet held at a fixed location generated rhythmic (frequency 0.3 contractions min?1; duration ˜60 s) peristaltic waves of contraction. Video imaging of colonic wall movements or the selective application of pharmacological agents suggested that peristaltic waves originated just oral (? 4 mm) to the pellet and propagated both orally (˜11 mm s?1) and anally (˜1 mm s?1). Also, during a peristaltic wave the colon appears to passively shorten in front of a pellet, as a result of an active contraction of the longitudinal muscle oral to the pellet. Faecal pellet movement only occurred when a rhythmic peristaltic wave was generated. Rhythmic peristaltic waves were abolished in all regions by the smooth muscle relaxants isoproterenol (1 ?M), nicardipine (1 ?M) or papavarine (10 ?M), and by the neural antagonists tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 ?M), hexamethonium (100 ?M) or atropine (1 ?M), when added selectively to the stimulation region. Nicardipine, atropine, TTX, or hexamethonium (100 ?M) also blocked the evoked peristaltic waves when selectively added to the oral region. N?-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA; 100 ?M) added to the anal region reduced the anal relaxation but increased the anal contraction, leading to an increase in the apparent conduction velocity of each peristaltic wave. In conclusion, maintained distension by a fixed artificial pellet generates propulsive, rhythmic peristaltic waves, whose enteric neural activity is critically dependent upon smooth muscle tone. These peristaltic waves usually originate just oral to the pellet, and their apparent conduction velocity is generated by activation of descending inhibitory nerve pathways. PMID:12847208

Smith, Terence K; Oliver, Gavin R; Hennig, Grant W; O'Shea, Deirdre M; Berghe, Pieter Vanden; Kang, Sok Han; Spencer, Nick J

2003-01-01

54

Short-Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) Volume Regulation in Proximal and Distal Rabbit Colon is Different  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   SCFAs increase the volume of many different cell types rarely exposed to significant concentrations of these weak electrolytes.\\u000a SCFAs swell isolated cells from colonic carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanism(s) of volume regulation in normal colonocytes,\\u000a which are generally exposed to >100 mm SCFAs, has not been well characterized. Aims: To determine the effect of SCFAs on volume regulation

J. Sellin; H. Shelat

1996-01-01

55

High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch.  

PubMed

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets. PMID:24306331

Anderson, Timothy J; Jones, Roger W; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F; McClelland, John F

2014-01-01

56

High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch  

SciTech Connect

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

2013-12-04

57

[Sigmoid diverticular diseases: surgical treatment].  

PubMed

From 1966 to 1990, 226 consecutive patients were operated on electively for diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon. The indications for surgery were colovesical fistula or suspicion of residual abscess, existence of two or more previous attacks of acute inflammation, existence of chronic symptoms and suspicion of colonic carcinoma. Colonic resection with primary anastomosis was performed in 217 patients with a covering colostomy in 1 case only. The Hartmann procedure was performed in 9 patients with extension of the lesions to the rectum and/or high operative risk. One or more abscesses were found by the surgeon or the pathologist in 50 p. cent of the patients. There were no postoperative deaths, no clinical anastomotic leakages. Long-term results were evaluated for the patients operated on before 1987, with a follow-up from 2 to 22 years. 85 p. cent of the patients had no more symptoms, 11 p. cent complained of persistent symptoms and 3% had recurrent attacks of pain and fever. Colonic barium enema is the best examination for diverticulitis and chronic abscesses. Surgical treatment is easier for abscesses located within the colonic wall and mesentery, than for extracolic abscesses with local peritonitis. Correlations between preoperative symptoms and operative findings are often not good. The good results obtained in 82 p. cent of the patients operated on for chronic symptoms suggest that chronic symptoms should be part of the indications for elective surgery. The low incidence (3 p. cent) of recurrent attacks of pain and fever is in favour of a resection limited to the sigmoid colon even when diffuse colonic diverticula are present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1514769

Moreaux, J

1992-01-01

58

Actions of Angeli's salt, a nitroxyl (HNO) donor, on ion transport across mucosa-submucosa preparations from rat distal colon.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitroxyl (HNO), a redox variant of the radical gasotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) with therapeutically promising properties, affects colonic ion transport. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc) induced by the HNO donor Angeli's salt were recorded in Ussing chambers. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was measured with fura-2. The nitroxyl donor induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc across rat distal colon which was due to a stimulation of chloride secretion. The secretion induced by Angeli's salt (5×10(-4)mol/l) was not altered by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxy-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), but was abolished by the HNO scavenger l-cysteine. The response was not dependent on the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase or enteric neurons, but was inhibited by indomethacin. Experiments with apically permeabilized epithelia revealed the activation of basolateral K(+) channels and a stimulation of the current carried by the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-pump by Angeli's salt. The secretion induced by Angeli's salt was reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). A prominent increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was evoked by Angeli's salt predominantly in subepithelial cells within the submucosa, which had the same dependence on extracellular Ca(2+) as the Angeli's salt-induced Cl(-) secretion. Consequently, Angeli's salt induces a soluble guanylate cyclase-independent, Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion via activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and of basolateral K(+) channels. Cyclooxygenase metabolites produced within the submucosa seem to be involved in this response. PMID:23747594

Pouokam, Ervice; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin

2013-09-01

59

Cationophore properties of the new polyether antibiotic Salinomycin investigated in distal rabbit colon in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

The distal rabbit colon was used as a model to investigate the influence of the cationophore Salinomycin in vivo with a single-pass perfusion, and in vitro with a modified Ussing chamber technique. For in vivo experiments with labelled 14C-PEG as a volume marker in the perfusate, a dose of 10E-4 mol/l Salinomycin was used. Net water (53 microliters/h/cm), net chloride (3 mumol/h/cm) and net sodium (3.6 mumol/h/cm) absorption was not significantly influenced, but net potassium secretion (-3 mumol/h/cm) was decreased to zero and transepithelial potential (PD) reduced from -45 mV to -33 mV. 10E-4 mol/l Salinomycin, applied in vitro on the muscosal side, decreased PD in 80 min and 10E-3 mol/l in 30 min from 18 mV to zero. Both concentrations decreased the short-circuit current (Isc = 77 microA/cm2) in 60 min, respectively 30 min to 40 microA/cm2. After 60 min mucosal 10E-4 mol/l Salinomycin the Isc increased, resulting from a transepithelial conductance (Gt) increase from 3 to 40 mS/cm2. A dose-related effect was present on PD, Isc and Gt at concentrations between 10E-7 and 10E-6 mol/l. The unidirectional 22Na fluxes were increased to 20 times the control values and net Na transport disappeared. We conclude that Salinomycin when applied in usual doses (10E-4 mol/l) as a coccidiostatic feed additive, profoundly affects colonic electrolyte transport. PMID:6149842

Schäfer, H; Clauss, W; Hörnicke, H

1984-01-01

60

Sigmoid volvulus in Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Sigmoid volvulus is the third leading cause of large-bowel obstruction. The optimal management strategy remains controversial. This study was undertaken to evaluate the care of patients with sigmoid volvulus recently treated at Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals. METHODS: All patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, Third Edition code for colonic volvulus during the period

Erik M. Grossmann; Walter E. Longo; Michael D. Stratton; Katherine S. Virgo; Frank E. Johnson

2000-01-01

61

Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 2 in human colonic mucosa: Down-regulation in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF2) expression in the colon of healthy subjects and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We examined CRF2 gene and protein expression in the distal/sigmoid colonic mucosal biopsies from healthy subjects and patients with UC (active or disease in remission), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and functional bowel disease (FBD) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Gene expression of CRF2 was demonstrated in the normal human colonic biopsies, but not in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco2. Receptor protein localization showed immunoreactive CRF2 receptors in the lamina propria and in the epithelial cells of the distal/sigmoid biopsy samples. Interestingly, CRF2 immunoreactivity was no longer observed in epithelial cells of patients with mild-moderately active UC and disease in remission, while receptor protein expression did not change in the lamina propria. No differences in CRF2 expression profile were observed in distal/sigmoid intestinal biopsies from HIV infection and FBD patients, showing no signs of inflammation. CONCLUSION: The down-regulation of the CRF2 receptor in the distal/sigmoid biopsies of UC patients is indicative of change in CRF2 signalling associated with the process of inflammation. PMID:23539366

Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Anton, Peter A; Million, Mulugeta; Lambropoulou, Maria; Constantinidis, Theodoros; Kolios, George; Tache, Yvette; Grigoriadis, Dimitri E

2013-01-01

62

Cecal pneumatosis intestinalis in obstructing sigmoid cancer: emergency metallic stenting.  

PubMed

An 85-year-old man presented with acute abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed obstructing sigmoid colon cancer with pneumatosis intestinalis of the ascending colon. A surgeon was consulted for colonic obstruction with impending sepsis, who declined surgery considering the patient's advanced age. After discussion, the patient consented for emergent endoscopic metallic colonic stent placement. Complete obstruction of the lumen was observed at the sigmoid colon, followed by successful metallic colonic stent placement through the obstructed area. Normal stool passage was achieved after this, and the patient survived the 9-month follow-up period. Acute colonic obstruction from obstructive colon cancer requires emergency management, wherein the presence of pneumatosis intestinalis poses a high risk of cecal perforation. Emergency endoscopic colonic metallic stent placement provides an alternative therapy, particularly when surgery is not feasible, as described here. PMID:24275044

Fong, Kai-Yu; Siao, Fu-Yuan; Yen, Hsu-Heng

2014-04-01

63

Complete colonic duplication in children  

PubMed Central

Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

2012-01-01

64

Colovesical fistula in sigmoid diverticulitis. A case report.  

PubMed

Colonic diverticulosis has continuously increased, noticeably left-sided disease. Colovesical fistula is an uncommon complication of diverticulitis, and its most common cause is diverticular disease. Pneumaturia and fecaluria are commonly related symptoms. We present the case of a 79-year-old woman complaining pneumaturia and fecaluria. Abdominal CT showed a colovesical fistula due to sigmoid diverticulitis. After surgical adhesiolysis between the sigmoid colon and the bladder, the defect of the bladder wall was repaired by simple closure. The colonic defect was treated by segmental resection including the rectosigmoid junction. Following the operation the patient continuously improved at months 6, 12 and 18 without evidence of recurrences. PMID:23917777

Fiori, Roberto; Izzo, Luciano; Forcione, Annarita; Bolognese, Antonio; Izzo, Sara; Nano, Giovanni; Di Poce, Isabelle; Simonetti, Giovanni

2013-01-01

65

Progressive Proximal-to-Distal Reduction in Expression of the Tight Junction Complex in Colonic Epithelium of Virally-Suppressed HIV+ Individuals  

PubMed Central

Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically reduces AIDS-related complications, yet the life expectancy of long-term ART-treated HIV-infected patients remains shortened compared to that of uninfected controls, due to increased risk of non-AIDS related morbidities. Many propose that these complications result from translocated microbial products from the gut that stimulate systemic inflammation – a consequence of increased intestinal paracellular permeability that persists in this population. Concurrent intestinal immunodeficiency and structural barrier deterioration are postulated to drive microbial translocation, and direct evidence of intestinal epithelial breakdown has been reported in untreated pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques. To assess and characterize the extent of epithelial cell damage in virally-suppressed HIV-infected patients, we analyzed intestinal biopsy tissues for changes in the epithelium at the cellular and molecular level. The intestinal epithelium in the HIV gut is grossly intact, exhibiting no decreases in the relative abundance and packing of intestinal epithelial cells. We found no evidence for structural and subcellular localization changes in intestinal epithelial tight junctions (TJ), but observed significant decreases in the colonic, but not terminal ileal, transcript levels of TJ components in the HIV+ cohort. This result is confirmed by a reduction in TJ proteins in the descending colon of HIV+ patients. In the HIV+ cohort, colonic TJ transcript levels progressively decreased along the proximal-to-distal axis. In contrast, expression levels of the same TJ transcripts stayed unchanged, or progressively increased, from the proximal-to-distal gut in the healthy controls. Non-TJ intestinal epithelial cell-specific mRNAs reveal differing patterns of HIV-associated transcriptional alteration, arguing for an overall change in intestinal epithelial transcriptional regulation in the HIV colon. These findings suggest that persistent intestinal epithelial dysregulation involving a reduction in TJ expression is a mechanism driving increases in colonic permeability and microbial translocation in the ART-treated HIV-infected patient, and a possible immunopathogenic factor for non-AIDS related complications. PMID:24968145

Chung, Charlotte Y.; Alden, Stephanie L.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Fu, Pingfu; Levine, Alan D.

2014-01-01

66

5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon by mechanisms independent of endogenous 5-HT  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that endogenous serotonin is not required for colonic peristalsis in vitro, nor gastrointestinal (GI) transit in vivo. However, antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors can inhibit peristalsis and GI-transit in mammals, including humans. This raises the question of how these antagonists inhibit GI-motility and transit, if depletion of endogenous 5-HT does not cause any significant inhibitory changes to either GI-motility or transit? We investigated the mechanism by which 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit distension-evoked peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon. In control animals, repetitive peristaltic contractions of the circular muscle were evoked in response to fixed fecal pellet distension. Distension-evoked peristaltic contractions were unaffected in animals with mucosa and submucosal plexus removed, that were also treated with reserpine (to deplete neuronal 5-HT). In control animals, peristaltic contractions were blocked temporarily by ondansetron (1–10 ?M) and SDZ-205–557 (1–10 ?M) in many animals. Interestingly, after this temporary blockade, and whilst in the continued presence of these antagonists, peristaltic contractions recovered, with characteristics no different from controls. Surprisingly, similar effects were seen in mucosa-free preparations, which had no detectable 5-HT, as detected by mass spectrometry. In summary, distension-evoked peristaltic reflex contractions of the circular muscle layer of the guinea-pig colon can be inhibited temporarily, or permanently, in the same preparation by selective 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists, depending on the concentration of the antagonists applied. These effects also occur in preparations that lack any detectable 5-HT. We suggest caution should be exercised when interpreting the effects of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists; and the role of endogenous 5-HT, in the generation of distension-evoked colonic peristalsis. PMID:23935564

Sia, Tiong C.; Whiting, Malcolm; Kyloh, Melinda; Nicholas, Sarah J.; Oliver, John; Brookes, Simon J.; Dinning, Phil G.; Wattchow, David A.; Spencer, Nick J.

2013-01-01

67

Properties of myenteric neurones and mucosal functions in the distal colon of diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Colonic transit and mucosal integrity are believed to be impaired in obesity. However, a comprehensive assessment of altered colonic functions, inflammatory changes and neuronal signalling of obese animals is missing. In mice, we studied the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on: (i) in vivo colonic transit; (ii) signalling in the myenteric plexus by recording responses to nicotine and 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-methyl-5-HT), together with the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 1 and 2, serotonin reuptake transporter, choline acetyltransferase and the paired box gene 4; and (iii) expression of proinflammatory cytokines, epithelial permeability and density of macrophages, mast cells and enterochromaffin cells. Compared with controls, colon transit and neuronal sensitivity to nicotine and 2-methyl-5-HT were enhanced in DIO mice fed for 12 weeks. This was associated with increased tissue acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content, and increased expression of TPH1 and TPH2. In DIO mice, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines was found in fat tissue, but not in the gut wall. Accordingly, mucosal permeability or integrity was unaltered without signs of immune cell infiltration in the gut wall. Body weight showed positive correlations with adipocyte markers, tissue levels of 5-HT and acetylcholine, and the degree of neuronal sensitization. DIO mice fed for 4 weeks showed no neuronal sensitization, had no signs of gut wall inflammation and showed a smaller increase in leptin, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression in fat tissue. DIO is associated with faster colonic transit and impacts on acetylcholine and 5-HT metabolism with enhanced responsiveness of enteric neurones to both mediators after 12 weeks of feeding. Our study demonstrates neuronal plasticity in DIO prior to the development of a pathological histology or abnormal mucosal functions. This questions the common assumption that increased mucosal inflammation and permeability initiate functional disorders in obesity. PMID:23940384

Reichardt, François; Baudry, Charlotte; Gruber, Lisa; Mazzuoli, Gemma; Moriez, Raphaël; Scherling, Christian; Kollmann, Patrick; Daniel, Hannelore; Kisling, Sigrid; Haller, Dirk; Neunlist, Michel; Schemann, Michael

2013-10-15

68

Defining the role of laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid colectomy for the treatment of diverticulitis. METHODS: The Norfolk Surgical Group Laparoscopic Surgery Registry identified all patients undergoing laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery. Retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing elective sigmoid resection for a final diagnosis of diverticulitis and minimum follow-up

H. David Vargas; Ray T. Ramirez; George C. Hoffman; G. Wilkins Hubbard; Randolph J. Gould; Stephen D. Wohlgemuth; W. Kirkland Ruffin; Jeffrey E. Hatter; Paul Kolm

2000-01-01

69

Autonomic control of colonic tone and the cold pressore test  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular responses to cold stimulation are well characterised. It is unclear, however, whether cold pain stimulates responses in colonic tone in the transverse and sigmoid regions. AIMS: To assess the effects of cold stimulation on tone nd motility in the transverse and sigmoid colon and on cardiovascular autonomic activity. METHODS: Phasic and tonic motility of the transverse and sigmoid

M J Ford; M Camilleri; M J Joyner; R B Hanson

1996-01-01

70

Palmatine, a protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits both Ca2+- and cAMP-activated Cl? secretion in isolated rat distal colon  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The protoberberine alkaloid berberine has been reported to inhibit colonic Cl? secretion. However, it is not known if other protoberberine alkaloids share these effects. We have therefore selected another protoberberine alkaloid, palmatine, to assess its effects on active ion transport across rat colonic epithelium. Experimental approach: Rat colonic mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers and short circuit current (I SC), apical Cl? current and basolateral K+ current were recorded. Intracellular cAMP content was determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured with Fura-2 AM. Key results: Palmatine inhibited carbachol-induced Ca2+-activated Cl? secretion and the carbachol-induced increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Palmatine also inhibited cAMP-activated Cl? secretion induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or forskolin. Palmatine prevented the elevation of intracellular cAMP by forskolin. Determination of apical Cl? currents showed that palmatine suppressed the forskolin-stimulated, apical cAMP-activated Cl? current but not the carbachol-stimulated apical Ca2+-activated Cl? current. Following permeabilization of apical membranes with nystatin, we found that palmatine inhibited a carbachol-stimulated basolateral K+ current that was sensitive to charybdotoxin and resistant to chromanol 293B. However, the forskolin-stimulated basolateral K+ current inhibited by palmatine was specifically blocked by chromanol 293B and not by charybdotoxin. Conclusions and implications: Palmatine attenuated Ca2+-activated Cl? secretion through inhibiting basolateral charybdotoxin-sensitive, SK4 K+ channels, whereas it inhibited cAMP-activated Cl? secretion by inhibiting apical CFTR Cl? channels and basolateral chromanol 293B-sensitive, KvLQT1 K+ channels. PMID:18204477

Wu, D Z; Yuan, J Y; Shi, H L; Hu, Z B

2008-01-01

71

Distribution of voltage-dependent and intracellular Ca2+ channels in submucosal neurons from rat distal colon.  

PubMed

We recently observed a bradykinin-induced increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in submucosal neurons of rat colon, an increase inhibited by blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ (Ca(v)) channels. As the types of Ca(v) channels used by this part of the enteric nervous system are unknown, the expression of various Ca(v) subunits has been investigated in whole-mount submucosal preparations by immunohistochemistry. Submucosal neurons, identified by a neuronal marker (microtubule-associated protein 2), are immunoreactive for Ca(v)1.2, Ca(v)1.3 and Ca(v)2.2, expression being confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. These data agree with previous observations that the inhibition of L- and N-type Ca2+ currents strongly inhibits the response to bradykinin. However, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments have revealed that bradykinin does not enhance Ca2+ inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions. Consequently, bradykinin does not directly interact with Ca(v) channels. Instead, the kinin-induced Ca2+ influx is caused indirectly by the membrane depolarization evoked by this peptide. As intracellular Ca2+ channels on Ca(2+)-storing organelles can also contribute to Ca2+ signaling, their expression has been investigated by imaging experiments and immunohistochemistry. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) have been functionally demonstrated in submucosal neurons loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. Histamine, a typical agonist coupled to the phospholipase C pathway, induces an increase in the fura-2 signal ratio, which is suppressed by 2-aminophenylborate, a blocker of IP3 receptors. The expression of IP3R1 has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, ryanodine, tested over a wide concentration range, evokes no increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration nor is there immunohistochemical evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in these neurons. Thus, rat submucosal neurons are equipped with various types of high-voltage activated Ca(v) channels and with IP3 receptors for intracellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:23807706

Rehn, Matthias; Bader, Sandra; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin

2013-09-01

72

Percutaneous Endoscopic Colostomy: A New Technique for the Treatment of Recurrent Sigmoid Volvulus  

PubMed Central

Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction in western countries and Africa. It accounts for 25% of the patients admitted to the hospital for large bowel obstruction. The acute management of sigmoid volvulus is sigmoidoscopic decompression. However, the recurrence rate can be as high as 60% in some series. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus in elderly patients who are not fit for definitive surgery is difficult to manage. The percutaneous endoscopic placement of two percutaneous endoscopic colostomy tube placement is a simple and relatively safe procedure. The two tubes should be left open to act as vents for the colon from over-distending. In our opinion, this aspect is key to its success as it keeps the sigmoid colon deflated until adhesions form between the colon and the abdominal wall. PMID:20339184

Al-Alawi, Ibrahim K.

2010-01-01

73

Urachal-sigmoid fistula associated with diverticular disease  

PubMed Central

Background Urachal anomalies rarely present in adulthood. We report the second known case of urachal-sigmoid fistula associated with diverticular disease. Method We performed a case report and literature review. We searched MEDLINE and PubMed using the search words “urachus,” “urachal fistula,” “sigmoid colon” and “diverticulosis.” Results Our literature review revealed 1 previous report of urachal-sigmoid fistula associated with diverticular disease. We reviewed other publications with respect to pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of urachal disease. Conclusion Urachal disease that presents in an adult is usually the result of some complication of a urachal anomaly. Various modes of imaging may help confirm the diagnosis, although CT sinography has been recommended and was key in the present case. Management includes eradication of infection and, usually, surgical intervention. PMID:18542763

Rapoport, Daniel; Ross, Alison; Goshko, Vic; McAuley, Iain

2007-01-01

74

Sigmoid diverticulitis: US findings  

PubMed Central

Acute diverticulitis (AD) results from inflammation of a colonic diverticulum. It is the most common cause of acute left lower-quadrant pain in adults and represents a common reason for acute hospitalization, as it affects over half of the population over 65 years with a prevalence that increases with age. Although 85% of colonic diverticulitis will recover with a nonoperative treatment, some patients may have complications such as abscesses, fistulas, obstruction, and /or perforation at presentation. For these reasons, different classifications were introduced through times to help clinicians to develop a correct diagnosis and guide the treatment and for the same reasons imaging is used in most cases both to realise a differential diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic management. US and CT are both usefull in diagnosis of diverticolitis, and their sensibility and specificity are similar. However CT scanning is essential for investigating complicated diverticular disease especially where there are diffuse signs and clinical suspicion of secondary peritonitis; instead in most uncomplicated cases the experienced sonographer may quickly confirm a diagnosis guided by the clinical signs. US is to be recommended in premenopausal women, and in young people to reduce dose exposure. PMID:23902791

2013-01-01

75

Membrane protein profiling of human colon reveals distinct regional differences.  

PubMed

The colonic epithelium is a highly dynamic system important for the regulation of ion and water homeostasis via absorption and secretion and for the maintenance of a protective barrier between the outer milieu and the inside of the body. These processes are known to gradually change along the length of the colon, although a complete characterization at the protein level is lacking. We therefore analyzed the membrane proteome of isolated human (n = 4) colonic epithelial cells from biopsies obtained via routine colonoscopy for four segments along the large intestine: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses using high-resolution mass spectrometry were performed on enriched membrane proteins. The results showed a stable level for the majority of membrane proteins but a distinct decrease in proteins associated with bacterial sensing, cation transport, and O-glycosylation in the proximal to distal regions. In contrast, proteins involved in microbial defense and anion transport showed an opposing gradient and increased toward the distal end. The gradient of ion-transporter proteins could be directly related to previously observed ion transport activities. All individual glycosyltransferases required for the O-glycosylation of the major colonic mucin MUC2 were observed and correlated with the known glycosylation variation along the colon axis. This is the first comprehensive quantitative dataset of membrane protein abundance along the human colon and will add to the knowledge of the physiological function of the different regions of the colonic mucosa. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000987. PMID:24889196

van der Post, Sjoerd; Hansson, Gunnar C

2014-09-01

76

Effect of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, GK-128, on 5-HT3 receptors mediating contractions and relaxations in guinea-pig distal colon.  

PubMed

1. We investigated 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor-mediating contractions and relaxations in the guinea-pig isolated distal colon using various 5-HT3 receptor agonists and antagonists, including GK-128 (2-[(2-methylimidazol-1-yl) methyl] benzo[f] thiochromen-1-one monohydrochloride hemihydrate). 2. Selective 5-HT3 receptor agonists, 2-methyl-5-HT and m-chlorophenylbiguanide, produced spantide-insensitive contraction and atropine-insensitive contraction and the relaxation. These agonists showed a small, but significant, difference of potency between contraction and relaxation. 3. GK-128 competitively blocked both 2-methyl-5-HT- and m-chlorophenylbiguanide-induced responses with similar potency. The affinities of GK-128 for spantide-insensitive contraction and atropine-insensitive contraction were ten-fold higher than for relaxation. 4. Other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, azasetron and tropisetron, also exhibited higher affinity in contraction than in relaxation, but the extent of their affinity differences was smaller than that observed in GK-128. In contrast, granisetron, ramosetron and ondansetron exhibited no significant differences in their affinity values among the three responses. 5. These results suggest that the 5-HT3 receptors which mediate contraction and relaxation in the guinea-pig distal colon may not be the same, and that GK-128 is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a stronger potency for contraction. PMID:9378239

Ito, C; Kawamura, R; Isobe, Y; Tsuchida, K; Muramatsu, M; Higuchi, S

1997-09-01

77

Perforation of a sigmoid diverticulum presenting with a pneumoscrotum and surgical emphysema  

PubMed Central

A case of a sigmoid perforation presenting as a pneumoscrotum with progressive surgical emphysema is reported. An elderly patient presented with a grossly swollen scrotum and a distended abdomen. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated sigmoid diverticulitis in conjunction with air and a subdiaphragmatic collection. A laparotomy was performed and revealed a perforated sigmoid diverticulum (Hinchey III). Sadly the patient died on the operating table. Intra-abdominal pathology manifesting as a pneumoscrotum and surgical emphysema is a rare yet reported phenomenon most often associated with colonoscopy, but also described with appendicitis and perforated colonic carcinoma. In previous reports, in contrast to this patient, the individual’s scrotum was inflamed but not erythematous and tender, and the rapid progression of surgical emphysema is not reported. PMID:21716824

De'Ath, Henry D I

2008-01-01

78

Contractile effect of short-chain fatty acids on the isolated colon of the rat.  

PubMed Central

The contractile effect of short-chain fatty acids on proximal, middle and distal segments of the rat colon was studied in vitro. A single contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the everted preparation of the middle and distal but not the proximal colon was induced by mucosal application of propionate, butyrate or valerate. Sigmoid dose-responses were observed between contraction and log dose of propionate, butyrate and valerate. The threshold concentration of short-chain fatty acids was between 0.02 and 0.04 mM. A maximal contraction was induced with 0.1 mM-propionate, butyrate and valerate. While acetate (up to 10 mM) and lactate (up to 30 mM) had no contractile effect at all. Serosal application of short-chain fatty acids was without effect, while the contractile response with up to 10 mM-propionate was abolished in both the middle and distal colon by scraping away the mucosa. Cumulative addition of short-chain fatty acids to the organ bath (without wash-out of the first dose) caused adaptation of the contractile response; thus, the effect of propionate (1 mM) was abolished by prior addition of acetate (10 mM) or lactate (30 mM) or propionate (1 mM) or butyrate (1 mM) or valerate (1 mM). The contractile effect of propionate was also inhibited by atropine (1 microM), procaine (0.4 mM) and tetrodotoxin (3 microM); was unaffected by hexamethonium (0.1 mM) and enhanced by eserine (10 nM). The results suggest that short-chain fatty acids, which are normal constituents of the colon, have the ability to stimulate colonic contractions, probably via an enteric reflex involving local sensory and cholinergic nerves. PMID:2867220

Yajima, T

1985-01-01

79

Sigmoid diverticulitis with perforation and generalized peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sigmoid diverticulitis with perforation and generalized peritonitis is a grave complication of diverticular disease. To compare\\u000a accurately the results of two operative approaches—proximal colostomy with drainage and proximal colostomy with resection\\u000a or exteriorization—the authors assessed the clinical and pathologic features of 121 consecutive patients with perforating\\u000a sigmoid diverticulitis. There were no differences between treatment groups in age, sex, mean duration

David M. Nagorney; Martin A. Adson; John H. Pemberton

1985-01-01

80

Sigmoids as precursors of solar eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) appear to originate preferentially in regions of the Sun's corona that are sigmoidal, i.e., have sinuous S or reverse-S shapes. Yohkoh solar X-ray images have been studied before and after a modest number of Earth-directed (halo) CMEs. These images tend to show sigmoidal shapes before the eruptions and arcades, cusps, and transient coronal holes after. Using

Richard C. Canfield; Hugh S. Hudson; Alexei A. Pevtsov

2000-01-01

81

Sigmoid colonic perforation and pelvic abscess complicating biliary stent migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopically placed biliary stents are a well-established procedure for the treatment of benign and malignant causes of\\u000a obstructive jaundice in patients unfit for definitive surgical intervention. Stent migration has been described, though in\\u000a most instances the stent will pass or remain in the bowel lumen for extended periods of time. Only a few cases of clinically\\u000a significant complications of stent

Ewan Mark Anderson; Jane Phillips-Hughes; Roger Chapman

2007-01-01

82

Angiolipomatous mesenchymal hamartoma (angiolipomatosis) of the sigmoid mesocolon  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary mesenteric tumors are exceedingly rare and may thus pose a diagnostic challenge. They encompass both benign and malignant neoplasms as well as reactive and idiopathic tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions. Method and results: A 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer was found to have a large non-homogeneous predominantly fatty retroperitoneal soft tissue mass on computerized tomography (CT) scan. The mass was attached to the aorta and have encased the inferior mesenteric artery and extended into the sigmoid mesocolon. Histological examination of the mass showed ill-defined lipoma-like mature fatty tissue traversed by paucicellular fibrous septa entrapping small nerves and containing remarkably increased venous blood vessels reminiscent of soft tissue angiomatosis without evidence of malignancy. The histological features were consistent with an angiolipomatous hamartomatous mesenchymal proliferation. Conclusions: Angiolipomatous hamartoma might be histogenetically related to soft tissue angiomatosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the first well documented lesion of this type at this location and must be distinguished from other fat-containing masses, particularly angiomyolipoma, sclerosing mesenteritis and mesenteric liposarcoma. PMID:21326818

Demir, Resit; Schmid, Axel; Hohenberger, Werner; Agaimy, Abbas

2011-01-01

83

The localisation of cancer in the sigmoid, rectum or rectosigmoid junction using endoscopy or radiology—What is the most accurate method?  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is a difference in approach between colon and rectal cancer. Aim Evaluate the methods of localisation: endoscopy and radiology. Materials and methods Patients with cancer in the sigmoid or rectum diagnosed with endoscopy, were included. Patients underwent additional radiological examinations. The resection specimen served as the gold standard. A tumour surrounded by serosa was considered a sigmoid cancer, surrounded by perirectal fat, than it was rectal cancer. If the frontal edge of the tumour showed serosa and the dorsal plane perirectal fat than the tumour was located in the “rectosigmoid”. Results A total of 182 cancers were diagnosed. Of the 128 cancers with gold standard, endoscopy had the correct localisation in 112 (87.5%), and radiology in 114 (90.5%) cases. Concordance between both techniques was present in 80%. In 28 cases there was discordance. Radiology located 10 sigmoidal cancers wrongly in the rectum. One rectal cancer was placed in the sigmoid. In 16 cases the endoscopic localisation wrongly was the sigmoid. Sensitivity and specificity for endoscopy in sigmoidal cancer is 100% and 77% respectively, for rectal cancer 77% and 100%. Sensitivity of radiology for cancer in the sigmoid and rectum are 80% and 98% respectively. Specificity for both cancers is 98% and 80% respectively. Conclusions The endoscopist and the radiologist should not be too overconfident with localisation of the tumour in cases of high rectal or low sigmoidal cancer.

Flens, Marcel; Fransen, Gerwin; den Boer, Frank C.; van Bochove, Aart

2014-01-01

84

Laparoscopic vs open colectomy for sigmoid diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this prospective comparative study was to assess the outcome of laparoscopic and open colectomy for sigmoid diverticulitis\\u000a in patients aged ?75 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: From January 1993 to December 1998, all patients 75 years of age and older undergoing an elective colectomy for sigmoid diverticulitis\\u000a were included in the study. The patients were divided into the following

J.-J. Tuech; P. Pessaux; C. Rouge; N. Regenet; R. Bergamaschi; J.-P. Arnaud

2000-01-01

85

Prevalence of Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis Is Increasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The population of Finland is aging fast, and dietary fiber consumption has decreased during the past few decades; the prevalence of sigmoid diverticular perforation can therefore be anticipated to increase. This study presents our experience concerning the outcome of 133 patients admitted to a university hospital for diverticular perforation during a 15-year period. METHODS: One hundred thirty-three patients admitted

Jyrki Mäkelä; Heikki Kiviniemi; Seppo Laitinen

2002-01-01

86

Fibrin Sealant Injection: An Aid to Reduce Venous Bleeding during Jugular Bulb and Sigmoid Sinus Dissection in Glomus Jugulare (Jugulotympanic Paraganglioma) Surgery  

PubMed Central

Glomus jugulare (jugulotympanic paraganglioma) surgery requires tumor dissection in the region of the jugular bulb, upper internal jugular vein, and sigmoid sinus. Despite ligation or external compression of the sigmoid sinus proximally and ligation of the internal jugular vein distally, troublesome venous bleeding can arise from the inferior petrosal sinus or condylar veins at the medial wall of the jugular bulb. Excessive packing in this area can place the integrity of the lower cranial nerves at risk. We report a technique in which Tisseel® fibrin sealant is injected into the ligated sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein. This forms an internal cast around the tumor in the sigmoid-jugular complex and helps seal the inferior petrosal sinus and condylar veins. This allows for safer dissection with reduced venous bleeding. Our experience in five cases has shown this technique to be effective. PMID:22451831

List, Richard James; Thomas, Sebastien Philippe Henry; Shenouda, Emad; Lang, Dorothy; Davis, Anne; Mathad, Nijaguna

2011-01-01

87

Online Catalog for Filament-Sigmoid Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new online catalog correlating H-alpha filaments with SXT sigmoids gives researchers, teachers and pre-college students the ability to access digital H-alpha images online that were previously available only at the physical location of the NSO at Sunspot, NM. This web-based catalog correlates SOHO's SXT sigmoids from 1993-1998 as described in a non-online catalog created by Zach Blehm under the direction of Richard Canfield, MSU-Bozeman, with H-alpha filament activity as described by Ivy Merriot under the direction of Alexei Pevtsov, NSO, and Petrus Martens, MSU-Bozeman. The H-alpha images were digitized from film archives of the Flare Patrol Telescope at Sunspot, NM. Use of the online catalog will be demonstrated at the poster site with critical comments encouraged.

Merriot, Ivy; Pevtsov, A.; Martens, P.

2007-05-01

88

Mean Field Theory for Sigmoid Belief Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a mean eld theory for sigmoid belief networks based on ideas from statistical mechanics. Our mean eld theory provides a tractable approximation to the true probability dis-tribution in these networks; it also yields a lower bound on the likelihood of evidence. We demon-strate the utility of this framework on a benchmark problem in statistical pattern recognition|the classi cation

Lawrence K. Saul; Tommi Jaakkola; Michael I. Jordan

1996-01-01

89

A Flexible Sigmoid Function of Determinate Growth  

PubMed Central

A new empirical equation for the sigmoid pattern of determinate growth, ‘the beta growth function’, is presented. It calculates weight (w) in dependence of time, using the following three parameters: tm, the time at which the maximum growth rate is obtained; te, the time at the end of growth; and wmax, the maximal value for w, which is achieved at te. The beta growth function was compared with four classical (logistic, Richards, Gompertz and Weibull) growth equations, and two expolinear equations. All equations described successfully the sigmoid dynamics of seed filling, plant growth and crop biomass production. However, differences were found in estimating wmax. Features of the beta function are: (1) like the Richards equation it is flexible in describing various asymmetrical sigmoid patterns (its symmetrical form is a cubic polynomial); (2) like the logistic and the Gompertz equations its parameters are numerically stable in statistical estimation; (3) like the Weibull function it predicts zero mass at time zero, but its extension to deal with various initial conditions can be easily obtained; (4) relative to the truncated expolinear equation it provides more reasonable estimates of final quantity and duration of a growth process. In addition, the new function predicts a zero growth rate at both the start and end of a precisely defined growth period. Therefore, it is unique for dealing with determinate growth, and is more suitable than other functions for embedding in process?based crop simulation models to describe the dynamics of organs as sinks to absorb assimilates. Because its parameters correspond to growth traits of interest to crop scientists, the beta growth function is suitable for characterization of environmental and genotypic influences on growth processes. However, it is not suitable for estimating maximum relative growth rate to characterize early growth that is expected to be close to exponential. PMID:12547689

YIN, XINYOU; GOUDRIAAN, JAN; LANTINGA, EGBERT A.; VOS, JAN; SPIERTZ, HUUB J.

2003-01-01

90

[Sigmoid endometriosis: a diagnostic dilemma on multidetector CT].  

PubMed

Intestinal endometriosis represents a common condition that occurs particularly in women of reproductive age. The gastrointestinal tract is the third most common localization of endometriosis, after the ovaries and the peritoneum, and recto-sigmoid tract is involved in 70% of cases. Recto-sigmoid endometriosis has to be differentiated from other diseases of large bowel, especially in patients without a history of endometriosis. We report a case of sigmoid endometriosis which represented a diagnostic dilemma on multidetector computed tomography. PMID:24042424

Telegrafo, Michele; Lorusso, Valentina; Rubini, Giuseppe; Rella, Leonarda; Pezzolla, Angela; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Moschetta, Marco

2013-01-01

91

FIP bias in a sigmoidal active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359'' × 485''. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

2014-01-01

92

Position paper: management of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis.  

PubMed

Over the last three decades, emergency surgery for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis has evolved dramatically but remains controversial. Diverticulitis is categorized as uncomplicated (amenable to outpatient treatment) versus complicated (requiring hospitalization). Patients with complicated diverticulitis undergo computerized tomography (CT) scanning and the CT findings are used categorize the severity of disease. Treatment of stage I (phlegmon with or without small abscess) and stage II (phlegmon with large abscess) diverticulitis (which includes bowel rest, intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PCD) of the larger abscesses) has not changed much over last two decades. On the other hand, treatment of stage III (purulent peritonitis) and stage IV (feculent peritonitis) diverticulitis has evolved dramatically and remains morbid. In the 1980s a two stage procedure (1st - segmental sigmoid resection with end colostomy and 2nd - colostomy closure after three to six months) was standard of care for most general surgeons. However, it was recognized that half of these patients never had their colostomy reversed and that colostomy closure was a morbid procedure. As a result starting in the 1990s colorectal surgical specialists increasing performed a one stage primary resection anastomosis (PRA) and demonstrated similar outcomes to the two stage procedure. In the mid 2000s, the colorectal surgeons promoted this as standard of care. But unfortunately despite advances in perioperative care and their excellent surgical skills, PRA for stage III/IV diverticulitis continued to have a high mortality (10-15%). The survivors require prolonged hospital stays and often do not fully recover. Recent case series indicate that a substantial portion of the patients who previously were subjected to emergency sigmoid colectomy can be successfully treated with less invasive nonoperative management with salvage PCD and/or laparoscopic lavage and drainage. These patients experience a surprisingly lower mortality and more rapid recovery. They are also spared the need for a colostomy and do not appear to benefit from a delayed elective sigmoid colectomy. While we await the final results ongoing prospective randomized clinical trials testing these less invasive alternatives, we have proposed (based primarily on case series and our expert opinions) what we believe safe and rationale management strategy. PMID:24369826

Moore, Frederick A; Catena, Fausto; Moore, Ernest E; Leppaniemi, Ari; Peitzmann, Andrew B

2013-01-01

93

[Standardization in sigmoid diverticulitis surgery planning: indications based on evaluation with the Hughes classification].  

PubMed

Sigmoid diverticulitis accounts for the most frequent colonic disease in Western countries. We studied 145 patients with diverticulitis (elective resection in 105, emergency resection in 40 patients) using the HUGHES classifications-based indication of the resection procedure (Stage I, acute diverticulitis/colonic wall phlegmonia, continent resection; Stage II, perforated diverticulitis with local perotinitis, continent resection, Hartmann's procedure exceptionally; Stage III/IV, Hartmann's procedure, continent resection exceptionally). Stage-specific morbidity was I: 18%, II: 22%, III/IV: 60%; emergency case mortality was 15%; elective case mortality was 0%. Severe local failure was significantly higher in stage II/IV than stage II/I class diverticulitis. Early elective resection is recommended with regard to morbidity, mortality, and hospitalisation time and related costs. PMID:9574354

Winde, G; Schaudig, F; Herwig, R; Schmid, K W; Senninger, N

1997-01-01

94

Determinants of Recurrence After Sigmoid Resection for Uncomplicated Diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of surgery-associated variables on recurrence rates after sigmoid resection for diverticulitis. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective sigmoid resection for uncomplicated diverticulitis between 1992 and 2000 at two tertiary referral centers were followed up for recurrent disease as the primary end point. Recurrence after surgery was defined as left lower quadrant pain, fever,

Klaus Thaler; Mirza K. Baig; Mariana Berho; Eric G. Weiss; Juan J. Nogueras; J. P. Arnaud; Steven D. Wexner; Roberto Bergamaschi

2003-01-01

95

Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Pregnancy Managed by Resection and Primary Anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Sigmoid volvulus is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. The rarity of the condition and the fact that pregnancy itself clouds the clinical picture invariably leads to a delay in diagnosis with an increased risk of gangrene of the gut. The majority of these patients would then require resection and colostomy. However, an early diagnosis and intervention as in our patient, which would require a high index of clinical suspicion, could significantly improve the outcome of the foetus and the mother. A case of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is reported which was managed by resection and primary anastomosis. A review of literature revealed no previous reports of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy managed by primary anastomosis following resection of the sigmoid volvulus. The literature is also reviewed regarding predisposing factors, management options and the outcome of sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy. PMID:21509281

Machado, Norman O; Machado, Lovina S M

2009-01-01

96

Distal radius triplane fracture.  

PubMed

A triplane fracture is so named because of the three planes traversed by the fracture line. These are physeal fractures that result from injury during the final phase of maturation and cessation of growth. This fracture pattern typically involves the distal tibia. We present a rare case of a triplane fracture involving the distal radius. PMID:25350166

Parkar, Aah; Marya, S; Auplish, S

2014-11-01

97

Cooperative Roles of Colon and Anorectum During Spontaneous Defecation in Conscious Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal motility during spontaneous defecation was investigated using force strain gauge transducers implanted in the proximal colon, distal colon, rectum, and anus in six dogs. One 24-hr recording and several defecation recordings were made in each dog. During 24-hr recordings, 29 giant contractions were observed in the distal colon. The giant contractions, which propagated to the rectum, accompanied evacuation more

Hiroshi Matsufuji; Jotaro Yokoyama; Takeshi Hirabayashi; Shuichi Watanabe; Kenji Sakurai

1998-01-01

98

Giant distal humeral geode.  

PubMed

We describe the imaging features of a giant geode of the distal humerus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, which presented initially as a pathological fracture. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing this diagnosis is emphasized. PMID:10794554

Maher, M M; Kennedy, J; Hynes, D; Murray, J G; O'Connell, D

2000-03-01

99

Colon cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

100

Successful endoscopic treatment of colonic gallstone ileus using electrohydraulic lithotripsy.  

PubMed

The surgical management of gallstone ileus is complex and potentially highly morbid. Initial management requires enterolithotomy and is generally followed by fistula resection at a later date. There have been reports of gallstone extraction using various endoscopic modalities to relieve the obstruction, however, to date, there has never been a published case of endoscopic stone extraction from the colon using electrohydraulic lithotripsy. In this report, we present the technique employed to successfully perform an electrohydraulic lithotripsy for removal of a large gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. A cavity was excavated in an obstructing 4.1 cm lamellated stone in the sigmoid colon using electrohydraulic lithotripsy. A screw stent retractor and stent extractor bored a larger lumen which allowed for guidewire advancement and stone fracture via serial pneumatic balloon dilatation. The stone fragments were removed. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy is a safe and effective method to treat colonic obstruction in the setting of gallstone ileus. PMID:20333797

Zielinski, Martin D; Ferreira, Lincoln E; Baron, Todd H

2010-03-28

101

Colonic diverticulitis in adolescents: an index case and associated syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverticular disease of the colon, a common problem among adults, is diagnosed rarely in children. We report an adolescent\\u000a patient with sigmoid diverticulitis who required operative treatment. Pediatric patients with the complications of diverticula\\u000a typically have conditions that result in genetic alterations affecting the components of the colonic wall. Our patient had\\u000a Williams–Beuren syndrome, although Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and

Brian J. Santin; Vinay Prasad; Donna A. Caniano

2009-01-01

102

Right-Sided Sigmoid Diverticular Perforation  

PubMed Central

Diverticulosis is a common disorder among geriatric patients, of whom 10% to 25% go on to develop diverticulitis. Known complications of diverticulitis include formation of phlegmon, fistula, bowel obstruction, bleeding, perforation, and colonic abscess. A less common complication is perforation with formation of an extra-abdominal necrotizing abscess. This case is a report of an 83-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a necrotizing abdominal wall abscess secondary to right-sided diverticular microperforation. PMID:22461936

Little, Andrew; Culver, Andy

2012-01-01

103

Streptococcus viridians bacteraemia and colonic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Even though Streptococcus bacteraemia is an infrequent presentation of colonic malignancies, there is a well-established link between Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and colonic malignancies. Most of the physicians are well aware of this correlation and further workup is pursued in most of the cases. However, many physicians may not be aware that other species of Streptococcus viridians, other than S. bovis, can be associated with colonic malignancies. In this case report, we present a case of Streptococcus viridians (anginosus) bacteraemia as a complication of an undiagnosed sigmoid adenocarcinoma. While further evidence is needed to warrant a gastrointestinal (GI) workup in a patient with other species of Streptococcus viridians bacteraemia, we would like to increase the awareness in the physicians' community regarding Streptococcus viridians, other than S. bovis bacteraemia. This would be especially relevant for patients who have no GI screening, as Streptococcus viridians bacteraemia can be an early sign of colonic neoplasm. PMID:24876211

Mulita, Avenir; Ajayi, Tokunbo

2014-01-01

104

Estimation and classification by sigmoids based on mutual information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An estimate of the probability density function of a random vector is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the input and the output of a feedforward network of sigmoidal units with respect to the input weights. Classification problems can be solved by selecting the class associated with the maximal estimated density. Newton's s method, applied to an estimated density, yields a recursive maximum likelihood estimator, consisting of a single internal layer of sigmoids, for a random variable or a random sequence. Applications to the diamond classification and to the prediction of a sun-spot process are demonstrated.

Baram, Yoram

1994-01-01

105

Distal radioulnar joint injuries  

PubMed Central

Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

2012-01-01

106

Segmentation algorithm of colon based on multi-slice CT colonography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT colonography is a radiology test that looks at people's large intestines(colon). CT colonography can screen many options of colon cancer. This test is used to detect polyps or cancers of the colon. CT colonography is safe and reliable. It can be used if people are too sick to undergo other forms of colon cancer screening. In our research, we proposed a method for automatic segmentation of the colon from abdominal computed Tomography (CT) images. Our multistage detection method extracted colon and spited colon into different parts according to the colon anatomy information. We found that among the five segmented parts of the colon, sigmoid (20%) and rectum (50%) are more sensitive toward polyps and masses than the other three parts. Our research focused on detecting the colon by the individual diagnosis of sigmoid and rectum. We think it would make the rapid and easy diagnosis of colon in its earlier stage and help doctors for analysis of correct position of each part and detect the colon rectal cancer much easier.

Hu, Yizhong; Ahamed, Mohammed Shabbir; Takahashi, Eiji; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Suzuki, Masahiro; Iinuma, Gen; Moriyama, Noriyuki

2012-02-01

107

Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Sigmoid Belief Networks to Parameterize  

E-print Network

of these methods have utilized neural networks. A major improvement in the prediction accuracy of these methodsProtein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Sigmoid Belief Networks to Parameterize Segmental Semi-Markov Models Wei Chu , Zoubin Ghahramani Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London

Ghahramani, Zoubin

108

Training a Sigmoidal Network is Difficult Barbara Hammer,  

E-print Network

Training a Sigmoidal Network is Difficult Barbara Hammer, University of Osnabr¨uck, Dept­ resentative data is needed to train a network automatically such that it repro­ duces a complex input the training algorithms are sometimes very slow, especially for large input dimensions. The loading problem

Hammer, Barbara

109

Multidimensional Analysis of Learning Curves in Laparoscopic Sigmoid Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The number of operations to reach a plateau phase in colorectal laparoscopic surgery is still under debate. There are few publications reporting on multidimensional assessment of the learning curve, including operation time and complication and conversion rates. The purpose of this study was to define a multidimensional learning curve for sigmoid resection performed by two surgeons with experience in

Selim Dinçler; Michael T. Koller; Johann Steurer; Lucas M. Bachmann; Daniel Christen; Peter Buchmann

2003-01-01

110

A case report of thyroid gland metastasis associated with lung metastasis from colon cancer.  

PubMed

Thyroid gland metastasis of malignant tumors is observed in 1.9% to 9.5% of histologically examined autopsy cases. Thyroid metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. Here we report a case of lung metastasis and thyroid gland metastasis following sigmoid colon cancer surgery. In 2000, a 58-year-old woman underwent a sigmoid colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. In 2005, a metastatic lung tumor was detected by chest CT. The patient underwent a partial thoracoscopic resection of the left lung in April 2005. On a CT scan taken 3 years and 4 months after the lung resection, a tumor mass was observed in the left lung and a low-absorption region with an unclear border was seen in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Thyroid aspiration cytology showed adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of thyroid gland metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was made. In April 2008 a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Following surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 and bevacizumab. Nevertheless a number of lung metastases and expressions of lung metastasis were subsequently observed. Histopathological examination revealed a number of metastases of differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the thyroid gland from colon cancer. PMID:21617721

Nakamura, Keisuke; Nozawa, Keijiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Fukushima, Junichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2011-01-01

111

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A SIGMOID ERUPTION OF ACTIVE REGION 11283  

SciTech Connect

Current magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the initiation of solar eruptions are still commonly carried out with idealized magnetic field models, whereas the realistic coronal field prior to eruptions can possibly be reconstructed from the observable photospheric field. Using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation prior to a sigmoid eruption in AR 11283 as the initial condition in an MHD model, we successfully simulate the realistic initiation process of the eruption event, as is confirmed by a remarkable resemblance to the SDO/AIA observations. Analysis of the pre-eruption field reveals that the envelope flux of the sigmoidal core contains a coronal null and furthermore the flux rope is prone to a torus instability. Observations suggest that reconnection at the null cuts overlying tethers and likely triggers the torus instability of the flux rope, which results in the eruption. This kind of simulation demonstrates the capability of modeling the realistic solar eruptions to provide the initiation process.

Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, S. T.; Hu Qiang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: wus@uah.edu, E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2013-07-10

112

Prognostic Factors of Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Finnish population is aging fast and the prevalence of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis is simultaneously increasing in northern Finland. The fact that an increasing number of elderly patients, with their age-specific problems, are subjected to emergency surgery for acute diverticulitis underlines the importance of risk stratification.Methods: One hundred and seventy-two patients admitted to Oulu University Hospital because of diverticular

Jyrki Tapani Mäkelä; Heikki Kiviniemi; Seppo Laitinen

2005-01-01

113

Distal symphalangism associated with camptodactyly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Japanese family in which four patients in three generations had distal symphalangism associated with camptodactyly is reported. All of these patients had extension limitation of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the toes of both feet. Radiographs of the hands and feet, undertaken in three cases, showed no bone fusion of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints. This malformation is

S Ohdo; Y Yamauchi; K Hayakawa

1981-01-01

114

Spontaneous colon perforations associated with a vascular type of ehlers-danlos syndrome.  

PubMed

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type (vEDS) (MIM #130050) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the type III collagen gene, COL3A1, leading to fragility of blood vessels, bowel and uterus that leads to spontaneous rupture. We report a previously undiagnosed vEDS patient with bowel complications. A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed notable dilatation of the sigmoid colon with intraperitoneal fluid. Laparotomy revealed dilatation of the sigmoid colon, breakdown of serosa and muscularis propria of the sigmoid colon with impending perforation, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by breakdown of the mesenterium. Resection of the sigmoid colon with Hartmann's pouch and an end colostomy were performed. Physical examination showed joint hypermobility, translucent skin with venous prominence and facial structure abnormalities. Genetic analysis using cDNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing showed a missense mutation within the triple helix region of COL3A1 (c.2150 G>A; Gly717Asp). PMID:24932165

Yoneda, Akira; Okada, Kazuya; Okubo, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Mitsutoshi; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Naing, Banyar Than; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimada, Takashi

2014-05-01

115

Spontaneous Colon Perforations Associated with a Vascular Type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type (vEDS) (MIM #130050) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the type III collagen gene, COL3A1, leading to fragility of blood vessels, bowel and uterus that leads to spontaneous rupture. We report a previously undiagnosed vEDS patient with bowel complications. A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed notable dilatation of the sigmoid colon with intraperitoneal fluid. Laparotomy revealed dilatation of the sigmoid colon, breakdown of serosa and muscularis propria of the sigmoid colon with impending perforation, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by breakdown of the mesenterium. Resection of the sigmoid colon with Hartmann's pouch and an end colostomy were performed. Physical examination showed joint hypermobility, translucent skin with venous prominence and facial structure abnormalities. Genetic analysis using cDNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing showed a missense mutation within the triple helix region of COL3A1 (c.2150 G>A; Gly717Asp). PMID:24932165

Yoneda, Akira; Okada, Kazuya; Okubo, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Mitsutoshi; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Naing, Banyar Than; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimada, Takashi

2014-01-01

116

A hemangioma of the sigmoid colon mesentery presenting as a retroperitonealtumor: a case report and review  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract and mesentery are uncommon benign vascular lesions. While spontaneous bleeding is the hallmark of the gastrointestinal tumor variant, clinical signs of mesenteric hemangiomas are mostly unspecific. Despite the increasing imaging quality of computerized tomography (CT), in most cases the final diagnosis is established through surgery and histopathologic analysis of a macrobiopsy. We present a case report of a 20-year-old female patient who was admitted with progressive abdominal distension and suffered from persistent abdominal pain for 3 months. A large retroperitoneal tumor mass was detected on the CT scan. Due to radiographic signs of an intraabdominal liposarcoma, an explorative laparotomy was performed revealing a large hemangioma originating from the mesosigmoid. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangiomas should be kept in mind by oncological visceral surgeons as one differential diagnosis of large intraabdominal tumorous masses, especially in young adults. PMID:24684941

2014-01-01

117

Distal plate placement for distal radius fractures limits wrist motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the influence of distal plate placement for distal radius fractures on risk of flexor tendon complications\\u000a and wrist motion by performing hardware removal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fourteen patients treated with a Synthes 2.4 mm juxta-articular LCP Distal Radius Plate underwent hardware removal at ?6 months\\u000a postoperatively when improvement of range of motion and grip strength were obtained. Location of plate placement,

Shingo Komura; Hiroyuki Tanahashi; Yoshihisa Yamada; Tatsuo Yokoi; Hidehiko Nonomura; Yasushi Suzuki

118

Colon Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... tests include colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or double-contrast barium enema. How does a pathologist diagnose colon adenocarcinoma? ... of these treatment options? • What are the side effects? • Should I receive a second opinion? • Is your ...

119

A male newborn with colonic atresia and total colonic aganglionosis.  

PubMed

A case of colonic atresia (CA) and aganglionosis is presented, which is probably the tenth in the English literature. The boy presented on day 3 of life with delayed passage of meconium, milk intolerance, and progressive abdominal distension. A barium enema study was complicated by barium peritonitis. Emergency peritoneal lavage was done and the intestinal obstruction was relieved by a proximal defunctioning ileostomy; type III CA (Grosfeld classification) was identified. The proximal atretic end was the blind-ending caecum and the distal atretic end commenced in the splenic area as a microcolon extending to the pelvis and replacing the normal colon. Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) was confirmed by biopsies. This is the first case in the literature of TCA with CA documented before any attempts at colonic resection and anastomosis were made. This association highlights the recommendation for biopsy of the micro-colon and rectum when Type III CA (Grosfeld classification) is encountered in a newborn. The infant underwent a cholecystectomy and Duhamel-Martin operation at 14 months that was complicated by abdominal wound dehiscence; the ileostomy was closed at 22 months of age. PMID:10079352

Siu, K L; Kwok, W K; Lee, W Y; Lee, W H

1999-01-01

120

Genetics Home Reference: Distal arthrogryposis type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Distal arthrogryposis type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed January 2011 What is distal arthrogryposis type 1? Distal arthrogryposis type 1 is a disorder characterized ...

121

Pylephlebitis of a variant mesenteric vein complicating sigmoid diverticulitis  

PubMed Central

Pylephlebitis - suppurative thrombophlebitis of the portal and/or mesenteric veins - is a rare complication of abdominal infections, especially diverticulitis. It can lead to severe complications such as hepatic abscess, sepsis, peritonitis, bowel ischemia, etc., which increase the mortality rate. Here we present a case of suppurative thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein, as a complication of sigmoid diverticulitis. The epidemiology, clinical and radiological features as well as treatment strategies are discussed. We also review the anatomy of the mesenteric vein given its anatomic variation in the present case and how this anatomic knowledge might influence the operative approach should surgery be necessary. PMID:24967018

Falkowski, Anna L.; Cathomas, Gieri; Zerz, Andreas; Rasch, Helmut; Tarr, Philip E.

2014-01-01

122

Enzymatic Logic Gates with Noise-Reducing Sigmoid Response  

E-print Network

Biochemical computing is an emerging field of unconventional computing that attempts to process information with biomolecules and biological objects using digital logic. In this work we survey filtering in general, in biochemical computing, and summarize the experimental realization of an AND logic gate with sigmoid response in one of the inputs. The logic gate is realized with electrode-immobilized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme that catalyzes a reaction corresponding to the Boolean AND functions. A kinetic model is also developed and used to evaluate the extent to which the performance of the experimentally realized logic gate is close to optimal.

Valber Pedrosa; Dmitriy Melnikov; Marcos Pita; Jan Halamek; Vladimir Privman; Aleksandr Simonian; Evgeny Katz

2009-12-23

123

Atomic bomb survivors and the sigmoidal response model  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological data on health effects of low-level radiation based on 40-yr followup studies of 75000 atomic bomb survivors and 35000 control people show that there were no measurable risks from low-level radiation in regard to noncancer diseases, genetic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. However, seemingly sigmoidal responses of bomb radiation-induced cancers, which must have been caused by tumorigenic mutations contradict experimental results that mutations linearly increase with increase in radiation dose. An explanation is proposed for this superficial contradiction.

Kondo, S. [Kinki Univ. (Japan)

1994-12-31

124

FIELD TOPOLOGY ANALYSIS OF A LONG-LASTING CORONAL SIGMOID  

SciTech Connect

We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

Savcheva, A. S. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E., E-mail: savcheva@bu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-01-01

125

Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)  

MedlinePLUS

... the distal radius can break include: • Intra-articular fracture. A fracture that extends into the wrist joint. (“Articular” means “joint.”) • Extra-articular fracture. A fracture that does not extend into the ...

126

Imaging of the Distal Airways  

PubMed Central

Imaging techniques of the lung continues to advance with improving ability to image the more distal airways. Two imaging techniques are reviewed, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance with hyperpolarized helium-3. PMID:19962040

Tashkin, Donald P.; de Lange, Eduard E.

2009-01-01

127

Plasma Composition in a Sigmoidal Anemone Active Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

2013-11-01

128

Locally recurrent penile apocrine carcinoma initially diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon.  

PubMed

Apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant adnexal neoplasm. The differential diagnosis between apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis is often difficult. Here, we report a case of locally recurrent penile apocrine carcinoma initially diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon. A 75-year-old man with a history of surgical resection due to sigmoid colon cancer and penile metastasis two years prior to this study presented with a nodule at the left penile base. He underwent a wide local resection of the penile mass under a suggested preoperative diagnosis of extra-mammary Paget's disease (EMPD) associated with previous sigmoid colon cancer. However, the previously and currently resected penile masses were identified as primary apocrine carcinoma upon hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical staining. Although the incidence is extremely rare, both clinicians and pathologists should be alert to the possibility of synchronous double primary apocrine carcinoma in cancer patients with malignant cutaneous lesions. PMID:24385708

Lee, Ok-Jun; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Ho-Chang; Song, Hyung-Geun; Lim, Sung-Nam; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Kim, Seung-Taik; Han, Hye-Suk

2013-12-01

129

Sigmoid-to-Flux-Rope Transition Leading to A Loop-Like Coronal Mass Ejection  

E-print Network

of a GOES-class C3.2 flare, as the S-shaped loop speeds up its trans- formation into an arch-shaped loop special scrutiny are sigmoids (Rust & Kumar 1996), which are forward or inverse S-shaped coronal loops is usually followed by the formation of unsheared arcades or cusped loops, a process termed "sigmoid

130

Yohkoh SXT Full-Resolution Observations of Sigmoids: Structure, Formation, and Eruption  

E-print Network

Yohkoh SXT Full-Resolution Observations of Sigmoids: Structure, Formation, and Eruption Richard C as those that are parallel. We briefly discuss the implications of these results in terms of formation and long-duration flares (Rust and Kumar 1996), and participate in a transition from sigmoid to arcade

Canfield, Richard

131

Complicated Diverticulitis of the Sigmoid: A Prospective Study Concerning Primary Resection with Secure Primary Anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Hartmann procedure remains the standard concerning the surgical treatment of acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. The aim of this study was to prove the possibility of performing a secure primary anastomosis without colostomy in patients with complicated acute diverticulitis. Methods: From June 1988 to October 1996, 113 patients suffering from acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis were included in this prospective

M. Hoemke; J. Treckmann; R. Schmitz; S. Shah

1999-01-01

132

The sigmoid volvulus: surgical timing and mortality for different clinical types  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In western countries intestinal obstruction caused by sigmoid volvulus is rare and its mortality remains significant in patients with late diagnosis. The aim of this work is to assess what is the correct surgical timing and how the prognosis changes for the different clinical types. METHODS: We realized a retrospective clinical study including all the patients treated for sigmoid

Roberto Cirocchi; Eriberto Farinella; Francesco La Mura; Umberto Morelli; Stefano Trastulli; Diego Milani; Micol S Di Patrizi; Barbara Rossetti; Alessandro Spizzirri; Ioanna Galanou; Konstandinos Kopanakis; Valerio Mecarelli; Francesco Sciannameo

2010-01-01

133

Space colonization.  

PubMed

NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

2002-12-01

134

Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Pregnancy Managed by Resection and Primary Anastomosis: Case report with literature review.  

PubMed

Sigmoid volvulus is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. The rarity of the condition and the fact that pregnancy itself clouds the clinical picture invariably leads to a delay in diagnosis with an increased risk of gangrene of the gut. The majority of these patients would then require resection and colostomy. However, an early diagnosis and intervention as in our patient, which would require a high index of clinical suspicion, could significantly improve the outcome of the foetus and the mother. A case of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is reported which was managed by resection and primary anastomosis. A review of literature revealed no previous reports of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy managed by primary anastomosis following resection of the sigmoid volvulus. The literature is also reviewed regarding predisposing factors, management options and the outcome of sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy. PMID:21509281

Machado, Norman O; Machado, Lovina S M

2009-04-01

135

Small bowel obstruction caused by sigmoid mesocolic hernia  

PubMed Central

Internal hernia is an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction and classified several types according to locations. Sigmoid mesocolic hernia is an uncommon condition and among others intramesosigmoid hernia was rarely reported in the literature. We report the case of a 49-year-old female with a rare type of congenital internal hernia, through the mesosigmoid, causing small bowel obstruction. She suffered from obstructive symptoms but with no previous history of laparotomy. The diagnosis of internal hernia was suggested by computed tomography, but the type of internal hernia was confirmed by laparoscopic exploration. She underwent laparoscopic detachment of peritoneal attachment comprising hernia sac without defect repair. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is free from symptoms and recurrence. This report presents a case of intrasigmoid hernia managed successfully by the laparoscopic approach and shows another surgical technique according to hernia types. PMID:24876507

Yang, Chunseok; Kim, Daedong

2014-01-01

136

Function estimation by feedforward sigmoidal networks with bounded weights  

SciTech Connect

The authors address the problem of PAC (probably and approximately correct) learning functions f : [0, 1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [{minus}K, K] based on iid (independently and identically distributed) sample generated according to an unknown distribution, by using feedforward sigmoidal networks. They use two basic properties of the neural networks with bounded weights, namely: (a) they form a Euclidean class, and (b) for hidden units of the form tanh ({gamma}z) they are Lipschitz functions. Either property yields sample sizes for PAC function learning under any Lipschitz cost function. The sample size based on the first property is tighter compared to the known bounds based on VC-dimension. The second estimate yields a sample size that can be conveniently adjusted by a single parameter, {gamma}, related to the hidden nodes.

Rao, N.S.V.; Protopoescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Qiao, H. [Fort Valley State Coll., GA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics

1996-05-01

137

Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases.

Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karakasl?, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karc?, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, Senol

2014-01-01

138

Calcium and the prevention of colon cancer.  

PubMed

Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithelial proliferation rate, thereby supposedly decreasing cancer risk. In contrast to the original hypothesis that phosphate counteracts the effect of calcium, evidence has now been provided that phosphate is crucial for the intraluminal binding of bile acids in complexes of calcium, phosphate, and bile acids. Supplemental calcium has been shown to reduce the cytotoxic potential of fecal water, which is probably attributable to the profound effect of calcium on bile acid and fatty acid metabolism. However, some reservation with regard to the protective ability of calcium seems to be warranted as we found that oral calcium supplementation caused an increase in epithelial proliferation rate in the sigmoid of patients with adenomatous polyps. Further controlled studies evaluating the effects of calcium on the epithelium of different parts of the colon should now be performed. PMID:1775941

Welberg, J W; Kleibeuker, J H; Van der Meer, R; Mulder, N H; De Vries, E G

1991-01-01

139

Distal phalangectomy for mallet toe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed 24 patients with 37 mallet toes from two centres who had undergone distal phalangectomy. The mean follow up was 3.8 years. Patients were reviewed by an independent assessor with regard to pain relief, cosmetic acceptability and overall satisfaction.All patients had satisfactory pain relief but one patient felt that the toe stump was cosmetically acceptable. The overall satisfaction

S Raja; J. L Barrie; A. A Henderson

2003-01-01

140

Regional differences in colonic mucosa-associated microbiota determine the physiological expression of host heat shock proteins.  

PubMed

Cytoprotective heat shock proteins (Hsps) are critical for intestinal homeostasis and are known to be decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases. Signals responsible for maintenance of Hsp expression are incompletely understood. In this study, we find that Hsp25/27 and Hsp70 protein expressions are differentially regulated along the longitudinal length of the large intestine, being highest in the proximal colon and decreasing to the distal colon. This longitudinal gradient was similar in both conventionally colonized mouse colon as well as biopsies of human proximal and distal colon but was abolished in the colon of germ-free mice, suggesting a role of intestinal microbiota in the Hsp regional expression. Correspondingly, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria from each colonic segment indicated increased bacterial richness and diversity in the proximal colon. The mechanism of regulation is transcriptional, as Hsp70 mRNA followed a similar pattern to Hsp70 protein expression. Lysates of mucosa-associated bacteria from the proximal colon stimulated greater Hsp25 and Hsp70 mRNA transcription and subsequent protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells than did lysates from distal colon. In addition, transrectal administration of cecal contents stimulated Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in the distal colon. Thus host-microbial interactions resulting in differential Hsp expression may have significant implications for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and possibly for development of inflammatory diseases of the bowel. PMID:20864653

Hu, Shien; Wang, Yunwei; Lichtenstein, Lev; Tao, Yun; Musch, Mark W; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Claud, Erika C; Chang, Eugene B

2010-12-01

141

The physical origin of sigmoidal respiratory pressure-volume curves: Alveolar recruitment and nonlinear elasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important unsolved problem in medical science concerns the physical origin of the sigmoidal shape of pressure-volume curves of healthy (and some unhealthy) lungs. Conventional wisdom holds that linear response, i.e., Hooke’s law, together with alveolar overdistention play a dominant role in respiration, but such assumptions cannot explain the crucial empirical sigmoidal shape of the curves. Here, we propose a theory of alveolar recruitment together with nonlinear elasticity of the alveoli. The proposed model surprisingly and correctly predicts the observed sigmoidal pressure-volume curves. We discuss the importance of this result and its implications for medical practice.

do Amaral, R. A.; Tavares, D. M.; Lucena, L. S.; Brandão-Neto, J.

2011-05-01

142

Distal Oblique Bundle Reconstruction and Distal Radioulnar Joint Instability  

PubMed Central

Background?This study created an anatomic reconstruction of the distal oblique bundle (DOB) of the interosseous membrane to determine its effect on distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability and compare this technique with distal radioulnar ligament (DRUL) reconstruction. Questions/Purposes?We hypothesized that this reconstruction would provide equivalent stability to DRUL reconstruction and that combining the two techniques would enhance stability. Methods?Six cadaveric upper limbs were affixed to a custom frame. The volar/dorsal translation of the radius relative to the ulna was measured in 60° pronation, neutral, and 60° supination. Translation was sequentially measured with the DRUJ intact, with sectioned DRULs and triangular fibrocartilaginous complex (TFCC), and with sectioned DOBs. Reconstructions were performed on the DRULs, on the DOB tensioned in both neutral and supination, and employing both techniques. Results?The DOB reconstruction, tensioned both in the neutral position and in 60° supination, was more stable than the partial and complete instability in 6/6 specimens in pronation and the neutral position and in 5/6 specimens in supination. The DOB reconstruction and the DOB reconstruction tensioned in supination were more stable than the DRUL reconstruction in 4/6 patients. Combining the two techniques did not further reduce translation. Conclusions?The DOB reconstruction is capable of improving stability in the unstable DRUJ. PMID:24436838

Riggenbach, Michael D.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Wright, Thomas W.; Dell, Paul C.

2013-01-01

143

Postoperative peridural analgesia increases the strength of colonic contractions without impairing anastomotic healing in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims. Peridural analgesia (PDA) is a common treatment in postoperative management after abdominal surgery to shorten postoperative ileus and to permit early postoperative nutrition. There are conflicting opinions on the effect of early peristalsis on healing of colonic anastomoses. Patients and methods. A short segment of the distal colon was resected in 32 Wistar rats. Two strain gauge

Marc Jansen; Petra Lynen Jansen; Karsten Junge; Michael Anurov; Svetlana Titkova; Alexander Öttinger; Volker Schumpelick

2003-01-01

144

Twenty-four hour recordings of colonic motility in patients with diverticular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease of the colon is one of the most common pathologic entities in western countries. Although altered motility of the large bowel is commonly believed to be one of the major pathophysiologic mechanisms, no convincing evidence has been reported yet. In fact, only a few conflicting studies concerning distal colonic motility (with no information on forceful propulsive activity)

Gabrio Bassotti; Edda Battaglia; Fabrizio Spinozzi; Maria A. Pelli; Marcello Tonini

2001-01-01

145

Distal Tibial Fractures: Intramedullary Nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The tibia is an exposed bone with vulnerable soft tissue coverage and is therefore predisposed to local soft tissue problems\\u000a and delayed bone healing. The objective in distal tibial fracture treatment is to achieve stable fixation patterns with a\\u000a minimum of soft-tissue affection. Thus, the risk of soft tissue breakdown and bone healing complications is more likely related\\u000a to

Andreas H. Ruecker; Michael Hoffmann; Martin E. Rupprecht; Johannes M. Rueger

2009-01-01

146

Prompt Management Is Most Important for Colonic Perforation After Colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The incidence of complications after colonoscopy is very low. The complications after colonoscopy that are of clinical concern are bleeding and perforation. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical outcomes and the risk factors of a colostomy or a colectomy after colonoscopic colon perforation. Methods From March 2009 to December 2012, the records of all patients who were treated for colorectal perforation after colonoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, purpose of colonoscopy, management of the colonic perforation, and interval from colonoscopy to the diagnosis of a colonic perforation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the risk factors associated with major surgery for the treatment of a colon perforation after colonoscopy. Results A total 27 patients were included in the present study. The mean age was 62 years, and 16 were males. The purpose of colonoscopy was diagnostic in 18 patients. The most common perforation site was the sigmoid colon. Colonic perforation was diagnosed during colonoscopy in 14 patients, just after colonoscopy in 5 patients, and 24 hours or more after colonoscopy in 8 patients. For the treatment of colonic perforation, endoscopic clipping was performed in 3 patients, primary closure in 15 patients, colon resection in 2 patients, Hartmann's procedures in 4 patients, and diverting colostomy in 3 patients. If the diagnosis of perforation after colonoscopy was delayed for more than 24 hours, the need for major treatment was increased significantly. Conclusion Although a colonic perforation after colonoscopy is rare, if the morbidity and the mortality associated with the colonic perforation are to be reduced, prompt diagnosis and management are very important.

Kim, Hyun-Ho; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Cho, Hyeon-Min

2014-01-01

147

In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques  

PubMed Central

A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

2014-01-01

148

Complete Remission of Unresectable Colon Cancer after Preoperative Chemotherapy Selected by Adenosine Triphosphate-Based Chemotherapy Response Assay  

PubMed Central

The adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) is a chemosensitivity test that offers the potential of selecting cancer treatments based on the responsiveness of individual tumors. We report a case of 47-yr-old male, presented with sigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver and peritoneal metastases, in which there was a complete response for the primary colon cancer after administration of preoperative chemotherapy selected by ATP-CRA. Oxaliplatin was the most sensitive drug based on the ATP-CRA where the specimen obtained by ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy was used. After twelve cycles of oxaliplatin-capecitabine chemotherapy, abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed marked shrinkage of the liver metastases and positron emission tomography showed no uptake of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) either in the liver or peritoneum except localized uptake in the sigmoid colon. The patient underwent an anterior resection and radiofrequency ablation of the liver metastases, which resulted in a macroscopic curative resection of the cancer cells. Histological examination revealed no residual cancer cells in the resected specimen of the sigmoid colon. This result suggested that preoperative chemotherapy chosen by ATP-CRA may be useful for treating advanced colon cancer with unresectable liver and peritoneal metastases. PMID:18955806

Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yoon Ah; Jung, Eun Joo; Lee, Kang Young; Kwon, Ji Eun

2008-01-01

149

Regression of metastatic colon tumour from primary adenocarcinoma of the lung due to fistulisation to the bowel lumen.  

PubMed

An 80-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The patient exhibited extensive extra pulmonary involvement in the bone, adrenal gland, abdominal lymph nodes, and sigmoid colon. A single course of chemotherapy with carboplatin and pemetrexed was administered as the first-line treatment. Subsequently, the patient received pemetrexed monotherapy. Two months after the diagnosis, rapid regression of the metastatic tumour in the sigmoid colon was observed. Based on the findings of CT scanning and colonoscopic examination, tumour-bowel fistulisation was considered to be a cause of the rapid regression. This case report illustrates a tumour-bowel fistula of a colonic metastatic tumour in a patient with lung cancer. Radiographic and endoscopic features of the rare manifestation are presented. PMID:24834113

Iwamuro, Masaya; Miyabe, Yoshio; Hanae, Kai; Yoshinari, Kawai; Katsuyoshi, Takata; Murakami, Toshi; Hirofumi, Mifune; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

150

Regression of metastatic colon tumour from primary adenocarcinoma of the lung due to fistulisation to the bowel lumen  

PubMed Central

An 80-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The patient exhibited extensive extra pulmonary involvement in the bone, adrenal gland, abdominal lymph nodes, and sigmoid colon. A single course of chemotherapy with carboplatin and pemetrexed was administered as the first-line treatment. Subsequently, the patient received pemetrexed monotherapy. Two months after the diagnosis, rapid regression of the metastatic tumour in the sigmoid colon was observed. Based on the findings of CT scanning and colonoscopic examination, tumour-bowel fistulisation was considered to be a cause of the rapid regression. This case report illustrates a tumour-bowel fistula of a colonic metastatic tumour in a patient with lung cancer. Radiographic and endoscopic features of the rare manifestation are presented. PMID:24834113

Iwamuro, Masaya; Miyabe, Yoshio; Hanae, Kai; Yoshinari, Kawai; Katsuyoshi, Takata; Murakami, Toshi; Hirofumi, Mifune; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

151

Successful Endovascular Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by a Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a sigmoid sinus aneurysm. These rare entities have only recently been described in the literature and the ideal treatment approach has not been elucidated. This report represents additional evidence in a growing body of literature that suggests that endovascular therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic alternative to surgical reconstruction of the sigmoid sinus in selected cases of intractable pulsatile tinnitus. PMID:20465881

Gard, A.P.; Klopper, H.B.; Thorell, W.E.

2009-01-01

152

Learning about Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... many polyps in their colon. People who inherit mutations in this gene have a nearly 100 percent chance of developing colon cancer by age 40. HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) also called ...

153

Oophorectomy and colon cancer. Impact on survival.  

PubMed Central

Data on survival and survival free-from-recurrence were analyzed retrospectively in a group of 571 women who had undergone curative resection for colon cancer at the Mayo Clinic between 1972 and 1978. Of these women, 75 (group 1) had required bilateral oophorectomy before or at colon resection, while 496 (group 2) retained one or both ovaries. Average age, location and grade of tumor, and duration of follow-up were similar for both groups. Five-year-survival rate for the 571 women was 73.6%, as compared with 84.3% for matched controls. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different for group 1 (78.0%) and group 2 (72.9%). Five-year survival free-from-recurrence also was not significantly different (82.9%, group 1 and 79.5%, group 2). Women in group 1 who had grade 1 or 2 tumors or lesions in the sigmoid and cecum fared the best (no significant difference from controls). Incidence studies of ovarian metastases from colon cancers suggest that three to eight per cent of women should benefit from bilateral oophorectomy. This agrees with the difference in survival observed between groups 1 and 2 in this study. Our sample size is too small to statistically confirm the reliability of this difference. The design of a prospective study testing this hypothesis is outlined. PMID:4015225

Ballantyne, G H; Reigel, M M; Wolff, B G; Ilstrup, D M

1985-01-01

154

Autonomic Nerve Regulation of Colonic Peristalsis in Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Colonic peristalsis is mainly regulated via intrinsic neurons in guinea pigs. However, autonomic regulation of colonic motility is poorly understood. We explored a guinea pig model for the study of extrinsic nerve effects on the distal colon. Methods Guinea pigs were sacrificed, their distal colons isolated, preserving pelvic nerves (PN) and inferior mesenteric ganglia (IMG), and placed in a tissue bath. Fecal pellet propagation was conducted during PN and IMG stimulation at 10 Hz, 0.5 ms and 5 V. Distal colon was connected to a closed circuit system, and colonic motor responses were measured during PN and IMG stimulation. Results PN stimulation increased pellet velocity to 24.6 ± 0.7 mm/sec (n = 20), while IMG stimulation decreased it to 2.0 ± 0.2 mm/sec (n = 12), compared to controls (13.0 ± 0.7 mm/sec, P < 0.01). In closed circuit experiments, PN stimulation increased the intraluminal pressure, which was abolished by atropine (10?6 M) and hexamethonium (10?4 M). PN stimulation reduced the incidence of non-coordinated contractions induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10?4 M). IMG stimulation attenuated intraluminal pressure increase, which was partially reversed by alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine; 10?6 M). Conclusions PN and IMG input determine speed of pellet progression and peristaltic reflex of the guinea pig distal colon. The stimulatory effects of PN involve nicotinic, muscarinic and nitrergic pathways. The inhibitory effects of IMG stimulation involve alpha-2 adrenoceptors. PMID:24847719

Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Babygirija, Reji; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk

2014-01-01

155

Colonic gallstone ileus: the rolling stones.  

PubMed

Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis accounting for 1-4% of cases of intestinal obstruction with a predominance in the elderly population. Unfortunately, it has an insipid presentation and is associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Controversy arises over the management of gallstone ileus, and while surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, the main point of contention surrounds the extent of surgery. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with symptoms and signs of large bowel obstruction. Radiological evaluation revealed a 5?cm×3.5?cm gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. A laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy alone relieved the obstruction with minimal surgical insult and allowed for a swift and uneventful recovery. Our case emphasises the need for a high index of suspicion for the condition as well as highlighting the advantages of the use of laparoscopic surgery in an emergency setting. PMID:25323275

Heaney, Roisin Mary

2014-01-01

156

The high fibre diet in the treatment of diverticular disease of the colon  

PubMed Central

Diverticular disease of the colon causes symptoms even in the absence of inflammatory diverticulitis. These symptoms vary from vague dyspepsia to severe colic which may lead to resection of the sigmoid for ‘diverticulitis’. This paper discusses the use of a high fibre diet, including miller's bran, in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticulosis. In the majority of cases this diet relieves symptoms and lessens the need for surgery in diverticular disease. PMID:4467859

Painter, N. S.

1974-01-01

157

Sigmoidal equilibria and eruptive instabilities in laboratory magnetic flux ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) has recently been modified to study quasi-statically driven line-tied magnetic flux ropes in the context of storage-and-release eruptions in the corona. Detailed in situ magnetic measurements and supporting MHD simulations permit quantitative analysis of the plasma behavior. We find that the behavior of these flux ropes depends strongly on the properties of the applied potential magnetic field arcade. For example, when the arcade is aligned parallel to the flux rope footpoints, force free currents induced in the expanding rope modify the pressure and tension in the arcade, resulting in a confined, quiescent discharge with a saturated kink instability. When the arcade is obliquely aligned to the footpoints, on the other hand, a highly sigmoidal equilibrium forms that can dynamically erupt (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). To our knowledge, these storage-and-release eruptions are the first of their kind to be produced in the laboratory. A new 2D magnetic probe array is used to map out the internal structure of the flux ropes during both the storage and the release phases of the discharge. The kink instability and the torus instability are studied as candidate eruptive mechanisms--the latter by varying the vertical gradient of the potential field arcade. We also investigate magnetic reconnection events that accompany the eruptions. The long-term objective of this work is to use internal magnetic measurements of the flux rope structure to better understand the evolution and eruption of comparable structures in the corona. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO). Qualitative sketches of flux ropes formed in (1) a parallel potential field arcade; and (2) an oblique potential field arcade. One-dimensional magnetic measurements from (1) a parallel arcade discharge that is confined; and (2) an oblique arcade discharge that erupts.

Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Belova, E.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.

2013-12-01

158

Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles  

PubMed Central

Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV), is an autosomal recessive disorder with early adult onset, displays distal dominant muscular involvement and is characterized by the presence of numerous rimmed vacuoles in the affected muscle fibers. The pathophysiology of DMRV has not been clarified yet, although the responsible gene was identified as that encoding UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase involved in the biosynthesis of sialic acids. To identify defective carbohydrate moieties of muscular glycoproteins from DMRV patients, frozen skeletal muscle sections from seven patients with DMRV, as well as normal and pathological controls, were treated with or without sialidase or N-glycosidase F followed by lectin staining and lectin blotting analysis. The sialic acid contents of the O-glycans in the skeletal muscle specimens from the DMRV patients were also measured. We found that Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) lectin reacted strongly with sarcolemmal glycoproteins in the DMRV patients but not with those in control subjects. ?-Dystroglycan from the DMRV patients strongly associated with PNA lectin, although that from controls did not. The sialic acid level of the O-glycans in the DMRV muscular glycoproteins with molecular weights of 30 to 200 kd was reduced to 60 to 80% of the control level. The results show that impaired sialyl O-glycan formation in muscular glycoproteins, including ?-dystroglycan, occurs in DMRV. PMID:15793292

Tajima, Youichi; Uyama, Eiichiro; Go, Shinji; Sato, Chihiro; Tao, Nodoka; Kotani, Masaharu; Hino, Hirotake; Suzuki, Akemi; Sanai¶, Yutaka; Kitajima, Ken; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

2005-01-01

159

Clinical Outcome of Self-Expandable Metal Stent Placement in the Management of Malignant Proximal Colon Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims There are limited data regarding the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stents in the treatment of proximal colon obstruction. We compared the clinical outcomes of stent placement in patients with malignant proximal to distal colon obstructions. Methods We reviewed medical records from 37 consecutive patients from three institutions (19 men; mean age, 72 years) who underwent endoscopic stent placement at a malignant obstruction of the proximal colon. We also examined the records from 99 patients (50 men; mean age, 65 years) who underwent endoscopic stent placement for a distal colon obstruction. Technical success, clinical improvements, complications and stent patency were compared between treatments. Results The technical success rate tended to be lower in stents inserted to treat proximal colon obstructions than in those used to treat distal colon obstructions (86% vs 97%, p=0.06). Clinical improvement was achieved in 78% of patients (29/37) with proximal colonic stenting and in 91% of patients (90/99) with distal colonic stenting (p=0.08). Complications (24% vs 27%), stent migration (8% vs 8%) and stent reocclusion rates (11% vs 17%) did not differ significantly between groups. Two cases of bowel perforation related to stenting (5%) occurred in patients with proximal colonic stenting. Conclusions The technical success and clinical improvement associated with self-expandable metal stents used to treat proximal colon obstruction tend to be lower than cases of distal colon obstruction. Technical failure is an important cause of poor clinical improvement in patients with proximal colon stenting. Complication rates and stent patency appear to be similar in both groups. PMID:21814596

Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, Bo-In; Lee, Kang Moon; Lim, Chul Hyun; Kim, Jin Su; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Kyu Yong; Chung, In-Sik

2011-01-01

160

Diverticular disease of the colon: a risk factor for peritonitis in continuous peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

To study the possible influence of colonic diverticula on the risk of peritonitis of enteral (intestinal) origin in patients undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis, a barium enema was carried out as a pretreatment investigation in 129 consecutive patients starting CAPD over a 9-year period. In this prospective study comprising 3103 patient months, a total of 44 (15% of all) episodes of peritonitis with micro-organisms of enteral origin occurred in 30 of the 129 patients. The estimated probability of developing such an episode was 16% and 24%, respectively, within 1 or 2 years of treatment. Diverticula (greater than or equal to 1) were found in 54 (42%) of all patients. In all cases the following factors: greater than or equal to 10 diverticula, diverticular size of greater than or equal to 10 mm and diverticula in the ascending, transverse, or descending colon, significantly increased the risk of developing peritonitis of enteral origin (P less than 0.05). Neither diverticula in the sigmoid colon nor diverticulitis, as assessed by radiological findings, were identified as risk factors. Enteral episodes (as defined in this study) appear to represent mainly microperformations of existing diverticula; such episodes should probably be regarded as and handled differently from episodes due to major perforations of the colon secondary to diverticulitis. We conclude that diverticular disease of the non-sigmoid colon is a risk factor for peritonitis in CAPD. PMID:2113212

Tranaeus, A; Heimbürger, O; Granqvist, S

1990-01-01

161

Rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids for distal ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon cells from patients with ulcerative colitis utilize short-chain fatty acids inefficiently and may be exposed to decreased concentrations of these compounds. To test whether irrigation of the inflamed mucosa with short-chain fatty acids is useful, we conducted a six-week preliminary trial in 12 patients with distal colitis. Each patient used twice daily rectal irrigations with 100 ml of a

Richard I. Breuer; Stephen K. Buto; Miriam L. Christ; Judy Bean; Piero Vernia; P. Paoluzi; M. C. Di Paolo; Renzo Caprilli

1991-01-01

162

AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE ASSOCIATED WITH A MICRO-SIGMOID ERUPTION  

SciTech Connect

Taking advantage of the high temporal and spatial resolution of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations, we present an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with a micro-sigmoid eruption on 2010 October 21. The micro-sigmoid underwent a typical 'sigmoid-to-arcade' evolution via tether-cutting reconnection, accompanied by a B1.7 flare, a filament eruption, and coronal twin dimmings. In the eruption, the newly formed sigmoidal loops expanded quickly, and the expansion likely triggered an EUV wave. The wave onset was nearly simultaneous with the start of the eruption and the associated flare. The wave had a nearly circular front and propagated at a constant velocity of 270-350 km s{sup -1} with very little angular dependence. Remarkably, in some direction, the wave encountered a small loop and refracted at a higher speed. All the results provide evidences that the wave was a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave. Owing to the close temporal and spatial relationship between the wave and the expanding loops, we believe that the wave was most likely triggered by the fast expansion of the newly formed sigmoidal loops, which evolved into the leading front of the invisible micro-coronal mass ejection.

Zheng Ruisheng; Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Dan; Yang Bo, E-mail: zhrsh@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2012-07-10

163

Blistering distal dactylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Blistering distal dactylitis is a superficial infection of the anterior fat pad on the volar surface of the distal portion of ordinarily a single finger. Although most commonly caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, we report a case of blistering distal dactylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus involving all the fingers and thumbs of a child. After results of a Gram's stain and culture established the diagnosis, the child responded rapidly to oral amoxicillin trihydrate/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin). Multiple fingers affected in blistering distal dactylitis may be a predictor of S. aureus as the causative agent. PMID:8513687

Norcross, M C; Mitchell, D F

1993-05-01

164

Distal realignment (tibial tuberosity transfer).  

PubMed

Although tibial tuberosity (TT) transfer has for many years been the basis of many protocols for the management of patellar instability, the role of pure medial transfer in particular appears to be declining. In contrast, the greater recognition of the importance of patella alta as a predisposing factor to recurrent patellar dislocation has resulted in a resurgence in the popularity of distal TT transfer. When TT transfer is performed, the direction and amount of transfer is based on the patellar height and the lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove. Patellar height is best assessed on a lateral radiograph with the knee in flexion using a ratio that uses the articular surface of the patella in relation to the height above the tibia. Assessment of lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove can be made using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. PMID:22878656

Feller, Julian Ashley

2012-09-01

165

Enzyme-Based Logic: OR Gate with Double-Sigmoid Filter Response  

E-print Network

The first realization of a biomolecular OR gate function with double-sigmoid response (sigmoid in both inputs) is reported. Two chemical inputs activate the enzymatic gate processes resulting in the output signal: chromogen oxidation, which occurs when either one of the inputs or both are present (corresponding to the OR binary function), and can be optically detected. High-quality gate functioning in handling of sources of noise is enabled by "filtering" involving pH control with an added buffer. The resulting gate response is sigmoid in both inputs when proper system parameters are chosen, and the gate properties are theoretically analyzed within a model devised to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

Oleksandr Zavalov; Vera Bocharova; Vladimir Privman; Evgeny Katz

2013-05-07

166

Enzyme-Based Logic: OR Gate with Double-Sigmoid Filter Response  

E-print Network

The first realization of a biomolecular OR gate function with double-sigmoid response (sigmoid in both inputs) is reported. Two chemical inputs activate the enzymatic gate processes resulting in the output signal: chromogen oxidation, which occurs when either one of the inputs or both are present (corresponding to the OR binary function), and can be optically detected. High-quality gate functioning in handling of sources of noise is enabled by "filtering" involving pH control with an added buffer. The resulting gate response is sigmoid in both inputs when proper system parameters are chosen, and the gate properties are theoretically analyzed within a model devised to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

Zavalov, Oleksandr; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny; 10.1021/jp305183d

2013-01-01

167

NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE MODELING OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIGMOID OBSERVED ON THE SUN  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we analyze the characteristics of the three-dimensional magnetic structure of a sigmoid observed over an active region (AR 10930) and followed by X-class flares. This is accomplished by combining a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model of a coronal magnetic field and the high-resolution vector-field measurement of a photospheric magnetic field by Hinode. The key findings of our analysis reveal that the value of the X-ray intensity associated with the sigmoid is more sensitive to the strength of the electric current rather than the twist of the field lines. The strong electric current flows along the magnetic field lines and composes the central part of the sigmoid, even though the twist of the field lines is weak in that region. On the other hand, the outer region (i.e., the elbow part) of the sigmoid is basically occupied by field lines of strong twist and weak current density. Consequently, weak X-ray emission is observed. As the initial Ca II illumination basically occurs from the central part of the sigmoid, this region plays an important role in determining the onset mechanism of the flare despite its weak twisted field-line configuration. We also compare our results with the magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the formation of a sigmoid. Although the estimated values of the twist from the simulation are found to be a little higher than the values obtained from the NLFFF, we find that the field-line configurations generated by the simulation and NLFFF are remarkably analogous as long as we deal with the lower coronal region.

Inoue, S.; Watari, S. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), 4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Magara, T.; Choe, G. S., E-mail: inosato@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-01

168

Pathological study of distal mesorectal cancer spread to determine a proper distal resection margin  

PubMed Central

AIM: Local recurrence after curative surgical resection for rectal cancer remains a major problem. Several studies have shown that incomplete removal of cancer deposits in the distal mesorectum contributes a great share to this dismal result. Clinicopathologic examination of distal mesorectum in lower rectal cancer was performed in the present study to assess the incidence and extent of distal mesorectal spread and to determine an optimal distal resection margin in sphincter-saving procedure. METHODS: We prospectively examined specimens from 45 patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent curative surgery. Large-mount sections were performed to microscopically observe the distal mesorectal spread and to measure the extent of distal spread. Tissue shrinkage ratio was also considered. Patients with involvement in the distal mesorectum were compared with those without involvement with regard to clinicopathologic features. RESULTS: Mesorectal cancer spread was observed in 21 patients (46.7%), 8 of them (17.8%) had distal mesorectal spread. Overall, distal intramural and/or mesorectal spreads were observed in 10 patients (22.2%) and the maximum extent of distal spread in situ was 12 mm and 36 mm respectively. Eight patients with distal mesorectal spread showed a significantly higher rate of lymph node metastasis compared with the other 37 patients without distal mesorectal spread (P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Distal mesorectal spread invariably occurs in advanced rectal cancer and has a significant relationship with lymph node metastasis. Distal resection margin of 1.5 cm for the rectal wall and 4 cm for the distal mesorectum is proper to those patients who are arranged to receive operation with a curative sphincter-saving procedure for lower rectal cancer. PMID:15637735

Zhao, Gao-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Lei, Wen-Zhang; Yu, Yong-Yang; Wang, Cun; Wang, Zhao; Zheng, Xue-Lian; Wang, Rong

2005-01-01

169

Colon cancer screening  

MedlinePLUS

Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening ... Colon cancer screening can detect polyps and early cancers in the intestines. This type of screening can find ...

170

Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Distal Large Bowel Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans  

PubMed Central

Long-chain ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have antineoplastic properties in the colon. The authors examined the association between intakes of different PUFAs and distal large bowel cancer in a population-based case-control study of 1,503 whites (716 cases; 787 controls) and 369 African Americans (213 cases; 156 controls) in North Carolina (2001–2006). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for distal large bowel cancer risk in relation to quartiles of PUFA intake. Increased consumption of long-chain ?-3 PUFAs was associated with reduced risk of distal large bowel cancer in whites (multivariable odds ratios = 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 1.22), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.98), and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.71) for second, third, and highest vs. lowest quartile) (Ptrend < 0.01). Intake of individual eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids was inversely related to distal large bowel cancer risk, whereas the ratio of ?-6 to long-chain ?-3 PUFAs was associated with increased risk of distal large bowel cancer in whites, but not among African Americans (Pinteraction < 0.05). Study results support the hypothesis that long-chain ?-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether or not the possible benefit of long-chain ?-3 PUFAs varies by race warrants further evaluation. PMID:20392864

Kim, Sangmi; Sandler, Dale P.; Galanko, Joseph; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

2010-01-01

171

Distal clavicle fracture as a complication of arthroscopic distal clavicle resection.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic resection of the distal clavicle has been advocated as a surgical treatment option for acromioclavicular (AC) joint pathology. To our knowledge, iatrogenic fracture of the distal clavicle during distal clavicle resection has never been reported. This report describes distal clavicle fracture as a complication of misidentification of the AC joint and subsequent aggressive burring of the distal clavicle during shoulder arthroscopy. This case is further complicated by the development of symptomatic delayed union and adhesive capsulitis. Ultimately, a revision distal clavicle resection was performed, underscoring the fact that special care must be taken to properly identify the AC joint and rule out pre-existing distal clavicle stress fracture or osteolysis before performing the arthroscopic Mumford procedure. PMID:19664514

Ghodadra, Neil; Lee, Gregory H; Kung, Peter; Busfield, Benjamin T; Kharazzi, F Daniel

2009-08-01

172

Long-Term Follow-Up After First Acute Episode of Sigmoid Diverticulitis: Is Surgery Mandatory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the long-term natural history of sigmoid diverticulitis in patients treated nonoperatively after a first acute episode and to assess the role of elective colectomy. METHODS: Between 1986 and 1991, 144 patients were admitted for acute diverticulitis diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography and had a successful nonoperative treatment. Remote complications (persisting or recurring diverticulitis)

R. C. Chautems; P. Ambrosetti; A. Ludwig; B. Mermillod; Ph. Morel; C. Soravia

2002-01-01

173

A New Sigmoid Catalog from Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory: Statistical Properties and Evolutionary Histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new sigmoid catalog covering the duration of the Hinode mission and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) until the end of 2012. The catalog consists of 72 mostly long-lasting sigmoids. We collect and make available all X-ray and EUV data from Hinode, SDO, and the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and we determine the sigmoid lifetimes, sizes, and aspect ratios. We also collect the line-of-sight magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) for SDO or the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) to measure flux versus time for the lifetime of each region. We determine that the development of a sigmoidal shape and eruptive activity is more strongly correlated with flux cancelation than with emergence. We find that the eruptive properties of the regions correlate well with the maximum flux, largest change, and net change in flux in the regions. These results have implications for constraining future flux-rope models of ARs and gaining insight into their evolutionary properties.

Savcheva, A. S.; McKillop, S. C.; McCauley, P. I.; Hanson, E. M.; DeLuca, E. E.

2014-09-01

174

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION BY FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS: APPLICATIONS OF A SIGMOIDAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of contaminants by free-living organisms has traditionally been de- termined with permutations of the deterministic model: Ct = Ce(1 - e -kt). However, studies uti- lizing a variety of species and exposure scenarios now suggest that significant deviations may occur from this classic form. In many cases noted to date, these deviations have involved a sigmoidal pat- tern

I. Lehr Brisbin; Michael C. Newman; Susan G. McDowell; Eric L. Peters

1990-01-01

175

An Organic Acid-Induced Sigmoidal Release System for Oral Controlled-Release Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve time-controlled or site-specific drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, a sigmoidal release system (SRS) was developed, which achieved a prolonged lag time, followed by rapid release. The theophylline beads with a thick Eudragit RS film coating showed very low drug release in water, whereas the release rate increased considerably in organic acid solutions. A hydration study of Eudragit

Shinji Narisawa; Minako Nagata; Chieko Danyoshi; Hiroyuki Yoshino; Kazuo Murata; Yoshiyuki Hirakawa; Kazuo Noda

1994-01-01

176

Molecular analysis of jejunal, ileal, caecal and recto sigmoidal human colonic microbiota using 16S rRNAgenelibrariesandterminalrestrictionfragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

lengths of the terminal restriction fragments were analysed after digestion with HhaI and MspI. The jejunal and ileal microbiota consisted of simple microbial communities of streptococci, lactobacilli, 'Gammaproteobacteria', the Enterococcus group and the Bacteroides group. Most of the species were facultative anaerobes or aerobes. The Clostridium coccoides group and the Clostridium leptum subgroup, which are the most predominant groups in

Hidenori Hayashi; Rei Takahashi; Takahiro Nishi; Mitsuo Sakamoto; Yoshimi Benno

177

Unilateral Molar Distalization: A Nonextraction Therapy  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding. PMID:23320203

Prasad, M. Bhanu; Sreevalli, S.

2012-01-01

178

A morphometric study of the canine colon: comparison of control dogs and cases of colonic disease.  

PubMed Central

The microstructure of the canine colon was described morphometrically. The artifacts induced by administration of enemas and biopsy technique were studied by comparing biopsy specimens to tissues obtained at necropsy from 15 normal dogs. Biopsies from control dogs and clinical cases of colonic disease were then evaluated quantitatively, and histological abnormalities which might clarify mechanisms underlying large bowel dysfunction in the dog were sought. In control dogs, gland length and diameter, epithelial, goblet cell and mucosal mast cell numbers, and intraepithelial lymphocyte and mitotic indices were remarkably uniform throughout the colon. Minor variations were found in the proximal and distal regions of the colon. An apparent shortening of glands, and a reduction in mucous goblets and intraepithelial lymphocytes in biopsies were attributed to suboptimal orientation and irritation caused by enemas. The only significant difference from controls identified by morphometric analysis of biopsies from clinical cases was fewer epithelial cells lining longitudinal sections of glands. It was concluded that failure to identify morphometric variations in the colonic mucosa of clinical cases might reflect either a biased, homogeneously mild clinical syndrome in this group, or the possibility that in many of the clinical cases, a functional rather than physical abnormality was involved. The proprial inflammatory cell population was not examined quantitatively; further investigation of this component is merited. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2249180

Spinato, M T; Barker, I K; Houston, D M

1990-01-01

179

Recovery from disturbed colonic transit time after alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

The effects of alcohol withdrawal on total and segmental transit time were evaluated in 20 chronic alcoholic subjects. After withdrawal, colorectal transit time significantly increased from 24.9 +/- 3.6 to 33.3 +/- 4.5 hours mean +/- SE (P less than 0.01). This was the result of an exclusive increase in rectosigmoid transit time from 2.8 +/- 0.7 to 9.8 +/- 2.1 hours (P less than 0.001). No variations were found in right or left colon transit time. Distal colonic motility is thus a crucial factor in the genesis of diarrhea in chronic alcoholic subjects. PMID:1993406

Bouchoucha, M; Nalpas, B; Berger, M; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

1991-02-01

180

Laparoscopy for a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tube Dislocated into the Colon  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a standard procedure for hydrocephalus. Different complications can occur, one of them being migration of the distal end of the tube. Case Description: The abdominal end of a VP shunt tube had migrated into the descending colon. In a laparoscopic procedure, the shunt was retrieved, and the colonic perforation site was resected. The patient had a favorable outcome. Discussion: Laparoscopy can play a key role and is recommended not only to make an exact diagnosis, but also for definite, safe, and trauma-minimizing treatment of intraabdominal VP shunt dysfunction. PMID:24398218

Detzner, Michael; Heiss, Markus M.; Weber, Friedrich; Bulian, Dirk R.

2013-01-01

181

Obscure-occult bleeding: resolution of unexplained chronic sideropenic anaemia by colonoscopic removal of a colonic leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Although leiomyomas of the stomach or small intestine are relatively common, those of the colon or rectum are rare. Several cases of endoscopic resection of colorectal leiomyomas have been described. However, conventional polypectomy of leiomyomas can result in perforation. To reduce the risk of perforation, submucosal injection can be performed before removal. We report a case of chronic sideropenic anaemia in a patient affected by leiomyoma of the sigmoid colon in which after complete endoscopic enucleation of the lesion we obtained the stable resolution of anaemia. PMID:22714624

Urgesi, Riccardo; Pastorelli, Alfredo; Zampaletta, Costantino; Masini, Andrea; Pelecca, Giorgio; Faggiani, Roberto; Anti, Marcello

2011-01-01

182

Instability of the distal radioulnar joint.  

PubMed

The distal radioulnar joint is a complex structure necessary for forearm motion and force transmission across the wrist. Anatomic and biomechanical advances have revealed broad contributions to distal radioulnar joint stability and refined our understanding of the forces acting across it. Instability often co-occurs with other modes of pathology, such as arthrosis or malunion; and appropriate diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive understanding of all contributing factors. Distal radioulnar joint instability can be broadly categorized as primary, post-traumatic or post-surgical. Treatment strategies include percutaneous, arthroscopic, soft-tissue, osteotomy and arthroplasty techniques. The purpose of this article is to review distal radioulnar joint instability and its management. PMID:24619248

Zimmerman, R M; Jupiter, J B

2014-09-01

183

Percutaneous ORIF of Periarticular Distal Tibia Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Periarticular fractures of the distal tibia remain among the more challenging of fractures for the orthopedic surgeon. Traditional\\u000a methods of treatment have included functional bracing, external fixation with or without limited internal fixation (hybrid\\u000a fixation), intramedullary nailing, and formal open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Cadaveric studies have previously described\\u000a the somewhat tenuous vascular supply to the distal metaphysis, which, combined

Michael P. Clare; Roy W. Sanders

184

Regulation of the Na + 2Cl - K + cotransporter in isolated rat colon crypts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Na+2Cl-K+ cotransporter accepts NH4+ at its K+-binding site. Therefore, the rate of cytosolic acidification after NH4+ addition to the bath (20 mmol\\/l) measured by BCECF fluorescence can be used to quantify the rate of this cotransporter. In isolated colon crypts of rat distal colon (RCC) addition of NH4+ led to an initial alkalinization, corresponding to NH3 uptake. This was

D. Heitzmann; R. Warth; M. Bleich; A. Henger; R. Nitschke; R. Greger

2000-01-01

185

Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic  

E-print Network

The first realization of a designed, rather than natural, biochemical filter process is reported and analyzed as a promising network component for increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic systems. Key challenge in biochemical logic research has been achieving scalability for complex network designs. Various logic gates have been realized, but a "toolbox" of analog elements for interconnectivity and signal processing has remained elusive. Filters are important as network elements that allow control of noise in signal transmission and conversion. We report a versatile biochemical filtering mechanism designed to have sigmoidal response in combination with signal-conversion process. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chromogenic electron donor by hydrogen peroxide, was altered by adding ascorbate, allowing to selectively suppress the output signal, modifying the response from convex to sigmoidal. A kinetic model was developed for evaluation of the quality of filtering. The results offer improved capabilities for design of scalable biomolecular information processing systems.

Vladimir Privman; Jan Halamek; Mary A. Arugula; Dmitriy Melnikov; Vera Bocharova; Evgeny Katz

2010-09-13

186

Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Sigmoid sinus diverticulum, a rare dural sinus anomaly, is regarded as one of the very rare causes of pulsatile tinnitus, and there have been only a few reports on their surgical or endovascular management. We describe a 31-year-old woman presenting with a three-year pulsatile tinnitus in her right ear. After finding the small bony defect in her right temporal bone on CT which was filled with contrast after enhancement, we confirmed the presence of sigmoid sinus diverticulum with the cerebral angiogram and embolized it with two detachable coils in awake status. Right after filling the two coils into the sac, thanks to her alert consciousness, she was able to refer the disappearance of her tinnitus. The operation was finished only with the detachment of the coils. PMID:22005703

Park, Y-H.; Kwon, H-J.

2011-01-01

187

Awake embolization of sigmoid sinus diverticulum causing pulsatile tinnitus: simultaneous confirmative diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Sigmoid sinus diverticulum, a rare dural sinus anomaly, is regarded as one of the very rare causes of pulsatile tinnitus, and there have been only a few reports on their surgical or endovascular management. We describe a 31-year-old woman presenting with a three-year pulsatile tinnitus in her right ear. After finding the small bony defect in her right temporal bone on CT which was filled with contrast after enhancement, we confirmed the presence of sigmoid sinus diverticulum with the cerebral angiogram and embolized it with two detachable coils in awake status. Right after filling the two coils into the sac, thanks to her alert consciousness, she was able to refer the disappearance of her tinnitus. The operation was finished only with the detachment of the coils. PMID:22005703

Park, Y-H; Kwon, H-J

2011-09-01

188

Grave's disease with transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis needing surgical intervention  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis of venous sinuses associated with thyrotoxicosis is rare, and isolated transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis is rarer and reported only once previously. We present a case of Graves disease, who suffered unilateral sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis with intracranial hemorrhage. A 42-year-old female, a diagnosed case of Graves disease, presented to us with headache, drowsiness, and hemiparesis. Computed Tomography revealed a large right temporo-parieto-occipital venous infarct. The patient needed surgical intervention in the form of decompressive craniotomy following which she improved, and on follow-up is having no deficits. Thrombophilia profile showed a low Protein S and Anti thrombin III (AT III) levels. Deranged thrombophilia profile in combination with the hypercoagulable state in thyrotoxicosis, most likely precipitated the thrombotic event. Timely surgical intervention can be offered in selective cases with a good clinical outcome. PMID:24403961

Srikant, Banumathy; Balasubramaniam, Srikant

2013-01-01

189

Sigmoid diverticulitis perforation in burns: case reports and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Burned patients are prone to develop severe intestinal complications because of decreased splanchnic circulation. We report three cases of sigmoid perforation in burn patients appearing late during hospitalization. The common aetiological factor was a state of septic shock treated with infusion of vasopressors. Two patients also received corticosteroids as treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. These cases underline the necessity to maintain adequate organ perfusion and to prevent intestinal ischaemia in severe burns. PMID:23012612

Cirodde, A; Jault, P; Leclerc, T; Donat, N; Bargues, L

2012-03-31

190

Sigmoid diverticulitis perforation in burns: case reports and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary Burned patients are prone to develop severe intestinal complications because of decreased splanchnic circulation. We report three cases of sigmoid perforation in burn patients appearing late during hospitalization. The common aetiological factor was a state of septic shock treated with infusion of vasopressors. Two patients also received corticosteroids as treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. These cases underline the necessity to maintain adequate organ perfusion and to prevent intestinal ischaemia in severe burns. PMID:23012612

Cirodde, A.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.; Donat, N.; Bargues, L.

2012-01-01

191

PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION AND THE BUILD-UP OF SIGMOIDAL FLUX ROPES ON THE SUN  

SciTech Connect

In this study we explore the scenario of photospheric flux cancellation being the primary formation mechanism of sigmoidal flux ropes in decaying active regions. We analyze magnetogram and X-ray observations together with data-driven non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models of observed sigmoidal regions to test this idea. We measure the total and canceled fluxes in the regions from MDI magnetograms, as well as the axial and poloidal flux content of the modeled NLFFF flux ropes for three sigmoids-2007 February, 2007 December, and 2010 February. We infer that the sum of the poloidal and axial flux in the flux ropes for most models amounts to about 60%-70% of the canceled flux and 30%-50% of the total flux in the regions. The flux measurements and the analysis of the magnetic field structure show that the sigmoids first develop a strong axial field manifested as a sheared arcade and then, as flux cancellation proceeds, form long S-shaped field lines that contribute to the poloidal flux. In addition, the dips in the S-shaped field lines are located at the sites of flux cancellation that have been identified from the MDI magnetograms. We find that the line-of-sight-integrated free energy is also concentrated at these locations for all three regions, which can be liberated in the process of eruption. Flare-associated brightenings and flare loops coincide with the location of the X-line topology that develops at the site of most vigorous flux cancellation.

Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Green, L. M., E-mail: asavcheva@cfa.harvard.edu [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Dorking (United Kingdom)

2012-11-10

192

[Microinjection of L-NAME into dorsal raphe nucleus inhibits nociceptive response in sigmoid pain model of rats].  

PubMed

By means of Fos immunocytochemistry, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and microinjection methods, the role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of dorsal raphe (DR) neurons in the modulation of rats sigmoid pain was studied. The results showed: (1) Rats exhibited aversive behavioral responses related to visceral pain after injecting formalin into the sigmoid wall. NOS neurons in DR were up-regulated, in addition, about 8% of NOS-labeled neurons were Fos positive. By contrast, there were no Fos/NOS double-labeled neurons in the control group. (2) Formalin-induced sigmoid pain scores and the expression of Fos in the spinal cord at S1 segment were decreased after microinjecting L-NAME into the DR. These findings suggest that NOS neurons are involved in the modulation of formalin-induced sigmoid pain and that NO may play an important role in the transmission of visceral nociceptive message in the midbrain. PMID:14566407

Yang, Bin; Zhang, Li-Cai; Zeng, Yin-Ming

2003-10-25

193

Recto-sigmoid endoscopic-ultrasonography in the staging of deep infiltrating endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Recto-sigmoid endoscopic ultrasonography (RS-EUS) has first been used in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis in the early 1990's. Since then, although publications have been sparse, RS-EUS is routinely used for this indication in few centers. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects and operating method of rectal and sigmoid endo-sonography, and describe the most characteristic echographic presentations of endometriosis of the lower digestive tract. Through a literature review, results obtained with different types of endo-rectal probes, either flexible endoscopic, or blind rigid, are presented and compared with those of other close imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging and the more recent trans-vaginal sonography. As well as these two latter techniques, RS-EUS appears as an interesting method in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis particularly to evaluate rectal and sigmoid infiltrations. However, more prospective studies are required, to correctly define respective indications for each exam, in the light of recent advancements in treating this frequent disease.

Roseau, Gilles

2014-01-01

194

Langevin machine: a neural network based on stochastically justifiable sigmoidal function.  

PubMed

In neural networks the activation process controls the output as a nonlinear function of the input; and, this output remains bounded between limits as decided by a logistic function known as the sigmoid (S-shaped). Presently, by applying the considerations of Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, the Langevin function is shown as the appropriate and justifiable sigmoid (instead of the conventional hyperbolic tangent function) to depict the bipolar nonlinear logic-operation enunciated by the collective stochastical response of artificial neurons under activation. That is, the graded response of a large network of 'neurons' such as Hopfield's can be stochastically justified via the proposed model. The model is consistent with the established link between the Hopfield model and the statistical mechanics. The Langevin function (in lieu of conventional hyperbolic tangent and/or exponential sigmoids) in determining nonlinear decision boundaries, in characterizing the neural networks by the Langevin machine versus the Boltzmann machine, in sharpening and annealing schedules and in the optimization of nonlinear detector performance are discussed. PMID:1742370

Neelakanta, P S; Sudhakar, R; DeGroff, D

1991-01-01

195

Recto-sigmoid endoscopic-ultrasonography in the staging of deep infiltrating endometriosis.  

PubMed

Recto-sigmoid endoscopic ultrasonography (RS-EUS) has first been used in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis in the early 1990's. Since then, although publications have been sparse, RS-EUS is routinely used for this indication in few centers. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects and operating method of rectal and sigmoid endo-sonography, and describe the most characteristic echographic presentations of endometriosis of the lower digestive tract. Through a literature review, results obtained with different types of endo-rectal probes, either flexible endoscopic, or blind rigid, are presented and compared with those of other close imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging and the more recent trans-vaginal sonography. As well as these two latter techniques, RS-EUS appears as an interesting method in the staging of pelvic deep infiltrating endometriosis particularly to evaluate rectal and sigmoid infiltrations. However, more prospective studies are required, to correctly define respective indications for each exam, in the light of recent advancements in treating this frequent disease. PMID:25400866

Roseau, Gilles

2014-11-16

196

Tailor-made composite functions as tools in model choice: the case of sigmoidal vs bi-linear growth profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Roots are the classical model system to study the organization and dynamics of organ growth zones. Profiles of the velocity of root elements relative to the apex have generally been considered to be sigmoidal. However, recent high-resolution measurements have yielded bi-linear profiles, suggesting that sigmoidal profiles may be artifacts caused by insufficient spatio-temporal resolution. The decision whether an empirical

Winfried S Peters; Tobias I Baskin

2006-01-01

197

Disturbed Colonic Motility Contributes to Anorectal Symptoms and Dysfunction After Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the role of colonic motility in the pathogenesis of anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients, median age 71 (range, 50-81) years with localized prostate carcinoma randomized to one of two radiation dose schedules underwent colonic transit scintigraphy and assessment of anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), anorectal function (manometry), and anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and at 1 month and 1 year after RT. Results: Whole and distal colonic transit increased 1 month after RT, with faster distal colonic transit only persisting at 1 year. Frequency and urgency of defecation, fecal incontinence, and rectal bleeding increased 1 month after RT and persisted at 1 year. Basal anal pressures remained unchanged, but progressive reductions occurred in anal squeeze pressures and responses to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Rectal compliance decreased progressively in the patients, although no changes in anorectal sensory function ensued. Radiotherapy had no effect on the morphology of the internal and external anal sphincters. Distal colonic retention was weakly related to rectal compliance at 1 month, but both faster colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance were more frequent with increased fecal urgency. At 1 year, a weak inverse relationship existed between colonic half-clearance time and frequency of defecation, although both faster whole-colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance occurred more often with increased stool frequency. Conclusion: Colonic dysmotility contributes to anorectal dysfunction after RT for carcinoma of the prostate. This has implications for improving the management of anorectal radiation sequelae.

Yeoh, Eric K., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.a [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Bartholomeusz, Dylan L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Fraser, Robert J. [Gastrointestinal Investigation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Daw Park, SA (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Moore, James W. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Schoeman, Mark N. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

2010-11-01

198

CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer. PMID:20191069

Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

2010-01-01

199

Insulin and colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some factors related to Westernization or industrialization increase risk of colon cancer. It is believed widely that this increase in risk is related to the direct effects of dietary fat and fiber in the colonic lumen. However, the fat and fiber hypotheses, at least as originally formulated, do not explain adequately many emerging findings from recent epidemiologic studies. An alternative

Edward Giovannucci

1995-01-01

200

Laparoscopic hemicolectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis after open distal gastrectomy  

PubMed Central

Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare anomaly in which the abdominal and thoracic cavity structures are opposite their usual positions. Occasionally, a few patients with a combination of this condition and malignant tumors have been encountered. Recently, several laparoscopic operations have been reported in patients with SIT. We report a case of an 83-year-old man with situs inversus totalis who developed colon cancer after open distal gastrectomy. Laparoscopic hemicolectomy with radical lymphadenectomy in such a patient was successfully performed by careful consideration of the mirror-image anatomy. Techniques themselves was not different from those in ordinary cases. Thus, curative laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer in the presence of situs inversus totalis is feasible and safe. PMID:23515492

Sumi, Yasuo; Tomono, Ayako; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

201

Laparoscopic hemicolectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis after open distal gastrectomy.  

PubMed

Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare anomaly in which the abdominal and thoracic cavity structures are opposite their usual positions. Occasionally, a few patients with a combination of this condition and malignant tumors have been encountered. Recently, several laparoscopic operations have been reported in patients with SIT. We report a case of an 83-year-old man with situs inversus totalis who developed colon cancer after open distal gastrectomy. Laparoscopic hemicolectomy with radical lymphadenectomy in such a patient was successfully performed by careful consideration of the mirror-image anatomy. Techniques themselves was not different from those in ordinary cases. Thus, curative laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer in the presence of situs inversus totalis is feasible and safe. PMID:23515492

Sumi, Yasuo; Tomono, Ayako; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

2013-02-27

202

Identification of bladder and colon afferents in the nodose ganglia of male rats.  

PubMed

The sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder and distal colon project to similar regions of the central nervous system and often are affected simultaneously by various diseases and disorders, including spinal cord injury. Anatomical and physiological commonalities between the two organs involve the participation of shared spinally derived pathways, allowing mechanisms of communication between the bladder and colon. Prior electrophysiological data from our laboratory suggest that the bladder also may receive sensory innervation from a nonspinal source through the vagus nerve, which innervates the distal colon as well. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether anatomical evidence exists for vagal innervation of the male rat urinary bladder and to assess whether those vagal afferents also innervate the colon. Additionally, the relative contribution to bladder and colon sensory innervation of spinal and vagal sources was determined. By using lipophilic tracers, neurons that innervated the bladder and colon in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and L6/S1 and L1/L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were quantified. Some single vagal and spinal neurons provided dual innervation to both organs. The proportions of NG afferents labeled from the bladder did not differ from spinal afferents labeled from the bladder when considering the collective population of total neurons from either group. Our results demonstrate evidence for vagal innervation of the bladder and colon and suggest that dichotomizing vagal afferents may provide a neural mechanism for cross-talk between the organs. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3667-3682, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24845615

Herrity, April N; Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Hubscher, Charles H

2014-11-01

203

Compensatory response of colon tissue to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.  

PubMed

Depletion of goblet cells (the main mucin-producing cells in the colon) is one of the most reliable histological characteristics of ulcerative colitis, whereas a major symptom of this disease is bloody diarrhea containing a large amount of mucus. The discrepancy between these phenomena was investigated in a time-course study in rats with experimental colitis induced by treatment with oral dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 1, 3, or 5 days. Biochemical analysis showed a reduction in mucin content in the distal side of the colon that was proportional to the duration of DSS administration. In the proximal side of the colon, however, there was a significant increase in mucin content already on the first day of treatment with DSS. This increase in colonic mucin content continued for the 5 days of treatment. In the distal side, both sulfomucin and sialomucin decreased proportionally to the duration of DSS administration. In the proximal side, there was an increase in high iron diamine-Alcian blue-positive mucins, and confirming the proliferation of goblet cells. The proliferated glands were predominantly sialylated. Goblet cell depletion and an increase in mucin production occurred in different parts of the colon. This phenomenon may be a type of compensatory function of colon tissue in response to the localized decrease of mucin production in certain portions of the colon. PMID:10213120

Nakano, S; Ohara, S; Kubota, T; Saigenji, K; Hotta, K

1999-04-01

204

Distally Based Dorsal Forearm Fasciosubcutaneous Flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of a local flap is often required for the reconstruction of a skin defect on the dorsum of the hand. For this purpose, a distally based dorsal forearm fasciosubcutaneous flap based on the perforators of the posterior interosseous artery was developed. From 1997 until 2002, this flap was used to re- construct skin defects on the dorsum of the

Kwang Seog Kim

2004-01-01

205

Distal Xq duplication and functional Xq disomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal Xq duplications refer to chromosomal disorders resulting from involvement of the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq). Clinical manifestations widely vary depending on the gender of the patient and on the gene content of the duplicated segment. Prevalence of Xq duplications remains unknown. About 40 cases of Xq28 functional disomy due to cytogenetically visible rearrangements, and about 50

Damien Sanlaville; Caroline Schluth-Bolard; Catherine Turleau

2009-01-01

206

Forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond the rectum  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate feasibility of the novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond rectum as the first series. METHODS: A retrospective study with prospectively entered database. From March 2012 to February 2013, a total of 21 patients (11 men) (mean age 64.2 years) with colon cancer beyond the rectum were recruited. The novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope was used for ultrasonographic staging of colon cancer beyond rectum. Ultrasonographic T and N staging were recorded when surgical pathology was used as a gold standard. RESULTS: The mean time to reach the lesion and the mean time to complete the procedure were 3.5 and 7.1 min, respectively. The echoendoscope passed through the lesions in 13 patients (61.9%) and reached the cecum in 10 of 13 patients (76.9%). No adverse events were found. The lesions were located in the cecum (n = 2), ascending colon (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 2), descending colon (n = 2), and sigmoid colon (n = 14). The accuracy rate for T1 (n = 3), T2 (n = 4), T3 (n = 13) and T4 (n = 1) were 100%, 60.0%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy rates for the T and N staging of colon cancer were 81.0% and 52.4%, respectively. The accuracy rates among traversable lesions (n = 13) and obstructive lesions (n = 8) were 61.5% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography had overall accuracy rates of 81.0% and 68.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The echoendoscope is a feasible staging tool for colon cancer beyond rectum. However, accuracy of the echoendoscope needs to be verified by larger systematic studies. PMID:24627604

Kongkam, Pradermchai; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Aniwan, Satimai; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Khemnark, Suparat; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep; Pattanaarun, Jirawat; Khomvilai, Supakij; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Bhutani, Manoop S; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

2014-01-01

207

Transport of electrolytes across the helicoidal colon of the new-born pig.  

PubMed Central

1. The Na, K, Cl and water content of faeces removed from different parts of the pig helicoidal colon were determined for 1-day-old and adult animals. Faecal Na, Cl and water content fell in both cases during passage of contents through the colon. K content increased in the distal colon of the adult pig. This did not occur in the 1-day-old animal. 2. The colon of the 1-day-old pig removed a larger proportion of water from its contents than did that of the adult. The absorption of both water and Cl was found to extend into the distal colon of the 1-day-old animal; little or no net absorption took place in this region in the adult. 3. Colons taken from new-born pigs maintained stable short-circuit currents of about 60-80 muA cm-2 with open-circuit voltages of about 10 mV. Similar values were found for proximal and mid regions of colons taken from 1-day-old, suckled animals. In the distal colon, however, both short-circuit current and open-circuit potential doubled after suckling. 4. Measurements of Na flux in vitro showed no regional difference at birth. The amount of Na absorbed, about 4.5 muequiv cm-2 h-1, was twice that predicted from the short-circuit current, supposing that to be due solely to the electrogenic transport of Na. 5. Colons taken from suckled pigs transported Na at double the rate found in the new-born animal. This applied to both the proximal region, where the short-circuit current remained constant, and the distal region, where the short-circuit was double that of the new-born. 6. Fluxes of Cl and K were also measured across the proximal colon of the one-day-old, suckled pig. There was a net absorption of Cl and secretion of K (1.3 and -0.05 muequiv cm-2 h-1 respectively). These fluxes, taken together with that for Na, could not wholly account for the short-circuit current measured across these preparations. 7. The pig colon seems well able to cope with both electrolyte and water absorption during the first 24 hr of post-natal life. Part of the absorbed sodium appears to follow a non-electrogenic, possibly pinocytotic, route, but the full ionic contribution to the measured short circuit current has still to be determined. PMID:1151848

Bentley, P J; Smith, M W

1975-01-01

208

A diagnostic dilemma following risk-reducing surgery for BRCA1 mutation - a case report of primary papillary serous carcinoma presenting as sigmoid cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Women that carry germ-line mutations for BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are at an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian and peritoneal cancer. Primary peritoneal carcinoma is a rare tumour histologically identical to papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Risk-reducing surgery in the form of mastectomy and oophorectomy in premenopausal women has been recommended to prevent breast and ovarian cancer occurrence and decrease the risk of developing primary peritoneal cancer. Case presentation We present a case report of a woman with a strong family history of breast cancer who underwent risk-reducing surgery in the form of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy following a mastectomy for a right-sided breast tumour. Following the finding of a BRCA1 mutation, a prophylactic left-sided mastectomy was performed. After remaining well for twenty-seven years, she presented with rectal bleeding and altered bowel habit, and was found to have a secondary cancer of the sigmoid colon. She was finally diagnosed with primary papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSCP). Conclusion PSCP can present many years after risk-reducing surgery and be difficult to detect. Surveillance remains the best course of management for patients with known BRCA mutations. PMID:17850658

Chand, Manish; Moore, Patrick J; Clarke, Andrew D; Nash, Guy F; Hickisk, Tamas

2007-01-01

209

Transverse colon perforation due to carcinoma rectum: an unusual presentation against Laplace's law.  

PubMed

We present a case of distal large bowel obstruction, in the setting of a competent ileocaecal valve, the caecum is the most common site of perforation (for Laplace's law). We describe a case of obstruction at the rectum due to constricting carcinomatous growth, presenting with perforation of transverse colon (against Laplace's law). A 60-year-old women presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. The pain was preceded by 3 days of intestinal obstruction. Clinically there was guarding and rigidity. Straight X-ray of the abdomen revealed free gas under diaphragm. Surgical exploration revealed transverse colon perforation with carcinoma of rectum. Loop transverse colostomy was performed as the patient was very sick. The patient improved slowly in the intensive care unit. To conclude, even though the caecum is the most common site for perforation in case of distal obstruction, perforation of transverse colon can occur otherwise as a unique presentation. PMID:23955978

Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Anil; Jaiswal, Sunil; C, Basavaraja

2013-01-01

210

Formation of Torus-Unstable Flux Ropes and Electric Currents in Erupting Sigmoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the physical mechanisms that form a three-dimensional coronal flux rope and later cause its eruption. This is achieved by a zero-? magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an initially potential, asymmetric bipolar field, which evolves by means of simultaneous slow magnetic field diffusion and sub-Alfvénic, line-tied shearing motions in the photosphere. As in similar models, flux-cancellation-driven photospheric reconnection in a bald-patch (BP) separatrix transforms the sheared arcades into a slowly rising and stable flux rope. A bifurcation from a BP to a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) topology occurs later on in the evolution, while the flux rope keeps growing and slowly rising, now due to shear-driven coronal slip-running reconnection, which is of tether-cutting type and takes place in the QSL. As the flux rope reaches the altitude at which the decay index -?ln B/?ln z of the potential field exceeds ~3/2, it rapidly accelerates upward, while the overlying arcade eventually develops an inverse tear-drop shape, as observed in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This transition to eruption is in accordance with the onset criterion of the torus instability. Thus, we find that photospheric flux-cancellation and tether-cutting coronal reconnection do not trigger CMEs in bipolar magnetic fields, but are key pre-eruptive mechanisms for flux ropes to build up and to rise to the critical height above the photosphere at which the torus instability causes the eruption. In order to interpret recent Hinode X-Ray Telescope observations of an erupting sigmoid, we produce simplified synthetic soft X-ray images from the distribution of the electric currents in the simulation. We find that a bright sigmoidal envelope is formed by pairs of J-shaped field lines in the pre-eruptive stage. These field lines form through the BP reconnection and merge later on into S-shaped loops through the tether-cutting reconnection. During the eruption, the central part of the sigmoid brightens due to the formation of a vertical current layer in the wake of the erupting flux rope. Slip-running reconnection in this layer yields the formation of flare loops. A rapid decrease of currents due to field line expansion, together with the increase of narrow currents in the reconnecting QSL, yields the sigmoid hooks to thin in the early stages of the eruption. Finally, a slightly rotating erupting loop-like feature (ELLF) detaches from the center of the sigmoid. Most of this ELLF is not associated with the erupting flux rope, but with a current shell that develops within expanding field lines above the rope. Only the short, curved end of the ELLF corresponds to a part of the flux rope. We argue that the features found in the simulation are generic for the formation and eruption of soft X-ray sigmoids.

Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Démoulin, P.; DeLuca, E. E.

2010-01-01

211

Colonic involvement in Fabry's disease.  

PubMed Central

The case of a 54 year old man with Fabry's disease and extensive jejunal and colonic diverticulosis causing colonic stricture is presented. Histological examination of the resected colon revealed evidence of ceramide trihexose deposition in the myenteric nerve plexus. Colonic involvement in Fabry's disease has not been reported before. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1924035

Jack, C. I.; Morris, A. I.; Nasmyth, D. G.; Carroll, N.

1991-01-01

212

Colon water transport in transgenic mice lacking aquaporin-4 water channels  

PubMed Central

Transgenic null mice were used to test the hypothesis that water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is involved in colon water transport and fecal dehydration. AQP4 was immunolocalized to the basolateral membrane of colonic surface epithelium of wild-type (+/+) mice and was absent in AQP4 null (?/?) mice. The transepithelial osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) of in vivo perfused colon of +/+ mice, measured using the volume marker 14C-labeled polyethylene glycol, was 0.016 ± 0.002 cm/s. Pf of proximal colon was greater than that of distal colon (0.020 ± 0.004 vs. 0.009 ± 0.003 cm/s, P < 0.01). Pf was significantly lower in ?/? mice when measured in full-length colon (0.009 ± 0.002 cm/s, P < 0.05) and proximal colon (0.013 ± 0.002 cm/s, P < 0.05) but not in distal colon. There was no difference in water content of cecal stool from +/+ vs. ?/? mice (0.80 ± 0.01 vs. 0.81 ± 0.01), but there was a slightly higher water content in defecated stool from +/+ mice (0.68 ± 0.01 vs. 0.65 ± 0.01, P < 0.05). Despite the differences in water permeability with AQP4 deletion, theophylline-induced secretion was not impaired (50 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8 ?l · min?1 · g?1). These results provide evidence that transcellular water transport through AQP4 water channels in colonic epithelium facilitates transepithelial osmotic water permeability but has little or no effect on colonic fluid secretion or fecal dehydration. PMID:10915657

WANG, KASPER S.; MA, TONGHUI; FILIZ, FERDA; VERKMAN, A. S.; BASTIDAS, J. AUGUSTO

2012-01-01

213

Colon diverticula - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... can cause problems. The most common problem is diverticulitis, which occurs when a small, hard piece of ... Treatment of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding involves surgical removal of the segment of colon containing the diverticula. While the patient is ...

214

Colon cancer - Series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low in fiber and high in fat, certain types of colonic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), and certain hereditary disorders.

215

Transverse colon conduit diversion  

SciTech Connect

The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

1986-05-01

216

Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid: NLFFF Modeling and MHD Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a magnetic analysis of the formation and eruption of an active region sigmoid in AR 11283 from 2011 September 4 to 6, which is jointly based on observations, static nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation and dynamic MHD simulation. A time sequence of NLFFF model's outputs are used to reproduce the evolution of the magnetic field of the region over three days leading to a X-class flare near the end of 2011 September 6. In the first day, a new bipolar emerges into the negative polarity of a pre-existing mature bipolar, forming a magnetic topology with a coronal null on the magnetic separatrix surface between the two flux system, while the field is still near potential at the end of the day. After then photospheric shearing and twisting build up non-potentiality in the embedded core region, with a flux rope (FR) formed there above the polarity inversion line by tether-cutting reconnection between the strongly sheared field lines. Within this duration, the core field has gained a magnetic free energy of ˜ 1032 erg. In this core a sigmoid is observed distinctly at 22:00 UT on September 6, closely before its eruption at 22:12 UT. Comparison of the SDO/AIA observations with coronal magnetic field suggests that the sigmoid is formed by emission due to enhanced current sheet along the BPSS (bald-patch separatrix surface, in which the field lines graze the line-tied photosphere at the neutral line) that separates the FR from the ambient flux. Quantitative inspection of the pre-eruption field on 22:00 UT suggests a mechanism for the eruption: tether cutting at the null triggers a torus instability of the FR--overlying field system. This pre-eruption NLFFF is then input into a time-dependent MHD model to simulate the fast magnetic evolution during eruption, which successfully reproduces the observations. The highly asymmetric magnetic environment along with the lateral location of the null leads to a strongly inclined non-radial direction of the eruption. The study of this kind provides important insights in a quantitative way to many open issues on the formation and eruption of sigmoidal FR.

Jiang, C.; Wu, S.; Feng, X.; Hu, Q.

2013-12-01

217

Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding  

PubMed Central

The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

2013-01-01

218

Colon cryptogenesis: asymmetric budding.  

PubMed

The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, David W; Burgess, Antony W

2013-01-01

219

Surgical treatment of distal biceps rupture.  

PubMed

Rupture of the distal biceps tendon accounts for 10% of all biceps brachii ruptures. Injuries typically occur in the dominant elbow of men aged 40 to 49 years during eccentric contraction of the biceps. Degenerative changes, decreased vascularity, and tendon impingement may precede rupture. Although nonsurgical management is an option, healthy, active persons with distal biceps tendon ruptures benefit from early surgical repair, gaining improved strength in forearm supination and, to a lesser degree, elbow flexion. Biomechanical studies have tested the strength and displacement of various repairs; the suspensory cortical button technique exhibits maximum peak load to failure in vitro, and suture anchor and interosseous screw techniques yield the least displacement. Surgical complications include sensory and motor neurapraxia, infection, and heterotopic ossification. Current trends in postoperative rehabilitation include an early return to motion and to activities of daily living. PMID:20190104

Sutton, Karen M; Dodds, Seth D; Ahmad, Christopher S; Sethi, Paul M

2010-03-01

220

Correlation among Streptococcus bovis, endocarditis and septicemia in a patient with advanced colon cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction One of the bacterial agents that has been found to be associated with colorectal cancer is Streptococcus bovis, with 13% of infective endocarditis cases caused by this pathogenic species. Case presentation We describe the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man with infiltrating and ulcerating metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. The patient was receiving second-line chemotherapy treatment and, on the eighth day of the second cycle, he developed a grade IV pancytopenia. We diagnosed a severe sepsis with positive blood cultures for Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus with a secondary endocarditis. Conclusions A recent study suggests that the majority of patients affected by colonic cancer have a Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus colonization that becomes apparent as an overt infection only when immunosystem disorders or cardiac valve lesions occur. This correlation is important for involving more specialists in a correct and early diagnosis of this rare, but potentially fatal, complication. PMID:23855909

2013-01-01

221

Distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation revisited  

PubMed Central

Background Splenic preservation (SP) during distal pancreatectomy can be accomplished by ligating the main splenic artery and vein relying on blood supply from the short gastric vessels. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term implications of this operation, comparing it to the outcomes following distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Methods The records of 259 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy with and without SP at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1994 to 2004 were reviewed. Results A total of 29% of patients underwent SP with this technique. These patients were more likely to be women (74% vs 56%, P = .008) and to have benign disease (93% vs 54%, P < .0001). Their operative times were shorter (2.5 vs 3.1 h, P < .0001), they had less blood loss (300 vs 500 ml, P < .0001) and a shorter duration of stay (6 days [interquartile range, 5 to 7] vs 7 days [interquartile range, 5 to 8], P = .001). SP was not a significant predictor of complications in either univariate (P = .445) or adjusted analysis (P = .543). One patient (1.4%) in the SP group was reoperated for splenic infarction and two patients (1.1%) in the splenectomy group for abscess and hemorrhage. There were 2 (0.8%) postoperative deaths, both in the splenectomy group. Conclusions Splenic preservation relying on blood supply from the short gastric vessels is reliable and safe and does not have a higher incidence of postoperative complications when compared to traditional distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. The current series validates this approach and provides further evidence of its feasibility and safety. PMID:17462461

Rodriguez, J. Ruben; Madanat, Michael G.; Healy, Brian C.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del

2013-01-01

222

Surgical approaches to the distal radius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common fractures seen. They encompass a myriad of presentations and fracture\\u000a patterns that often benefit from various open reduction and internal fixation techniques—including volar plating, dorsal plating,\\u000a radial plating, intramedullary nailing, and fragment-specific fixation. In order to obtain optimal reduction of these fractures,\\u000a surgeons require a thorough understanding of the anatomy

Asif M. Ilyas

2011-01-01

223

Mirrored visual feedback limits distal effect anticipation.  

PubMed

Modern tools in technological environments are often characterized by a spatial separation of hand actions (operating a remote control) and their intended action effects (displayed movements of an unmanned vehicle, a robot, or an avatar on a screen). Often non-corresponding proximal and distal movement effects put high demands on the human information processing system. The present study aimed to investigate how modern technological environments influence processes of planning and controlling actions. Participants performed ipsi- or contralateral movements in response to colored stimuli, while the stimulus location had to be ignored. They did not see the stimuli and hands directly, but received visual feedback (with retained or reversed spatial relations) on a projection screen in front of them. Visual feedback retaining spatial relations led to the usual Simon effect. However, visual feedback reversing spatial relations inverted the Simon effect in ipsilateral responses, and eliminated it in contralateral responses (Exp. 1). Impairing the proximal movement-effect loop so that proprioceptive/tactile information from the moving hand was no longer a reliable source for planning and controlling actions attenuated compatibility effects (Exp. 2). Moreover, distal action effects predominated action control even for opposing body-related effects. It seemed that action control of transformed movements depended on the reliability of proprioceptive/tactile and visual information. When the amount of feature overlap between proprioception and vision was low and proprioceptive (visual) information was no longer reliable, then distal (proximal) action effects stepped forward and became crucial in controlling transformed actions. PMID:22331170

Sutter, Christine; Ladwig, Stefan

2012-04-01

224

Distal lipid storage myopathy due to PNPLA2 mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal myopathy is a group of heterogeneous disorders affecting predominantly distal muscles usually appearing from young to late adulthood with very rare cardiac complications. We report a 27-year-old man characterized clinically by distal myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy, pathologically by lipid storage, and genetically by a PNPLA2 mutation. The patient developed weakness in his lower legs and fingers at age 20

Aya Ohkuma; Ikuya Nonaka; May Christine V. Malicdan; Satoru Noguchi; Satoru Ohji; Kyoichi Nomura; Hideo Sugie; Yukiko K. Hayashi; Ichizo Nishino

2008-01-01

225

A noninvasive scintigraphic assessment of the colonic transit of nondigestible solids in man  

SciTech Connect

A noninvasive, scintigraphic technique for quantifying large intestinal transit time that provides low radiation doses was developed. The scintigraphic large intestinal transit (SLIT) method uses a total of 100 microCi of 111In encapsulated in ten 2-cm nondigestible capsules, which are ingested after a 6-hr fast. Two hundred fifty microcuries of 99mTc-sulfur colloid were given to outline the gastrointestinal tract. Images were acquired at 4-hr intervals until all capsules were excreted. Normal volunteers (n = 10) consumed a standardized diet 2 days prior and during imaging. Segmental transit times were measured in the following: ascending, transverse, descending, recto-sigmoid colons; hepatic and splenic flexures. The radiation absorbed dose to the large intestine for the SLIT technique is less than half of that associated with other radiographic methods of colonic transit time measurement.

Stubbs, J.B.; Valenzuela, G.A.; Stubbs, C.C.; Croft, B.Y.; Teates, C.D.; Plankey, M.W.; McCallum, R.W. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, General Clinical Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1991-07-01

226

Ensemble classification of colon biopsy images based on information rich hybrid features.  

PubMed

In recent years, classification of colon biopsy images has become an active research area. Traditionally, colon cancer is diagnosed using microscopic analysis. However, the process is subjective and leads to considerable inter/intra observer variation. Therefore, reliable computer-aided colon cancer detection techniques are in high demand. In this paper, we propose a colon biopsy image classification system, called CBIC, which benefits from discriminatory capabilities of information rich hybrid feature spaces, and performance enhancement based on ensemble classification methodology. Normal and malignant colon biopsy images differ with each other in terms of the color distribution of different biological constituents. The colors of different constituents are sharp in normal images, whereas the colors diffuse with each other in malignant images. In order to exploit this variation, two feature types, namely color components based statistical moments (CCSM) and Haralick features have been proposed, which are color components based variants of their traditional counterparts. Moreover, in normal colon biopsy images, epithelial cells possess sharp and well-defined edges. Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) based features have been employed to exploit this information. Different combinations of hybrid features have been constructed from HOG, CCSM, and Haralick features. The minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection method has been employed to select meaningful features from individual and hybrid feature sets. Finally, an ensemble classifier based on majority voting has been proposed, which classifies colon biopsy images using the selected features. Linear, RBF, and sigmoid SVM have been employed as base classifiers. The proposed system has been tested on 174 colon biopsy images, and improved performance (=98.85%) has been observed compared to previously reported studies. Additionally, the use of mRMR method has been justified by comparing the performance of CBIC on original and reduced feature sets. PMID:24561346

Rathore, Saima; Hussain, Mutawarra; Aksam Iftikhar, Muhammad; Jalil, Abdul

2014-04-01

227

Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades  

E-print Network

Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a "filtering" biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functi...

Zavalov, Oleksandr; Halamek, Jan; Halamkova, Lenka; Korkmaz, Sevim; Arugula, Mary A; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya; Katz, Evgeny; Privman, Vladimir

2013-01-01

228

Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades  

E-print Network

Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a "filtering" biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functioning as an AND gate, where the output signal was activated only by a simultaneous action of two enzymatic biomarkers. This response can be used as an indicator of liver damage, but only if both of these of the inputs are present at their elevated, pathophysiological values of concentrations. A kinetic numerical model was developed and used to estimate the range of parameters for which the experimentally realized logic gate is close to optimal. We also analyzed the system to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

Oleksandr Zavalov; Vera Bocharova; Jan Halamek; Lenka Halamkova; Sevim Korkmaz; Mary A. Arugula; Soujanya Chinnapareddy; Evgeny Katz; Vladimir Privman

2013-05-25

229

Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades  

SciTech Connect

Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a filtering biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functioning as an AND gate, where the output signal was activated only by a simultaneous action of two enzymatic biomarkers. This response can be used as an indicator of liver damage, but only if both of these of the inputs are present at their elevated, pathophysiological values of concentrations. A kinetic numerical model was developed and used to estimate the range of parameters for which the experimentally realized logic gate is close to optimal. We also analyzed the system to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

Zavalov, Oleksandr [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Bocharova, Vera [ORNL; Halamek, Jan [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Halamkova, Lenka [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Korkmaz, Sevim [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Arugula, Mary [University of Utah; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Katz, Evgeny [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Privman, Vladimir [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

2012-01-01

230

Distal residue-CO interaction in carbonmonoxy myoglobins: a molecular dynamics study of three distal mutants.  

PubMed Central

Six 90-ps molecular dynamics trajectories, two for each of three distal mutants of sperm whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin, are reported; solvent waters within 16 A of the active site have been included. In both His64GIn trajectories, the distal side chain remains part of the heme pocket, forming a "closed" conformation similar to that of the wild type 64N delta H tautomer. Despite a connectivity more closely resembling the N epsilon H histidine tautomer, close interactions with the carbonyl ligand similar to those observed for the wild type 64N epsilon H tautomer are prevented in this mutant by repulsive interactions between the carbonyl O and the 64O epsilon. The aliphatic distal side chain of the His64Leu mutant shows little interaction with the carbonyl ligand in either His64Leu trajectory. Solvent water molecules move into and out of the active site in the His64Gly mutant trajectories; during all the other carbonmonoxy myoglobin trajectories, including the wild type distal tautomers considered in an earlier work, solvent molecules rarely encroach closer than 6 A of the active site. These results are consistent with a recent structural interpretation of the wild type infrared spectrum, and the current reinterpretation that the distal-ligand interaction in carbonmonoxy myoglobin is largely electrostatic, not steric, in nature. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:7787018

Jewsbury, P; Kitagawa, T

1995-01-01

231

125 I-labeled galanin binding sites in congenital innervation defects of the distal colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropeptides have turned out to be promising new parameters, in addition to the routinely performed histochemical diagnosis, of Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Studies of the peptidergic innervation of the affected intestinal segment of patients with HD have demonstrated a marked reduction in the density of several neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers. The frequency of nerve fibers storing the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) was found

Alexandra Berger; Barbara Kofler; Radmila Santic; Elke Zipperer; Wolfgang Sperl; Cornelia Hauser-Kronberger

2003-01-01

232

Comminuted fracture of the distal sesamoid bone and distal rupture of the deep digital flexor tendon.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old show jumper was evaluated for an acute severe lameness (grade 4 of 5) of the right foreleg. During weight bearing, the toe of the affected limb rotated dorsally suggesting rupture of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Upon radiographic examination of the hoof, a severe erosion at the flexor surface and a parasagittal fracture of the distal sesamoid bone were found. Ultrasonographic examination confirmed rupture of the DDFT. These findings were confirmed on post-mortem examination. Prior to the acute lameness, the horse was treated with corticosteroid injections into the podotrochlear bursa. Repeated intra-bursal injections of corticosteroids as a possible cause for DDFT rupture are discussed as well as the possible association between a degenerative distal sesamoid bone, a distal sesamoid bone fracture and a DDFT rupture. PMID:16050282

Hoegaerts, Michel; Pille, Frederik; De Clercq, Tom; Fulton, Ian C; Saunders, Jimmy H

2005-01-01

233

Efficacy of cetuximab in metastatic colon cancer - case report.  

PubMed

In recent years, targeted therapies have proved effective in the treatment of colon cancer, but even in these conditions,metastatic disease is generally considered incurable.Cetuximab is approved for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients with KRAS wild-type, in order to increase survival and hinder progression of the disease. We report a case of a 55 year-old woman, diagnosed with stenosing sigmoid cancer and liver metastases, which underwent multimodal treatment: palliative surgery -Hartmann segmental colectomy, and adjuvant chemotherapy -second line monotherapy with cetuximab, according to standard protocols. After 6 months of XELOX chemotherapy,during which she showed progression of metastatic disease, she was switched to monotherapy with cetuximab, with favorable outcome. Comparing relevant literature, in which complete response to treatment with cetuximab is obtained in low percentages ( 3%) after 3 months of treatment with cetuximab the patient shows clinical and paraclinical complete response and increased quality of life. Proper selection of patients with metastatic colon cancer for treatment with anti-EGFR therapy may lead to prolonged survival and time to progression. PMID:24956345

Grigorean, V T; Ciuhu, A N; Rahnea Nita, G; Strambu, V; Straja, D N; Popescu, M; Sandu, A M; Rahnea Nita, R A

2014-01-01

234

Distal penile prosthesis extrusion: treatment with distal corporoplasty or Gortex windsock reinforcement.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous extrusion of penile prosthesis cylinders beneath the glans penis is an unusual but difficult complication of penile prosthesis. Without surgical repair, extrusion, infection, and corporeal fibrosis may ensue. Twenty-eight patients with distal corporeal extrusion were reviewed to identify the optimum treatment outcome for these penile prosthesis complications. Records of 28 men with subcutaneous distal penile prosthesis cylinder extrusion were reviewed. Mean age was 56.2 y. Etiology of erectile dysfunction was diabetes mellitus in 11, vasculogenic in 10, Peyronie's disease in five, radical pelvic surgery in five. Duration of penile prosthesis was 8-72 months (mean 42.6). No patient had penile prosthesis infection or device exposure through the skin. Distal corporoplasty was treated on 18/28 men using cylinder repositioning and direct tunica albuginea repair. Ten men underwent repair using a Gortex windsock. 8/18 corporoplasty and 6/10 windsock patients required glans fixation for treatment of hypermobile glans following cylinder relocation. In two patients with windsock repair, extrusion recurrence occurred 6 and 18 months following surgery and 1/6 had post operative infection requiring prosthesis removal. Mean surgical time for corporoplasty was 52.8 minutes while windsock reconstruction was 89.6 minutes. Distal subcutaneous penile prosthesis cylinder extrusion produces coital pain and predisposes to cylinder exposure and infection. Early repair with or without additional prosthetic materials will return penile prostheses to a normal functioning state. Distal corporoplasty with cylinder repositioning appears to be a simple, low morbidity solution to this difficult dilemma. Outcomes with distal corporoplasty result in better function, less pain, and fewer recurrences than Gortex windsock repair. PMID:11979321

Carson, C C; Noh, C H

2002-04-01

235

Colonic Crohn Disease  

PubMed Central

Colonic Crohn disease is a complicated disease entity that requires a multidisciplinary effort on the part of the surgeon, gastroenterologist, and pathologist. Crohn disease affects ?500,000 people in North America with nearly 300,000 people suffering from colonic manifestations. This represents a significant portion of the patient population in the typical colorectal surgeon's practice. As such, an intimate understanding of the disease process, presentation, and treatment options is imperative. In this article, the authors review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment options with a focus on current strategies for surgical management. PMID:24436655

Hedrick, Traci L.; Friel, Charles M.

2013-01-01

236

Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

2008-09-01

237

VSHOT Measurements of Distal II Dish Concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The Video Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT) is a laser ray-trace tool for measuring the slope error of solar concentrator mirrors. The VSHOT measurements made on two, 8.5-m diameter, Distal II dishes represent its first use on a concentrator installed and operating in the field. A number of valuable lessons were learned regarding the use of the VSHOT for outdoor testing. The two dishes were found to have overall figure-of-merit RMS slope errors from an ideal parabola of 2.99 and 3.18 milliradians. The VSHOT measurements compare well qualitatively with distant observer photographs made using a colored concentric ring target.

Jones, S.A.

1998-12-14

238

A new SIR-based sigmoid power control game in cognitive radio networks.  

PubMed

Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044

Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

2014-01-01

239

Urachal-sigmoid fistula in an adult male without urachal cyst.  

PubMed

Urachal anomalies are uncommon defects arising either by incomplete obliteration of the urachus during the foetal period or by its reopening after postnatal regression. Five anomalies have been described: congenital patent urachus, urachal cyst, umbilical-urachal sinus, vesico-urachal diverticulum, and alternating sinus. Only congenital patent urachus is present at childbirth. The other forms are usually acquired disorders. Nevertheless, they commonly appear in children, being less common in the adult. Colic-urachal fistulas are quite uncommon findings. Only three cases have been reported thus far. The aim of this study is to report the fourth case of sigmoid-urachal fistula, and the first one appearing without an urachal cyst. PMID:12432840

Gómez Barbadillo, J; Plata Rosales, J; Espinosa Guzmán, E; Castilla Cabezas, J; Díaz López, C; Soria Alvarez, C; Ramos Cejudo, F; Gutiérrez Sainz, J

2002-07-01

240

A New SIR-Based Sigmoid Power Control Game in Cognitive Radio Networks  

PubMed Central

Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044

Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

2014-01-01

241

Constipation with colonic inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transit of radiopaque markers was delayed in the ascending colon of 51 females and 3 males treated for severe idiopathic constipation. Onset of symptoms was between age 10 and 20 in more than half of the patients. Eighteen percent had previously undergone unnecessary laparotomy for large bowel pseudoobstruction. Stool frequency ranged from 1 stool every three days to 1 every

Alain Watier; Ghislain Devroede; André Duranceau; Mohamed Abdelrahman; Colette Duguay; Marcelle D. Forand; Léon Tétreault; Pierre Arhan; Jacques Lamarche; Mostafa Elhilali

1983-01-01

242

Colon Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Colon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

243

Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus  

PubMed Central

We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome. PMID:23785565

Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Mohamed Ali, Elouer; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannai

2013-01-01

244

Sigmoid-to-flux-rope Transition Leading to a Loop-like Coronal Mass Ejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sigmoids are one of the most important precursor structures for solar eruptions. In this Letter, we study a sigmoid eruption on 2010 August 1 with EUV data obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). In AIA 94 Å (Fe XVIII; 6 MK), topological reconfiguration due to tether-cutting reconnection is unambiguously observed for the first time, i.e., two opposite J-shaped loops reconnect to form a continuous S-shaped loop, whose central portion is dipped and aligned along the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), and a compact loop crossing the PIL. A causal relationship between photospheric flows and coronal tether-cutting reconnections is evidenced by the detection of persistent converging flows toward the PIL using line-of-sight magnetograms obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO. The S-shaped loop remains in quasi-equilibrium in the lower corona for about 50 minutes, with the central dipped portion rising slowly at ~10 km s-1. The speed then increases to ~60 km s-1 about 10 minutes prior to the onset of a GOES-class C3.2 flare, as the S-shaped loop speeds up its transformation into an arch-shaped loop, which eventually leads to a loop-like coronal mass ejection. The AIA observations combined with H? filtergrams as well as hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy are consistent with most flare loops being formed by reconnection of the stretched legs of less-sheared J-shaped loops that envelopes the rising flux rope, in agreement with the standard tether-cutting scenario.

Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Shuo; Deng, Na; Wang, Haimin

2010-12-01

245

Equine laminitis caused by distal displacement of the distal phalanx: 12 cases (1976-1985).  

PubMed

Clinical data from 12 cases of equine laminitis characterized by distal displacement of the distal phalanx (P3) were reviewed. Clinical features of horses that survived the syndrome were compared with the nonsurvivors to obtain prognostic indicators. Animals affected included 8 Quarter Horses, 2 Welsh ponies, 1 Thoroughbred, and 1 Arabian. Eight of the animals were females (67%), 2 were stallions, and 2 were geldings. The mean age of affected animals was 8.6 years (2 to 14 years), and the mean body weight was 442 kg. The survivors weighed less than the nonsurvivors (384 kg vs 473 kg, respectively), suggesting that body weight may be of prognostic value for horses affected with distal displacement of P3. Ten of the 12 animals (83%) were admitted because of a disorder other than laminitis, but subsequently developed laminitis during the treatment period. All affected animals had clinical evidence of endotoxemia and/or sepsis before the onset of laminitis. Cavitation or depression of the dorsal coronary band was detected in all animals and was the most reliable clinical indicator of distal displacement of P3. Five horses had fluid (blood or serum) ooze from their coronary bands and 2 of these sloughed one or more of their hooves. Necropsy findings of the 8 horses that were euthanatized included severe hemorrhagic, congested laminae and complete detachment of P3 from the hoof wall. Histologic examination of affected laminae revealed vascular thrombosis and multifocal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Radiography failed to reveal distal displacement of P3 in 8 animals, but the remaining 4 animals had an accentuation of the dorsal proximal hoof wall and cavitation of the coronary band visible on lateral radiographs. PMID:3744996

Baxter, G M

1986-08-01

246

Biomechanical Comparison of Osteoporotic Distal Radius Fractures Fixed by Distal Locking Screws with Different Length  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the postoperative stability of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed with distal locking screws with different length. Methods A comminuted extra-articular dorsally unstable distal radius fracture, treated with volar locking plate system, was created. The 18 specimens were randomized into 3 groups based on distal locked screws with different length: Group A had unicortical screws with 50% length to the dorsal cortex. Group B had unicortical screws with 75% length to the dorsal cortex. Group C had bicortical screws. Axial compression and bending loads were imposed on the models before and after cycling testing as well as load to clinical and catastrophic failure. Results Minimum change in stiffness was observed before and after fatigue for all groups. The final stiffness to bending forces was statistically similar in all groups, but stiffness to axial compression was statistically significant different: Group A approached significance with respect to groups B and C (P?=?0.017, 0.009), whereas stiffness in group B and C was statistically similar (P?=?0.93). Load to clinical failure was significantly less for group A (456.54±78.59 N) compared with groups B (580.24±73.85 N) and C (591.07±38.40 N). Load to catastrophic failure was statistically similar between groups, but mean values for Group A were 18% less than means for Group C. Conclusions The volar locking plate system fixed with unicortical locking screws with at least 75% length not only produced early stability for osteoporotic distal radius fractures, but also avoided extensor tendon complications due to dorsal screw protrusion. PMID:25080094

Liu, Xiong; Wu, Wei-dong; Fang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Mei-chao; Huang, Wen-hua

2014-01-01

247

Successful Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement for a Case of Distal Rectal Stenosis due to Gastric Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

A 47-year-old woman was diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer with malignant ascites. Despite chemotherapy, recurrent peritoneal dissemination was seen 1.5 years after operation. A computed tomography scan revealed rectal stenosis due to Schnitzler's metastasis. When the distance from the distal end of the obstruction to the anal verge is less than 5 cm, stent replacement has been said to be contraindicated due to the development of anal pain and foreign body sensation. Although the distance from the distal end of the obstruction to the anal verge was 4 cm in this case, a WallFlexTM colonic stent could be placed. She stayed home, and luminal patency remained until she died 270 days after stent insertion. This report demonstrates that rectal obstruction located less than 5 cm from the anal verge due to Schnitzler's metastasis could be treated by stenting without any symptomatic or technical complications. PMID:23741209

Okugawa, Takuya; Oshima, Tadayuki; Ikeo, Koichi; Kondo, Takashi; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

2013-01-01

248

Distal Xq duplication and functional Xq disomy  

PubMed Central

Distal Xq duplications refer to chromosomal disorders resulting from involvement of the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq). Clinical manifestations widely vary depending on the gender of the patient and on the gene content of the duplicated segment. Prevalence of Xq duplications remains unknown. About 40 cases of Xq28 functional disomy due to cytogenetically visible rearrangements, and about 50 cases of cryptic duplications encompassing the MECP2 gene have been reported. The most frequently reported distal duplications involve the Xq28 segment and yield a recognisable phenotype including distinctive facial features (premature closure of the fontanels or ridged metopic suture, broad face with full cheeks, epicanthal folds, large ears, small and open mouth, ear anomalies, pointed nose, abnormal palate and facial hypotonia), major axial hypotonia, severe developmental delay, severe feeding difficulties, abnormal genitalia and proneness to infections. Xq duplications may be caused either by an intrachromosomal duplication or an unbalanced X/Y or X/autosome translocation. In XY males, structural X disomy always results in functional disomy. In females, failure of X chromosome dosage compensation could result from a variety of mechanisms, including an unfavourable pattern of inactivation, a breakpoint separating an X segment from the X-inactivation centre in cis, or a small ring chromosome. The MECP2 gene in Xq28 is the most important dosage-sensitive gene responsible for the abnormal phenotype in duplications of distal Xq. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and is confirmed by CGH array techniques. Differential diagnoses include Prader-Willi syndrome and Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked (ATR-X). The recurrence risk is significant if a structural rearrangement is present in one of the parent, the most frequent situation being that of an intrachromosomal duplication inherited from the mother. Prenatal diagnosis is performed by cytogenetic testing including FISH and/or DNA quantification methods. Management is multi-specialist and only symptomatic, with special attention to prevention of malnutrition and recurrent infections. Educational and rehabilitation support should be offered to all patients. Disease name Xq duplications, Xq functional disomy PMID:19232094

Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Turleau, Catherine

2009-01-01

249

Endoscopic detection of murine colonic dysplasia using a novel fluorescence-labeled peptide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current endoscopic screening does not detect all pre-malignant (dysplastic) colorectal mucosa, thus requiring the development of more sensitive, targeted techniques to improve detection. The presented work utilizes phage display to identify a novel peptide binder to colorectal dysplasia in a CPC;Apc mouse model. A wide-field, small animal endoscope capable of fluorescence excitation (450-475 nm) identified polyps via white light and also collected fluorescence images (510 nm barrier filter) of peptide binding. The peptide bound ~2-fold greater to the colonic adenomas when compared to the control peptide. We have imaged fluorescence-labeled peptide binding in vivo that is specific towards distal colonic adenomas.

Miller, Sharon J.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Gaustad, Adam; Fearon, Eric R.; Wang, Thomas D.

2011-03-01

250

[A case of 5-year survival with combination chemotherapy for advanced colonic cancer with multiple lung and liver metastases and peritoneal dissemination].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of abdominal fullness and constipation. Endoscopy and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans showed an advanced sigmoid colonic cancer with multiple lung and liver metastases and peritoneal dissemination. Sigmoid resection was performed to relieve ileus. Postoperative chemotherapy was administered for metastatic lesions. We administered systemic chemotherapy with tegafur-uraci(l UFT)/UZEL( 10 months), oxaliplatin with fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (FOLFOX; 11 courses), irinotecan with 5-FU and folinic acid (FOLFIRI; 13 courses), irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS; 23 courses), bevacizumab (32 courses), cetuximab (29 courses), and peritoneal infusion of paclitaxel( 65 courses). The patient survived for 5 years after the initial treatment. PMID:24394023

Kimura, Hironobu; Fushida, Sachio

2013-11-01

251

Colonic smooth muscle cells and colonic motility patterns as a target for irritable bowel syndrome therapy: mechanisms of action of otilonium bromide  

PubMed Central

Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic compound of the family of quaternary ammonium derivatives and has been successfully used in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) due to its specific pharmacodynamic effects on motility patterns in the human colon and the contractility of colonic smooth muscle cells. This article examines how. OB inhibits the main patterns of human sigmoid motility in vitro, which are spontaneous rhythmic phasic contractions, smooth muscle tone, contractions induced by stimulation of excitatory motor neurons and contractions induced by direct effect of excitatory neurotransmitters. It does this mainly by blocking calcium influx through L-type calcium channels and interfering with mobilization of cellular calcium required for smooth muscle contraction, thereby limiting excessive intestinal contractility and abdominal cramping. OB also inhibits T-type calcium channels and muscarinic responses. Finally, OB inhibits tachykinin receptors on smooth muscle and primary afferent neurons which may have the joint effect of reducing motility and abdominal pain. All these mechanisms mediate the therapeutic effects of OB in patients with IBS and might be useful in patients with other spastic colonic motility disorders such as diverticular disease. PMID:25057296

Rychter, Jakub; Espín, Francisco; Gallego, Diana; Vergara, Patri; Jiménez, Marcel

2014-01-01

252

Temporal stability of acetylcholinesterase staining in colonic and rectal neural tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease on standard rectal suction biopsy requires demonstration\\u000a of aganglionosis in 60 adequate serial sections of submucosa. Positive staining for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), demonstrating\\u000a an increase in nerve fibres within the lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and subjacent submucosa, is a useful adjunctive\\u000a test. In this study, sections of distal colonic muscularis propria and rectal

R. W. Byard; M. Carli

1997-01-01

253

Severe upper gastrointestinal polyposis associated with sparse colonic polyposis in a familial adenomatous polyposis family with an APC mutation at codon 1520  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Familial adenomatous polyposis usually results in colonic polyposis with hundreds to thousands of polyps, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), and variable extracolonic features. Recent reports indicate that patients with distal mutations between codons 1445 and 1578 do not express CHRPE and have a high incidence of desmoid tumours.Patients—The family studied has an unusual phenotype of sparse colonic

B A Leggett; J P Young; K Biden; R L Buttenshaw; N Knight; A E Cowen

1997-01-01

254

Physiological and Functional Evaluation of the Transposed Human Pylorus as a Distal Sphincter  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Studies evaluating the human pylorus as a sphincter are scanty and contradictory. Recently, we have shown technical feasibility of transposing the human pylorus for end-stage fecal incontinence. This unique cohort of patients provided us an opportunity to study the sphincter properties of the pylorus in its ectopic position. Methods Antro-pylorus transposition on end sigmoid colostomies (n = 3) and in the perineum (n = 15) was performed for various indications. Antro-pylorus was assessed functionally (digital examination, high resolution spatiotemporal manometry, barium retention studies and colonoscopy) and by imaging (doppler ultrasound, MRI and CT angiography) in its ectopic position. Results The median resting pressure of pylorus on colostomy was 30 mmHg (range 28-38). In benign group, median resting pressure in perineum was 12.5 mmHg (range 6-44) that increased to 21.5 mmHg (range 12-29) (P = 0.481) and 31 mmHg (range 16-77) (P = 0.034) on first and second follow-up, respectively. In malignant group, median post-operative pressures were 20 mmHg (range 14-36) and 21 mmHg (range 18-44) on first and second follow-up, respectively. A definite tone and gripping sensation were felt in all the patients on digital examination. On distal loopogram, performed through the diverting colostomies, barium was retained proximal to the neo-pyloric valve. Both perineal ultrasound and MRI showed viable transposed graft. CT angiography and color doppler studies confirmed vascular flow in the transposed position. Conclusions The human pyloric valve can function as a tonic sphincter when removed from the gastroduodenal continuity. PMID:22837874

Ghoshal, Uday C; Gupta, Vishal; Jauhari, Ramendra; Srivastava, Rajendra N; Misra, Asha; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Manoj

2012-01-01

255

Resurfacing the distal radioulnar joint with rib perichondrium-a novel method.  

PubMed

Background?Osteoarthritis in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is a challenging condition with few really reliable surgical options, particularly in young individuals. Traditional methods as hemiresection, the Darrach procedure, and the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure have less favorable results in the nonrheumatoid patient. The results after implant arthroplasty have improved, but long-term results are yet to be presented before implant arthroplasty can be recommended to young individuals with osteoarthritis in the DRUJ. An alternative method to treat osteoarthritic joints is surface replacement with free costal perichondrium. The technique has been used since the 1970s for other joints. Case Description?We adapted the method and used it in two female patients (37 and 38 years old) with nontraumatic osteoarthritis in the DRUJ. Both patients had severe pain and were unable to work. The eroded joint surfaces were resected down to bleeding subchondral cortex. Perichondrium from the seventh rib was osteo-sutured and glued to the ulnar head and the sigmoid notch. Results?The maximum follow-up-time in this retrospective review is 25 months. Our short-term results are encouraging in terms of pain relief, motion, grip strength, and return to work. The first patient had an excellent result and was completely normalized. The second patient has improved significantly and experiences only slight pain on heavy lifting and rotational load. Clinical Relevance?Free costal perichondrium may be a useful alternative for treating osteoarthritis in the DRUJ, especially in young individuals. The option for a later implant arthroplasty is preserved because most of the anatomy of the joint and all the soft tissue stabilizers are intact. Level of Evidence Therapeutic IV, Case series. PMID:25097816

Vedung, Torbjörn; Vinnars, Bertil

2014-08-01

256

Distal type of aortopulmonary window. Report of 4 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied 14 patients with aortopulmonary window (10 male and 4 female, age range 1 month to 41 years). Four of these had a distal defect with characteristic haemodynamic and angiographic features. Aortopulmonary window may be classified into 3 types: type I (proximal) defects occur in the proximal part of aortopulmonary septum; type II (distal) defects occur in the

K Mori; M Ando; A Takao; S Ishikawa; Y Imai

1978-01-01

257

Young Children's Sibling Relationship Quality: Distal and Proximal Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…

Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison

2009-01-01

258

Distal neuropathy in spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerves of three mature dogs with chronic spontaneous diabetes mellitus were examined using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The principal pathologic findings in single-teased fibers were remyelination and axonal regeneration. It is suggested that these changes which occurred in distal plantar nerves but not in more proximal tibial nerves result from a distal axonopathy. The dog may prove to be

K. G. Braund; J. E. Steiss

1982-01-01

259

Incision of recurrent distal esophageal (Schatzki) ring after dilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Distal esophageal (Schatzki) ring is a frequent cause of dysphagia. Bougienage is generally effective but relapse is common. Outcomes for patients treated by endoscopic incision of distal esophageal rings after symptomatic relapses after bougienage are described. Methods: Eleven patients (2 women, 9 men; median age 61 years; range 24 to 81 years) with recurrent dysphagia after bougienage with large

James A. DiSario; Peder J. Pedersen; Cristina Bichi?-Canoutas; Stephen C. Alder; John C. Fang

2002-01-01

260

Usefulness of autogenous bypass grafts originating distal to the groin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Infrainguinal bypass grafting with a proximal anastomosis distal to the groin has been used increasingly to conserve available conduit and reduce wound morbidity and recovery time. The usefulness of the liberalized use of distal origin grafts (DOGs) is unknown. Methods: Consecutive autogenous DOG procedures that were performed between 1978 and 2000 were reviewed retrospectively with a computerized registry. Procedures

Amy B. Reed; Michael S. Conte; Michael Belkin; John A. Mannick; Anthony D. Whittemore; Magruder C. Donaldson

2002-01-01

261

Distal airway dysfunction in obese subjects corrects after bariatric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundObesity is frequently associated with respiratory symptoms despite normal large airway function as assessed by spirometry. However, reduced functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume are common and might reflect distal airway dysfunction. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) might identify distal airway abnormalities not detected using routine spirometry screening. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that excess body weight will result

Beno W. Oppenheimer; Ryan Macht; Roberta M. Goldring; Alexandra Stabile; Kenneth I. Berger; Manish Parikh

262

Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions. PMID:25275396

Millet, Yves A.; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

2014-01-01

263

Colonic hypersensitivity is a major determinant of the efficacy of bloating treatment in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of bloating is largely unknown, and many mechanisms have been proposed. An alteration of intestinal gas production may have a role in a subgroup of patients, but available data are conflicting. We have previously shown that hypersensitivity to colonic fermentation is associated with severe bloating in a subgroup of patients with low intestinal gas production. Accordingly, we evaluated whether modification of intestinal gas production improves bloating severity according to the presence of visceral hypersensitivity to colonic fermentation. Twenty-four IBS-C patients with severe bloating underwent intestinal gas production measurement by hydrogen breath test after lactulose, and a recto-sigmoid barostat test in order to evaluate sensitivity thresholds in a basal condition and after induction of colonic fermentation. The subjects were then randomly assigned to receive either rifaximin or placebo according to a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Rifaximin induced an improvement of symptom severity. A post hoc analysis according to the presence of hypersensitivity to colonic fermentation shows that rifaximin induces a significant improvement in symptom severity only in normosensitive, hyperproducer patients. Modulation of colonic flora, in order to reduce fermentation, does not interfere with bloating severity in patients with visceral hypersensitivity, thus suggesting that in this subgroup of subjects gas production is not crucial for the onset of bloating. PMID:21161699

Di Stefano, Michele; Tana, Paola; Mengoli, Caterina; Miceli, Emanuela; Pagani, Elisabetta; Corazza, Gino Roberto

2011-10-01

264

MICRO-SIGMOIDS AS PROGENITORS OF CORONAL JETS: IS ERUPTIVE ACTIVITY SELF-SIMILARLY MULTI-SCALED?  

SciTech Connect

Observations from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on Hinode are used to study the nature of X-ray-bright points, sources of coronal jets. Several jet events in the coronal holes are found to erupt from small-scale, S-shaped bright regions. This finding suggests that coronal micro-sigmoids may well be progenitors of coronal jets. Moreover, the presence of these structures may explain numerous observed characteristics of jets such as helical structures, apparent transverse motions, and shapes. Analogous to large-scale sigmoids giving rise to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a promising future task would perhaps be to investigate whether solar eruptive activity, from coronal jets to CMEs, is self-similar in terms of properties and instability mechanisms.

Raouafi, N.-E.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N. [John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD (United States); Georgoulis, M. K., E-mail: Nour.Eddine.Raouafi@jhuapl.ed [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Athens GR-11527 (Greece)

2010-08-01

265

The use of distal rhynchokinesis by birds feeding in water.  

PubMed

The use of distal rhynchokinesis, which consists of the movement of the distal part of the upper jaw with respect to the cranium, is well documented in long-billed shorebirds (Scolopacidae), commonly being associated with the deep probing feeding method. However, the functional and evolutionary significance of distal rhynchokinesis and other cranial kinesis is unclear. We report for the first time the use and occurrence of distal rhynchokinesis in wild long-billed shorebirds feeding on small prey items suspended in water. We tested whether prey size in captive dunlins Calidris alpina influences the occurrence of distal rhynchokinesis during feeding and also whether its use affects foraging efficiency. We found that wild dunlin, curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, sanderling Calidris alba and little stint Calidris minuta commonly use distal rhynchokinesis to strike, capture and transport small prey items. Prey size influenced the occurrence of distal rhynchokinesis during the transport phase, with this type of cranial kinesis being more frequently used with larger prey. The rhynchokinesis protraction angle (a measure of bill tip elevation) during prey strike and transport was affected by prey size, and bill gape was modulated through the use of distal rhynchokinesis in relation to prey size. Finally, the use of distal rhynchokinesis throughout intra-oral prey transport was related to shorter transport times, which improved foraging efficiency. We conclude that distal rhynchokinesis is a mechanism that could contribute to the flexible feeding behaviour of long-distance migratory shorebirds, enhancing small prey profitability and so improving foraging efficiency, and may have played a role in the evolutionary radiation of Scolopacidae (Charadrii). PMID:17951416

Estrella, Sora M; Masero, José A

2007-11-01

266

Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system. Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease. Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment, resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, intussusceptions. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia, which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polypectomy. PMID:18837097

Chung, Woo Chul; Kim, Hye-Kang; Yoo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Rok; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Jang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

2008-01-01

267

Fungal infection of the colon  

PubMed Central

Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

Praneenararat, Surat

2014-01-01

268

Simulating the Formation of a Sigmoidal Flux Rope in AR10977 from SOHO/MDI Magnetograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling technique of Mackay et al. is applied to simulate the coronal magnetic field of NOAA active region AR10977 over a seven day period (2007 December 2-10). The simulation is driven with a sequence of line-of-sight component magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and evolves the coronal magnetic field though a continuous series of non-linear force-free states. Upon comparison with Hinode/XRT observations, results show that the simulation reproduces many features of the active region's evolution. In particular, it describes the formation of a flux rope across the polarity inversion line during flux cancellation. The flux rope forms at the same location as an observed X-ray sigmoid. After five days of evolution, the free magnetic energy contained within the flux rope was found to be 3.9 × 1030 erg. This value is more than sufficient to account for the B1.4 GOES flare observed from the active region on 2007 December 7. At the time of the observed eruption, the flux rope was found to contain 20% of the active region flux. We conclude that the modeling technique proposed in Mackay et al.—which directly uses observed magnetograms to energize the coronal field—is a viable method to simulate the evolution of the coronal magnetic field.

Gibb, G. P. S.; Mackay, D. H.; Green, L. M.; Meyer, K. A.

2014-02-01

269

Sigmoidal reduction kinetics of the photosystem II acceptor side in intact photosynthetic materials during fluorescence induction.  

PubMed

Illumination of dark-adapted photosynthetic samples leads to fluorescence induction (FI) that can be described by a triphasic O-J-I-P fluorescence rise. Its kinetics follows the accumulation of reduced photosystem II (PSII) acceptors. In isolated thylakoid membranes, FI is often used to study photosynthetic electron transport. A simple quantitative analysis method was recently developed to fit these FI traces and also lead to a better understanding of action sites of artificial electron acceptors. However, a quantitative method was still lacking for FI in intact systems like leaves, where the FI kinetics shows a clear I-peak. Here, we present a new quantitative method to analyze experimental FI traces in leaves and intact chloroplasts. It revealed a sigmoidicity in the reduction kinetics of the PSII acceptor side of intact systems. The results also show that the origin of each phase is independent of the photosynthetic material used. The effects of decyl-plastoquinone on intact chloroplasts retarded predominantly the I-P rise and clearly indicates that this phase is related to the accumulation of a reduce PQ pool, as observed in isolated thylakoid membranes. PMID:19247508

Joly, David; Carpentier, Robert

2009-02-01

270

Formation of a Double-decker Magnetic Flux Rope in the Sigmoidal Solar Active Region 11520  

E-print Network

In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1--0.6 km s$^{-1}$. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field s...

Cheng, X; Zhang, J; Sun, X D; Guo, Y; Wang, Y M; Kliem, B; Deng, Y Y

2014-01-01

271

Recognizing names in biomedical texts using mutual information independence model and SVM plus sigmoid.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a biomedical name recognition system, called PowerBioNE. In order to deal with the special phenomena in the biomedical domain, various evidential features are proposed and integrated through a mutual information independence model (MIIM). In addition, a support vector machine (SVM) plus sigmoid is proposed to resolve the data sparseness problem in the MIIM. In this way, the data sparseness problem in MIIM-based biomedical name recognition can be resolved effectively and a biomedical name recognition system with better performance and better portability can be achieved. Finally, we present two post-processing modules to deal with the nested entity name and abbreviation phenomena in the biomedical domain to further improve the performance. Evaluation shows that our system achieves F-measures of 69.1 and 71.2 on the 23 classes of GENIA V1.1 and V3.0, respectively. In particular, our system achieves an F-measure of 77.8 on the "protein" class of GENIA V3.0. It also shows that our system outperforms the best-reported system on GENIA V1.1 and V3.0. PMID:16112894

Zhou, G D

2006-06-01

272

Primary resection and anastomosis in the management of perforation of diverticulitis of the sigmoid flexure and diffuse peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Twenty-six patients with perforation of sigmoidal diverticulitis and acute diffuse peritonitis were managed surgically by\\u000a onestage and multistaged procedures. Based on comparative results revealed in this study (Table 6), it is believed that primary\\u000a resection and anastomosis should be the procedure of choice in the management of this condition. Occasionally, a proximal\\u000a colostomy may be performed if the integrity of

N. V. Dandekar; W. J. McCann

1969-01-01

273

Long-term effects of neovaginal reconstruction with sigmoid loop technique on sexual function and self image in patients with gynecologic malignancies: Results of a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe evaluated the long-term results of sigmoid vaginoplasty in women with gynecologic malignancies after radical pelvic surgery, with specific focus on safety and effects of the procedure on patients' sexuality and self image.

Christina Fotopoulou; Ulf Neumann; Christine Klapp; Werner Lichtenegger; Jalid Sehouli

2008-01-01

274

Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid. I. A Study by Nonlinear Force-free Field Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.

Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang

2014-01-01

275

Endovascular treatment of two concomitant causes of pulsatile tinnitus: sigmoid sinus stenosis and ipsilateral jugular bulb diverticulum. Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of highly invalidating pulsatile tinnitus associated with both stenosis of the sigmoid sinus and ipsilateral jugular bulb diverticulum. Both conditions were successfully treated by positioning a stent across the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb. To our knowledge, the present clinical case represents the first report of such an approach. The therapeutic decision-making is discussed in relation to the etiopathologic hypothesis put forward. PMID:22065197

Signorelli, Francesco; Mahla, Kalid; Turjman, Francis

2012-01-01

276

An anomalous bifid distal ulna: A case report?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We report a case of an osteochondroma in the form of an anomalous bifid distal ulna following mal-union of an epiphyseal injury. There has been no previous case of this reported in the medical literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 19-year-old man presented with wrist stiffness and complete loss of pronation and supination twelve months after having undergone open reduction and internal fixation for a volarly displaced distal radius fracture. Further investigation with a CT scan showed a bifid distal ulna. As this was not present on plain radiographs one year prior, it was proposed that this was an osteochrondromatous growth caused by injury to the distal ulnar epiphysis. An operation was performed to excise one of the distal ulna heads, and reconstruct the TFCC to allow improved rotational movements. At one year follow-up, the patient has made an almost full recovery without complication. DISCUSSION We postulate that the patient sustained an occult physeal injury resulting in an osteochondromatous lesion that grew towards the joint effectively forming a second ulna head. CONCLUSION This is a unique case of the development of a bifid distal ulna due to physeal injury one year prior. Such a lesion has not previously been described in the distal ulna. PMID:24055912

Jones, C.; Li, H.; Ellahee, N.

2013-01-01

277

Pathways to Colonization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

Smitherman, David V., Jr.

2003-01-01

278

Crohn's disease of the distal ileum.  

PubMed Central

A clinical and statistical analysis has been undertaken in a consecutive series of 227 patients with Crohn's disease involving the distal ileum under long-term review between 1944 and 1978. We have determined the long-term prognosis, cumulative reoperation rates after each resection, mortality rates, and their causes. Actuarial analysis has shown that the reoperation rates are similar after first, second, and third resections. There was no evidence that additional operations increase the risk of yet more resections. Reoperation rates were very little influenced by the age at diagnosis of the underlying Crohn's disease. A short interval from diagnosis of Crohn's disease to the first resection tended to increase the reoperation rate in the short term but there was no overall long-term effect. There was a two-fold increase in mortality risk when compared with the general population. Half the deaths were unrelated to the underlying Crohn's disease and, in this group, the incidence and causes were similar to those expected in the general population matched for age, sex, and years at risk. Of the disease related deaths many occurred in the early years of experience. Only four patients in the series have died of Crohn's disease in the last 10 years. One hundred and ninety-three patients are still alive after a mean interval of 16.1 years from the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Full information is available on 185, of whom 161 are well and symptom free. Seven have minor problems, while 17 are unwell (nine with radiological evidence of recurrent disease). PMID:7450558

Higgens, C S; Allan, R N

1980-01-01

279

Distal clavicular osteolysis: MR evidence for subchondral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis and subchondral fractures of the distal clavicle at MRI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This study was approved by the hospital human research committee, which waived the need for informed consent. Three radiologists\\u000a retrospectively analyzed 36 shoulder MR examinations in 36 patients with imaging findings of distal clavicular osteolysis.\\u000a The presence of a subchondral fracture

Ara Kassarjian; Eva Llopis; William E. Palmer

2007-01-01

280

The Evolution of Distal Radius Fracture Management - A Historical Treatise  

PubMed Central

Distal radius fractures have been a common affliction for millennia, but their treatment is a more recent development as a result of human erudition. While immobilization has served as the only available treatment for most of our history, many advances have been made in the management of distal radius fractures over the last century as the field of orthopedics has grown. Yet, the topic remains hotly contested in the literature, and research continues to focus upon it given the frequency of the injury. In this article, we chronicle the evolution of distal radius fracture treatment in hopes of providing context for the future that lies ahead. PMID:22554653

Diaz-Garcia, Rafael J.; Chung, Kevin C.

2012-01-01

281

An Asian Perspective on the Management of Distal Radius Fractures  

PubMed Central

Synopsis There is little data with regards to the epidemiology, pathology, or management of distal radius fractures from centers in Asia. Asia includes five advanced economies, namely Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and a number of emerging economies prominent among which are China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. This article examines the available epidemiological data from Asia, and compares the management of distal radius fractures in the advanced and emerging Asian economies and how they match up to the current management in the west. It concludes by offering solutions for improving outcomes of distal radius fractures in both the advanced and emerging economies of Asia. PMID:22554658

Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

2012-01-01

282

About Colon Cancer Family Registries  

Cancer.gov

The Colon CFR includes lifestyle, medical history, and family history data collected from more than 41,000 men and women from 14,500 families with and without colorectal cancer. The Colon CFR began recruiting families in 1997, and all participants are followed up every 5 years to update personal and family histories and expand recruitment if new cases have occurred since baseline.

283

Osteopontin and colon cancer progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colon cancer affects nearly 150,000 patients and results in 60,000 deaths in the United States per year. Despite significant advances in the management of the colon cancer patient, little change in survival rates has been appreciated over the past 50 years. The primary cause of death relates to the development of distant metastases to organs such as the liver

Timothy J. Yeatman; Ann F. Chambers

2003-01-01

284

Current Management of Colon Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a comprehensive review of colon trauma from World War I to the present. The process of evidence-based medicine was used to analyze the data from the past 25 years and define standards of care in the field. Where data are less compelling, recommendations and suggestions are provided for future research. Topics highlighted include destructive and nondestructive colon

Robert A. Maxwell; Timothy C. Fabian

2003-01-01

285

Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... film, making a picture of areas inside the body. Surgery : A procedure to remove the tumor and see ... opening) is made on the outside of the body for waste to pass through. This ... Colon cancer surgery with colostomy. Part of the colon containing the ...

286

Anatomically correct deformable colon phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a technique to build a soft-walled colon phantom that provides realistic lumen anatomy in computed tomography (CT) images. The technique begins with the geometry of a human colon measured during CT colonography (CTC). The three-dimensional air-filled colonic lumen is segmented and then replicated using stereolithography (SLA). The rigid SLA model includes large-scale features (e.g., haustral folds and tenia coli bands) down to small-scale features (e.g., a small pedunculated polyp). Since the rigid model represents the internal air-filled volume, a highly-pliable silicone polymer is painted onto the rigid model. This thin layer of silicone, when removed, becomes the colon wall. Small 3 mm diameter glass beads are affixed to the outer wall. These glass beads show up with high intensity in CT scans and provide a ground truth for evaluating performance of algorithms designed to register prone and supine CTC data sets. After curing, the silicone colon wall is peeled off the rigid model. The resulting colon phantom is filled with air and submerged in a water bath. CT images and intraluminal fly-through reconstructions from CTC scans of the colon phantom are compared against patient data to demonstrate the ability of the phantom to simulate a human colon.

Norris, James A.; Barton, Michael D.; Davis, Brynmor J.; Bieszczad, Jerry; Meunier, Norm L.; Brown, Nathan W.; Kynor, David B.

2011-03-01

287

Acute endometrial bowel obstruction—A rare indication for colonic stenting  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Pelvic endometriosis is an extremely rare cause of large bowel obstruction and the management can be challenging. Urgent surgery for acute colonic obstruction is known to carry high morbidity and mortality, and operation may be made more difficult in extensive pelvic endometriosis. Less invasive alternatives in the acute situation may need to be considered. PRESENTATION OF CASE Presented is the case of a 35-year-old lady with obstructive bowel symptoms caused by an endometriotic upper rectal stricture. She was initially treated using radiologically guided stent insertion, as an acute intervention, prior to an elective bowel resection and hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. DISCUSSION Colonic stenting is currently widely used in malignant obstruction. The use of self expanding metallic stents (SEMS) to treat benign conditions is controversial, however, due to associated long term complications. This case demonstrates that stenting can provide a bridge to major surgery in the rare event of acute endometriotic colonic obstruction. The initial acute treatment with stenting provides the advantage of time to involve the multi-disciplinary team, to medically optimise the patient and to better plan the definitive surgery. CONCLUSION The use of radiologically guided stents has a place in the treatment of benign recto-sigmoid obstruction due to endometriosis and therefore should be considered as a bridge to further surgical treatment. PMID:23276756

Whelton, Christopher; Bhowmick, Arnab

2012-01-01

288

IL-22-producing neutrophils contribute to antimicrobial defense and restitution of colonic epithelial integrity during colitis  

PubMed Central

IL-22 plays an important role in mucosal epithelial cell homeostasis. Using a dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse model of acute colitis, we observed an IL-23–dependent up-regulation of IL-22 in the middle and distal colon at the onset of epithelial cell damage. This heightened IL-22 correlated with an influx of innate immune cells, suggesting an important role in colonic epithelial protection. Freshly isolated colon-infiltrating neutrophils produced IL-22 contingent upon IL-23 signaling, and IL-22 production was augmented by TNF-?. Importantly, the depletion of neutrophils resulted in diminished IL-22 levels in the colon, and the transfer of IL-22–competent neutrophils to Il22a-deficient mice protected the colonic epithelium from dextran sodium sulfate-induced damage. In addition, IL-22–producing neutrophils targeted colonic epithelial cells to up-regulate the antimicrobial peptides, RegIII? and S100A8. This study establishes a role for neutrophils in providing IL-22–dependent mucosal epithelial support that contributes to the resolution of colitis. PMID:23781104

Zindl, Carlene L.; Lai, Jen-Feng; Lee, Yun Kyung; Maynard, Craig L.; Harbour, Stacey N.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Chaplin, David D.; Weaver, Casey T.

2013-01-01

289

The phrenic ampulla: distal esophagus or potential hiatal hernia?  

E-print Network

The phrenic ampulla: distal esophagus or potential hiatal hernia? SHEZHANG LIN, JAMES G. BRASSEUR, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 Lin, Shezhang, James G. Brasseur, Philippe Pouder- oux, and Peter J

Brasseur, James G.

290

Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II  

MedlinePLUS

... role in the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction). Heat shock protein beta-1 and heat shock ... atrophy ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; axons ; big toe ; cell ; contraction ; cytoskeleton ; diameter ; distal ; gene ; hereditary ; infection ; inflammation ; inherited ; ...

291

Stress fractures of the distal radius in adolescent gymnasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent girl gymnasts sustained stress fractures of the distal end of the radius in the wrist on which a rotational vault was performed. The history and clinical progress were typical of stress fractures.

M. T. F. Read

1981-01-01

292

Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V  

MedlinePLUS

... indicate that misfolded seipin proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is a structure inside the cell that ... type V? atrophy ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; distal ; endoplasmic reticulum ; enzyme ; gait ; gene ; hereditary ; incidence ; inherited ; motor ; neuropathy ; ...

293

Neonatal physeal separation of distal humerus during cesarean section.  

PubMed

Diagnosing physeal separation of the distal humerus in a newborn can be challenging. Skeletal immaturity and absence of secondary ossification centers make radiographic diagnosis difficult for inexperienced providers. This fracture is seen in the setting of complicated deliveries with excessive traction and rotation applied to the forearm. We report a case of physeal separation of the distal humerus in a newborn as a complication of cesarean section and describe the intervention used and the short-term results. PMID:25379758

Kamaci, Saygin; Danisman, Murat; Marangoz, Salih

2014-11-01

294

A distal airway foreign body removed with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy.  

PubMed

Distal airway foreign bodies can be challenging to remove with a flexible bronchoscope because of angulation or deep impaction. Thoracic surgery may be required if bronchoscopy is not successful. The use of electromagnetic navigation for pulmonary nodule localization and characterization is well established; however, its use to localize and remove distal foreign bodies has not been described. We report the initial case of electromagnetic navigation-assisted foreign body removal. PMID:24739695

Karpman, Craig; Midthun, David E; Mullon, John J

2014-04-01

295

Osteolysis of the distal clavicle in the overhead athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle (AODC) is a painful stress overload syndrome of the distal clavicle. Early AODC research basically concentrated on primary weight-lifters (PWL). A review of the literature shows that this condition has been infrequently described in throwing athletes who were adjunct weight-lifters (AWL). Adjunct weight-lifters train with heavy resistance in addition to their sport-specific conditioning program.

Keith R. Pitchford; Bernard R. Cahill

1997-01-01

296

Distal tibia fractures: management and complications of 101 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal tibia fractures are complex injuries with a high complication rate. In this retrospective and multicentre study we\\u000a attempted to detail complications and outcomes of this type of injury in order to determine predictive factors of poor results.\\u000a Between 2002 and 2004, 104 patients were admitted for 105 distal tibia fractures. One hundred patients (101 fractures) were\\u000a reviewed with an

Pierre Joveniaux; Xavier Ohl; Alain Harisboure; Aboubekr Berrichi; Ludovic Labatut; Patrick Simon; Didier Mainard; Nicolas Vix; Emile Dehoux

2010-01-01

297

Novel DYSF mutations in Thai patients with distal myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysferlinopathy refers to a variety of autosomal recessive, skeletal muscle disorders due to the mutations of dysferlin-encoding gene, DYSF. It encompasses limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B), Miyoshi myopathy (MM), distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT), isolated hyperCKemia, rigid spine syndrome and congenital muscular dystrophy. Herein, we report five Thai patients with distal myopathy due to dysferlinopathy including four

Teerin Liewluck; Sunsanee Pongpakdee; Rawiphan Witoonpanich; Tumtip Sangruchi; Theeraphong Pho-iam; Chanin Limwongse; Wanna Thongnoppakhun; Kanokwan Boonyapisit; Varisa Sopassathit; Suchart Phudhichareonrat; Udom Suthiponpaisan; Natte Raksadawan; Kanako Goto; Yukiko K. Hayashi; Ichizo Nishino

2009-01-01

298

Megaprosthesis versus Condyle-sparing Intercalary Allograft: Distal Femoral Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although functionally appealing in preserving the native knee, the condyle-sparing intercalary allograft of the distal femur\\u000a may be associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and endoprosthetic replacement for malignant distal femoral bone\\u000a tumors. We therefore compared the risk of local tumor recurrence between patients in these two types of reconstruction groups.\\u000a We retrospectively reviewed 85 patients (mean age,

Melissa N. Zimel; Amy M. Cizik; Timothy B. Rapp; Jason S. Weisstein; Ernest U. Conrad III

2009-01-01

299

Distal Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Through Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: to evaluate the results of transluminal angioplasty (PTA) performed through infrainguinal bypass grafts for stenotic or occlusive lesions at the distal anastomosis and\\/or in the runoff arteries. Design: retrospective clinical study. Material and methods: forty-one patients underwent 57 procedures at the distal anastomosis (n=13), in the runoff arteries (n=32) or at both locations (n=12) at a median of 9.6

A.-M Löfberg; S Karacagil; C Ljungman; R Nyman; A Tulga Ulus; A Boström; G Östholm

2002-01-01

300

Prognostic factors following surgical resection of distal bile duct cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prognostic factors for distal bile duct cancer are contentious. This study was conducted to analyze the prognostic factors of distal bile duct cancer after surgery with the aim of identifying those associated with diminished survival. Methods Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) or Whipple procedure in our tertiary hospital from February 1995 to June 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were pathologically proven to have distal bile duct adenocarcinoma. Postoperative complications, survival, and well-known prognostic factors after resection for distal bile duct cancer were investigated. Results Preoperative elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level (P = 0.006), positive resection margin (P < 0.001), advanced T stage (P = 0.043), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) were significantly independent worse prognostic indicators by multivariate analysis of resectable distal bile duct cancer. Conclusion R0 resection is the most important so that frozen sections should be utilized aggressively during each operation. For the distal bile duct cancer with elevated preoperative CA 19-9 level or advanced stage, further study on postoperative adjuvant treatment may be warranted. PMID:24266011

Chung, Young Jae; Choi, Seong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Kim, Dong Hun

2013-01-01

301

Does chronic supplementation of the diet with dietary fibre extracted from pea or carrot affect colonic motility in man?  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess, in healthy volunteers and under physiological conditions, the acceptability, clinical tolerance and effects on colonic motility of chronic supplementation of the usual diet with new dietary fibre sources. Three studies were carried out, one after a period of habitual diet, and two after randomized 3-week periods of supplementation with fibre extracted either from pea hulls or carrots, added to the meals as a fine powder. The 24 h motility was recorded on an unprepared colon at five levels to determine the initiation site and the number of high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) and to quantify motor activity every 30 min, particularly in the two periods following lunch and breakfast. With the habitual diet the motility pattern was an irregular alternation of quiescence and sporadic non-propagated contractions. HAPC always started from the ascending colon and occurred mainly after breakfast. With either type of fibre the 24 h motor profiles, the 24 h variations and the number of HAPC were not significantly modified but a more distal initiation of HAPC was found. The colonic postprandial motor response was more diffuse after dietary enrichment with carrot fibre than after enrichment with pea-hull fibre. In healthy volunteers the long-term addition of fibre extracted from pea hulls and carrots to the usual diet was easy and well-tolerated without clinical side-effects, but with limited colonic motor effects. However, the more distal initiation of HAPC observed could be deleterious. PMID:8774216

Guédon, C; Ducrotté, P; Antoine, J M; Denis, P; Colin, R; Lerebours, E

1996-07-01

302

Berberine inhibition of electrogenic ion transport in rat colon.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of the alkaloid berberine on basal and stimulated ion transport were investigated in voltage-clamped rat colonic epithelia. 2. Berberine (100-500 microM) reduced basal short circuit current (SCC) when applied basolaterally but not when applied apically. 3. SCC responses to mast cell activation by anti-rat IgE were significantly attenuated in the presence of berberine. 4. Berberine, applied to the basolateral bathing solution, also reduced SCC responses to the following agents which stimulate chloride secretion in rat colon: carbachol, forskolin, sodium nitroprusside, dibutyryl cyclic-AMP, heat-stable E. coli enterotoxin, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP and thapsigargin. Calcium mediated ion transport responses appear to be more sensitive to berberine inhibition than those which are cyclic GMP-mediated, which in turn are more sensitive than cyclic AMP-mediated responses. 5. Berberine added apically was without effect upon forskolin-stimulated ion transport. Cytochalasin D treatment of the lumenal surface of rat colon conferred apical-side sensitivity to berberine. 6. Berberine (at concentrations up to 500 microM) was without effect on generation of cyclic AMP by forskolin or on generation of cyclic GMP by sodium nitroprusside in isolated mucosal segments. Protein kinase A activity stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP was unaffected by berberine (at concentrations up to 500 microM). 7. The precise mechanism of action of berberine remains to be elucidated. However, its site of action appears to be distal to second messenger production and may be at a level common to all stimuli of colonic chloride secretion. PMID:8590987

Taylor, C. T.; Baird, A. W.

1995-01-01

303

The distal residue-CO interaction in carbonmonoxy myoglobins: a molecular dynamics study of two distal histidine tautomers.  

PubMed Central

Four independent 90 ps molecular dynamics simulations of sperm-whale wild-type carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO) have been calculated using a new AMBER force field for the haem prosthetic group. Two trajectories have the distal 64N delta nitrogen protonated, and two have the 64N epsilon nitrogen protonated; all water molecules within 16 A of the carbonyl O are included. In three trajectories, the distal residue remains part of the haem pocket, with the protonated distal nitrogen pointing into the active site. This is in contrast with the neutron diffraction crystal structure, but is consistent with the solution phase CO stretching frequencies (upsilon CO) of MbCO and various of its mutants. There are significant differences in the "closed" pocket structures found for each tautomer: the 64N epsilon H trajectories both show stable distal-CO interactions, whereas the 64N delta H tautomer) has a weaker interaction resulting in a more mobile distal side chain. One trajectory (a 64N delta H tautomer) has the distal histidine moving out into the "solvent", leaving the pocket in an "open" structure, with a large unhindered entrance to the active site. These trajectories suggest that the three upsilon CO frequencies observed for wild-type MbCO in solution, rather than representing significantly different Fe-C-O geometries as such, arise from three different haem pocket structures, each with different electric fields at the ligand. Each pocket structure corresponds to a different distal histidine conformer: the A3 band to the 64N epsilon H tautomer, the A1,2 band to the 64N delta H tautomer, and the A0 band to the absence of any significant interaction with the distal side chain. PMID:7696465

Jewsbury, P; Kitagawa, T

1994-01-01

304

Influence of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus) juice on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus) juice on colon tumorogenesis were investigated. Eight weeks old Balb-C male mice received subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks. Both the sham control (group 1) and the DMH control (group 2) groups received drinking water alone, whereas the mice of groups 3 and 4 received gilaburu juice for 30 weeks (started with first DMH injection) and for 18 weeks (started after last DMH injection), respectively. Eighteen weeks after the last DMH injection, all mice were killed and the histogenesis of colon tumors was investigated from the paraffin-embedded sections of colon, which were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The sites and incidences of tumoral lesions (low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, intramucosal carcinoma and invasive carcinoma) were analyzed and compared with control. The results showed that the body weights of the mice were similar in all the groups. No tumoral lesions were found in group 1. Colon tumors developed in all DMH-treated mice (groups 2, 3 and 4). In these groups, the greatest numbers of tumor lesions were detected in the distal colon, followed by the mid-colon and only a few in the proximal colon. There was a reduction in the mean total number of tumor lesion in groups 3 (8.5) and 4 (8.3), when compared to group 2 (11.3). The incidence of invasive carcinoma in group 3 was significantly lower than group 2 (p < 0.05). On the basis of these results, we conclude that gilaburu juice may be useful for the prevention of colon cancer at the initiation stage. PMID:22546843

Ulger, Harun; Ertekin, Tolga; Karaca, Omur; Canoz, Ozlem; Nisari, Mehtap; Unur, Erdo?an; Elmal?, Ferhan

2013-10-01

305

Minus-Lens-Stimulated Accommodative Amplitude Decreases Sigmoidally with Age: A Study of Objectively Measured Accommodative Amplitudes from Age 3  

PubMed Central

Purpose Guidelines for predicting accommodative amplitude by age are often based on subjective push-up test data that overestimate the accommodative response. Studies in which objective measurements were used have defined expected amplitudes for adults, but expected amplitudes for children remain unknown. In this study, objective methods were used to measure accommodative amplitude in a wide age range of individuals, to define the relationship of amplitude and age from age 3. Methods Accommodative responses were measured in 140 subjects aged 3 to 40 years. Measurements were taken with the Grand Seiko autorefractor (RyuSyo Industrial Co., Ltd., Kagawa, Japan) as the subjects viewed a high-contrast target at 33 cm through minus lenses of increasing power until the responses showed no further increase in accommodation. Results The maximum accommodative amplitude of each subject was plotted by age, and a curvilinear function fit to the data: y = 7.33 ? 0.0035(age ? 3)2 (P < 0.001). Tangent analysis of the fit indicated that the accommodative amplitude remained relatively stable until age 20. Data from this study were then pooled with objective amplitudes from previous studies of adults up to age 70. A sigmoidal function was fit to the data: y = 7.083/(1 + e[0.2031(age-36.2)?0.6109]) (P < 0.001). The sigmoidal function indicated relatively stable amplitudes below age 20 years, a rapid linear decline between 20 and 50 years, and a taper to 0 beyond 50 years. Conclusions These data indicate that accommodative amplitude decreases in a curvilinear manner from 3 to 40 years. When combined with data from previous studies, a sigmoidal function describes the overall trend throughout life with the biggest decrease occurring between 20 and 50 years. PMID:18326693

Anderson, Heather A.; Hentz, Gloria; Glasser, Adrian; Stuebing, Karla K.; Manny, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

306

Fall/Winter CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER?  

E-print Network

TRADITIONS Fall/Winter 2005 #12;CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER? PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. Introducing the Colon C ancer Prevention Program at UConn Health C enter IT'S TRUE: C OLON CANCER MAY BE PREVENTED colon cancer prevention pl an sta rts w ith a phone call to the new Colon C an cer Prevention P r ogr am

Holsinger, Kent

307

OCCUPATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FOR CANCER OF THE COLON AND RECTUM IN SWEDEN AMONG MEN AND WOMEN BY ANATOMIC SUB-SITE  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The inverse association between physical activity and colon cancer is well established, at least in men. We investigated the association of occupational physical activity with subsite- specific colorectal cancer risk. METHODS Based on occupational titles from the Swedish nationwide censuses in 1960 and 1970, we defined a cohort of women and men with the same work-related physical demands in 1960 and 1970. The incidence of colon and rectum cancer during 1971–1989 was ascertained through linkages to the Cancer Register. Relative risks were estimated through Poisson regression. RESULTS The risk for colon cancer increased with decreasing occupational physical activity. RR among sedentary women and men was 1.2 and 1.3 (p for trend=0.08 and <0.001). For men, the risks for proximal and distal colon increased by 20% and 40% (p for trend=0.005 and <0.001). Inactivity appeared to be particularly associated with descending colon cancer (RR =2.4, p for trend<0.001). In women the inverse association with activity was concentrated to proximal parts of colon; RR for cancer in the proximal and transverse colon among sedentary women was 1.4 and 2.0 (p for trend <0.07 and <0.01). Cancer of the rectum was not associated with activity in either sex. CONCLUSION We confirmed the well known inverse relationship between activity and risk of colon but not rectal cancer in both sexes. Data suggest that the physical activity-related variation in risk among women is greatest in the proximal and middle parts of colon, while the corresponding peak in men seems to be more distal. Gender specific anatomical and motility differences of the colon might contribute to this sub-site difference. PMID:18414190

Moradi, Tahereh; Gridley, Gloria; Bjork, Jan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Ji, Bu-Tian; Berkel, Hans J.; Lemeshow, Stanley

2010-01-01

308

An Improved Electronic Colon Cleansing Method for Detection of Colonic Polyps by Virtual Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) aims to segment the colon lumen from a patient abdominal image acquired using an oral contrast agent for colonic material tagging, so that a virtual colon model can be constructed. Virtual colonoscopy (VC) provides fly-through navigation within the colon model, looking for polyps on the inner surface in a manner analogous to that of fiber optic

Zigang Wang; Zhengrong Liang; Xiang Li; Lihong Li; Bin Li; Daria Eremina; Hongbing Lu

2006-01-01

309

Magnesium transport in the renal distal convoluted tubule.  

PubMed

The distal tubule reabsorbs approximately 10% of the filtered Mg(2+), but this is 70-80% of that delivered from the loop of Henle. Because there is little Mg(2+) reabsorption beyond the distal tubule, this segment plays an important role in determining the final urinary excretion. The distal convoluted segment (DCT) is characterized by a negative luminal voltage and high intercellular resistance so that Mg(2+) reabsorption is transcellular and active. This review discusses recent evidence for selective and sensitive control of Mg(2+) transport in the DCT and emphasizes the importance of this control in normal and abnormal renal Mg(2+) conservation. Normally, Mg(2+) absorption is load dependent in the distal tubule, whether delivery is altered by increasing luminal Mg(2+) concentration or increasing the flow rate into the DCT. With the use of microfluorescent studies with an established mouse distal convoluted tubule (MDCT) cell line, it was shown that Mg(2+) uptake was concentration and voltage dependent. Peptide hormones such as parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, glucagon, and arginine vasopressin enhance Mg(2+) absorption in the distal tubule and stimulate Mg(2+) uptake into MDCT cells. Prostaglandin E(2) and isoproterenol increase Mg(2+) entry into MDCT cells. The current evidence indicates that cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C signaling pathways are involved in these responses. Steroid hormones have significant effects on distal Mg(2+) transport. Aldosterone does not alter basal Mg(2+) uptake but potentiates hormone-stimulated Mg(2+) entry in MDCT cells by increasing hormone-mediated cAMP formation. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3), on the other hand, stimulates basal Mg(2+) uptake. Elevation of plasma Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) inhibits hormone-stimulated cAMP accumulation and Mg(2+) uptake in MDCT cells through activation of extracellular Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-sensing mechanisms. Mg(2+) restriction selectively increases Mg(2+) uptake with no effect on Ca(2+) absorption. This intrinsic cellular adaptation provides the sensitive and selective control of distal Mg(2+) transport. The distally acting diuretics amiloride and chlorothiazide stimulate Mg(2+) uptake in MDCT cells acting through changes in membrane voltage. A number of familial and acquired disorders have been described that emphasize the diversity of cellular controls affecting renal Mg(2+) balance. Although it is clear that many influences affect Mg(2+) transport within the DCT, the transport processes have not been identified. PMID:11152754

Dai, L J; Ritchie, G; Kerstan, D; Kang, H S; Cole, D E; Quamme, G A

2001-01-01

310

Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Most part of impact ejecta is deposited ballistically at some distance from a crater, defined by ejection velocity V and ejection angle ?: d=v2sin?/g. In case of giant impacts, planetary curvature should be taken into account [1]. Combined with ejecta scaling [2], these relations allow to define ejecta thickness as a function of distance. Ejecta from large craters are deposited at velocity high enough to mobilize substrate material and to thicken ejecta deposits [3]. Ballistic approximation is valid for airless bodies (if impact vaporization is not vast) or for proximal ejecta of large impact craters, where ejecta mass per unit area is substantially greater than the mass of involved vapor/atmosphere (M-ratio). Deposition of distal ejecta, in which ejecta mass is negligible compared to the atmosphere, may be also treated in a simplified manner, i.e. as 1) passive motion of ejected particles within an impact plume and 2) later, as sedimentation of particles in undisturbed atmosphere (equilibrium between gravity and drag). In all intermediate M-ratio values, impact ejecta move like a surge, i.e. dilute suspension current in which particles are carried in turbulent flows under the influence of gravity. Surges are well-known for near-surface explosive tests, described in detail for volcanic explosions (Plinian column collapse, phreato-magmatic eruption, lateral blast), and found in ejecta from the Chicxulub [4] and the Ries [5]. Important aspects of surge transport include its ability to deposit ejecta over a larger area than that typical of continuous ballistic ejecta and to create multiple ejecta layers. Numerical model Two-phase hydrodynamics. Surges should be modeled in the frame of two-phase hydrodynamics, i.e. interaction between solid/molten particles and atmospheric gas/impact vapor should be taken into account. There are two techniques of solving equations for dust particle motion in a gas flow. The first one describes solid/molten particles as a liquid with specific properties, i.e. finite-difference equations are the same as in standard hydrodynamics [6-8]. Another approach is based on solving equations of motion for representative particles [9]. Each of these markers describes the motion of a large number of real particles with similar sizes, velocities, and trajectories. Equation of motion (gravity, viscosity, and drag) is solved for every marker and then exchange of momentum, heat and energy with surrounding vaporair mixture is taken into account. This approach is used in the SOVA code [10] and allows to vary particle sizes within a broad range (from a few m to a few microns). Implicit procedure of velocity update allows a larger time step. The substantial advantage of the model is its three-dimensional geometry, allowing modeling of asymmetric deposits of oblique impact ejecta. Turbulent diffusion is taken into account in a simplified manner [6]. Fragments size-frequency distribution (SFD) may be of crucial importance: while large fragments move ballistically, the smallest ones are passively involved in gas motion. Ejected material is usually transformed into particles under tension. The initial particle velocity is given by the hydrodynamic velocity, but the object's initial position within the cell is randomly defined. The SFD of solid fragments in high velocity impacts has been studied experimentally [2,11], numerically [12,13], and has been derived from the lunar and terrestrial crater observations [14,15]. Various approaches may be used to implement fragment size in a dynamic model: in Grady-Kipp model the average fragment size is defined by strain rate [12]; alternatively, average ejection velocity [16] or maximum shock compression [17] may be used. All methods may be verified through comparison with known data. Volcanic direct blast. Numerical modeling of pyroclastic flows, checked against recent observations and young deposits, may be then a useful instrument for reconstruction of terrestrial craters' ejecta, which are mostly eroded or buried; and for impact ejecta study on other planets

Artemieva, N.

2008-09-01

311

The evaluation and management of failed distal clavicle excision.  

PubMed

Excision of the distal clavicle (DCE) is a commonly carried out surgical procedure used in the management of acromioclavicular joint pathology. Although successful outcomes after both open and arthroscopic distal clavicle excision occur in a high percentage of patients, treatment failures have been reported, creating a difficult clinical scenario for the treating orthopedic surgeon. The most common mode of failure after DCE is persistent pain and potential etiologies include under-resection, over-resection leading to joint instability, postoperative stiffness, heterotopic ossification, untreated concomitant shoulder pathology, and postoperative infection. Less common causes of failure include distal clavicle fracture, reossification or fusion across the acromioclavicular joint, suprascapular neuropathy, and psychiatric illness. Persistent symptoms and disability after distal clavicle excision require a careful assessment of these potential causes of treatment failure and the formulation of a treatment plan, which may include conservative care, revision surgery, or coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. Although careful patient selection, preoperative planning, proper surgical technique, and appropriate rehabilitation during the index procedure can minimize the likelihood of poor outcome, this paper reviews the work-up and management of cases of failed distal clavicle excision. PMID:20711054

Strauss, Eric J; Barker, Joseph U; McGill, Kevin; Verma, Nikhil N

2010-09-01

312

Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p less than 0.02) and in the collagen content (p less than 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation.

Winsey, K.; Simon, R.J.; Levenson, S.M.; Seifter, E.; Demetriou, A.A.

1987-02-01

313

Colonization and bioherbicidal activity on green foxtail by Pseudomonas fluorescens BRG100 in a pesta formulation.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens BRG100 produces secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity on green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ), an important weed pest in Canadian agriculture. Five gfp transformants of P. fluorescens BRG100 were compared with the wild-type isolate for green foxtail root herbicide activity, i.e., root growth suppression, doubling time, carbon utilization, and colonization of green foxtail root (proximal and distal regions). The most revealing comparison between the wild type and its gfp transformants was herbicidal activity on green foxtail. Herbicidal activity of transformant gfp-7 was not significantly different from the uninoculated control, suggesting that insertion of the gfp gene may have interfered with a gene, or genes, vital to the bioherbicide process. Doubling time, carbon utilization, and colonization of green foxtail did not differ to a great extent between the wild type and the gfp transformants, indicating their suitability as conservatively tagged organisms for subsequent colonization-herbicidal activity studies. Accordingly, a pesta granule formulation delivered transformant gfp-2 to the seed coat and roots of green foxtail. Epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the transformant gfp-2 colonized the ventral portion of the seed coat, root hairs, and all areas of the root except the root cap region, where gfp-2 presumably exerted herbicidal effects. These results suggest that P. fluorescens BRG100 has considerable potential as a bioherbicide because of its successful colonization and suppressive activity on green foxtail root growth. PMID:22188391

Caldwell, Caressa J; Hynes, Russell K; Boyetchko, Susan M; Korber, Darren R

2012-01-01

314

Application of a wire-guided side-viewing duodenoscope in total esophagectomy with colonic interposition  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the mainstay treatment for bile duct disease. The procedure is difficult per se, especially when a side-viewing duodenoscope is used, and when the patient has altered anatomical features, such as colonic interposition. Currently, there is no consensus on the standard approach for therapeutic ERCP in patients with total esophagectomy and colonic interposition. We describe a novel treatment design that involves the use of a side-viewing duodenoscope to perform therapeutic ERCP in patients with total esophagectomy and colonic interposition. A gastroscope was initially introduced into the interposed colon and a radio-opaque standard guidewire was advanced to a distance beyond the papilla of Vater, before the gastroscope was withdrawn. A side-viewing duodenoscope was then introduced along the guidewire under fluoroscopic guidance. After cannulation into the papilla of Vater, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) revealed a filling defect (maximum diameter: 15 cm) at the distal portion of the common bile duct (CBD). This defect was determined to be a stone, which was successfully retrieved by a Dormia basket after complete sphincterotomy. With this treatment design, it is possible to perform therapeutic ERCP in patients with colonic interposition, thereby precluding the need for percutaneous drainage or surgery. PMID:21483642

Yii, Chin-Yuan; Chou, Jen-Wei; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wai-Keung

2011-01-01

315

Therapeutic experience with primary liposarcoma from the sigmoid mesocolon accompanied with well-differentiated liposarcomas in the pelvis.  

PubMed

Multifocal liposarcoma with different histological types is rare, especially that originating from the mesentery. We herein report a case of primary myxoid liposarcoma from the sigmoid mesocolon that was accompanied with well-differentiated liposarcomas in the pelvis. The location, the fat signal and the relationship with adjacent organs of the liposarcomas were well shown in the axial, coronal and sagittal dimensions of MRI, giving a comprehensive and specific image before surgery. To alleviate the patient's symptoms and mental stress, a laparotomy was performed. The tumors were all completely excised with macroscopic free margins. The final histopathological report showed that the tumor in the sigmoid mesocolon was a pure myxoid liposarcoma, while the pelvic tumors were spindle cell liposarcomas, a special type of well-differentiated liposarcoma. According to the AJCC staging system, they were all stage IIB. No further adjuvant therapy was performed. Close follow-up after the surgery has been performed, and the patient has remained healthy without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis for 17 months after the surgery. PMID:24829099

Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Shiyao; Fu, Ligong; Shi, Jingli; Yin, Mujun; Ye, Yingjiang; Wang, Shan

2014-10-01

316

THE CONTRACTION OF OVERLYING CORONAL LOOP AND THE ROTATING MOTION OF A SIGMOID FILAMENT DURING ITS ERUPTION  

SciTech Connect

We present an observation of overlying coronal loop contraction and rotating motion of the sigmoid filament during its eruption on 2012 May 22 observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our results show that the twist can be transported into the filament from the lower atmosphere to the higher atmosphere. The successive contraction of the coronal loops was due to a suddenly reduced magnetic pressure underneath the filament, which was caused by the rising of the filament. Before the sigmoid filament eruption, there was a counterclockwise flow in the photosphere at the right feet of the filament and the contraction loops and a convergence flow at the left foot of the filament. The hot and cool materials have inverse motion along the filament before the filament eruption. Moreover, two coronal loops overlying the filament first experienced brightening, expansion, and contraction successively. At the beginning of the rising and rotation of the left part of the filament, the second coronal loop exhibited rapid contraction. The top of the second coronal loop also showed counterclockwise rotation during the contraction process. After the contraction of the second loop, the left part of the filament rotated counterclockwise and expanded toward the right of NOAA AR 11485. During the filament expansion, the right part of the filament also exhibited counterclockwise rotation like a tornado.

Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Xue, Z. K.; Deng, L. H.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Pan, G. M. [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Liu, J. H. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2013-06-15

317

Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina  

SciTech Connect

Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.

Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Ruas, E.; Fiorica, J.V.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

1991-05-01

318

Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in primary afferent pathway regulates colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization in rat  

PubMed Central

Background In humans, inflammation of either the urinary bladder or the distal colon often results in sensory cross-sensitization between these organs. Limited information is known about the mechanisms underlying this clinical syndrome. Studies with animal models have demonstrated that activation of primary afferent pathways may have a role in mediating viscero-visceral cross-organ sensitization. Methods Colonic inflammation was induced by a single dose of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) instilled intracolonically. The histology of the colon and the urinary bladder was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. The protein expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and/or western blot. The inter-micturition intervals and the quantity of urine voided were obtained from analysis of cystometrograms. Results At 3 days post TNBS treatment, the protein level of TRPV1 was increased by 2-fold (p < 0.05) in the inflamed distal colon when examined with western blot. TRPV1 was mainly expressed in the axonal terminals in submucosal area of the distal colon, and was co-localized with the neural marker PGP9.5. In sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), BDNF expression was augmented by colonic inflammation examined in the L1 DRG, and was expressed in TRPV1 positive neurons. The elevated level of BDNF in L1 DRG by colonic inflammation was blunted by prolonged pre-treatment of the animals with the neurotoxin resiniferatoxin (RTX). Colonic inflammation did not alter either the morphology of the urinary bladder or the expression level of TRPV1 in this viscus. However, colonic inflammation decreased the inter-micturition intervals and decreased the quantities of urine voided. The increased bladder activity by colonic inflammation was attenuated by prolonged intraluminal treatment with RTX or treatment with intrathecal BDNF neutralizing antibody. Conclusion Acute colonic inflammation increases bladder activity without affecting bladder morphology. Primary afferent-mediated BDNF up-regulation in the sensory neurons regulates, at least in part, the bladder activity during colonic inflammation. PMID:22335898

2012-01-01

319

The retroperitoneal, inguinal approach to distal part of the ureter  

PubMed Central

Introduction The inguinal approach to the distal part of the ureter allows the surgeon to perform various types of procedures and is considered to be one of the minimally invasive techniques in pediatric surgery. We aim to describe our initial experience with the surgery of the distal ureter performed through an inguinal mini–incision. Material and methods Between March 2012 and June 2013, 8 patients were treated using a minimally invasive inguinal technique. The indications for surgical correction were single system primary obstructive megaureter, obstructive megaureter of the upper pole in a duplex kidney and distal ureteral stones. In all patients with single system obstructive megaureter and significant hydronephrosis, ureterocutaneostomy was performed. In one patient with duplex system primary obstructive megaureter and significant hydronephrosis of the upper pole, ureteroureterostomy of the dilated ureter to the normal caliber ureter in the distal part was performed. In the second patient with duplex system primary obstructive megaureter and reduced marker excretion of the upper pole in renal scintigraphy, ureterocutaneostomy was performed. In both cases of distal ureteral stones, deposits were removed by a simple incision. Results We did not observe any perioperative or postoperative complications. The imaging studies have shown that ureteral dilatation decreased in all but one child in whom the upper pole and the ureter were resected due to lack of function. Conclusions The inguinal approach allows for the adequate visualization of the distal ureter, creating the conditions for implementation of the various procedures, reduces the risk of retrovesical plexus injury and minimizes visible scars. PMID:24982797

Urbanowicz, Wies?aw; Sulis?awski, Janusz; Dobrowolska–glazar, Barbara

2014-01-01

320

Mitochondrial dysfunction in distal axons contribute to HIV sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage has been associated with aging and abnormal oxidative metabolism. We hypothesized that in human immunodeficiency virus associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN), damaged mtDNA accumulates in distal nerve segments and that a spatial pattern of mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the distal degeneration of sensory nerve fibers. Methods We measured levels of common deletion mutations in mtDNA and expression levels of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes of matched proximal and distal nerve specimens from patients with and without HIV-SN. In mitochondria isolated from peripheral nerves of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected macaques, a model of HIV-SN, we measured mitochondrial function and generation of reactive oxygen species. Results We identified increased levels of mtDNA common deletion mutation in post-mortem sural nerves of patients with HIV-SN as compared to uninfected patients or HIV patients without sensory neuropathy. Furthermore, we found that common deletion mutation in mtDNA was more prevalent in distal sural nerves compared to dorsal root ganglia. In a primate model of HIV-SN, freshly isolated mitochondria from sural nerves of macaques infected with a neurovirulent strain of SIV showed impaired mitochondrial function compared to mitochondria from proximal nerve segments. Interpretation Our findings suggest that mtDNA damage accumulates in distal mitochondria of long axons, especially in patients with HIV-SN, and that this may lead to reduced mitochondrial function in distal nerves relative to proximal segments. Although our findings are based on HIV-SN, if confirmed in other neuropathies, these observations could explain the length-dependent nature of most axonal peripheral neuropathies. PMID:21280080

Lehmann, Helmar C.; Chen, Weiran; Borzan, Jasenka; Mankowski, Joseph; Hoke, Ahmet

2010-01-01

321

Laparoscopic left colon resection for diverticular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease. Methods: All patients presenting with acute or chronic diverticulitis, obstruction, abscess, or fistula were included. Symptomatic diverticular disease was the main surgical indication (95%). Results: Between March 1992 and August 1999 170 consecutive patients underwent surgery. Of these, 21 patients (12%) had

G. Trebuchet; D. Lechaux; J. L. Lecalve

2002-01-01

322

Mucosal potassium efflux mediated via Kcnn4 channels provides the driving force for electrogenic anion secretion in colon  

PubMed Central

Intermediate conductance K+ (Kcnn4) channels are present in both mucosal and serosal membranes of colon. However, only serosal Kcnn4 channels have been shown to be essential for agonist-induced (cAMP and Ca2+) anion secretion. The present study sought to determine whether mucosal Kcnn4 channels also play a role in colonic anion secretion. Mucosal-to-serosal and serosal-to-mucosal unidirectional 86Rb (K+ surrogate) fluxes as well as short-circuit current (Isc; a measure of anion secretion) were measured under voltage-clamp conditions in distal colon from rats fed either a standard or K+-free diet. 5,6-Dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-one (DC-EBIO) was used to activate Kcnn4 channels. Mucosal DC-EBIO both induced K+ secretion and enhanced anion secretion in normal rat distal colon. The DC-EBIO-induced K+ secretion was completely blocked by nonspecific (Ba2+) and Kcnn4-specific (TRAM-34) inhibitors, but was not blocked by the large-conductance K+ (iberiotoxin), small-conductance K+ (apamin), or KCNQ1 (chromanol 293B) specific blockers. Ba2+ and TRAM-34 also inhibited DC-EBIO-enhanced anion secretion. The DC-EBIO-enhanced anion secretion was completely inhibited by the nonspecific anion channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino)benzoic acid, whereas it was only partially inhibited by CFTR [CFTRinh-172, glibenclamide]- and CaCC (niflumic acid)-specific Cl? channel blockers. In contrast, mucosal DC-EBIO-enhanced K+ and anion secretion was not present in distal colon of dietary K-depleted rats, indicating absence of mucosal Kcnn4 channels. These observations indicate that mucosal Kcnn4 channels are capable of driving agonist-induced anion secretion mediated via CFTR and CaCC and likely contribute to stool K+ losses that accompany diarrheal illnesses. PMID:20616305

Nanda Kumar, N. S.; Singh, Satish K.

2010-01-01

323

Distal protection devices during percutaneous coronary and carotid interventions.  

PubMed

Distal embolization of particulate matter complicates percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions more often than had been recognized until recently. A number of distal protection devices are under development. The PercuSurge GuardWiretrade mark is a balloon occlusion thrombectomy device approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for saphenous vein graft intervention. A number of filter devices utilize an expandable filter mounted on the angioplasty guidewire to facilitate entrapment of particles and safe removal. The Parodi Anti-Emboli Systemtrade mark is an example of a catheter occlusion device that establishes protection by reversing blood flow in the target vessel. PMID:11806815

Fasseas, Panayotis; Orford, James L; Denktas, Ali E; Berger, Peter B

2001-01-01

324

Distal protection devices during percutaneous coronary and carotid interventions  

PubMed Central

Distal embolization of particulate matter complicates percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions more often than had been recognized until recently. A number of distal protection devices are under development. The PercuSurge GuardWire™ is a balloon occlusion thrombectomy device approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for saphenous vein graft intervention. A number of filter devices utilize an expandable filter mounted on the angioplasty guidewire to facilitate entrapment of particles and safe removal. The Parodi Anti-Emboli System™ is an example of a catheter occlusion device that establishes protection by reversing blood flow in the target vessel. PMID:11806815

Fasseas, Panayotis; Orford, James L; Denktas, Ali E; Berger, Peter B

2001-01-01

325

Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid  

PubMed Central

Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction). The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization. PMID:21430877

Garg, Bhavuk; Gupta, Himanshu; Kotwal, Prakash P

2011-01-01

326

Magnolol inhibits colonic motility through down-regulation of voltage-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels of colonic smooth muscle cells in rats.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnolol (5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-biphenyldiol) on contraction in distal colonic segments of rats and the underlying mechanisms. Colonic segments were mounted in organ baths for isometric force measurement. Whole-cell voltage-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) currents were recorded on isolated single colonic smooth muscle cells using patch-clamp technique. The spontaneous contractions and acetylcholine (ACh)- and Bay K 8644-induced contractions were inhibited by magnolol (3-100 ?M). In the presence of Bay K8644 (100 nM), magnolol (10-100 ?M) inhibited the contraction induced by 10 ?M ACh. By contrast, tetrodotoxin (100 nM) and N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 100 ?M) did not change the inhibitory effect of magnolol (10 ?M). In addition, magnolol (3-100 ?M) inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) currents. The present results suggest that magnolol inhibits colonic smooth muscle contraction through downregulating L-type Ca(2+) channel activity. PMID:23972358

Zhang, Man; Zang, Kai-Hong; Luo, Jia-Lie; Leung, Fung-Ping; Huang, Yu; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph Jao-yiu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

2013-11-15

327

Method for prolonged ambulatory monitoring of high-amplitude propagated contractions from colon.  

PubMed

This study monitored high-amplitude propagated contractions (HAPCs) in ambulating subjects over a 24-h period using a new ambulatory recording system. Twelve healthy volunteers aged 34 +/- 5.96 yr participated. Approximately 12 h after a Colyte bowel prep, a small catheter (OD less than 3 mm), containing three solid-state pressure transducers spaced 5 cm apart, was positioned by flexible sigmoidoscope at 40-50 cm from the anal verge. A battery-operated data recorder sampled the pressure at each port at 1 Hz and stored the values on all ports if any port exceeded 75 mmHg. At the conclusion of the 24-h period, an X-ray was taken to confirm the location of the catheter. Fifty-four percent of all HAPCs preceded a bowel movement by less than or equal to 1 h. Forty-nine percent of all HAPCs occurred within 1 h after a high-fat meal, and 33% occurred within 1 h of morning awakening. Reverse propagated waves, not previously described in the colon, were observed in three individuals. Spontaneous high-amplitude caudally propagated contractions occur 6.9 +/- 1.5 times/24 h in the sigmoid colon in ambulating asymptomatic individuals and are temporally related to defecation and meals. Peristaltic activity is decreased during sleep. This recording technique was reliable and well tolerated in all participants. PMID:1872396

Crowell, M D; Bassotti, G; Cheskin, L J; Schuster, M M; Whitehead, W E

1991-08-01

328

Colonic motility in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory conditions affecting the gut may cause motility disturbances, and ulcerative colitis – one of the main disorders among the inflammatory bowel diseases – may display abnormal colonic motility. Aim To review the abnormalities of the large bowel in ulcerative colitis, by considering the motility, laboratory (in vitro) and pathological studies dealing with this topic. Methods A comprehensive online search of Medline and the Science Citation Index was carried out. Results Patients with ulcerative colitis frequently display colonic motor abnormalities, including lack of contractility, an increase of propulsive contractile waves, an excessive production of nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide nerves, interleukin 1 beta, neurotensin, tachykinins levels and the weaker action of substance P, likely related to a neuromuscular dysfunction due to the inflammatory process. Conclusions A better understanding of the pathophysiological grounds of altered colonic motility in ulcerative colitis may lead to a more in-depth knowledge of the accompanying symptoms and to better and more targeted therapeutic approaches.

Antonelli, Elisabetta; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Baldoni, Monia; Dore, Maria Pina

2014-01-01

329

Autosomal dominant distal myopathy: Linkage to chromosome 14  

SciTech Connect

We have studied a family segregating a form of autosomal dominant distal myopathy (MIM 160500) and containing nine living affected individuals. The myopathy in this family is closest in clinical phenotype to that first described by Gowers in 1902. A search for linkage was conducted using microsatellite, VNTR, and RFLP markers. In total, 92 markers on all 22 autosomes were run. Positive linkage was obtained with 14 of 15 markers tested on chromosome 14, with little indication of linkage elsewhere in the genome. Maximum two-point LOD scores of 2.60 at recombination fraction .00 were obtained for the markers MYH7 and D14S64 - the family structure precludes a two-point LOD score {ge} 3. Recombinations with D14S72 and D14S49 indicate that this distal myopathy locus, MPD1, should lie between these markers. A multipoint analysis assuming 100% penetrance and using the markers D14S72, D14S50, MYH7, D14S64, D14S54, and D14S49 gave a LOD score of exactly 3 at MYH7. Analysis at a penetrance of 80% gave a LOD score of 2.8 at this marker. This probable localization of a gene for distal myopathy, MPD1, on chromosome 14 should allow other investigators studying distal myopathy families to test this region for linkage in other types of the disease, to confirm linkage or to demonstrate the likely genetic heterogeneity. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laing, N.G.; Laing, B.A.; Wilton, S.D.; Dorosz, S.; Mastaglia, F.L.; Kakulas, B.A. [Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, Perth (Australia); Robbins, P.; Meredith, C.; Honeyman, K.; Kozman, H.

1995-02-01

330

The effectiveness of distal soft tissue procedures in hallux valgus  

PubMed Central

Background Hallux valgus is a common disorder affecting mostly women population. Distal soft tissue procedure in the treatment of hallux valgus is one of the main operative techniques described. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure in hallux valgus cases. Materials and methods This study includes 30 patients (27 women) having 31 hallux valgus, who were treated between 1999 and 2004. Modified McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure was carried out in all cases. Pain status of the cases was recorded by using VAS, clinical assessment described by Bonney and Macnab, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society’s (AOFAS) score at the last follow up. Results The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles decreased from 31.4° and 13.8° to 13.5° and 10.5°, respectively, with an average follow-up period of 54.4 months. AOFAS’s score displayed significant improvement from 57 to 87. The mean VAS showed a significant decrease from 8.75 preoperatively to 2.1 at the last follow-up. According to Bonney and Macnab criteria, only one case was accepted as poor result due to 5° hallux varus. Conclusions McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure yields high rate of satisfaction for mild to moderate hallux valgus with no bony complications related to osteotomy. PMID:19384606

Ozturk, Hasan; Agus, Haluk; Altay, Taskin; Hancerli, Ozgur

2008-01-01

331

'Wristwatch fracture' of the distal radius: a new diagnosis?  

PubMed

Segmental forearm fractures are relatively uncommon in children, and their optimal management is unclear. We present an unusual segmental fracture of the distal radius in a 14 year old that appears to be related to a large metal wristwatch worn by the patient. It was successfully managed by dosed reduction and immobilisation in a plaster cast. PMID:19202823

Yewlett, A D; Khan, R; Clasper, J

2008-09-01

332

Supracondylar nailing of distal femoral fractures after total Knee Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of supracondylar nailing in six patients who suffered distal femoral fractures above total knee arthroplasty. The average age of patients was 68 (42-92) years. All six fractures healed in a satisfactory alignment in an average duration of 14.6 weeks. There were no wound infection, loss of reduction or implant failure. All patients had regained their previous range

A. Kumar; A. Ali; M. S. Butt

333

Onlay urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap for distal hypospadias.  

PubMed

A new technique of onlay flap urethroplasty is described. The cosmetic and functional results of this logical extension of our one-stage urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin-flap have been good. The onlay urethroplasty with parameatal foreskin flap was recommended for the repair of distal hypospadias without chordee. PMID:1855528

Koyanagi, T; Nonomura, K; Asano, Y; Gotoh, T; Togashi, M

1991-01-01

334

Distal tibial fractures treated with hybrid external fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of distal tibia fractures remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether hybrid external fixation, as definite treatment, was associated with satisfactory results and low rate of complications. Between November 1999 and October 2006, 48 patients (33 men and 15 women) with a mean age of 45.6 years and a median ISS of 14.3 were admitted

G. C. Babis; P. Kontovazenitis; D. S. Evangelopoulos; P. Tsailas; K. Nikolopoulos; P. N. Soucacos

2010-01-01

335

Distal inflammatory myopathy: Unusual presentation of polymyositis or new entity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) defined three major entities, polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). We report the clinical, electrophysiological and pathological characteristics of three patients with a rare form of IIM not fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for any of these three major entities. The three patients presented with a subacute, distal asymmetrical weakness

Dalia Dimitri; Odile Dubourg; Thierry Maisonobe; Emmanuel Fournier; Brigitte Ranque; Pascal Laforêt; Jean-Marie Mussini; Christian Pagnoux; Anthony Béhin; Thomas Papo; Olivier Benveniste; Bruno Eymard; Serge Herson

2008-01-01

336

Prognostic factors after pancreatoduodenectomy for distal bile duct cancer.  

PubMed

Prognostic factors influencing long-term survival after radical resection for distal bile duct cancer have not been well established because of the rarity of this malignancy. The goal of this study was to identify main prognostic factors in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for distal bile duct carcinoma. A retrospective study consisting of 122 patients with distal bile duct cancer who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy in three major university hospitals was performed to identify the main prognostic factors. Major surgical complications occurred in 40 patients (32.8%), of whom eight died (6.6%) in the hospital. Overall actuarial survival (excluding hospital deaths) at 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up was 82.9, 49.4, and 32.7 per cent, respectively, with a median survival of 36 months. Univariate analysis showed that papillary tumor (P = 0.045), negative surgical margin (R0 resection, P = 0.005), earlier pT (P = 0.005), pTNM stage (P < 0.001), and absence of lymph node involvement (P < 0.0001) were significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, only lymph node metastasis was shown to be an independent prognostic factor of survival (P = 0.036). Lymph node involvement was the most important survival predictor after a Whipple resection in patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:22196654

Qiao, Qi-Lu; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Guo, Jun-Chao; Zhan, Han-Xiang; Zhao, Jian-Xun; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wan, Yuan-Lian; Leng, Xi-Sheng; Zhao, Yu-Pei

2011-11-01

337

[Clinical relevance of distal airway involvement in asthma].  

PubMed

Asthma continues to be a global health problem, despite advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment. The inflammatory nature of asthma is currently indisputable, as is the involvement of the entire respiratory tree, both the proximal and most distal airways, which has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The development of the therapeutic arsenal, with more potent drugs and improved inhalation devices, has allowed a certain control to be maintained over the inflammatory process, although the inability to reach the most distal points of the airways has posed a stumbling block that seems difficult to overcome. However, the available information on the real role of distal airway involvement in asthma remains very scarce. Physiopathological evidence shows that, in addition to the large airways, the small or distal airways (those with a diameter of less than 2 mm) substantially contribute to the severity of asthma. Several studies have shown that the inflammatory process seems to be more intense in this area. This finding has been related to nocturnal asthma and an increase in glucocorticoid receptor-beta-expressing cells, associated with corticosteroid-resistant asthma and fatal asthma. Equally, small airway involvement seems to be a highly important factor in asthma in the pediatric age group. PMID:21640280

Torrego Fernández, Alfons; Muñoz Cano, Rosa M

2011-04-01

338

Functional outcome of arthroscopic assisted fixation of distal radius fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Many studies in literature have supported the role of wrist arthroscopy as an adjunct to the stable fixation of unstable intraarticular distal radial fractures. This article focuses on the surgical technique, indications, advantages, and results using wrist arthroscopy to assess articular reduction and evaluates the treatment of carpal ligament injuries and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries in conjunction with the stable fixation of distal radial fractures. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 27 patients (16 males and 11 females), who underwent stable fixation of intraarticular distal radial fractures with arthroscopic evaluation of the articular reduction and repair of associated carpal injuries. As per the AO classification, they were 9 C 1, 12 C2, 2 C3, 3 B 1, and 1 B2 fractures. The final results were evaluated by modified Mayo wrist scoring system. The average age was 41 years (range: 18-68 years). The average followup was of 26 months (range 24-52 months). Results: Five patients needed modification of the reduction and fixation after arthroscopic joint evaluation. Associated ligament lesions found during the wrist arthroscopy were TFCC tears (n=17), scapholunate ligament injury (n=8), and luno-triquetral ligament injury (n=1). Five patients had combined injuries i.e. included TFCC tear, scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral ligament tear. There were 20 excellent, 3 good, and 4 fair results using this score. Conclusion: The radiocarpal and mid carpal arthroscopy is a useful adjunct to stable fixation of distal radial fractures. PMID:23798761

Khanchandani, Prakash; Badia, Alejandro

2013-01-01

339

Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

Cabe, Patrick A.

2011-01-01

340

Increase in neurokinin-1 receptor-mediated colonic motor response in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder. Its major symptom is bowel dysmotility, yet the mechanism of the symptom is poorly understood. Since the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-mediated signaling in the gut is important in the control of normal bowel motor function, we aimed to investigate whether the NK1R-mediated bowel motor function was altered in IBS, using a rat IBS model that was previously reported to show colonic dysmotility in response to restraint stress. METHODS: IBS symptoms were produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by inducing colitis with acetic acid. Rats were left to recover from colitis for 6 d, and used for experiments 7 d post-induction of colitis. Motor activities of distal colon were recorded in vitro. RESULTS: The contractile sensitivity of isolated colon to a NK1R agonist [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-substance P (1-30 nmol/L) was higher in IBS rats than that in normal rats. After the enteric neurotransmission was blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 ?mol/L), the contractile sensitivity to the NK1R agonist was increased in normal colon but not in IBS rat colon. The NK1R agonist-induced contraction was not different between the two groups when the agonist was challenged to the TTX-treated colon or the isolated colonic myocytes. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 ?mol/L) augmented the NK1R agonist-induced contraction only in normal rat colon. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the NK1R-meidated colonic motor response is increased in IBS rats, due to the decrease in the nitrergic inhibitory neural component. PMID:15633223

La, Jun-Ho; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sung, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyn-Ju; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Yang, Il-Suk

2005-01-01

341

A Newer Technique of Distal Ulna Reconstruction Using Proximal Fibula and TFCC Reconstruction Using Palmaris Longus Tendon following Wide Resection of Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Ulna  

PubMed Central

Giant cell tumour of the bone (GCT) is a rare locally aggressive primary bone tumour with an incidence of 3% to 5% of all primary bone tumours. The most common location for this tumour is the long bone metaepiphysis especially of the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal radius, and the proximal humerus. Involvement of distal ulna is rare accounting for 0.45% to 3.2%. Considering local aggressive nature and high recurrence, wide resection is the treatment recommended. Instability of ulnar stump and ulnar translation of the carpals are known complications following resection of distal ulna. To overcome these problems, we attempted a newer technique of distal ulna reconstruction using proximal fibula and TFCC reconstruction using palmaris longus tendon following wide resection of giant cell tumour of distal ulna in a 44-year-old male. This technique of distal radioulnar joint reconstruction has excellent functional results with no evidence of recurrence after one-year followup. PMID:24455371

Mariappan, Elango; Mohanen, Pragash; Moses, Justin

2013-01-01

342

Colonic diverticular disease: current perspectives.  

PubMed

Diverticular disease is a common condition affecting large intestine in the western world, which, although remains asymptomatic in majority of people, can present with abdominal pain, acute diverticulitis, perforation, haemorrhage, intestinal obstruction and fistulation through neighbouring organs. Complicated colonic diverticular disease (CDD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing urbanisation globally with intake of diet deficient in fibres has led to CDD as a significant problem; hence awareness of CDD is paramount for its prevention and appropriate management. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, and current management of diverticular disease of the colon and its complications. PMID:18340365

Tappenden, J; Shrestha, B M

2007-01-01

343

Laparoscopic colectomy for colonic polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Benign colonic polyps not amenable to colonoscopic resection or those containing carcinoma require surgical excision. Traditionally,\\u000a formal colectomy with clearance of the lymphatic basin has been performed. The aim of this study was to review our experience\\u000a with the laparoscopic approach for retrieval of colonic polyps with specific emphasis on safety, feasibility, and tumor localization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective chart review of all

Oded Zmora; Barak Benjamin; Avi Reshef; David Neufeld; Danny Rosin; Ehud Klein; Amram Ayalon; Baruch Shpitz

2009-01-01

344

Distal radius malunion and forearm rotation: a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

Background?Malunions following distal radius fractures are common, with shortening, translation, and rotation occurring. The patients frequently lose forearm rotation, but there is no data to indicate whether this is due to mechanical misalignment between the radius and the ulna or to contracture of the soft tissues. Material and Methods?Seven fresh cadaveric specimens were used to determine the loss of forearm rotation with varying simulated distal radius fracture malalignment patterns. Uniplanar malunion patterns consisting of dorsal tilt, radioulnar translation, or radial shortening were simulated by creating an osteotomy at the distal end of the radius. Description of Technique?By orienting the distal fragment position using an external fixator and maintaining the position with wedges and a T-plate, varying degrees of malunion of the distal radius could be simulated. Rotation of the forearm was produced by fixing the elbow in a flexed position and applying a constant torque to the forearm using deadweights. Forearm rotation was measured with a protractor. Results?Dorsal tilt to 30° and radial translation to 10?mm led to no significant restriction in forearm pronation or supination ranges of motion. A 5-mm ulnar translation deformity resulted in a mean 23% loss of pronation range of motion. Radial shortening of 10?mm reduced forearm pronation by 47% and supination by 29%. Conclusion?Because a severe osseous misalignment was required to produce a significant loss in rotation, contracture of the soft tissues is most likely the cause of the loss of rotation in most cases. PMID:24533239

Bronstein, Andrew; Heaton, Dennis; Tencer, Allan F; Trumble, Thomas E

2014-02-01

345

High-resolution MR imaging appearance of colonic tissue in rabbits using an endoluminal coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study assessed the value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the distal colon by means of a dedicated\\u000a endoluminal magnetic resonance receiver coil on a 1.5-T clinical scanner.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods: To this end, single-loop, receive-only radio-frequency coils, housed in 18 F sheaths, were built. A 1.5-T clinical imager\\u000a was used. A 18 French diameter internal MRI

Frank Pilleul; Olivier Beuf; Claire Godefroy; Jean-Yves Scoazec; Mircea Armenean; Cristina Armenean; Emmanuel Perrin; Pierre-Jean Valette; Hervé Saint Jalmes

2005-01-01

346

Teaching about the Colonization of Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate course, The Colonization of Space, which introduces nonscience majors at the University of North Florida to current topics in the exploration, industrialization, and colonization of space. References to the audiovisual resources and literature are also included. (HM)

Huebner, Jay S.

1979-01-01

347

Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Insurance and Medicare  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Colorectal Cancer Basic Information What Is Colorectal Cancer? ... Reviewing Stage at Diagnosis Trends Analyzing Breast and Colon Cancer Care Identifying Areas with High Incidence and Mortality ...

348

STUDIES OF DBP-INDUCED COLON CANCER  

EPA Science Inventory

Induction of colon carcinomas by trihalomethanes in rats may be relevant to epidemiological findings of increased incidences of colon-rectal cancer associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts. These studies have demonstrated that the brominated THMs in drinking water ind...

349

Laxative Type Might Influence Colon Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Laxative Type Might Influence Colon Cancer Risk, Study Finds Fiber-based formulations seem to ... might be a factor in their odds for colon cancer. The research indicates that fiber-based laxatives are ...

350

Clean Your Colon Health or Hype?  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 By Mary Jane Schier Ads promoting colon cleansing for everything from acid reflux to weight loss ... published to support any of those claims. “Colon cleansing has been around for a long time, yet ...

351

Laparoscopic Approach to Treatment of Sigmoid Diverticulitis: Changes in the Spectrum of Indications and Results of a Prospective, Multicenter Study on 1,545 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to analyze changes regarding the indications for and results of laparoscopic treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis. METHODS The data were collected within the framework of an ongoing prospective multicenter study carried out by the Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery Study Group and were submitted to a statistical subgroup analysis. The institutions participating in the study

Hubert Scheidbach; Claus Schneider; Jörg Rose; Jochen Konradt; Eberhard Gross; Eckhard Bärlehner; Matthias Pross; Uwe Schmidt; Ferdinand Köckerling; Hans Lippert

2004-01-01

352

182 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 Dynamic MOS Sigmoid Array Folding  

E-print Network

Dynamic MOS Sigmoid Array Folding Analog-to-Digital Conversion Roman Genov and Gert Cauwenberghs Abstract--A dynamic, saturating difference circuit for large-scale parallel folding analog-to-digital conversion and are independent of transistor mismatch. Folding operation for analog-to-digital conversion is obtained

Cauwenberghs, Gert

353

Stress-Induced Mutation Rates Show a Sigmoidal and Saturable Increase Due to the RpoS Sigma Factor in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Stress-induced mutagenesis was investigated in the absence of selection for growth fitness by using synthetic biology to control perceived environmental stress in Escherichia coli. We find that controlled intracellular RpoS dosage is central to a sigmoidal, saturable three- to fourfold increase in mutation rates and associated changes in DNA repair proteins. PMID:25213168

Maharjan, Ram; Ferenci, Thomas

2014-11-01

354

Comparison between cerebral state index and bispectral index as measures of electroencephalographic effects of sevoflurane using combined sigmoidal Emax model  

PubMed Central

Aim: The cerebral state index (CSI) was recently introduced as an electroencephalographic monitor for measuring the depth of anesthesia. We compared the performance of CSI to the bispectral index (BIS) as electroencephalographic measures of sevoflurane effect using two combined sigmoidal Emax models. Methods: Twenty adult patients scheduled for laparotomy were studied. After induction of general anesthesia, sevoflurane concentrations were progressively increased and then decreased over 70 min. An analysis of the BIS and CSI with the sevoflurane effect-site concentration was conducted using two combined sigmoidal Emax models. Results: The BIS and CSI decreased over the initial concentration range of sevoflurane and then reached a plateau in most patients. A further increase in sevoflurane concentration produced a secondary plateau in the pharmacodynamic response. The CSI was more strongly correlated with effect-site sevoflurane concentration (R2=0.95±0.04) than the BIS was (R2=0.87±0.07) (P<0.05). The individual Emax and Ceff50 (effect-site concentration associated with 50% decrease from baseline to plateau) values for the upper and lower plateaus were significantly greater for BIS (12.7±7.3, 1.6±0.4, and 4.2±0.5, respectively) than for CSI (3.4±2.2, 1.2±0.4, and 3.8±0.5, respectively) (P<0.05). The remaining pharmacodynamic parameters for the BIS and CSI were similar. Conclusion: The overall performance of the BIS and CSI during sevoflurane anesthesia was similar despite major differences in their algorithms. However, the CSI was more consistent and more sensitive to changes in sevoflurane concentration, whereas the measured BIS seemed to respond faster. The newly developed combined Emax model adequately described the clinical data, including the pharmacodynamic plateau. PMID:21892201

Han, Dong Woo; Linares-Perdomo, Olinto-Jose; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Jun Ho; Kern, Steven E

2011-01-01

355

Utility of the Cortical Thickness of the Distal Radius as a Predictor of Distal-Radius Bone Density  

PubMed Central

Background Bone density is an important factor in the management of fractures of the distal radius. Objectives The aim of this study was to establish whether standard anteroposterior (AP) radiographs would provide the attending physician with a prediction of bone density. Patients and Methods Six pairs of human cadaveric radii were harvested. The mean donor age was 74 years. Standardized AP radiographs were taken of the radii. The outside diameter and the inside diameter of the cortical shell at the metaphyseal / diaphyseal junction were measured and their ratio was calculated. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to obtain the bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal parts of the radii. The correlation of the BMD values with these ratios was studied. Results The mean BMD was 0.559 (SD = 0.236) g / cm2. The mean outside diameter/inside diameter ratio was 1.24 (SD = 0.013); the ratio significantly correlated with the total BMD (P = 0.001; R2 = 0.710). In the BMD subregions, the correlation was also significant. Conclusions The outside diameter/inside diameter ratio at the metaphyseal/diaphyseal junction of the distal radius on AP radiographs is suitable for use as a predictor of distal-radius bone density. Further studies should be performed, and clinical utility evaluated. PMID:24396783

Rausch, Sascha; Klos, Kajetan; Gras, Florian; Skulev, Hristo Kostov; Popp, Albrecht; Hofmann, Gunther Olaf; Mückley, Thomas

2013-01-01

356

A Novel Colonic Repressor Element Regulates Intestinal Gene Expression by Interacting with Cux/CDP  

PubMed Central

Intestinal gene regulation involves mechanisms that direct temporal expression along the vertical and horizontal axes of the alimentary tract. Sucrase-isomaltase (SI), the product of an enterocyte-specific gene, exhibits a complex pattern of expression. Generation of transgenic mice with a mutated SI transgene showed involvement of an overlapping CDP (CCAAT displacement protein)-GATA element in colonic repression of SI throughout postnatal intestinal development. We define this element as CRESIP (colon-repressive element of the SI promoter). Cux/CDP interacts with SI and represses SI promoter activity in a CRESIP-dependent manner. Cux/CDP homozygous mutant mice displayed increased expression of SI mRNA during early postnatal development. Our results demonstrate that an intestinal gene can be repressed in the distal gut and identify Cux/CDP as a regulator of this repression during development. PMID:12101240

Boudreau, François; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Swain, Gary P.; Sinclair, Angus M.; Suh, Eun Ran; Silberg, Debra G.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Traber, Peter G.

2002-01-01

357

Laparoscopic reduction of an internal hernia of transverse colon through the foramen of Winslow.  

PubMed

Large bowel obstruction by incarceration in the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow is exceedingly rare and often associated with nonviable bowel at the time of operation according to older reports. In modern times, widespread availability of computed tomography (CT) for investigation of the acute abdomen may decrease the necessity of bowel resection in these cases. Here, we present a case of laparoscopic reduction of viable transverse colon from the lesser sac in a young woman. With the diagnosis suggested by CT, we were able to approach the case with two five millimeter working ports and 1 optical port, reducing the hernia by means of traction on the distal limb of transverse colon. The patient recovered well and was discharged on day 4 postoperative after bowel movement was achieved. Internal hernia represents one of the few cases in which laparoscopy may be the preferred approach to large bowel obstruction. PMID:21857458

Clough, Anthony D; Smith, Garett S; Leibman, Steven

2011-08-01

358

An in vitro rat model of colonic motility to determine the effect of ?-casomorphin-5 on propagating contractions.  

PubMed

Beta-casomorphin-5 (?CM-5) is a milk-derived bioactive peptide that slows gastro-intestinal transit (GIT) in vivo and blocks the peristaltic reflex in the guinea pig colon in vitro. We wanted to establish an in vitro model system in which effects of dairy-derived substances containing opioid peptides on intestinal motility can be assessed and used to predict in vivo outcomes. Because ?CM-5 is an opioid agonist that acts on enteric neurons, we used this substance to compare two different isolated colonic tissue preparations to determine which would more closely mimic the in vivo response previously reported in the literature. We compared and characterized the effects of ?CM-5 on spontaneous contractions in isolated segments of distal colon (1 cm length) compared with propagating contractions along the isolated intact large intestine (22 cm length). In short segments of distal colon, ?CM-5 increased the tension and frequency of spontaneous contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. At 20 ?M ?CM-5 tension increased by 71 ± 17% and the frequency doubled (n = 9), effects inhibited by naloxone (n = 7) and therefore mediated by opioid receptors. In contrast 20 ?M ?CM-5 disrupted propagating contractions in the large intestine preparation. At 20 ?M ?CM-5 reduced the proportion of contractions initiated in the proximal colon reaching the rectum by 83 ± 11% (n = 5) and this effect was also inhibited by naloxone, consistent with altered GIT reported in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the isolated whole large intestine provides an ideal preparation that mimics the reduced propagation of GIT in vivo in response to an opioid agonist, whereas short colon segments did not. The findings of the current study reveal that preserving large segments of intact large intestine, and hence intact enteric neural circuitry provides an ideal in vitro model to investigate the effect of opioid receptor modulators on intestinal transit. PMID:25093576

Dalziel, J E; Spencer, N J; Dunstan, K E; Lynch, A T; Haggarty, N W; Gopal, P K; Roy, N C

2014-10-22

359

Colon Histology Coding Rules Flowchart  

Cancer.gov

Ne xt Page NO Rule Action Notes and Examples Colon Histology Coding Rules - Flowchart Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action (Exc ludes lym phom a and leukem ia M9590-9989 and Kapos i sarcoma M9140) (C180-C189) M ULT IPLE TUM ORS ABSTRACTED AS A SINGLE PRIM ARY H20 Are there multiple invasive tumors?

360

Vitamin D and colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Calcitriol, 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer.

Klampfer, Lidija

2014-01-01

361

Vitamin D and colon cancer.  

PubMed

Calcitriol, 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer. PMID:25400874

Klampfer, Lidija

2014-11-15

362

Colonization within the University System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the author provides a word of caution to those in the social sciences where, in the name of "objective science," it becomes easy to render humans into objects. Anthropology, one of the social sciences, has often been referred to as a tool of colonization. The discipline's approach of seeing small communities as laboratories for…

Gareau, Marcelle Marie

2003-01-01

363

Medical malpractice involving colon and rectal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the Editor--We applaud Dr. Kern for his factual, nonemotional article on malpractice issues involving the colon) We are internists with expert medical experience including colon cases2; our experience accords with the need for primary care physicians to show careful risk management in diagnosing appendicitis, 3 and in ruling out colon cancer. The temptation for primary care physicians to ascribe

Sidney Fink; Tapan K. Chaudhuri; Kenneth A. Kern

1994-01-01

364

Colon Answers - MP/H Rules  

Cancer.gov

Answers and Rationale Colon Case # Primary Data Item Name Preferred Answer Rationale Colon 1 Is this a multiple primary? Yes/No No Single tumor – right colon Primary 1 Histologic Type 8140/3 Adenocarcinoma Code 8140 when the pathology report describes

365

Energy Balance and Colon Cancer â€\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowlevelsofphysicalactivityand highlevelsofenergyintakeand body mass have all been directly associated with colon cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine how physical inactivity interacts with other components of energy balance (energy intake and body mass) in deter mining colon cancer risk. Data were obtained from 2073 first primary cases of colon cancer and 2466 age- and sex-matched controls identified from

Martha L. Slattery; John Potter; Bette Caan; Sandra Edwards; Ashley Coates; Khe-Ni Ma; T. Dennis

366

Molecular nature of colon tumors in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, familial polyposis, and sporadic colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microsatellite instability (replication error [RER]) is a characteristic of tumors in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), but the mechanism of HNPCC carcinogenesis is not yet understood. To clarify the nature of HNPCC tumors, RER and genetic changes were compared between HNPCC and non-HNPCC tumors. METHODS: RER and genetic changes were analyzed in 21 HNPCC, 389 familial adenomatous

M Konishi; R Kikuchi-Yanoshita; K Tanaka; M Muraoka; A Onda; Y Okumura; N Kishi; T Iwama; T Mori; M Koike; K Ushio; M Chiba; S Nomizu; F Konishi; J Utsunomiya; M Miyaki

1996-01-01

367

[Distal reconstructions under critical lower limb ischemia in elderly patients].  

PubMed

Performong reconstructive operations on arteriae is the only way to avoid limb amputation in patients with critical limb ischemia. Whereas reconstructive manipulations on distal arteriae, especially in patients older then 75 years, are often entailed by thrombotic complications. High peripheric vessel resistance is considered to be the crucial factor of the bypass thrombosis. The conducted study demonstrated the efficacy of the use of vena saphena magna collateral tributaries as bypass unload collectors. Femoral distal autovenous in situ reconstruction decreases vessel resistance. Due to the arterial reconstruction with bypass unload using unligated autovenous tributaries the cumulative bypass patency was 75,1% a year after the procedure. 5-year cumulative bypass patency was 53,8%. 5 - year lethality was 28,6%. PMID:19156077

Dibirov, M D; Dibirov, A A; Gadzhimuradov, R U; Tereshchenko, S A; Soboleva, S R; Ramazanova, Iu I; Bazhenov, M S

2009-01-01

368

A new distal myopathy with mutation in anoctamin 5  

PubMed Central

We have been following clinically and with muscle MRI for the past 3-decades a Finnish family with two patients with distal muscular dystrophy. Previously we demonstrated the cellular defect in these patients to be defective membrane repair and more recently have identified the causative gene to be anoctamin 5 (ANO5). The disorder seen in these patients is characterized by onset in the third decade. First symptoms were burning sensation on the calves and later on calf tightness during running. Muscle weakness and wasting were asymmetric and early involving the calf muscles, later spread to the thigh muscles. Biceps brachi was later manifestation. Clinical course was slow. CK levels were high. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic pattern and multifocal disruption of the sarcolemmal membrane but no subsarcolemmal vesicle accumulation nor active inflammation. We conclude that the disease seen in our cases is a new separate clinical, genetic and histopathologic entity to include within the classification of autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophies. PMID:20692837

Mahjneh, Ibrahim; Jaiswal, Jyoti; Lamminen, Antti; Somer, Mirja; Marlow, Gareth; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Bashir, Rumaisa

2014-01-01

369

Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole. PMID:25215255

Toki, Shunichi; Hibino, Naohito; Sairyo, Koichi; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yoshioka, Shinji; Yamano, Masahiro; Henmi, Tatsuhiko

2014-01-01

370

Popliteal-to-distal artery bypass for diabetic limb salvage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Poor long-term survival and significant co-morbidity among diabetic patients with limb ischaemia makes the shortest, simplest\\u000a revascularisation procedure desirable.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  Evaluate limb salvage, primary graft patency and peri-operative morbidity rates in diabetic patients undergoing popliteal-to-distal\\u000a artery bypass for limb salvage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients undergoing popliteal-to-distal artery bypass for critical limb ischaemia over a seven-year period were retrospectively\\u000a identified. Patients operative and follow-up data

A. E. Brannigan; K. Ahmad; M. Tubassum; M. Clarke Moloney; P. A. Grace; P. E. Burke

2006-01-01

371

[The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].  

PubMed

The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. PMID:25158749

Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

2014-09-01

372

Dorsal Capsuloplasty for Dorsal Instability of the Distal Ulna  

PubMed Central

Background?Dorsal instability of the distal ulna can lead to chronic wrist pain and loss of function. Structural changes to the dorsal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL) of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and the dorsal capsule around the ulnar head with or without foveal detachment can lead to volar subluxation of the distal radius e.g., dorsal instability of the distal ulna. Purpose?Is to evaluate the post-operative results of reinstituting distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability through reefing of the dorsal capsule and dorsal radioulnar ligaments, with and without a foveal reattachment of the TFCC. Methods?A total of 37 patients were included in this retrospective study. Diagnosis and treatment was based strictly on dry wrist arthroscopy. In 17 patients isolated reefing of the DRUL and their collateral tissue extension was performed. In 20 patients an additional foveal reinsertion was performed. Postoperative results were evaluated with the DASH questionnaire, VAS scores, grip strength and range of motion. These findings were extrapolated in the Mayo wrist score. The two subgroups were compared. Results?Mayo wrist scores of the whole population had a mean of 73. There was no difference between the group that was treated with reefing of the DRUL only and the group that was treated with a combined foveal reinsertion. Conclusion?This relatively simple 'dorsal reefing' procedure, with foveal reinsertion when indicated, is a reliable method to restore volar-dorsal DRUJ stability with a significant decrease in pain sensation, good DASH scores and restoration of functional grip strength and ROM. Type of Study/Level of Evidence?Therapeutic, Level IV. PMID:24436811

Kouwenhoven, S.T.P.; de Jong, T.; Koch, A.R.

2013-01-01

373

Implications and Cost of Pancreatic Leak Following Distal Pancreatic Resection  

PubMed Central

Objectives Pancreatic stump leak (PL) after elective distal pancreatic resection significantly impacts cost and increases subsequent health care resource utilization. We sought to provide an economic framework for potential interventions aimed at reducing its occurrence. Design Retrospective case series and economic evaluation. Setting University-affiliated, tertiary care referral center. Patients Sixty-six patients undergoing elective distal, pancreatectomy. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative complications; hospital and professional costs. Results Overall postoperative morbidity occurred in 34 patients (52%) with no deaths. The total number of patients with complications directly related to PL was 22 (33%). The mean ± SD number of total hospital days for the no-PL group was 5.2 ± 1.7 days (range, 3–12 days) vs 16.6 ± 14.6 days (range, 4–49 days) for the PL group (P = .001). The average patient with PL-related problems incurred a total cost that was 2.01 times greater than the average patient in the no-PL group. A decision analytic model developed to evaluate threshold costs showed that a hypothetical intervention designed to reduce the complication rate of distal pancreatectomy by one third would be financially justifiable up to a cost of $1418 per patient. Conclusions Complications derived from PL following distal pancreatectomy double the cost and dramatically increase health care resource utilization. There is an urgent need to develop strategies that reduce the incidence of this common complication. Interventions aimed at decreasing the incidence of PL should take into account this cost differential. We provide an economic model to serve as a guide for developing these technologies. PMID:16618893

Rodriguez, J. Ruben; Germes, Santos Soto; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Thayer, Sarah P.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos

2014-01-01

374

Osteosarcoma of the distal radius treated by intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoblastic osteosarcoma in the distal radius of a 50-year-old woman was treated by en bloc resection, intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation, and reimplantation. Twenty-three months after surgery finger function was good. No tumor recurrence or distant metastasis was found at the final follow-up examination. Intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and reimplantation is an easy and convenient reconstructive surgical procedure after en bloc excision of

Tetsuji Yamamoto; Toshihiro Akisue; Takashi Marui; Keiko Nagira; Masahiro Kurosaka

2002-01-01

375

Does an anatomical sphincter exist in the distal esophagus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence or absence of a lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has been a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was\\u000a to revisit the gastro-esophageal region in an attempt to elucidate further the presence or absence of such a structure. The\\u000a distal part of the esophagus was investigated in 12 fixed and 2 fresh cadavers with the aid

Nihal Apaydin; Aysun Uz; Alaittin Elhan; Marios Loukas; R. Shane Tubbs

2008-01-01

376

Fibrin Glue Sandwich Prevents Pancreatic Fistula following Distal Pancreatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Pancreatic fistula is a major form of morbidity following pancreatic resection. We conducted a nonrandomized clinical\\u000a trial comparing the sealing and sandwich techniques of spraying fibrin glue to prevent pancreatic fistula following distal\\u000a pancreatectomy. The pancreas was transected with a scalpel to identify and suture the main pancreatic duct and its small branches.\\u000a In the sealing group, fibrin glue

Susumu Ohwada; Tetsushi Ogawa; Yoshifumi Tanahashi; Seiji Nakamura; Izumi Takeyoshi; Toshihiro Ohya; Toshiroh Ikeya; Kenji Kawashima; Yoshiyuki Kawashima; Yasuo Morishita

1998-01-01

377

Distal vertebral artery reconstruction: Long-term outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to report our long-term results of distal vertebral artery (DVA) reconstruction. Method: From 1978 to 2001 we performed 352 DVA reconstructions on 323 patients (177 men, 148 women; mean age, 60.0 ± 12.1 years). Symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 332 cases (94.3%). Bypass grafting using mostly saphenous vein graft was performed

Edouard Kieffer; Barbara Praquin; Laurent Chiche; Fabien Koskas; Amine Bahnini

2002-01-01

378

Techniques for the surgical treatment of distal tibia fractures.  

PubMed

Surgical management of extra-articular distal tibia fractures has evolved because of the high rate of complications with conventional techniques and the technically challenging aspects of the surgery. Open reduction and internal fixation with plating or nailing remain the gold standards of treatment, and minimally invasive techniques have reduced wound complications and increased healing. Adequate reduction and stabilization as well as appropriate soft tissue management are imperative to achieving good outcomes in these fractures. PMID:24975759

Richard, Raveesh Daniel; Kubiak, Erik; Horwitz, Daniel Scott

2014-07-01

379

Percutaneous plating of distal tibial fractures in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Fractures of the tibia and fibula are among the most common injuries involving the lower extremities in children and adolescents. Although most can be treated nonoperatively, with satisfactory long-term results, some fractures require surgical stabilization. The increasing experience in adults with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for the treatment of complex fractures of the lower extremity has supported the treatment of selected distal tibia fractures in older children and adolescents. This article details the surgical technique for plating of the distal tibia using the percutaneous approach and assesses the results and complications in a pediatric series. We retrospectively reviewed 11 consecutive patients with open physes who had undergone percutaneous plating of a distal tibial fracture between January 2008 and January 2012. All patients were monitored clinically and radiographically until fracture union. Complications related to treatment, such as malunion, delayed union, nonunion, infection, and the need for subsequent surgical treatment, were recorded. Eleven patients (11 tibial fractures) were treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis. The average follow-up period was 22 months (range, 12-48 months). Fractures healed with an average time to union of 9.4 weeks (range, 8-16 weeks). There were no cases of delayed union or nonunion. No clinically evident neurovascular complications were observed. One patient had a superficial infection, treated successfully by oral antibiotics. There were no cases of rotational deformity or leg-length discrepancy at the final follow-up. Because of its biologic advantages and stable fixation that allows early mobilization, percutaneous plating seems a reasonable treatment option for selected distal tibial fractures in children and adolescents. Level of evidence: Level IV therapeutic study - Case series. PMID:24500423

Masquijo, Julio J

2014-05-01

380

Distal tibial fracture post syndesmotic screw removal: an adverse complication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures of the ankle are common injuries. Some ankle fractures have an associated injury to the syndesmosis, necessitating\\u000a fixation with one or more screws. Generally, the overall outcome post ankle fracture is good. However, several complications\\u000a have also been described. The current authors describe a distal tibial fracture following syndesmotic screw removal. A 77-year-old\\u000a woman was admitted with a bimaleollar

Mustafa Citak; Manuel Backhaus; Gert Muhr; Thomas Kälicke

381

Osteoid osteoma of the distal thumb phalanx: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoid osteomas of the hand are uncommon. Particularly, location in the thumb and involvement of the distal phalanx are very\\u000a rarely reported. Long diagnostic delay and inadequate treatment are typical, since clinical features may mimic other causes\\u000a more frequently found in the same site (post-traumatic, infective, rheumatic, neoplastic conditions, regional pain syndrome)\\u000a and even the nail morphology may be altered,

Giovanni Luigi Di Gennaro; Manuele Lampasi; Alessio Bosco; Onofrio Donzelli

2008-01-01

382

Endovascular Treatment of the Distal Internal Carotid Artery Large Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Objective According to the development of endovascular technique and devices, larger aneurysms on the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) can be treated using a less invasive method. The authors report on clinical and angiographic outcomes of these aneurysms treated using an endovascular technique. Materials and Methods Data on 21 patients with large aneurysms at distal ICA treated by endovascular method between January 2005 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. Results Clinical outcome of patients showed strong correlation with the initial neurologic status (p < 0.05). Aneurysm morphology showed saccular, fusiform, and wide-neck in 12, six and three patients. Six patients underwent stent assisted coiling and the other 15 patients underwent simple coiling. Aneurysm occlusion was performed immediately after embolization with near-complete (Raymond class 1-2) in 20 patients (95.2%) and incomplete (Raymond class 3) in one patient (4.8%). Delayed thrombotic occlusion occurred in two patients and their clinical result was fatal. Another five patients died in the hospital, from massive brain edema and/or increased intracranial pressure due to initial subarachnoid hemorrhage. Overall mortality was 30% (seven out of 21). Fatal complication related to the endovascular procedure occurred in two patients with thrombosis at middle cerebral artery (one with stent, the other without it). Conclusion Recent developed endovascular device and technique is safe enough and a less invasive method for distal large or giant aneurysms. Based on our analysis of the study, we suspect that coil embolization of large distal ICA aneurysms (with or without stenting) is effective and safe. PMID:25340021

Bae, Hong-Ju; Huh, Pil-Woo; Lee, Tae-Gyu; Cho, Kyoung-Suok; Lee, Sang-Bok

2014-01-01

383

Hemoglobin Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is an important risk factor for community and nosocomial infection. Despite the importance of S. aureus to human health, molecular mechanisms and host factors influencing nasal colonization are not well understood. To identify host factors contributing to nasal colonization, we collected human nasal secretions and analyzed their ability to promote S. aureus surface colonization. Some individuals produced secretions possessing the ability to significantly promote S. aureus surface colonization. Nasal secretions pretreated with protease no longer promoted S. aureus surface colonization, suggesting the involvement of protein factors. The major protein components of secretions were identified and subsequent analysis revealed that hemoglobin possessed the ability to promote S. aureus surface colonization. Immunoprecipitation of hemoglobin from nasal secretions resulted in reduced S. aureus surface colonization. Furthermore, exogenously added hemoglobin significantly decreased the inoculum necessary for nasal colonization in a rodent model. Finally, we found that hemoglobin prevented expression of the agr quorum sensing system and that aberrant constitutive expression of the agr effector molecule, RNAIII, resulted in reduced nasal colonization of S. aureus. Collectively our results suggest that the presence of hemoglobin in nasal secretions contributes to S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:21750673

Schwartz, Kelly; Hernandez, Margarita; Boles, Blaise R.

2011-01-01

384

Double-barreled wet colostomy. A simple method of urinary diversion for patients undergoing pelvic exenteration.  

PubMed

An easy and simple method for constructing a urinary diversion in patients undergoing pelvic exenteration for advanced rectal cancer is described. This procedure features double-barreled colostomy with a segment of the sigmoid colon 8 to 10 cm distal to the stoma as a urinary conduit. PMID:7497847

Takada, H; Yoshioka, K; Boku, T; Yoshida, R; Nakagawa, K; Matsuda, T; Hioki, K

1995-12-01

385

Electrical potential difference and sodium and potassium fluxes across rectal mucosa in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmucosal electrical potential difference (pd) and the sodium and potassium flux rates (using a dialysis method) have been measured in the rectum and distal sigmoid colon of patients with ulcerative colitis and compared with measurements made in individuals having normal bowel function. In active colitis, a very low transmucosal pd was found and was associated with loss of the

C. J. Edmonds; Diana Pilcher

1973-01-01

386

APC and its modifiers in colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer closely follows the paradigm of a single “gatekeeper gene.” Mutations inactivating the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene are found in ~80% of all human colon tumors, and heterozygosity for such mutations produces an autosomal dominant colon cancer predisposition in humans and in murine models. However, this tight association between a single genotype and phenotype belies a complex association of genetic and epigenetic factors that together generate the broad phenotypic spectrum of both familial and sporadic colon cancers. In this Chapter, we give a general overview of the structure, function, and outstanding issues concerning the role of Apc in human and experimental colon cancer. The availability of increasingly close models for human colon cancer in genetically tractable animal species enables the discovery and eventual molecular identification of genetic modifiers of the Apc-mutant phenotypes, connecting the central role of Apc in colon carcinogenesis to the myriad factors that ultimately determine the course of the disease. PMID:19928355

Kwong, Lawrence N.; Dove, William F.

2013-01-01

387

Distal histidine conformational flexibility in dehaloperoxidase from Amphitrite ornata  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is a heme protein which has a globin fold but can function as both a hemoglobin and a peroxidase. As a peroxidase, DHP is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. As a hemoglobin, DHP cycles between the oxy and deoxy states as it reversibly binds oxygen for storage. Here, it is reported that the distal histidine, His55, exhibits conformational flexibility in the deoxy form and is consequently observed in two solvent-exposed conformations more than 9.5 {angstrom} away from the heme. These conformations are analogous to the open conformation of sperm whale myoglobin. The heme iron in deoxy ferrous DHP is five-coordinate and has an out-of-plane displacement of 0.25 {angstrom} from the heme plane. The observation of five-coordinate heme iron with His55 in a remote solvent-exposed conformation is consistent with the hypothesis that His55 interacts with heme iron ligands through hydrogen bonding in the closed conformation. Since His55 is also displaced by the binding of 4-iodophenol in an internal pocket, these results provide new insight into the correlation between heme iron ligation, molecular binding in the distal pocket and the conformation of the distal histidine in DHP.

Chen, Zuxu; de Serrano, Vesna; Betts, Laurie; Franzen, Stefan; (NCSU); (UNC)

2009-01-28

388

Heterotopic ossification after acromioplasty and distal clavicle resection.  

PubMed

A retrospective review of acromioplasty and distal clavicle resections disclosed 40 cases in which postoperative ectopic bone formation caused recurrent shoulder impingement or acromioclavicular joint pain. Symptomatic lesions either encroached on the supraspinatus outlet or were located in the acromioclavicular interval and were large in size. The incidence of symptomatic heterotopic ossification occurring after acromioplasty or distal clavicle excision was 3.2% and was disproportionately seen in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases (p < 0.05). Heterotopic bone formation could not be correlated with the method of bone resection and occurred after both open and arthroscopic procedures. No evidence of bone remnants or calcific deposits was seen in 17 patients in whom postoperative radiographs were taken within 8 weeks of the operation. It thus appeared that the heterotopic bone formed de novo after the procedure. Twenty patients had repeat shoulder surgery to ameliorate symptoms; four of these had a second recurrence of postoperative heterotopic bone formation. Three of the four required a third procedure and had effective prophylaxis against heterotopic ossification. It is suggested that patients at risk (e.g., with a profile of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy or active spondylitic arthropathy) be treated with prophylaxis for heterotopic ossification after acromioplasty and distal clavicle resections. PMID:7552676

Berg, E E; Ciullo, J V

1995-01-01

389

Laparoendoscopic single-site distal pancreatectomy in pigs  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the technique for laparoendoscopic single-site distal pancreatectomy. METHODS: Laparoendoscopic single-site spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in pigs using a novel flexible multichannel port, a curved laparoscopic multifunctional operative device and a fish hook retractor, which provided a favorable operative field. RESULTS: Six pigs were involved in this study, and five survived the procedure. The first animal died following injury to the superior mesenteric vein and uncontrolled intraoperative bleeding. Except for this failure, the mean operative time was 155 min (range: 102-236 min). A steep learning curve was observed in the study, with a mean operative time of 177 min in the first two operations vs 134 min in the last three operations. The mean blood loss was 50 mL, and the postoperative course was uneventful. The animals were sacrificed three weeks after the procedures, and no pancreatic leakage or abdominal infection was found macroscopically. CONCLUSION: Laparoendoscopic single-site distal pancreatectomy is a safe and feasible procedure and can be implemented in humans in selected cases at qualified surgical centers. PMID:24944478

Wang, Dong; Ji, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jing-Min; Tan, Yu-Yan; Wang, Yan; Wen, Ya-Zhou

2014-01-01

390

Potassium and Sodium Transport across Single Distal Tubules of Amphiuma  

PubMed Central

The transport properties of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) were studied in single distal tubules of Amphiuma using free-flow micropuncture techniques and stationary microperfusion methods. The transepithelial movement of labeled potassium was measured utilizing a three-compartment system in series in which the time course of tracer disappearance from the lumen was followed. Under control conditions, in blood- and doubly-perfused kidneys, extensive active net reabsorption of sodium and potassium obtains along single distal tubules. Tubular potassium reabsorption is abolished by ouabain at a concentration of 5 x 10-6 M. Significant net secretion of K can be induced by exposing Amphiuma to a high K environment (100 mM KCl) or by adding acetazoleamide (1 x 10-4 M) to the perfusion fluid. Transepithelial movement of potassium involves mixing with only a small fraction of total distal tubular cell potassium. This transport pool of potassium increases significantly with the transition from tubular net reabsorption to net secretion. Indirect evidence is presented which indicates that increased active K uptake across the peritubular cell boundary may be of prime importance during states of net K secretion. PMID:5553099

Wiederholt, M.; Sullivan, W. J.; Giebisch, G.

1971-01-01

391

Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

Since the first report on laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) appeared in the 1990s, the procedure has been performed increasingly frequently to treat both benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas. Many earlier publications have shown LDP to be a good alternative to open distal pancreatectomy for benign lesions, although this has never been studied in a prospective, randomized manner. The evidence for the use of LDP to treat adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is not as well established. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current evidence for LDP in cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We conducted a review of English language publications reporting LDP results between 1990 and 2013. All studies reporting results in patients with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included. Thirty-nine publications were found and included in the results for a total of 309 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (potential double publications were not eliminated). Most LDP procedures are performed in selected cases and generally involve smaller tumors than open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) procedures. Some of the papers report unselected cases and include procedures on larger tumors. The number of lymph nodes harvested using LDP is comparable to the number obtained with ODP, as is the frequency of R0 resections. Current data suggest that similar short term oncological results can be obtained using LDP as those obtained using ODP. PMID:25309072

Bjornsson, Bergthor; Sandstrom, Per

2014-01-01

392

Early Distal Axonopathy of the Visual Pathway in Experimental Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of acquired blindness. Visual function disorders have been observed in diabetic patients with very early retinopathy or even before the onset of retinopathy. The aim of the present work was to analyze the visual pathway in an early stage of experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by an i.p. injection of streptozotocin. A deficit in anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus was observed 6 weeks after streptozotocin injection. At this time point, morphologic studies did not reveal retinal ganglion cell loss or substantial alterations in the superior colliculus. The optic nerve was morphometrically evaluated at intraorbital (unmyelinated and myelinated) and intracranial sections. In animals that had been diabetic for 6 weeks, a large increase in astrocyte reactivity occurred in the distal (but not the intraorbital) portion, which coincided with significant axon loss. Moreover, profound myelin alterations and altered morphologic features of oligodendrocyte lineage were observed at the distal (but not the proximal) optic nerve portion. The present results suggest that axoglial alterations at the distal portion of the optic nerve could be the first structural change in the diabetic visual pathway. PMID:22079928

Fernandez, Diego C.; Pasquini, Laura A.; Dorfman, Damian; Aldana Marcos, Hernan J.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

2012-01-01

393

Medial or lateral dislocation (snapping) of a portion of the distal triceps: A biomechanical, anatomic explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medial and lateral snapping (dislocation) of the distal triceps over the epicondyle during elbow flexion has been reported but is frequently misdiagnosed and is not well understood. In this study a mathematical model was designed to simulate the effect that bony abnormalities at the distal humerus and soft tissue variations of the distal triceps have on the line of pull

Robert J. Spinner; Kai-Nan An; Kyu-Jung Kim; Richard D. Goldner; Shawn W. O'Driscoll

2001-01-01

394

Nonunion of distal radius fracture and distal radioulnar joint injury: a modified Sauvé–Kapandji procedure with a cubitus proradius transposition as autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sauvé–Kapandji (SK) procedure is indicated in distal radius nonunion or malunion and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability.\\u000a It can also be used to treat the rheumatoid wrist with severe degenerative changes in the DRUJ. The main objective is to allow\\u000a a pain-free range of movement. We present a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and distal radius nonunion who, after three

Angel Villamor; Antonio Rios-Luna; Manuel Villanueva-Martínez; Homid Fahandezh-Saddi

2008-01-01

395

Concomitant urethral triplication, bladder, and colon duplication.  

PubMed

The concomitant presence of urethral triplication and caudal duplication is extremely rare with no previous reported cases. We report a case of urethral triplication associated with bladder, sigmoid, and rectum duplication. The patient was initially referred with a history of fecaluria and recurrent urinary tract infection. Physical examination revealed 2 meatal opening on the glans penis. Further investigation revealed three distinct urinary streams, two terminating on the glans penis, and one in the rectum in voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. Computed tomography demonstrated the bladder divided into two compartments by a complete sagittal septum. The patient was managed by the excision of the rectal ending urethra and removal of the bladder sagittal septum during which, two sigmoidal and rectal segments (the right one filled with fecal) were revealed. The right sigmoid and rectum was resected. The two ventral urethras were kept intact. The postoperative course was uneventful. At his 4 month readmission for colostomy closure, the patient reported good urethral voiding with no complication and recurrence of urinary tract infection and the colostomy was closed with no major complication. PMID:21547464

Tourchi, Ali; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khakpour, Mahshid; Mohammadi Nejad, Payam; Mousavian, Amir-Abbas; Kalantary, Mahdi

2012-02-01

396

Colon Multiple Primary Rules Matrix  

Cancer.gov

Colon Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C180-C189 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p

397

Endotracheal metastases from colon adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotracheal metastases (ETM) from non-lung cancer are seldom seen. Their main clinical symptoms are cough, haemoptysis and\\u000a dyspnoea, although occasionally an incidental finding is made during a bronchoscopy. Breast, colon and kidney adenocarcinoma\\u000a might be associated with ETM, lung cancer being the most frequent cause. Its finding is associated with advanced disease but\\u000a survival will depend on the primary origin,

José M. Galbis Caravajal; Jesús G. Sales Badía; Carlos Trescolí Serrano; Pedro Cordero Rodríguez; Carlos Jordá Aragón; Elsa Naval Sendra

2008-01-01

398

Validation of a Three-Stage Compound Continuous Culture System for Investigating the Effect of Retention Time on the Ecology and Metabolism of Bacteria in the Human Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-stage compound continuous culture system was used to study the effect of retention time (27.1 and 66.7 h) on the catabolism\\u000a of organic carbon and nitrogen sources in mixed populations of human colonic bacteria. The fermentation system was designed\\u000a to reproduce spatial, temporal, nutritional, and physicochemical characteristics of the microbiota in the proximal (vessel\\u000a 1) and distal (vessels 2

G. T. Macfarlane; S. Macfarlane; G. R. Gibson

1998-01-01

399

Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The expression of carcino-embryonic antigen by colorectal cancer is an example of oncogenic activation of embryonic gene expression. Hypothesizing that oncogenesis-recapitulating-ontogenesis may represent a broad programmatic commitment, we compared gene expression patterns of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and mouse colon tumor models to those of mouse colon development embryonic days 13.5-18.5. RESULTS: We report here that 39 colon tumors

Sergio Kaiser; Young-Kyu Park; Jeffrey L Franklin; Richard B Halberg; Ming Yu; Walter J Jessen; Johannes Freudenberg; Xiaodi Chen; Kevin Haigis; Anil G Jegga; Sue Kong; Bhuvaneswari Sakthivel; Huan Xu; Timothy Reichling; Mohammad Azhar; Gregory P Boivin; Reade B Roberts; Anika C Bissahoyo; Fausto Gonzales; Greg C Bloom; Steven Eschrich; Scott L Carter; Jeremy E Aronow; John Kleimeyer; Michael Kleimeyer; Vivek Ramaswamy; Stephen H Settle; Braden Boone; Shawn Levy; Jonathan M Graff; Thomas Doetschman; Joanna Groden; William F Dove; David W Threadgill; Timothy J Yeatman; Robert J Coffey Jr; Bruce J Aronow

2007-01-01

400

Colonization of Mucin by Human Intestinal Bacteria and Establishment of Biofilm Communities in a Two-Stage Continuous Culture System  

PubMed Central

The human large intestine is covered with a protective mucus coating, which is heavily colonized by complex bacterial populations that are distinct from those in the gut lumen. Little is known of the composition and metabolic activities of these biofilms, although they are likely to play an important role in mucus breakdown. The aims of this study were to determine how intestinal bacteria colonize mucus and to study physiologic and enzymatic factors involved in the destruction of this glycoprotein. Colonization of mucin gels by fecal bacteria was studied in vitro, using a two-stage continuous culture system, simulating conditions of nutrient availability and limitation characteristic of the proximal (vessel 1) and distal (vessel 2) colon. The establishment of bacterial communities in mucin gels was investigated by selective culture methods, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, in association with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Gel samples were also taken for analysis of mucin-degrading enzymes and measurements of residual mucin sugars. Mucin gels were rapidly colonized by heterogeneous bacterial populations, especially members of the Bacteroides fragilis group, enterobacteria, and clostridia. Intestinal bacterial populations growing on mucin surfaces were shown to be phylogenetically and metabolically distinct from their planktonic counterparts. PMID:16269790

Macfarlane, Sandra; Woodmansey, Emma J.; Macfarlane, George T.

2005-01-01

401

Expression analysis of BMP2, BMP5, BMP10 in human colon tissues from Hirschsprung disease patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF ?) superfamily. BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 exert their biological functions by interacting with membrane bound receptors belonging to the serine/threonine kinase family. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the nerve plexuses of the distal gut. However, putative Notch function in enteric nervous system (ENS) development and the etiology of HSCR is unknown. Methods: Aganglionic and ganglionic colon segment tissues of 50 HSCR patients were investigated for the expression pattern of BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 using real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mRNA levels of BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 in the stenotic colon segment from HSCR patients were significantly higher than those in the normal ones. Similar increased expressions of them in the stenotic colon segments were detected by Western blotting coupled with densitometry analysis. Lastly, immunohistologicl stain showed significant BMP2, 5 and 10 increases in mucous and muscular layers from stenotic colon segments compared to normal segments. Conclusions: BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 are elevated in the stenotic colon segment of HSCR, and BMPs signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of HSCR. PMID:24551273

Wu, Mei; Chen, Wenwen; Mi, Jie; Chen, Dong; Wang, Weilin; Gao, Hong

2014-01-01

402

Acute experimental colitis decreases colonic circular smooth muscle contractility in rats.  

PubMed

Distal colitis decreases the contractility of the underlying circular smooth muscle. We examined how time after injury and lesion severity contribute to the decreased contractility and how colitis alters the calcium-handling properties of the affected muscle. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Contractile responses to acetylcholine, increased extracellular potassium, and the G protein activator NaF were determined for circular muscle strips from sham control and colitic rats at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postenemas. Acetylcholine stimulation of tissues from day 3 colitic rats was performed in a zero calcium buffer, in the presence of nifedipine, and after depletion of intracellular stores of calcium. The colitis was graded macroscopically as mild, moderate, or severe. Regardless of agonist, maximal decrease in force developed 2 to 3 days posttreatment, followed by a gradual return to control by day 14. The inhibitory effect of colitis on contractility increased with increasing severity of inflammation. Limiting extracellular calcium influx had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from colitic rats; intracellular calcium depletion had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from control animals. The data suggest that both lesion severity and time after injury affect the contractile response of circular smooth muscle from the inflamed distal colon. Impaired utilization of intracellular calcium may contribute to the decreased contractility. PMID:9357837

Myers, B S; Martin, J S; Dempsey, D T; Parkman, H P; Thomas, R M; Ryan, J P

1997-10-01

403

Abdominal Wall Abscess due to Acute Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Case Report with MDCT and US Findings  

PubMed Central

Perforation of the inflamed diverticula is a common diverticulitis complication. It usually leads to the formation of a local abscess. In some rare cases, the inflammatory process may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the anterior or posterior abdominal wall or the thigh and form an abscess in these sites. We present the case of a 73-year-old man with a history of pain at the lower left quadrant of the abdomen for 20 days and a visible mass in this site. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed this mass to be an abscess of the abdominal wall which had been formed by the spread of ruptured sigmoid diverticulitis by continuity of tissue through the lower left abdominal wall. Local drainage of the abscess was performed and the patient was discharged after alleviation of symptoms and an uneventful course. We also discuss causes of abdominal wall abscesses along with the possible pathways by which an intra-abdominal abscess could spread outside the abdominal cavity. PMID:24386584

Vasileios, Rafailidis; Anna, Gavriilidou; Christos, Liouliakis; Asimina, Tsimitri; Sofia, Paschaloudi; Vasiliki, Karadimou

2013-01-01

404

Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

2010-01-01

405

Evaluation of instability factors in distal radius fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Fractures of distal radius are one of the most common fractures seen by physicians and account for 20% of all fractures seen in the emergency room. Various factors contribute in secondary displacement of fracture fragments after anatomic or near anatomic close reduction and cast immobilization in distal radius fractures. This study was designed to examine the correlation between radiographic outcomes in the closed treatment of unstable distal radius fractures and different risk factors. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven patients were included in this prospective study. There were 107 women and 50 men; with a mean age of 51 ± 16.7 years (range: 20-86 years). During the follow-up in all radiographs, the following variables were analyzed as instability factors: (1) Age, (2) gender, (3) radial shortening, (4) dorsal comminution, (5) articular step-off, (6) radial inclination, (7) associated ulna fracture, and (8) dorsal angulation. Results: Based on the radiographic criteria for an acceptable reduction, 92 patients (58.6%) failed to maintain an acceptable reduction and classified as group I, while in 65 patients (41.4%), the postoperative radiographs were within an acceptable range and classified as group II. The mean age of patients in group I was higher than group II (P < 0.001). Radial shortening of more than 6.5 mm, loss of radial inclination of more than 6.5 degrees, and age above 52 at presentation were the most important predictive factors for instability. Conclusion: Among the variables, the most important predictors of redisplacement after an acceptable closed reduction were loss of radial height, loss of radial inclination, and age. PMID:24497862

Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Javdan, Mohammad; Nouraei, Mohammad Hadi; Dehghani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

406

Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ) Implant Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker) prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months). Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to administer the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH), patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), and visual analogue scale (VAS), and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median follow-up time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months). Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation. PMID:25386579

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Chase, Samantha M; Jupiter, Jesse B

2014-01-01

407

Relationship between methylation and colonic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the relationship between the methylation status in the SLIT2 and TGFB2 promoters and colonic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: We evaluated the methylation status of 2 genes (SLIT2 and TGFB2) in 226 biopsies taken from 62 colonoscopies of 38 patients (29 ulcerative colitis and 9 Crohn’s colitis) using methylation-specific melting curve analysis. The relationships between methylation status and clinical, biological, endoscopic and histological activities were evaluated. Twenty-three of the 38 patients had a second colonoscopy and were included in a longitudinal analysis. Numerical results were given as the means ± SD of the sample and range, except when specified. Student t analysis, U Mann Whitney and ANOVA factor were used to compare the means. Qualitative results were based on the ?2 test. RESULTS: SLIT2 methylation was more frequent in samples with endoscopic activity than with endoscopic remission (55% vs 18%, P < 0.001). SLIT2 methylation was also higher in samples with acute inflammation (56.5%) than in samples with chronic (24%) or absent inflammation (15%) (P < 0.001). For TGFB2 methylation, the correlation was only significant with endoscopic activity. Methylation was higher in the distal colon for both genes (P < 0.001 for SLIT2 and P = 0.022 for TGFB2). In the multivariate analysis, only inflammation status (and not disease duration or extension) was independently associated with SLIT2 methylation [OR = 6.6 (95%CI: 1.65-27.36), P = 0.009]. In the longitudinal analysis, the maintenance of endoscopic remission was protective for methylation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic and histological inflammation are predictive for SLIT2 methylation. PMID:25132780

Lobaton, Triana; Azuara, Daniel; Rodriguez-Moranta, Francisco; Loayza, Carolina; Sanjuan, Xavier; de Oca, Javier; Fernandez-Robles, Ana; Guardiola, Jordi; Capella, Gabriel

2014-01-01

408

Factors in redisplacement of paediatric distal radius fractures.  

PubMed

Redisplacement after manipulation can occur in distal radius fractures. We performed a retrospective study of 73 patients undergoing manipulation with or without K-wire fixation. From the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative films we measured anteroposterior and lateral angulation and translation. Reangulation of each fracture was calculated. Factors demonstrating significant correlation with reangulation were age, initial radial translation, ulna fracture, distance from fracture to physis and inadequate correction of translation or angulation. This emphasizes the importance of adequate fracture reduction. In those cases in which translation or angulation cannot be full corrected at manipulation, fixation with K-wires may be appropriate. PMID:21934633

Fenton, Paul; Nightingale, Peter; Hodson, James; Luscombe, Jonathan

2012-03-01

409

Sentinel node mapping during laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of sentinel node (SN) mapping with endoscopic submucosal\\u000a blue dye injection during laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-four patients affected by gastric adenocarcinoma without gross clinical serosal invasion and distant metastasis were\\u000a prospectively enrolled. At the start of the surgery, 2 ml of 2% patent blue was

E. Orsenigo; V. Tomajer; S. Di Palo; L. Albarello; C. Doglioni; E. Masci; E. Viale; C. Staudacher

2008-01-01

410

Propylene oxide causes central-peripheral distal axonopathy in rats  

SciTech Connect

In Wistar rats subjected daily to a 6-hr exposure of propylene oxide (PO) at a concentration of 1,500 ppm (5 times a wk for 7 wk), ataxia developed in the hindlegs. Myelinated fibers in hindleg nerves and in the fasciculus gracilis showed axonal degeneration, sparing the nerve cell body of the first sacral dorsal root ganglion and myelinated fibers of the first sacral dorsal and ventral roots. These pathologic findings are compatible with central-peripheral distal axonopathy. This is apparently the first animal model of PO neuropathy to be verified histologically.

Ohnishi, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Murai, Y.; Hayashida, Y.; Hori, H.; Tanaka, I.

1988-09-01

411

Thrombospondin-1 mediates distal tubule hypertrophy induced by glycated albumin.  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by early hypertrophy in both glomerular and tubuloepithelial elements. However, no studies to date have established a direct causal link between hyperglycaemia and renal hypertrophy. Our previous studies have found that high glucose does not induce cellular hypertrophy or expression of TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1) in distal renal tubule cells [Yang, Guh, Yang, Lai, Tsai, Hung, Chang and Chuang (1998) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 9, 182-193]. In the present study, we used AGEs (advanced glycation end-products) to mimic long-term hyperglycaemia. Similar to glucose, AGEs did not induce TGF-beta1 mRNA in distal renal tubule cells [MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells]; however, TGF-beta1 bioactivity was increased significantly. This result indicated post-translational regulation. Since TSP-1 (thrombospondin-1) has been demonstrated to activate latent TGF-beta1 in a variety of systems, the following experiments were performed. We found that AGEs dose-dependently increased both intracellular and extracellular levels of TSP-1. Purified TSP-1, like AGEs, increased the cellular protein content. Furthermore, anti-TSP-1 neutralizing antibodies attenuated the AGE-induced increase in TGF-beta1 bioactivity and hypertrophy. Thus TSP-1 might mediate AGE-induced distal renal tubule hypertrophy. In addition, we observed several putative transcription factor binding sites in the TSP-1 promoter, including those for AP-1 (activator protein-1), CREB (cAMP response element binding protein), NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB), SRF (serum response factor) and HSF (heat-shock factor), by sequence mapping. We used an enhancer assay to screen possible transcription factors involved. We showed that AP-1 and CREB were specifically induced by AGEs; furthermore, TFD (transcription factor decoy) for AP-1 could attenuate the AGE-induced increases in TSP-1 levels and cellular hypertrophy. Thus regulation of TSP-1 might be critical for hyperglycaemic distal tubule hypertrophy. Furthermore, TSP-1 TFD might be a potential approach to ameliorate diabetic renal hypertrophy. PMID:14683523

Yang, Yu-Lin; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Liu, Shu-Fen; Hung, Min-Yuan; Liao, Tung-Nan; Huang, Yu-Lun

2004-01-01

412

Cavernous Redirection of Venous Drainage after Partial Transvenous Coil Occlusion of a Sigmoid Sinus dAVF: Coil Mass Retrieval with Flexible Cysto-Urethroscopy Grasping Forceps  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe the case of a patient who presented with ocular symptoms (chemosis, proptosis, increased intra-ocular pressure, impaired visual acuity) eight months after the transvenous coil occlusion of an ipsilateral sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF). Digital substraction angiography revealed a partial occlusion of the left sigmoid sinus with coils. Since the connection from the sigmoid sinus to the internal jugular vein was obliterated by coils without interrupting the arteriovenous shunt, the venous drainage was redirected into the inferior petrosal sinus, the cavernous sinus and the superior ophthalmic vein. The transjugular access to the inferior petrosal sinus was obstructed by a large coil mass in the jugular bulb. Several attempts to remove these coils with an Alligator retrieval device and a goose neck snare failed. The coil mass was withdrawn via a direct access to the internal jugular vein using flexible cysto-urethroscopy grasping forceps, an urological device designed for the removal of kidney stones. After establishing anterograde drainage, the now accessible inferior petrosal sinus was occluded with fibered coils and the dAVF was completely obliterated. The ocular symptoms resolved within ten days. PMID:21696659

Aguilar Perez, M.; Kuhn, A.; Miloslavski, E.; Henkes, H.

2011-01-01

413

S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression.  

PubMed

The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in modulating tumor progression. Earlier, we showed that S100A8/A9 proteins secreted by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) present within tumors and metastatic sites promote an autocrine pathway for accumulation of MDSC. In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer, we also showed that S100A8/A9-positive cells accumulate in all regions of dysplasia and adenoma. Here we present evidence that S100A8/A9 interact with RAGE and carboxylated glycans on colon tumor cells and promote activation of MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. Comparison of gene expression profiles of S100A8/A9-activated colon tumor cells versus unactivated cells led us to identify a small cohort of genes upregulated in activated cells, including Cxcl1, Ccl5 and Ccl7, Slc39a10, Lcn2, Zc3h12a, Enpp2, and other genes, whose products promote leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, tumor migration, wound healing, and formation of premetastatic niches in distal metastatic organs. Consistent with this observation, in murine colon tumor models we found that chemokines were upregulated in tumors, and elevated in sera of tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Mice lacking S100A9 showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, growth and metastasis, reduced chemokine levels, and reduced infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells within tumors and premetastatic organs. Studies using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that S100A8/A9 expression on myeloid cells is essential for development of colon tumors. Our results thus reveal a novel role for myeloid-derived S100A8/A9 in activating specific downstream genes associated with tumorigenesis and in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:21228116

Ichikawa, Mie; Williams, Roy; Wang, Ling; Vogl, Thomas; Srikrishna, Geetha

2011-02-01

414

S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression  

PubMed Central

The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in modulating tumor progression. We earlier showed that S100A8/A9 proteins secreted by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) present within tumors and metastatic sites promote an autocrine pathway for accumulation of MDSC. In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer, we also showed that S100A8/A9 positive cells accumulate in all regions of dysplasia and adenoma. Here we present evidence that S100A8/A9 interact with RAGE and carboxylated glycans on colon tumor cells and promote activation of MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. Comparison of gene expression profiles of S100A8/A9-activated colon tumor cells versus unactivated cells led us to identify a small cohort of genes upregulated in activated cells, including Cxcl1, Ccl5 and Ccl7, Slc39a10, Lcn2, Zc3h12a, Enpp2 and other genes, whose products promote leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, tumor migration, wound healing, and formation of premetastatic niches in distal metastatic organs. Consistent with this observation, in murine colon tumor models we found that chemokines were up-regulated in tumors, and elevated in sera of tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Mice lacking S100A9 showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, growth and metastasis, reduced chemokine levels, and reduced infiltration of CD11b+Gr1+ cells within tumors and premetastatic organs. Studies using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that S100A8/A9 expression on myeloid cells is essential for development of colon tumors. Our results thus reveal a novel role for myeloid-derived S100A8/A9 in activating specific downstream genes associated with tumorigenesis and in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:21228116

Ichikawa, Mie; Williams, Roy; Wang, Ling; Vogl, Thomas; Srikrishna, Geetha

2011-01-01

415

Calcium and the prevention of colon cancer.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention studies utilizing calcium have now progressed from basic measurements to clinical trials. Calcium's effects on epithelial cells have demonstrated decreased proliferation and induced cell differentiation with increasing levels of calcium in vitro, similar in vivo effects in rodent and human colon, and decreased carcinogen-induced colonic tumor formation in rodents. Current studies are attempting to inhibit colonic adenoma formation in human subjects. Most but not all epidemiologic studies also link increased dietary calcium with a decreased risk of colon cancer. In animal models, supplemental dietary calcium has decreased mammary epithelial cell hyperplasia and hyperproliferation and colonic cell hyperproliferation when the latter was induced by bile acids, fatty acids, and partial resection of the small intestine. Supplemental dietary calcium also decreased carcinogen-induced colonic tumors in several rodent models. In normal mice, and in mice carrying a targeted apc gene mutation, we recently increased colonic polypoid hyperplasias by a Western-style diet containing low calcium and vitamin D. In human subjects at increased risk for colon cancer, oral calcium supplementation significantly reduced colonic epithelial cell proliferation in most of the studies, including four randomized clinical trials. These studies have now progressed to short-term human clinical trials, including trials that measure the regrowth of transformed adenoma cells. Short-term adenoma-regrowth clinical trials, however, are limited in their ability to measure whether chemopreventive agents inhibit early genotoxic events, abnormal cellular metabolic activities involved in tumor promotion over many years, or the progression of adenoma cells to carcinoma. PMID:8538212

Lipkin, M; Newmark, H

1995-01-01

416

Hyperspectral Colon Biopsy Classification into Normal and Malignant Categories  

E-print Network

and cure of colon cancer can be improved by efficiently clas- sifying the colon tissue cells from biopsy.1 Colon Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Hyperspectral Imaging Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3 #12;1 Introduction 1.1 Colon Cancer Colon cancer

Rajpoot, Nasir

417

Colonization of Crystalline Cellulose by Clostridium cellulolyticum ATCC 35319.  

PubMed

Cellulose colonization by Clostridium cellulolyticum was studied by using [methyl-H]thymidine incorporation. The colonization process indicated that a part of the bacterial population was released from cellulose to the liquid phase before binding and colonizing another adhesion site of the cellulose. We postulate that cellulose colonization occurs according to the following process: adhesion, colonization, release, and readhesion. PMID:16349055

Gelhaye, E; Gehin, A; Petitdemange, H

1993-09-01

418

Colonization of Crystalline Cellulose by Clostridium cellulolyticum ATCC 35319  

PubMed Central

Cellulose colonization by Clostridium cellulolyticum was studied by using [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. The colonization process indicated that a part of the bacterial population was released from cellulose to the liquid phase before binding and colonizing another adhesion site of the cellulose. We postulate that cellulose colonization occurs according to the following process: adhesion, colonization, release, and readhesion. PMID:16349055

Gelhaye, E.; Gehin, A.; Petitdemange, H.

1993-01-01