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Sample records for distal sigmoid colon

  1. Primary Extrauterine Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma in the Sigmoid Colon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Heon; Kang, Dong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Mee-Ja; Lee, Seung Yun

    2015-01-01

    An endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon uterine neoplasm, and its primary occurrence in the intestine as an extrauterine ESS (EESS) is exceedingly rare. We hereby report a primary EESS arising in the sigmoid colon with a review of the literature. A 52-year-old woman presented with bloody stool and underwent a colon fiberscopy, which revealed a fungating mass obstructing the lumen at the distal sigmoid. A laparoscopic low anterior resection was performed, and an umbilicated polypoid mass was identified; on section, it had infiltrated the mesocolic fat and measured 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The tumor showed geographic sheets or nests composed of relatively monotonous stromal cells, expansion or infiltration to the proper muscle and mesocolic fat, and extensive lymphovascular invasion and metastasis to regional lymph nodes and the pelvic peritoneum. The tumor cells were strongly and diffusely immunoreactive for CD10, but negative for c-kit, CD34, and Dog1. Two months later, a hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and no evidence of an ESS was found in the uterus. PMID:25960975

  2. Conservative management of spontaneous rupture of a sigmoid colon neobladder.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N P; Nabi, G; Ansari, M S

    2002-01-01

    A case of successful management of spontaneous perforation of an orthotopic sigmoid colon neobladder 18 months following radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma is described. Conservative management of such perforations has rarely been described in the literature; however, this is the first case report of sigmoid colon neobladder perforation and of its successful conservative management, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:12444295

  3. A noninterventional management approach to endovascular coil migration into the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Jonathan J; Whittaker, David R

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old man underwent endovascular treatment of a right internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysm by placing coils in the distal IIA and occluding the inflow with a common iliac artery-to-external iliac artery stent graft. Surveillance computed tomography angiography discovered migration of an endovascular coil from the thrombosed right IIA into the sigmoid colon. Subsequent serial imaging demonstrated uncomplicated extracorporeal passage of the coil. We review the relevant literature and treatment rationale. PMID:24239522

  4. Morphology of Sigmoid Colon in South Indian Population: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Suganthy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sigmoid volvulus is a common etiological factor in acute large bowel obstruction. The increased length of sigmoid colon is attributed as one of the causes of sigmoid volvulus. Aim The aim of this study was to find the morphology of sigmoid colon in South Indian population using cadavers. Materials and Methods The present study was performed with 31 cadavers used for teaching purpose. The sigmoid colon was classified into classical, long-narrow and long- broad types by their disposition in the abdominal cavity. The sigmoid loop’s relation to pelvic brim was also observed and grouped as pelvic and suprapelvic in position. The length of sigmoid colon along the mesenteric and antimesenteric border, height and width of sigmoid mesocolon in relation to the pelvic brim and the root of mesentery were measured in the study. Results The study showed that the majority of the sigmoid colons fell into the classical type (47.6%). The sigmoid colon in pelvic position was significantly more prevalent. The mean length of sigmoid colon was 15.2 ± 4.4cm and 19.2 ± 6cm considering the pelvic brim and root of mesentery as reference points of measurement respectively. The mean length along antimesenteric border was 22.3 ± 7.9cm and 25 ± 8.7cm along the same reference points. The mean length of mesocolon height was 6.5 ± 3cm with reference to pelvic brim and 7.3 ± 3cm with reference to root of Sigmoid mesocolon respectively. The mean width of mesocolon was 7.4 ± 3cm (pelvic brim) and 8 ± 2cm (root of Sigmoid mesocolon) There was a positive correlation of sigmoid colon length with the height of the mesocolon. The gender analysis showed that males had statistically significant longer sigmoid colon and mesocolon. Conclusion This study documents that the South Indian population has a more classical type of sigmoid colon and that the anatomical dimensions of sigmoid colon and its mesocolon is significantly longer in males. PMID:26435933

  5. Spontaneous aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture into the sigmoid colon in Behçet’s disease patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Lim; Ku, Young Mi; Won, Yoodong

    2015-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent orogenital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The vascular manifestations include thrombophlebitis, stenosis, occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm. BD infrequently precipitates aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture into the sigmoid mesocolon and lumen of the adjacent colon. Here we report an extremely rare case of spontaneous abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm rupture via the sigmoid mesocolon into the lumen of the sigmoid colon in a 37-year-old patient with BD. PMID:26675745

  6. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the sigmoid colon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubbini, M; Marzola, A; Spanedda, R; Scalco, G B; Zamboni, P; Guerrera, C; Donini, I

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma localized in the sigmoid colon with multiple metastases in the right lobe of the liver and describes the pathological and microscopic aspects, clinical course and characteristics. The primary localization in the sigmoid colon is extremely rare, this being only the second case reported. PMID:6323346

  7. Endometriosis within the sigmoid colon/extragenital endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turan; Acar, Nihan; Çelik, Salih Can; Ekinci, Ne?e; Tarcan, Ercüment; Çapk?no?lu, Emir

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Although it is common in women in the reproductive age, intestinal endometriosis is extremely rare and may lead to serious clinical problems. In this article, we present two rare cases of endometriosis localized in the sigmoid colon lumen. The first case is a 45 year-old female complaining of rectal bleeding for 6 months. A polypoid lesion with suspicion of malignancy, 3–4 cm in size was identified at colonoscopy. Laparoscopic anterior resection was performed since it was not suitable for colonoscopic polypectomy. The pathology examination revealed extragenital endometriosis. The second case is a 36 year-old female admitted for lower abdominal pain and rectal bleeding for the last 3 months. She was diagnosed with sigmoid diverticulitis. The patient’s symptoms regressed with medical treatment, but due to early and multiple recurrent episodes it was decided to perform an elective laparoscopic anterior resection. The pathology report stated diverticulosis coli and intraluminal endometriosis. Intestinal endometriosis should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in female patients of the reproductive age who present with constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, cramp-like abdominal pain, diarrhea and pelvic pain. In these patients, resection and anastomosis of the effected bowel segment is accepted as the choice of treatment.

  8. Primary Adenocarcinoma with Focal Choriocarcinomatous Differentiation in the Sigmoid Colon.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sook Kyoung; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Choi, Yu Yi; Lim, Hong Kyu; Goo, Ja Jun; Choi, Sung Yeol

    2015-11-25

    Primary colorectal choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm. Only 19 cases have been reported worldwide, most of which involved adenocarcinomas. The prognosis is usually poor, and the standard therapy for this tumor has not been established. A 61-year-old woman presented with constipation and lower abdominal discomfort. She was diagnosed with primary adenocarcinoma with focal choriocarcinomatous differentiation in the sigmoid colon and liver metastasis. Because the serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was not significantly elevated, and because only focal choriocarcinomatous differentiation was diagnosed, we selected the chemotherapy regimen that is used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. The patient survived for 13 months after the initial diagnosis. This is the first case in Korea to assess the suppressive effects of the standard chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma against coexisting colorectal choriocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma. PMID:26586354

  9. TisN0M1 Sigmoid Colon Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Jin Su; Cheon, Kwang Sik; Song, In Sang; Kang, Dae Young

    2014-01-01

    Distant metastasis of a colon carcinoma in situ has not yet been reported. We experienced a case of a sigmoid colon carcinoma in situ with common hepatic lymph node metastasis. After the first operation, we diagnosed dual intramucosal adenocarcinomas of the sigmoid colon without any regional lymph node metastasis. After the second operation, a metastatic adenocarcinoma was found in the common hepatic lymph nodes. We suggest that metastasis in cases of a colonic carcinoma in situ is rare, but possible. The parallel progression model of tumors can explain this early metastasis. PMID:24999466

  10. [A case of pedunculated colonic adenoma with pseudocarcinomatous invasion and squamous metaplasia occurring in the sigmoid colon].

    PubMed

    Hirasaki, Shoji; Kubo, Motoharu; Inoue, Atsushi; Oshiro, Hisako; Goji, Takahiro; Tada, Saori; Suwaki, Kin-Ichiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Iwashita, Akinori

    2011-03-01

    A case of pedunculated colonic adenoma with pseudocarcinomatous invasion and squamous metaplasia occurring in the sigmoid colon is reported. The patient was a 65-year-old man who visited our hospital for further evaluation of a positive fecal occult blood test. Colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated polyp with a thick swollen stalk in the sigmoid colon. EUS revealed a hyperechoic lesion in the stalk. However, endosonographically, the third and fourth layers of the colonic wall were shown to be normal. It was suspected to be a colonic adenoma with pseudocarcinomatous invasion from these endoscopic findings. Endoscopic polypectomy was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed tubular adenoma with moderate epithelial atypia and submucosal displacement of adenomatous glands with variable cystic changes. Squamous metaplasia and hemosiderin deposition were also seen in the mucosal and submucosal layer, respectively. This polyp was diagnosed as a colonic adenoma with pseudocarcinomatous invasion with squamous metaplasia. PMID:21389668

  11. Potassium transport across guinea pig distal colon

    SciTech Connect

    Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional /sup 42/K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 ..mu..M) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h. Epinephrine (5 ..mu..M, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 ..mu..eq/cm/sup 2/h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart.

  12. [Urethral Fistula and Scrotal Abscess Associated with Colovesical Fistula Due to the Sigmoid Colon Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Uemura, Motohide; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2015-09-01

    We report here a rare case of urethral fistula and scrotal abscess associated with colovesical fistula due to sigmoid colon cancer. An 84-year-old male was referred to our hospital complaining of macrohematuria, fecaluria, pneumaturia and micturitional pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed colovesical fistula. Other examinations, including colonoscopy and cystoscopy, did not reveal a clear cause for the colovesical fistula. Only an elevated serum level of the tumor marker CA19-9 suggested the possibility of sigmoid colon cancer. Eleven days after hospitalization, bilateral scrotal contents had swollen rapidly to the size of a goose egg. CT suggested urethral fistula with scrotal abscess formation. Drainage of scrotal abscess and colostomy were performed. Intraoperatively, the fistula of the bulbar urethra was revealed. Because increased serum CA19-9 suggested a diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer, cystectomy and sigmoid colectomy with right nephrectomy were performed. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon with bladder invasion. His condition was improved with rehabilitation 6 months after operation. PMID:26497865

  13. The distal colon provides reserve storage capacity during colonic fluid overload

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, J; Pruckmayer, M; Bergmann, H; Kletter, K; Gangl, A

    1997-01-01

    Background—In addition to its absorptive function the capacity of the colon to retain fluid might be relevant in compensating for increased fluid loads and prevention of diarrhoea. The distal colon is considered to be mainly a conduit without extensive storage function. ?Aims—To evaluate colonic volume capacity in a model of pure osmotic diarrhoea. ?Methods—A non-absorbable, iso-osmotic solution (OS) containing polyethylene glycol (500 ml) was infused into the caecum of nine healthy volunteers; the control group (n=5) received an equal amount of an easily absorbable electrolyte solution (ES). Fluids were radiolabelled with technetium-99m and gamma camera images were obtained for 48 hours. Counts in the proximal and distal colon were measured and regional and overall colonic transit and stool output were quantified. ?Results—After OS, in contrast to ES, faecal output was increased significantly (p<0.05), but colonic transit after OS was not different from transit after ES (p>0.05). This indicates storage of OS in the colon: after OS infusion, counts in the proximal colon decreased linearly while the distal colon stored approximately 30% of radioactivity for the whole 48 hour study period. After OS, stool output correlated with distal (p<0.01), but not with proximal (p>0.05), colonic transit. In constrast, after ES, stool output was determined by proximal colonic transit (p<0.05) but not by transit through the distal colon (p>0.05). ?Conclusion—The distal colon retains non-absorbable fluid volumes extensively. In our model transit through the distal colon—but not the proximal colon—determined the time at which diarrhoea occurred. ?? Keywords: osmotic diarrhoea; colonic transit; storage capacity; colonic scintigraphy PMID:9414974

  14. Traditional serrated adenoma of the sigmoid colon with osseous metaplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Osseous metaplasia in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation We present the case of a 62-year-old Hispanic man with two colonic polypoid lesions, one of which, upon resection and histopathological examination, was found to be a traditional serrated adenoma with a focus of stromal osseous metaplasia. Conclusions Our patient’s case is the third report of stromal osseous metaplasia in a traditional serrated adenoma of the sigmoid colon. PMID:22620280

  15. Concurrence of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus with adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon and villous adenoma of cecum: a case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dikmen, Kursat; Ferahkose, Zafer; Turhan, Bar?s; Caliskan, Gizem Toker; Bostanci, Hasan; Buyukkasap, Cagri; Keceoglu, Selim; Aytac, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a 74 years old male patient with complaints of dysphagia and hemoptysis is presented. Endoscopy revealed black colored mass protruding to the lumen at distal esophagus. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma was confirmed with biopsy. Examinations for staging purposes revealed masses at sigmoid colon and cecum. Biopsy was performed with colonoscopy. The mass at the sigmoid colon was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma and the mass at the cecum was diagnosed as villous adenoma. Although the treatment strategy is not straightforward, surgical treatment is the most important step. For this reason, patient underwent three field esophagectomy, anterior resection and right hemicolectomy in the first place. The patient is currently receiving his adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy at postoperative 6th month. According to our knowledge, concurrence of these tumors with two different origins has only been reported in 1 patient before. Our patient has the significance of being the second reported case.

  16. Primary aortoenteric fistula to the sigmoid colon in association with intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonho; Jung, Chul Min; Cho, Eun-Hee; Ryu, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Daehee; Kim, Jaihwan

    2014-04-01

    Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) is a rare but catastrophic cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis of PAEF is difficult to make and is frequently delayed without strong clinical suspicion. Timely surgical intervention is essential for patient's survival. We report on a case of an 86-year-old woman with no history of abdominal surgery, who presented with abdominal pain. Initially, computed tomography scan showed an intra-abdominal abscess, located anterior to the aortic bifurcation. However, she was discharged without treatment because of spontaneous improvement on a follow-up computed tomography scan, which showed a newly developed right common iliac artery aneurysm. One week later, she was readmitted due to recurrent abdominal pain. On the second day of admission, sudden onset of gastrointestinal bleeding occurred for the first time. After several endoscopic examinations, an aortoenteric fistula bleeding site was found in the sigmoid colon, and aortography showed progression of a right common iliac artery aneurysm. We finally concluded that intra-abdominal abscess induced an infected aortic aneurysm and enteric fistula to the sigmoid colon. This case demonstrated an extremely rare type of PAEF to the sigmoid colon caused by an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm, which has rarely been reported. PMID:24755749

  17. Penetrated sigmoid colon by air gun pellet could be life threatening: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Krasniqi, Avdyl S.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Zejnullahu, Valon A.; Sada, Fatos E.; Bicaj, Besnik X.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Air and paintball guns have been in existence for over 400 year. Although serious injury or death can result from the use of such guns, previous literature has not mentioned the issue of the penetration of the sigmoid colon by an air gun pellet. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of a 44-year-old Caucasian woman referred to abdominal surgery after an accidental small wound had occurred in the lower left abdominal quadrant that was caused by an air gun pellet. The blood and biochemical analyses were normal but the CT scan revealed the presence of a foreign body – an air gun pellet in the left iliac region of the abdomen. Clinically, during the initial 24 h significant changes were not noticed. After 42 h, however, pain and local tenderness in the lower left abdominal quadrant was expressed. A laparotomy revealed a retained pellet in the wall of the sigmoid colon and a small leak with colonic content with consecutive local peritonitis also occurred. The foreign body was removed and the opening edges in the colon were excised and closed with the primary suture. DISCUSSION The hollow organs of the digestive tract, albeit very rarely penetrated by an air gun pellet, do not typically show all signs of an acute abdomen in the early posttraumatic phase. Such injuries can lead to a pronounced infection, which may cause septic shock if not appropriately treated. CONCLUSION For correct diagnosis, a careful approach and several daily clinical observations are required. PMID:25437671

  18. Lower Extremity Radicular Pain Caused by Entrapped Sigmoid Colon Between L5 and S1 Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sanghyung; Park, Noh Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Jin; Baek, Jung Hyun; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Choi, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal entrapment between two vertebral bodies is very rare. In all previous cases, it occurred by major trauma. However, the bowel entrapment between two vertebral bodies without trauma has never been reported, not to mention as the cause of lower extremity radicular pain. We describe the case of an 82-year-old female patient with right lower extremity radicular pain without recent trauma history. The patient was diagnosed sigmoid colon entrapment between the L5 and S1 vertebrae by lumbar spinal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and showed improvement in radicular pain after manual reduction of interpositioned colon during surgery. Intestinal entrapment between two vertebrae without trauma is caused by degenerative and vacuum changes of the intervertebral disc combined with the anterior longitudinal ligament injury. PMID:26619145

  19. Case of plasmablastic lymphoma of the sigmoid colon and literature review.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Tomoko; Haraguchi, Masashi; Irie, Junji; Ito, Shinichiro; Tokai, Hirotaka; Noda, Kazumasa; Kitajima, Masachika; Minami, Shigeki; Inoue, Keiji; Sasaki, Yuya; Oshima, Koichi; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-06-28

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although PBL is most commonly observed in the oral cavity of HIV-positive patients, it can also be observed at extra-oral sites in HIV-negative patients. This report represents an unusual case of HIV-negative PBL that occurred in the sigmoid colon. This patient had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus and an underlying immunosuppressive state from long term steroid therapy. The lymphoma cells were positive for CD138, kappa light chain restriction and Epstein-Barr virus and negative for CD20/L26, CD3, CD79a, UCHL1 (CD45RO) and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The patient died approximately 2 mo after the operation. In the present paper, we review cases of PBL of the colon in HIV-negative patients. PMID:26140010

  20. Wandering intrauterine contraceptive device: An unusual travel to the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Kumarappan, A L; Karthikeyan, M; Gunaseelan, D; Ros'aini, P

    2015-10-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is common choice for contraception. Migration of IUCD is one of the complications that are encountered. Here we report a case of IUCD migration to the sigmoid colon. A 39-year-old Malay lady carrying a copper T type of IUCD presented with missing thread then underwent examination under anaesthesia, proceeded to hysteroscopy but failed removal. Abdominal ultrasound detected it in the left lower quadrant of abdomen. She then underwent diagnostic laparoscopy where the device was found to be embedded in the sigmoid colon. Technical difficulty necessitated conversion to mini laparotomy and sigmoidotomy to remove the IUCD and the bowel closed primarily. IUCD is a relatively simple and safe contraceptive procedure but possible complications are bleeding and pain that usually co-exist, pelvic infection, expulsion and perforation. Investigations should be based on clinical suspicion and migrated IUCD in symptomatic patients should be surgically removed whereas, asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively under certain circumstances. However in the presence of a concurrent pathology that requires exploration then retrieval of the migrated IUCD should be undertaken. PMID:26556122

  1. Relationship of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and dietary habits with sigmoid colon adenomas.

    PubMed

    Todoroki, I; Kono, S; Shinchi, K; Honjo, S; Sakurai, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Imanishi, K; Nishikawa, H; Ogawa, S; Katsurada, M

    1995-11-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and dietary factors and the risk of adenomas of the sigmoid colon was examined in male self-defense officials who received a preretirement health examination at three Self-Defense Forces hospitals in Japan. In the comparison between 228 patients with sigmoid adenomas and 1484 control subjects with normal colonoscopy findings (> or = 60 cm from the anus), a clear dose-response relationship was observed between cigarette smoking and risk of adenoma. After adjustment for rank, body mass index, alcohol use, and physical activity as well as for hospital and survey season, the odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for the categories of 0, 1 to 399, 400 to 799, and 800 or more cigarette-years were 1.0, 2.1 (1.2 to 3.5), 2.8 (1.8 to 4.3), and 3.5 (2.1 to 5.8), respectively. Current alcohol drinkers tended to have an increased risk, but without a dose-response relation. Among four types of alcoholic beverages (shochu, sake, beer, and whiskey), only whiskey showed a weak association with risk of adenoma. None of the 13 dietary items studied (including meat and rice consumption) was measurably associated with adenoma risk. The present findings provide additional evidence that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for colon adenomas. It is inconclusive regarding alcohol intake's association with adenoma risk. PMID:8680611

  2. Unusual foreign body in the sigmoid colon, chronic alcohol abuse, and Fournier gangrene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Dietmar; Mohor, Georgiana Simona; Solovan, Caius

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is an infectious condition with fulminant evolution and is sometimes life-threatening. Here, we present the case of an immunocompromised 59-year-old male with surgical history of a pancreatic pseudocyst stented endoscopically. After unrecognized stent migration in the sigmoid without colonic perforation, he developed severe necrosis of the scrotum and perineum, which spontaneously perforated, presenting a smell suggesting moist gangrene. FG that has spread to the male genital organs presents therapeutic challenges. The purpose of our study is to present this case, typical for FG, with an educational aim both for the internal and surgical specialties, and the goal of further multidisciplinary collaboration for the optimal management of the patient with personalized treatment. PMID:25878494

  3. Unusual foreign body in the sigmoid colon, chronic alcohol abuse, and Fournier gangrene: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Dietmar; Mohor, Georgiana Simona; Solovan, Caius

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is an infectious condition with fulminant evolution and is sometimes life-threatening. Here, we present the case of an immunocompromised 59-year-old male with surgical history of a pancreatic pseudocyst stented endoscopically. After unrecognized stent migration in the sigmoid without colonic perforation, he developed severe necrosis of the scrotum and perineum, which spontaneously perforated, presenting a smell suggesting moist gangrene. FG that has spread to the male genital organs presents therapeutic challenges. The purpose of our study is to present this case, typical for FG, with an educational aim both for the internal and surgical specialties, and the goal of further multidisciplinary collaboration for the optimal management of the patient with personalized treatment. PMID:25878494

  4. Gallstone ileus of the sigmoid colon: an extremely rare cause of large bowel obstruction detected by multiplanar CT.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tarryn; Gandhi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Gallstone ileus of the sigmoid colon is an important, though extremely rare, cause of large bowel obstruction. The gallstone often enters the large bowel through a fistula formation between the gallbladder and colon, and impacts at a point of narrowing, causing large bowel obstruction. We describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with features of bowel obstruction. Multiplanar abdominal CT demonstrated a cholecystocolonic fistula in exquisite detail. The scan also showed obstruction of the colon due to a large gallstone impacted just proximal to a stricture in the sigmoid. Owing to inflammatory adhesions and a stricture from extensive diverticular disease, the gallstone could not be retrieved. This frail and elderly woman was treated with a loop colostomy to relieve bowel obstruction. The patient made an uneventful recovery. PMID:26682834

  5. trans-Fatty Acid Consumption and its Association with Distal Colorectal Cancer in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study II

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Millikan, Robert C; Satia, Jessie A; Schroeder, Jane C; Martin, Christopher F; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the potential health effects of trans-fatty acid consumption have raised concerns. A few studies have examined the risk of colorectal cancer with increasing consumption of trans-fatty acids, but none investigated the risk of rectal cancer, which may have different risk factors than colon cancer. Our objective was to explore the relationship between trans-fatty acid consumption and distal colorectal (sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectal) cancer using a case-control study of Whites (n=1516) and African Americans (n=392) in North Carolina from 2001–2006. Matched cases and controls were interviewed about demographic information, lifestyle factors, and diet. White cases reported higher mean consumption of trans-fatty acid than White controls, but mean consumption was similar for African American cases and controls. Relative to the lowest quartile, the highest quartiles of energy-adjusted trans-fatty acid consumption were positively associated with distal colorectal cancer for Whites [adjusted ORs for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively: 1.54 (95%CI: 1.12, 2.13) and 1.45 (95%CI: 1.04, 2.03)]. Consumption was not associated with distal colorectal cancer in African Americans [adjusted ORs for the third and fourth quartiles: 0.98 (95%CI: 0.47, 2.05) and 0.87 (95%CI 0.42, 1.81)]. In conclusion, high consumption of trans-fatty acids was positively associated with distal colorectal cancer among Whites. PMID:19842051

  6. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49?g, 2.54±0.15?min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1??M). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100??M) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1?mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1??M) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10??M) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10??M) or ?-chymotrypsin (10?U?mL?1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1??M) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1??M). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1?nM–1?mM) or substance P (1?nM–10??M). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  7. [A case report of the use of laparoscopic surgery to remove an adrenal tumor following resection of sigmoid colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Okano, Miho; Yasui, Masayoshi; Nishino, Masaya; Hosoda, Yohei; Nagai, Kenichi; Kim, Yongkook; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2014-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman underwent sigmoidectomy and partial cystectomy for sigmoid colon cancer following colostomy. The final staging of the tumor was T3, N1, tub2, M0, fStage IIIa. She received 6 courses of CapeOX (oxaliplatin 130mg/m², capecitabine 200mg/m²) as adjuvant chemotherapy, which was discontinued because of severe general fatigue. At the same time, an increase in the levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was detected and abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an expanded adrenal mass. Since whole-body ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) showed no evidence of multiple organ metastases except for the right adrenal tumor, a solitary adrenal metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was strongly suspected. Hence, colostomy closure and laparoscopic adrenalectomy were concurrently performed. Histological examination revealed non-functional adrenal adenoma. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery was a reasonable choice even in this complex case. PMID:25731277

  8. An unusual colon atresia in a calf: at the junction of the distal loop and transverse colon. A brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Lombardero, Matilde; Yllera, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    Congenital defects are those abnormalities present at birth. During embryogenesis, many anomalies can occur. The primitive gut tube lengthens quickly and rotates, allowing the gastrointestinal tract acquire its final position and orientation. Because the colon of large animals is complex, most changes occur in this segment. Thus, in ruminants, colon atresia is the most frequent malformation, affecting mainly ascending colon, at the level of the spiral loop. There are no previous references about a very atypical colon atresia at the junction of distal loop and transverse colon, such we have described in a 5-day-old calf, after a history of abdominal distention and absence of feces at birth, even with a patent anal opening. Atresia coli was detected at distal position of the typical colon atresia, at the junction of distal loop and transverse colon. In addition, the distal blind end was bent into a U-shape supported by the mesocolon. Besides the anatomical findings of this worthwhile atresia coli we discuss its possible etiology, in which local factors, such as a compromised blood supply during embryogenesis, are more consistent than genetic factors. Finding out the causes of atresia coli would help to reduce its incidence, lessen animal suffering and economic loss. PMID:25495264

  9. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    PubMed

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants. PMID:23922705

  10. TRPV3, a thermosensitive channel is expressed in mouse distal colon epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Ugawa, Shinya; Ishida, Yusuke; Shimada, Shoichi

    2009-05-22

    The thermo-transient receptor potential (thermoTRP) subfamily is composed of channels that are important in nociception and thermo-sensing. Here, we show a selective expression of TRPV3 channel in the distal colon throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Expression analyses clearly revealed that TRPV3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in the superficial epithelial cells of the distal colon, but not in those of the stomach, duodenum or proximal colon. In a subset of primary epithelial cells cultured from the distal colon, carvacrol, an agonist for TRPV3, elevated cytosolic Ca{sup 2+}concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was inhibited by ruthenium red, a TRPV channel antagonist. Organotypic culture supported that the carvacrol-responsive cells were present in superficial epithelial cells. Moreover, application of carvacrol evoked ATP release in primary colonic epithelial cells. We conclude that TRPV3 is present in absorptive cells in the distal colon and may be involved in a variety of cellular functions.

  11. The Effects of Amiloride and Age on Oxygen Consumption Coupled to Electrogenic Sodium Transport in the Human Sigmoid Colon

    PubMed Central

    Carra, Graciela E.; Matus, Daniel; Ibáñez, Jorge E.; Saraví, Fernando D.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim: Aerobic metabolism is necessary for ion transport in many transporting epithelia, including the human colonic epithelium. We assessed the effects of the epithelial sodium channel blocker, amiloride, on oxygen consumption and short-circuit current of the human sigmoid epithelium to determine whether these effects were influenced by the age of the subject. Materials and Methods: Segments of the sigmoid colon were obtained from the safety margin of resections performed in patients of 62–77 years of age. Isolated mucosa preparations were obtained and mounted in airtight Ussing chambers, fit for simultaneous measurement of short-circuit current and oxygen concentration, before and after blocking epithelial sodium channels with amiloride (0.1 mmol/L). Regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between short-circuit current, oxygen consumption, and age of the subject as well as to define the relationship between the decreases in short-circuit current and oxygen consumption after blockade. Results: Epithelial sodium channel blockade caused an 80% reduction in short-circuit current and a 26% reduction in oxygen consumption. Regression analysis indicated that both changes were significantly related (r = 0.884; P = 0.0007). Oxygen consumption decreased by 1 ?mol/h/cm2 for each 25 ?A/cm2 decrease in short-circuit current. Neither short-circuit current nor oxygen consumption had any significant relationship with the age of the subjects. Conclusion: The decrease in epithelial oxygen consumption caused by amiloride is proportional to the decrease in short-circuit current and independent of the age of the subject. PMID:26458855

  12. Multicentric Primary Angiosarcoma of Bone Mimicking Metastasis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a Patient with a History of Sigmoid Colon Cancer: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Min Young; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Seok-Ki; Park, Seog-Yun; Kwon, Youngmee; Yun, Tak; Kim, Tae Sung

    2015-12-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the bone (PAB) is a rare and fatal high-grade malignant vascular bone tumor. We report a rare case of multicentric PAB mimicking bone metastasis in a 59-year-old female patient with a history of sigmoid colon cancer. This patient complained of lower back and pelvic pain and presented with multiple osteolytic bone lesions on plain radiography and pelvic computed tomography. First, bone metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer was suspected. However, on the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, the patient presented unusual multiple hypermetabolic osteolytic bone lesions involving contiguous bones of the lower half of the body. After bone biopsy, these lesions were confirmed to be multicentric PAB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in a patient with multicentric primary bone angiosarcoma. PMID:26550053

  13. Streptococcus gallolyticus Pil3 Pilus Is Required for Adhesion to Colonic Mucus and for Colonization of Mouse Distal Colon.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mariana; Aymeric, Laetitia; du Merle, Laurence; Danne, Camille; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Sansonetti, Philippe; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-11-15

    Streptococcus gallolyticus is an increasing cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis in the elderly. Several epidemiological studies have associated the presence of this bacterium with colorectal cancer. We have studied the interaction of S. gallolyticus with human colonic cells. S. gallolyticus strain UCN34, adhered better to mucus-producing cells such as HT-29-MTX than to the parental HT-29 cells. Attachment to colonic mucus is dependent on the pil3 pilus operon, which is heterogeneously expressed in the wild-type UCN34 population. We constructed a pil3 deletion mutant in a Pil3 overexpressing variant (Pil3+) and were able to demonstrate the role of Pil3 pilus in binding to colonic mucus. Importantly, we showed that pil3 deletion mutant was unable to colonize mice colon as compared to the isogenic Pil3+ variant. Our findings establish for the first time a murine model of intestinal colonization by S. gallolyticus. PMID:26014801

  14. Neurochemical characterization of extrinsic nerves in myenteric ganglia of the guinea pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao Nan; Sharrad, Dale F; Hibberd, Timothy J; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Costa, Marcello; Brookes, Simon J H

    2015-04-01

    Extrinsic nerves to the gut influence the absorption of water and electrolytes and expulsion of waste contents, largely via regulation of enteric neural circuits; they also contribute to control of blood flow. The distal colon is innervated by extrinsic sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and spinal afferent neurons, via axons in colonic nerve trunks. In the present study, biotinamide tracing of colonic nerves was combined with immunohistochemical labeling for markers of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and spinal afferent neurons to quantify their relative contribution to the extrinsic innervation. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase, which selectively label spinal afferent, parasympathetic, and sympathetic axons, respectively, were detected immunohistochemically in 1?±?0.5% (n?=?7), 15?±?4.7% (n?=?6), and 24?±?4% (n?=?7) of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia. Immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide synthase, somatostatin, and vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 accounted for a combined maximum of 14% of biotinamide-labeled axons in myenteric ganglia. Thus, a maximum of 53% of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia were labeled by antisera to one of these eight markers. Viscerofugal neurons were also labeled by biotinamide. They had distinct morphologies and spatial distributions that correlated closely with their immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase and choline acetyltransferase. As reported for the rectum, nearly half of all extrinsic nerve fibers to the distal colon lack the key immunohistochemical markers commonly used for their identification. Their abundance may therefore have been significantly underestimated in previous immunohistochemical studies. PMID:25380190

  15. Variability of cell proliferation in the proximal and distal colon of normal rats and rats with dimethylhydrazine induced carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing-Yong; Williamson, Kate E; Rowlands, Brian J

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the patterns of cell proliferation in proximal and distal colons in normal rats and rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced carcinogenesis using the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine. METHODS: Colonic crypt cell proliferation was immunohistochemically detected using the anti-bromodeoxyuridine Bu20a monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Marked regional differences were found in both groups. Total labelling index (LI) and proliferative zone size in both normal (8.65 ± 0.34 vs 7.2 ± 0.45, 27.74 ± 1.07 vs 16.75 ± 1.45) and DMH groups (13.13 ± 0.46 vs 11.55 ± 0.45, 39.60 ± 1.32 vs 35.52 ± 1.58) were significantly higher in distal than in proximal colon (P < 0.05), although the number of cells per proximal crypt was greater (31.45 ± 0.20 vs 34.45 ± 0.39, 42.68 ± 0.53 vs 49.09 ± 0.65, P < 0.0001). Crypt length, total LI and proliferative zone size all increased in both proximal and distal regions of DMH rats compared to normal controls (P < 0.0001). In DMH-treated rat colon a shift of labelled cells to higher crypt cell positions was demonstrated distally whilst a bi-directional shift was evident proximally (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results show that changes in cell proliferation patterns, as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake, can act as a reliable intermediate marker of colonic cancer formation. Observed differences between proliferation patterns in distal and proximal colon may be associated with the higher incidence of tumors in the distal colon. PMID:12378628

  16. Niti CAR 27 Versus a Conventional End-to-End Anastomosis Stapler in a Laparoscopic Anterior Resection for Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwag, Seung-Jin; Kim, Jun-Gi; Kang, Won-Kyung; Lee, Jin-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Niti CAR 27 (ColonRing) uses compression to create an anastomosis. This study aimed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of the anastomosis created with the Niti CAR 27 in a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer. Methods In a single-center study, 157 consecutive patients who received an operation between March 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively assessed. The Niti CAR 27 (CAR group, 63 patients) colorectal anastomoses were compared with the conventional double-stapled (CDS group, 94 patients) colorectal anastomoses. Intraoperative, immediate postoperative and 6-month follow-up data were recorded. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, gender, tumor location and other clinical characteristics. One patient (1.6%) in the CAR group and 2 patients (2.1%) in the CDS group experienced complications of anastomotic leakage (P = 0.647). These three patients underwent a diverting loop ileostomy. There were 2 cases (2.1%) of bleeding at the anastomosis site in the CDS group. All patients underwent a follow-up colonoscopy (median, 6 months). One patient in the CAR group experienced anastomotic stricture (1.6% vs. 0%; P = 0.401). This complication was solved by using balloon dilatation. Conclusion Anastomosis using the Niti CAR 27 device in a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer is safe and feasible. Its use is equivalent to that of the conventional double-stapler. PMID:24851217

  17. Distinct subclassification of DRG neurons innervating the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra based on the electrophysiological current signature

    PubMed Central

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Brian Y.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal sensory neurons innervating visceral and mucocutaneous tissues have unique microanatomic distribution, peripheral modality, and physiological, pharmacological, and biophysical characteristics compared with those neurons that innervate muscle and cutaneous tissues. In previous patch-clamp electrophysiological studies, we have demonstrated that small- and medium-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be subclassified on the basis of their patterns of voltage-activated currents (VAC). These VAC-based subclasses were highly consistent in their action potential characteristics, responses to algesic compounds, immunocytochemical expression patterns, and responses to thermal stimuli. For this study, we examined the VAC of neurons retrogradely traced from the distal colon and the glans penis/distal urethra in the adult male rat. The afferent population from the distal colon contained at least two previously characterized cell types observed in somatic tissues (types 5 and 8), as well as four novel cell types (types 15, 16, 17, and 18). In the glans penis/distal urethra, two previously described cell types (types 6 and 8) and three novel cell types (types 7, 14, and 15) were identified. Other characteristics, including action potential profiles, responses to algesic compounds (acetylcholine, capsaicin, ATP, and pH 5.0 solution), and neurochemistry (expression of substance P, CGRP, neurofilament, TRPV1, TRPV2, and isolectin B4 binding) were consistent for each VAC-defined subgroup. With identification of distinct DRG cell types that innervate the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra, future in vitro studies related to the gastrointestinal and urogenital sensory function in normal as well as abnormal/pathological conditions may be benefitted. PMID:24872531

  18. Chronic abdominal pain after ventral hernia due to mesh migration and erosion into the sigmoid colon from a distant site: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Millas, S G; Mesar, T; Patel, R J

    2015-10-01

    Hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed procedures in general surgery. Use of mesh has been shown to decrease the overall recurrence rate. Mesh implantation, however, carries its own risks and complications. We report a case of a 41-year-old female who presented with nonspecific, chronic lower abdominal pain after ventral hernia repair with mesh implantation. The chronic pain was found to be the consequence of mesh migration and erosion into the sigmoid colon from a previous supraumbilical hernia repair. Hernia repair, use of mesh, and chronic abdominal pain are discussed. PMID:24253380

  19. The flavonol quercetin activates basolateral K(+) channels in rat distal colon epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Rainer; Kuhn, Gisela; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2002-03-01

    1. The flavonol quercetin has been shown to activate a Cl(-) secretion in rat colon. Unlike the secretory activity of the related isoflavone genistein, quercetin's secretory activity does not depend on cyclic AMP; instead, it depends on Ca(2+). We investigated the possible involvement of Ca(2+) dependent basolateral K(+) channels using apically permeabilized rat distal colon epithelium mounted in Ussing chambers. 2. In intact epithelium, quercetin induced an increase in short-circuit current (I(sc)), which was diminished by the Cl(-) channel blockers NPPB and DPC, but not by glibenclamide, DIDS or anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. The effect of the flavonol was also inhibited by several serosally applied K(+) channel blockers (Ba(2+), quinine, clotrimazole, tetrapentylammonium, 293B), whereas other K(+) channel blockers failed to influence the quercetin-induced increase in I(sc) (tetraethylammonium, charybdotoxin). 3. The apical membrane was permeabilized by mucosal addition of nystatin and a serosally directed K(+) gradient was applied. The successful permeabilization was confirmed by experiments demonstrating the failure of bumetanide to inhibit the carbachol-induced current. 4. In apically permeabilized epithelium, quercetin induced a K(+) current (I(K)), which was neither influenced by ouabain nor by bumetanide. Whereas DPC, NPPB, charybdotoxin and 293B failed to inhibit this I(K), quinine, Ba(2+), clotrimazole and tetrapentylammonium were effective blockers of this current. 5. We conclude from these results that at least part of the quercetin-induced Cl(-) secretion can be explained by an activation of basolateral K(+) channels. PMID:11877325

  20. Evidence for tachykinin NK3 receptors-triggered peptide YY release from isolated guinea-pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shu-ichi; Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Ken; Anzai, Naohiko

    2014-10-01

    The anorectic gut hormone, peptide YY (PYY), is released from colonic mucosal endocrine cells, but little is known about the role for tachykinin NK3 receptor in the control of PYY release from the colonic mucosa. We investigated the functional role for NK3 receptors in the control of PYY release from isolated guinea-pig distal colon, and the role for NK3 receptors-triggered PYY release in the control of colonic motility. Isolated colonic preparations were mounted in organ baths for measurement of PYY release and mechanical activity. The release of PYY from these preparations was determined by enzyme immunoassays. The NK3 receptor agonist senktide produced a tetrodotoxin/atropine-sensitive sustained increase in the release of PYY from the colonic preparations. Basal PYY release was transiently inhibited by the NK3 receptor antagonist SB222200. The neuropeptide Y1 receptor antagonist BIBO3304 produced a leftward shift of the concentration-response curves for senktide-evoked neurogenic contraction, but neither the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 nor the neuropeptide Y5 receptor antagonist CGP71683 affected the senktide concentration-response curves. NK3 receptors appear to play an important role in the control of PYY release from colonic mucosa, and NK3 receptor-triggered PYY release can exert Y1 receptor-mediated inhibition of tachykinergic neuromuscular transmission. This indicates a pathophysiological role for the NK3 receptor-triggered PYY release in the control of colonic motility. PMID:25034808

  1. Active K transport across rabbit distal colon: relation to Na absorption and Cl secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    The authors measured isotopic unidirectional fluxes of K to elucidate the mechanisms of active K transport across the distal colon of the rabbit. Separate pathways for active K absorption and active K secretion were detected using various transport inhibitors and stimulators. The rate and direction of net USK transport depend on the activities of these two pathways. K absorption was reduced by orthovanadate (both solutions) or serosal Ba, consistent with ATPase-dependent uptake of K across the apical membrane and exit via a Ba-sensitive basolateral K conductance. K secretion was inhibited by serosal ouabain or mucosal Ba, indicating that K secretion involves basolateral uptake via the Na-K pump and apical exit via a Ba-sensitive K conductance. Active K secretion appears to be electrogenic, since inhibition by ouabain produced equivalent changes in the net K flux and short-circuit current. Addition of bumetanide to the serosal solution or the removal of either Na or Cl from the serosal solution inhibited K secretion; mucosal solutions amiloride was without effect. These results indicate that this K secretory process is independent of electrogenic Na absorption but is mechanistically similar to TWCl secretory processes. Both epinephrine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate K secretion, but only PGE2 also stimulates Cl secretion. The response to these secretogogues suggest that the mechanisms underlying K and Cl secretion are closely linked but can be regulated independently.

  2. Age-Related Changes in Melatonin Release in the Murine Distal Colon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Constipation and fecal impaction are conditions of the bowel whose prevalence increases with age. Limited information is known about how these conditions manifest; however, functional deficits are likely to be due to changes in signaling within the bowel. This study investigated the effects of age on colonic mucosal melatonin (MEL) release and the consequences this had on colonic motility. Electrochemical measurements of MEL overflow demonstrated that both basal and mechanically stimulated MEL release decreased with age. The MEL/serotonin also decreased with increasing age, and the trend was similar to that of MEL overflow, suggestive that age-related changes were primarily due to a reduction in MEL levels. Levels of N-acetylserotonin and the N-acetylserotonin/serotonin ratio were reduced with age, providing an explanation for the reduction in MEL release. Decreases in colonic motility were observed in animals between 3 and 24 months old. Exogenous application of MEL could reverse this deficit in aged colon. In summary, we propose that the age-related decline in MEL release may be due to either decreases or alterations in mechanosensory channels and/or a loss in levels/activity of the N-acetyltransferase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin. Decreases in MEL release may explain the decreases in colonic motility observed in 24 month old animals and could offer a new potential therapeutic treatment for age-related constipation. PMID:23631514

  3. A smooth muscle tone-dependent stretch-activated migrating motor pattern in isolated guinea-pig distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terence K; Oliver, Gavin R; Hennig, Grant W; O'Shea, Deirdre M; Berghe, Pieter Vanden; Kang, Sok Han; Spencer, Nick J

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the tone dependence of the intrinsic nervous activity generated by localized wall distension in isolated segments of guinea-pig distal colon using mechanical recordings and video imaging of wall movements. A segment of colon was threaded through two partitions, which divided the colon for pharmacological purposes into oral, stimulation and anal regions. An intraluminal balloon was located in the stimulation region between the two partitions (12 mm apart). Maintained colonic distension by an intraluminal balloon or an artificial faecal pellet held at a fixed location generated rhythmic (frequency 0.3 contractions min?1; duration ˜60 s) peristaltic waves of contraction. Video imaging of colonic wall movements or the selective application of pharmacological agents suggested that peristaltic waves originated just oral (? 4 mm) to the pellet and propagated both orally (˜11 mm s?1) and anally (˜1 mm s?1). Also, during a peristaltic wave the colon appears to passively shorten in front of a pellet, as a result of an active contraction of the longitudinal muscle oral to the pellet. Faecal pellet movement only occurred when a rhythmic peristaltic wave was generated. Rhythmic peristaltic waves were abolished in all regions by the smooth muscle relaxants isoproterenol (1 ?M), nicardipine (1 ?M) or papavarine (10 ?M), and by the neural antagonists tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 ?M), hexamethonium (100 ?M) or atropine (1 ?M), when added selectively to the stimulation region. Nicardipine, atropine, TTX, or hexamethonium (100 ?M) also blocked the evoked peristaltic waves when selectively added to the oral region. N?-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA; 100 ?M) added to the anal region reduced the anal relaxation but increased the anal contraction, leading to an increase in the apparent conduction velocity of each peristaltic wave. In conclusion, maintained distension by a fixed artificial pellet generates propulsive, rhythmic peristaltic waves, whose enteric neural activity is critically dependent upon smooth muscle tone. These peristaltic waves usually originate just oral to the pellet, and their apparent conduction velocity is generated by activation of descending inhibitory nerve pathways. PMID:12847208

  4. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Jones, Roger W.; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  5. Use of reference gene expression in rat distal colon after radiation exposure: a caveat.

    PubMed

    Ropenga, Anna; Chapel, Alain; Vandamme, Marie; Griffiths, Nina M

    2004-05-01

    Research on the effects of ionizing radiation exposure includes transcriptome studies using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies require the use of a reference gene that normalizes for cDNA quantity and corrects for transcription between different samples. In this study, several criteria are reviewed that allow the choice of a reference gene. With the example of five genes selected from the widely used standard housekeeping genes, Gapd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Hprt (hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase), cyclophilin A, AcRP0 (acidic ribosomal protein P0) and 18S, we show that the use of a reference gene without a preliminary study is hazardous. We have shown in rat colon after a hemi-body irradiation that expression of a gene of interest, the serotonin receptor type 1F (5-HT(1F)), was either increased or unchanged, with the result depending on the reference gene used. This work has led us to propose the use of two reference genes, a ribosomal gene, 18S, and another gene with a level of expression closer to that of the gene of interest. The methodology reported here may be applied to other studies of gene expression levels to evaluate the effects of experimental treatment on the expression of potential reference genes. PMID:15161363

  6. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Derek M; Hurst, Norman R; Bradley, Zachary L; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R

    2014-12-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide release were measured in three-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured by video recording in guinea pig distal colon. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in enteroendocrine cells of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. In T1R1(-/-) mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by l-cysteine, but not l-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 activation by luminal MSG or l-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex and CGRP release and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion. PMID:25324508

  7. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Derek M.; Hurst, Norman R.; Bradley, Zachary L.; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F.; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S.

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide release were measured in three-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine 5?-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured by video recording in guinea pig distal colon. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in enteroendocrine cells of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. In T1R1?/? mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by l-cysteine, but not l-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 activation by luminal MSG or l-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex and CGRP release and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion. PMID:25324508

  8. A novel surgical approach for treatment of sigmoid gallstone ileus.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Abbey; Farkas, Nicholas; Black, John; West, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of large bowel obstruction secondary to a gallstone impacted within the sigmoid colon, in the presence of sigmoid diverticular disease. An 89-year-old woman presented with an 8-day history of increasing abdominal distension, pain and associated nausea. Abdominal X-ray demonstrated large bowel dilation. CT scan revealed a fistula between an inflamed gallbladder and the hepatic flexure of the colon, with a large gallstone in the sigmoid colon. Proximal dilated large bowel was evident to the caecum. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed as the least invasive potential treatment method with a view to basket retrieval or fragmentation of the stone. Owing to poor views and risk of diverticular perforation, the procedure was abandoned, hence laparotomy was performed. Antegrade manipulation and per-rectal evacuation were attempted but failed due to a thickened, angulated sigmoid colon. Retrograde milking of the stone to the caecum and retrieval via modified appendicectomy was successful. PMID:26150623

  9. Localisation and activation of the neurokinin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system of the mouse distal colon.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Juan-Carlos; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Eriksson, Emily M; Bunnett, Nigel W; Poole, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    The substance P neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) regulates motility, secretion, inflammation and pain in the intestine. The distribution of the NK1R is a key determinant of the functional effects of substance P in the gut. Information regarding the distribution of NK1R in subtypes of mouse enteric neurons is lacking and is the focus of the present study. NK1R immunoreactivity (NK1R-IR) is examined in whole-mount preparations of the mouse distal colon by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The distribution of NK1R-IR within key functional neuronal subclasses was determined by using established neurochemical markers. NK1R-IR was expressed by a subpopulation of myenteric and submucosal neurons; it was mainly detected in large multipolar myenteric neurons and was colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament M, choline acetyltransferase and calretinin. The remaining NK1R-immunoreactive neurons were positive for nitric oxide synthase. NK1R was expressed by most of the submucosal neurons and was exclusively co-expressed with vasoactive intestinal peptide, with no overlap with choline acetyltransferase. Treatment with substance P resulted in the concentration-dependent internalisation of NK1R from the cell surface into endosome-like structures. Myenteric NK1R was mainly expressed by intrinsic primary afferent neurons, with minor expression by descending interneurons and inhibitory motor neurons. Submucosal NK1R was restricted to non-cholinergic secretomotor neurons. These findings highlight key differences in the neuronal distribution of NK1R-IR between the mouse, rat and guinea-pig, with important implications for the functional role of NK1R in regulating intestinal motility and secretion. PMID:24728885

  10. Sigmoid volvulus: is it a possible complication after stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR)?

    PubMed Central

    RESTA, G.; SCAGLIARINI, L.; BANDI, M.; VEDANA, L.; MARZETTI, A.; FERROCCI, G.; SANTINI, M.; ANANIA, G.; CAVALLESCO, G.; BACCARINI, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We report a case of sigmoid volvulus post-stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) for obstructed defecation. The patient, a 68-year-old woman with chronic constipation and dolichosigma, two days post-STARR presented severe abdominal pain. CT revealed sigmoid ischemia. The patient underwent resection of the sigmoid colon with end colostomy (Hartmann’s procedure). Can STARR procedure produce a serious complication as sigmoid volvulus in patient with dolichosigma and obstructed defecation syndrome? PMID:24091179

  11. [The formation of the transplant for its descending to perineum with the sphincter-salvaging surgery in patients with disseminated sigmoid colon blood supply].

    PubMed

    Bondar', G V; Basheev, V Kh; Zolotukhin, S E; Popadinets, A A; Donets, V L; Borota, A V; Efimochkin, O E; Psaras, G G; Iaroshenko, M V

    2000-01-01

    The methods of the transplant formation in the loose type of the sigmoyd colon blood supply and insufficiency of the over vessel, applied in patients during sphincter-preserving operation performance for cancer recti, was proposed. Satisfactory immediate and late follow up result was noted. PMID:10859912

  12. An exploration of the microrheological environment around the distal ileal villi and proximal colonic mucosa of the possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; Williams, M A K; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M; Mansel, B W; Keen, S A J; Chambers, P

    2013-04-01

    Multiple particle-tracking techniques were used to quantify the thermally driven motion of ensembles of naked polystyrene (0.5 µm diameter) microbeads in order to determine the microrheological characteristics around the gut mucosa. The microbeads were introduced into living ex vivo preparations of the wall of the terminal ileum and proximal colon of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The fluid environment surrounding both the ileal villi and colonic mucosa was heterogeneous; probably comprising discrete viscoelastic regions suspended in a continuous Newtonian fluid of viscosity close to water. Neither the viscosity of the continuous phase, the elastic modulus (G') nor the sizes of viscoelastic regions varied significantly between areas within 20 µm and areas more than 20 µm from the villous mucosa nor from the tip to the sides of the villous mucosa. The viscosity of the continuous phase at distances further than 20 µm from the colonic mucosa was greater than that at the same distance from the ileal villous mucosa. Furthermore, the estimated sizes of viscoelastic regions were significantly greater in the colon than in the ileum. These findings validate the sensitivity of the method and call into question previous hypotheses that a contiguous layer of mucus envelops all intestinal mucosa and restricts diffusive mass transfer. Our findings suggest that, in the terminal ileum and colon at least, mixing and mass transfer are governed by more complex dynamics than were previously assumed, perhaps with gel filtration by viscoelastic regions that are suspended in a Newtonian fluid. PMID:23389898

  13. An exploration of the microrheological environment around the distal ileal villi and proximal colonic mucosa of the possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. F.; Williams, M. A. K.; Lentle, R. G.; Janssen, P. W. M.; Mansel, B. W.; Keen, S. A. J.; Chambers, P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple particle-tracking techniques were used to quantify the thermally driven motion of ensembles of naked polystyrene (0.5 µm diameter) microbeads in order to determine the microrheological characteristics around the gut mucosa. The microbeads were introduced into living ex vivo preparations of the wall of the terminal ileum and proximal colon of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The fluid environment surrounding both the ileal villi and colonic mucosa was heterogeneous; probably comprising discrete viscoelastic regions suspended in a continuous Newtonian fluid of viscosity close to water. Neither the viscosity of the continuous phase, the elastic modulus (G’) nor the sizes of viscoelastic regions varied significantly between areas within 20 µm and areas more than 20 µm from the villous mucosa nor from the tip to the sides of the villous mucosa. The viscosity of the continuous phase at distances further than 20 µm from the colonic mucosa was greater than that at the same distance from the ileal villous mucosa. Furthermore, the estimated sizes of viscoelastic regions were significantly greater in the colon than in the ileum. These findings validate the sensitivity of the method and call into question previous hypotheses that a contiguous layer of mucus envelops all intestinal mucosa and restricts diffusive mass transfer. Our findings suggest that, in the terminal ileum and colon at least, mixing and mass transfer are governed by more complex dynamics than were previously assumed, perhaps with gel filtration by viscoelastic regions that are suspended in a Newtonian fluid. PMID:23389898

  14. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Park, So Hae; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Song, Sung Hwa; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hee Seob; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP), including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats. PMID:26151867

  15. The traditional anti-diarrheal remedy, Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract, inhibits propulsive motility and fast synaptic potentials in the guinea pig distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Bhattarai, Yogesh; Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe; Lesakit, Mellau S.B.; Mawe, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Garcinia buchananii bark extract is a traditional African remedy for diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal discomfort and pain. We investigated the mechanisms and efficacy of this extract using the guinea pig distal colon model of gastrointestinal motility. Methods Stem bark was collected from G. buchananii trees in their natural habitat of Karagwe, Tanzania. Bark was sun dried and ground into fine powder, which was suspended in Krebs to obtain an aqueous extract. Isolated guinea pig distal colon was used to determine the effect of the G. buchananii bark extract on fecal pellet propulsion. Intracellular recording was used to evaluate the extract action on evoked fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in S- neurons of the myenteric plexus. Key Results G. buchananii bark extract inhibited pellet propulsion in a concentration-dependent manner, with an optimal concentration of ~10 mg powder ml?1. Interestingly, washout of the extract resulted in an increase in pellet propulsion to a level above basal activity. The extract reversibly reduced the amplitude of evoked fEPSPs in myenteric neurons. The extract’s inhibitory action on propulsive motility and fEPSPs was not affected by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, or the alpha- 2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine. The extract inhibited pellet motility in the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists picrotoxin and phaclofen, respectively. However, phaclofen and picrotoxin inhibited recovery rebound of motility during washout. Conclusions & Inferences G. buchananii extract has the potential to provide an effective, non-opiate anti-diarrheal drug. Further studies are required to characterize bioactive components and elucidate the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety. PMID:20718943

  16. The colon carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is actively secreted in the distal colon of the rat: an integrated view on the role of PhIP transport and metabolism in PhIP-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nicken, Petra; Schröder, Bernd; von Keutz, Anne; Breves, Gerhard; Steinberg, Pablo

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies show that a positive correlation exists between the consumption of strongly heated meat and fish and the development of colorectal tumours. In this context, it has been postulated that the uptake of toxic substances formed during meat and fish processing such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) may be causally related to colon carcinogenesis. In a previous study, we have shown that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundantly formed HCA in the above-mentioned food items, is mainly absorbed in the small intestine (i.e. proximal jejunum) of the rat. In the present study, we analysed whether PhIP can actively be secreted by enterocytes in the rat proximal jejunum and distal colon. Unidirectional PhIP flux rates from the mucosal-to-the serosal compartment (J ms ) and in the opposite direction (J sm ) were examined in Ussing chambers with (14)C-PhIP as radiotracer and in the absence of electrochemical gradients. Under these experimental conditions, significant negative net flux rates (J net  = J ms  - J sm ) can only be explained by an active secretion of PhIP into the luminal compartment, and such an effect was observed in the rat distal colon, but not in the proximal jejunum. Moreover, the data obtained suggest that the breast cancer resistance protein, the multidrug resistance protein 4 and P-glycoprotein are not involved in the active secretion of PhIP in the rat distal colon. The potential role of PhIP transport in colon carcinogenesis is discussed. PMID:23306951

  17. Adult colonic intussusception: Surgery still the best option.

    PubMed

    Dungerwalla, M; Loh, S; Smart, P

    2012-01-01

    Intussusception is the telescoping of proximal bowel wall into the lumen of a distal segment. Whilst it is common in children, intussusception in adults is rare, and predominantly occurs secondary to an underlying malignant neoplasm. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) is preferred for detection of lead points and lesion localisation. We present the case of a 79-year-old female with a four-day history of colicky abdominal pain followed by obstipation and distension. CT demonstrated a rounded heterogeneous density protruding into the upper rectal lumen, and also left-sided colonic obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed a mid-sigmoid colonic mass intussuscepting into the rectum. Histopathology confirmed a T3N1 moderately differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma. Given the high likelihood of underlying malignancy, surgical reduction of the intussusceptum may be complicated by perforation and tumour spillage. En bloc resection using oncologic surgical principles remains the first line treatment. PMID:24960672

  18. Natural history of uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Mortensen, Neil J; Ris, Frederic; Morel, Philippe; Gervaz, Pascal

    2015-11-27

    While diverticular disease is extremely common, the natural history (NH) of its most frequent presentation (i.e., sigmoid diverticulitis) is poorly investigated. Relevant information is mostly restricted to population-based or retrospective studies. This comprehensive review aimed to evaluate the NH of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. While there is a clear lack of uniformity in terminology, which results in difficulties interpreting and comparing findings between studies, this review demonstrates the benign nature of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate is relatively low, ranging from 13% to 47%, depending on the definition used by the authors. Among different risk factors for recurrence, patients with C-reactive protein > 240 mg/L are three times more likely to recur. Other risk factors include: Young age, a history of several episodes of acute diverticulitis, medical vs surgical management, male patients, radiological signs of complicated first episode, higher comorbidity index, family history of diverticulitis, and length of involved colon > 5 cm. The risk of developing a complicated second episode (and its corollary to require an emergency operation) is less than 2%-5%. In fact, the old rationale for elective surgery as a preventive treatment, based mainly on concerns that recurrence would result in a progressively increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy, is not upheld by the current evidence. PMID:26649154

  19. Natural history of uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Mortensen, Neil J; Ris, Frederic; Morel, Philippe; Gervaz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    While diverticular disease is extremely common, the natural history (NH) of its most frequent presentation (i.e., sigmoid diverticulitis) is poorly investigated. Relevant information is mostly restricted to population-based or retrospective studies. This comprehensive review aimed to evaluate the NH of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. While there is a clear lack of uniformity in terminology, which results in difficulties interpreting and comparing findings between studies, this review demonstrates the benign nature of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate is relatively low, ranging from 13% to 47%, depending on the definition used by the authors. Among different risk factors for recurrence, patients with C-reactive protein > 240 mg/L are three times more likely to recur. Other risk factors include: Young age, a history of several episodes of acute diverticulitis, medical vs surgical management, male patients, radiological signs of complicated first episode, higher comorbidity index, family history of diverticulitis, and length of involved colon > 5 cm. The risk of developing a complicated second episode (and its corollary to require an emergency operation) is less than 2%-5%. In fact, the old rationale for elective surgery as a preventive treatment, based mainly on concerns that recurrence would result in a progressively increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy, is not upheld by the current evidence. PMID:26649154

  20. Sigmoid carcinoma localized in the sac of a right inguinoscrotal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Papachrysostomou, Marios; Oikonomou, Christiana; Villias, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    The inguinoscrotal hernia with colonic malignancy in the sac presents rare but severe consequence. The most common side of this type of hernia is the left one while the most common part of the large bowel is the sigmoid colon. The clinical picture can be easily confused with simple inguinoscrotal hernia unless the clinician is alert to the presence of certain sinister symptoms and signs. We report an extremely rare case of a 91-year-old man presented with anemia who had a right inguinoscrotal hernia containing a sigmoid colon carcinoma.

  1. DISTAL MYOPATHIES

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Over a century ago, Gowers described two young patients in whom distal muscles weakness involved the hand, foot, sternocleidomastoid, and facial muscles in the other case the shoulder and distal leg musculature. Soon after, , similar distal myopathy cases were reported whereby the absence of sensory symptoms and of pathologic changes in the peripheral nerves and spinal cord at postmortem examination allowed differentiation from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In 1951, Welander described autosomal dominant (AD) distal arm myopathy in a large Scandanavian cohort. Since then the number of well-characterized distal myopathies has continued to grow such that the distal myopathies have formed a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Affected kindred commonly manifest weakness that is limited to foot and toe muscles even in advanced stages of the disease, with variable mild proximal leg, distal arm, neck and laryngeal muscle involvement in selected individuals. An interesting consequence of the molecular characterization of the distal myopathies has been the recognition that mutation in a single gene can lead to more than one clinical disorder. For example, Myoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2B are allelic disorders due to defects in the gene that encodes dysferlin. The six well described distal myopathy syndromes are shown in Table 1. Table 2 lists advances in our understanding of the myofibrillar myopathy group and Table 3 includes more recently delineated and less common distal myopathies. In the same manner, the first section of this review pertains to the more traditional six distal myopathies followed by discussion of the myofibrillar myopathies. In the third section, we review other clinically and genetically distinctive distal myopathy syndromes usually based upon single or smaller family cohorts. The fourth section considers other neuromuscular disorders that are important to recognize as they display prominent distal limb weakness. PMID:25037092

  2. Sigmoid diverticulitis: US findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute diverticulitis (AD) results from inflammation of a colonic diverticulum. It is the most common cause of acute left lower-quadrant pain in adults and represents a common reason for acute hospitalization, as it affects over half of the population over 65 years with a prevalence that increases with age. Although 85% of colonic diverticulitis will recover with a nonoperative treatment, some patients may have complications such as abscesses, fistulas, obstruction, and /or perforation at presentation. For these reasons, different classifications were introduced through times to help clinicians to develop a correct diagnosis and guide the treatment and for the same reasons imaging is used in most cases both to realise a differential diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic management. US and CT are both usefull in diagnosis of diverticolitis, and their sensibility and specificity are similar. However CT scanning is essential for investigating complicated diverticular disease especially where there are diffuse signs and clinical suspicion of secondary peritonitis; instead in most uncomplicated cases the experienced sonographer may quickly confirm a diagnosis guided by the clinical signs. US is to be recommended in premenopausal women, and in young people to reduce dose exposure. PMID:23902791

  3. [Comparative study of morphometric parameters of the descending sigmoid sphincter according to the data of optical and virtual colonoscopy].

    PubMed

    Azarov, V F; Ignat'ev, Iu T; Putilova, I N; Skripkin, D A

    2014-01-01

    Morphometric parameters of a descending sigmoid sphincter (DSS) were defined in 32 patients of both sexes aged 20-71 years (average age: 48.0 +/- 2.2 years) with various forms of colon lumen at the site of sphincter. Densitometric indices of DSS and surrounding soft tissues were estimated. Vital morphological peculiarities of descending-sigmoid junction of the colon were demonstrated, and the diameter of the colon at the level of a sphincter was defined. The data obtained confirm the anatomical character of the colon sphincters and may be used as a basis for the interpretation of optical and virtual endoscopic images and DSS description for the application in differential diagnostics and precision surgery of various colon diseases. PMID:25282823

  4. Stercoral Perforation of the Colon during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Costales, Anthony B.; Agarwal, Amit K.; Chauhan, Suneet P.; Refuerzo, Jerrie S.; Taub, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Stercoral perforation of the colon, though rare, is associated with high mortality. Review of the literature identified only three prior cases reported during pregnancy. We report a case on a multiparous female presenting at 31 weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain. Computed tomography suggested a sigmoid colon perforation. An urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed where feculent peritonitis and a stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon was confirmed. A cesarean delivery and sigmoid colectomy with descending end colostomy was performed. While the newborn had an uncomplicated course, the mother developed an intra-abdominal abscess requiring operative management. PMID:26199793

  5. Robotic versus laparoscopic resection for sigmoid diverticulitis with fistula.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Peter A; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Abbass, Mohammad A; Abbas, Maher A

    2015-06-01

    Robotic abdominal surgery is growing despite a paucity of clinical reports to evaluate its impact on patient outcomes. In this retrospective case series, we aim to analyze our early experience with robotic resection in 11 consecutive patients with chronic colonic diverticulitis complicated by fistula to bladder, vagina, or skin and to compare the results of the robotic approach to 20 patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for the same indication. Our main outcome measures include operative time, blood loss, conversion rate, transfusion rate, hospital length of stay, complications, readmission, and fistula healing rate. In our study, we found robotic resection for colonic diverticulitis with fistula was technically feasible and yielded 100 % fistula healing rate. The operative time, complication and readmission rates were similar to laparoscopy. A higher conversion rate, diverting stoma need, and longer hospital length of stay were noted in the robotic group; however, these findings could have been attributed to a higher number of cases involving rectal excision in the robotic group. Larger studies are needed to further examine the impact of robotic surgery on the outcome of patients with complicated chronic sigmoid diverticulitis. PMID:26531114

  6. Distal splenorenal shunt

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shunt procedure; Renal - splenic venous shunt; Warren shunt; Cirrhosis - distal splenorenal; Liver failure - distal splenorenal ... hepatitis Blood clots Certain congenital disorders Primary biliary cirrhosis When blood cannot flow normally through the portal ...

  7. Distal Convoluted Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The distal convoluted tubule is the nephron segment that lies immediately downstream of the macula densa. Although short in length, the distal convoluted tubule plays a critical role in sodium, potassium, and divalent cation homeostasis. Recent genetic and physiologic studies have greatly expanded our understanding of how the distal convoluted tubule regulates these processes at the molecular level. This article provides an update on the distal convoluted tubule, highlighting concepts and pathophysiology relevant to clinical practice. PMID:24855283

  8. The lingual distalizer system.

    PubMed

    Carano, A; Testa, M; Siciliani, G

    1996-10-01

    Class II molar relationships can be corrected by several methods. In previous systems, orthodontic forces have been applied to crowns and distal movement of the first molar has mainly been by tipping and a rotation of the crowns. A new Lingual Distalizer (LD) has recently been developed to distalize the maxillary molars without the drawbacks of previous appliances. The lingual distalizer is relatively easy to insert, is well-tolerated, does not require patient co-operation and is aesthetic. It distalizes molars without loss of anchorage and moves them with bodily translation. PMID:8942092

  9. "Cat Scratch Colon" in a Patient with Ischemic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-01-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon. PMID:25844349

  10. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon. PMID:25844349

  11. Online Catalog for Filament-Sigmoid Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriot, Ivy; Pevtsov, A.; Martens, P.

    2007-05-01

    A new online catalog correlating H-alpha filaments with SXT sigmoids gives researchers, teachers and pre-college students the ability to access digital H-alpha images online that were previously available only at the physical location of the NSO at Sunspot, NM. This web-based catalog correlates SOHO's SXT sigmoids from 1993-1998 as described in a non-online catalog created by Zach Blehm under the direction of Richard Canfield, MSU-Bozeman, with H-alpha filament activity as described by Ivy Merriot under the direction of Alexei Pevtsov, NSO, and Petrus Martens, MSU-Bozeman. The H-alpha images were digitized from film archives of the Flare Patrol Telescope at Sunspot, NM. Use of the online catalog will be demonstrated at the poster site with critical comments encouraged.

  12. Distal Radius Attachments of the Radiocarpal Ligaments: An Anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Zumstein, M. A.; Hasan, A. P.; McGuire, D. T.; Eng, Kevin; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2013-01-01

    Background?Understanding the anatomy of the ligaments of the distal radius aids in the surgical repair of ligamentous injuries and the prediction of intraarticular fracture patterns. Purposes?(1) to measure the horizontal and vertical distances of the origins of the radiocarpal ligaments from the most ulnar corner of the sigmoid notch and the joint line, respectively; and (2) to express them as a percentile of the total width of the bony distal radius. Methods?We dissected 8 cadaveric specimens and identified the dorsal radiocarpal, radioscaphocapitate, and the long and short radiolunate ligaments. Results?The dorsal radiocarpal ligament attached from the 16th to the 52nd percentile of the radial width. The radioscaphocapitate ligament attached around the radial styloid from the 86th percentile volarly to the 87th percentile dorsally. The long radiolunate ligament attached from the 59th to the 85th percentile, and the short radiolunate ligament attached from the 14th to the 41st percentile. Discussion?There was a positive correlation between the radial width and the horizontal distance of the ligaments from the sigmoid notch. These findings may aid individualized surgical repair or reconstruction adjusted to patient size and enable further standardized research on distal radial fractures and their relationship with radiocarpal ligaments. PMID:24436840

  13. Distal radius attachments of the radiocarpal ligaments: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Zumstein, M A; Hasan, A P; McGuire, D T; Eng, Kevin; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2013-11-01

    Background?Understanding the anatomy of the ligaments of the distal radius aids in the surgical repair of ligamentous injuries and the prediction of intraarticular fracture patterns. Purposes?(1) to measure the horizontal and vertical distances of the origins of the radiocarpal ligaments from the most ulnar corner of the sigmoid notch and the joint line, respectively; and (2) to express them as a percentile of the total width of the bony distal radius. Methods?We dissected 8 cadaveric specimens and identified the dorsal radiocarpal, radioscaphocapitate, and the long and short radiolunate ligaments. Results?The dorsal radiocarpal ligament attached from the 16th to the 52nd percentile of the radial width. The radioscaphocapitate ligament attached around the radial styloid from the 86th percentile volarly to the 87th percentile dorsally. The long radiolunate ligament attached from the 59th to the 85th percentile, and the short radiolunate ligament attached from the 14th to the 41st percentile. Discussion?There was a positive correlation between the radial width and the horizontal distance of the ligaments from the sigmoid notch. These findings may aid individualized surgical repair or reconstruction adjusted to patient size and enable further standardized research on distal radial fractures and their relationship with radiocarpal ligaments. PMID:24436840

  14. FIP bias in a sigmoidal active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359'' × 485''. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  15. Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist) Page ( 1 ) The radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm. The end toward the wrist is called the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area ...

  16. Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data Augmentation: Supplemental Material

    E-print Network

    Carin, Lawrence

    Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data Augmentation: Supplemental Material Zhe Gan Ricardo. For W: The conditional distribution of wj is #12;Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data, Durham NC 27708, USA A Graphical Model Figure 1 shows the graphical model for the deep SBN

  17. Incidental Phaeochromocytoma on Staging PET-CT in a Patient with a Sigmoid Tumour and Situs Inversalis Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Boland, M. R.; Lowery, A. J.; Walsh, S.; Beddy, D.; Prichard, R. S.; O'Shea, D.; Skehan, S. J.; McDermott, E. W.

    2014-01-01

    An adrenal “incidentaloma” is defined as an unexpected finding on radiological imaging performed for unrelated indications. Improvements in radiological technology have seen a dramatic increase in this phenomenon. We report the unique case of a 60-year-old female presenting with a 6-month history of abdominal pain, altered bowel habit, and rectal bleeding. Her past medical history included situs inversus totalis and a patent ductus arteriosus. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated tumour in her sigmoid colon. Staging PET-CT confirmed a sigmoid tumour and also identified a large heterogenous enhancing FDG-avid right adrenal mass. Biochemical testing/MIBG imaging confirmed a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma. Hypertension was controlled and excision was performed via a transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy, in the left lateral decubitus position. Uniquely, liver retraction was not required due to its position in the left hypochondrium. Histology confirmed a benign 46?mm phaeochromocytoma. Subsequent uncomplicated sigmoid colectomy/right salpingo-oophorectomy for a locally advanced colonic tumour was performed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case highlights the importance of accurately identifying functioning adrenal tumours before elective surgery as undiagnosed phaeochromocytomas carry significant intraoperative morbidity/mortality. Right adrenalectomy was made easier in this patient by the liver's unique position. Uncomplicated colorectal resection was made possible by combined preoperative functional/anatomical imaging. PMID:25110602

  18. Incidental Phaeochromocytoma on Staging PET-CT in a Patient with a Sigmoid Tumour and Situs Inversalis Totalis.

    PubMed

    Boland, M R; Lowery, A J; Walsh, S; Beddy, D; Prichard, R S; O'Shea, D; Skehan, S J; McDermott, E W

    2014-01-01

    An adrenal "incidentaloma" is defined as an unexpected finding on radiological imaging performed for unrelated indications. Improvements in radiological technology have seen a dramatic increase in this phenomenon. We report the unique case of a 60-year-old female presenting with a 6-month history of abdominal pain, altered bowel habit, and rectal bleeding. Her past medical history included situs inversus totalis and a patent ductus arteriosus. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated tumour in her sigmoid colon. Staging PET-CT confirmed a sigmoid tumour and also identified a large heterogenous enhancing FDG-avid right adrenal mass. Biochemical testing/MIBG imaging confirmed a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma. Hypertension was controlled and excision was performed via a transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy, in the left lateral decubitus position. Uniquely, liver retraction was not required due to its position in the left hypochondrium. Histology confirmed a benign 46?mm phaeochromocytoma. Subsequent uncomplicated sigmoid colectomy/right salpingo-oophorectomy for a locally advanced colonic tumour was performed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case highlights the importance of accurately identifying functioning adrenal tumours before elective surgery as undiagnosed phaeochromocytomas carry significant intraoperative morbidity/mortality. Right adrenalectomy was made easier in this patient by the liver's unique position. Uncomplicated colorectal resection was made possible by combined preoperative functional/anatomical imaging. PMID:25110602

  19. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-12-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin.

  20. Colon cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  1. Trans-anal barotrauma by compressed air leading to sigmoid perforation due to a dangerous practical joke

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Awanish; Srivastava, Rohit; Rai, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    To present a case report of trans-anal barotrauma by high-pressure compressed air jet as a dangerous practical joke, that is, playful insufflation of high-pressure air jet through the anal orifice resulting in sigmoid perforation. The patient presented to emergency a day later with complaints of severe pain in the abdomen and abdominal distension following insufflation of high-pressure air jet through the anus. On examination, he had signs suggestive of perforation peritonitis and x-ray of the abdomen showed gas under the diaphragm. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed which revealed a 4-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. Resection of the segment containing perforation along with the surrounding devitalised part was done with double-barrel colostomy. Reversal of colostomy was done after 8?weeks. Follow-up was uneventful. PMID:22854240

  2. Distal Biceps Injuries.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, John; Athwal, George S; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-11-01

    A review of distal biceps tendon injuries is presented. Notable and recent studies on the incidence, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment are outlined. The benefits and risks of 1- and 2-incision techniques for repair are discussed, and classic studies are reviewed. PMID:26498551

  3. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  4. Segmentation algorithm of colon based on multi-slice CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yizhong; Ahamed, Mohammed Shabbir; Takahashi, Eiji; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Suzuki, Masahiro; Iinuma, Gen; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-02-01

    CT colonography is a radiology test that looks at people's large intestines(colon). CT colonography can screen many options of colon cancer. This test is used to detect polyps or cancers of the colon. CT colonography is safe and reliable. It can be used if people are too sick to undergo other forms of colon cancer screening. In our research, we proposed a method for automatic segmentation of the colon from abdominal computed Tomography (CT) images. Our multistage detection method extracted colon and spited colon into different parts according to the colon anatomy information. We found that among the five segmented parts of the colon, sigmoid (20%) and rectum (50%) are more sensitive toward polyps and masses than the other three parts. Our research focused on detecting the colon by the individual diagnosis of sigmoid and rectum. We think it would make the rapid and easy diagnosis of colon in its earlier stage and help doctors for analysis of correct position of each part and detect the colon rectal cancer much easier.

  5. Sigmoid CME Source Regions at The Sun: Some Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2000-01-01

    Identifying coronal mass ejection (CME) precursors in the solar corona would be an important step in space weather forecasting, as well as a vital key to understanding the physics of CMEs. Twisted magnetic field structures are suspected of being the source of at least some CMEs. These features can appear sigmoid (S or inverse-S) shaped in soft X-ray, (SXR) images. We review recent observations of these structures and their relation to CMEs. using SXR data from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite, and EUV data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the SOHO satellite. These observations indicate that the pre-eruption sigmoid patterns are more prominent in SXRs than in EUV, and that sigmoid precursors are present in over 50% of CMEs. These findings are important for CME research, and may potentially be a major component to space weather forecasting. So far, however, the studies have been subject to restrictions that will have to be relaxed before sigmoid morphology can be used as a reliable predictive too[. Moreover, some CMEs do not display a SXR sigmoid structure prior to eruption, and some others show no prominent SXR signature of any kind before or during eruption.

  6. Sigmoid CME Source Regions at the Sun: Some Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Identifying Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) precursors in the solar corona would be an important step in space weather forecasting, as well as a vital key to understanding the physics of CMEs. Twisted magnetic field structures are suspected of being the source of at least some CMEs. These features can appear sigmoid (S or inverse-S) shaped in soft X-ray (SXR) images. We review recent observations of these structures and their relation to CMEs, using soft X-ray (SXR) data from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on the Yohkoh satellite, and EUV data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the SOHO satellite. These observations indicate that the pre-eruption sigmoid patterns are more prominent in SXRs than in EUV, and that sigmoid precursors are present in over 50% of CMEs. These findings are important for CME research, and may potentially be a major component to space weather forecasting. So far, however, the studies have been subject to restrictions that will have to be relaxed before sigmoid morphology can be used as a reliable predictive tool. Moreover, some CMEs do not display a SXR sigmoid structure prior to eruption, and some others show no prominent SXR signature of any kind before or during eruption.

  7. Quiet-Sun Network Bright Point Phenomena with Sigmoidal Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Orange, N. B.; Champey, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ubiquitous solar atmospheric coronal and transition region bright points (BPs) are compact features overlying strong concentrations of magnetic flux. Here, we utilize high-cadence observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to provide the first observations of extreme ultraviolet quiet-Sun (QS) network BP activity associated with sigmoidal structuring. To our knowledge, this previously unresolved fine structure has never been associated with such small-scale QS events. This QS event precedes a bi-directional jet in a compact, low-energy, and low-temperature environment, where evidence is found in support of the typical fan-spine magnetic field topology. As in active regions and micro-sigmoids, the sigmoidal arcade is likely formed via tether-cutting reconnection and precedes peak intensity enhancements and eruptive activity. Our QS BP sigmoid provides a new class of small-scale structuring exhibiting self-organized criticality that highlights a multi-scaled self-similarity between large-scale, high-temperature coronal fields and the small-scale, lower-temperature QS network. Finally, our QS BP sigmoid elevates arguments for coronal heating contributions from cooler atmospheric layers, as this class of structure may provide evidence favoring mass, energy, and helicity injections into the heliosphere.

  8. Multivariate neural network operators with sigmoidal activation functions.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Danilo; Spigler, Renato

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study pointwise and uniform convergence, as well as order of approximation, of a family of linear positive multivariate neural network (NN) operators with sigmoidal activation functions. The order of approximation is studied for functions belonging to suitable Lipschitz classes and using a moment-type approach. The special cases of NN operators, activated by logistic, hyperbolic tangent, and ramp sigmoidal functions are considered. Multivariate NNs approximation finds applications, typically, in neurocomputing processes. Our approach to NN operators allows us to extend previous convergence results and, in some cases, to improve the order of approximation. The case of multivariate quasi-interpolation operators constructed with sigmoidal functions is also considered. PMID:23973869

  9. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  10. Role of damage control surgery in the treatment of Hinchey III and IV sigmoid diverticulitis: a tailored strategy.

    PubMed

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; Cavaliere, Davide; Farinella, Eriberto; Renzi, Claudio; Cannata, Gaspare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Farinacci, Federico; Barberini, Francesco; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-11-01

    Many of the treatment strategies for sigmoid diverticulitis are actually focusing on nonoperative and minimally invasive approaches. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the actual role of damage control surgery (DCS) in the treatment of generalized peritonitis caused by perforated sigmoid diverticulitis.A literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published from 1960 to July 2013. Comparative and noncomparative studies that included patients who underwent DCS for complicated diverticulitis were considered.Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, duration of open abdomen, intensive care unit length of stay, reoperation, bowel resection performed at first operation, fecal diversion, method, and timing of closure of abdominal wall were the main outcomes of interest.According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses algorithm for the literature search and review, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. DCS was exclusively performed in diverticulitis patients with septic shock or requiring vasopressors intraoperatively. Two surgical different approaches were highlighted: limited resection of the diseased colonic segment with or without stoma or reconstruction in situ, and laparoscopic washing and drainage without colonic resection.Despite the heterogeneity of patient groups, clinical settings, and interventions included in this review, DCS appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of Hinchey III and IV diverticulitis, complicated by septic shock. A tailored approach to each patient seems to be appropriate. PMID:25437034

  11. Estimation and classification by sigmoids based on mutual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1994-01-01

    An estimate of the probability density function of a random vector is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the input and the output of a feedforward network of sigmoidal units with respect to the input weights. Classification problems can be solved by selecting the class associated with the maximal estimated density. Newton's s method, applied to an estimated density, yields a recursive maximum likelihood estimator, consisting of a single internal layer of sigmoids, for a random variable or a random sequence. Applications to the diamond classification and to the prediction of a sun-spot process are demonstrated.

  12. Hinode Observations of an Eruption from a Sigmoidal Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L. M.; Wallace, A. J.; Kliem, B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the evolution of a bipolar active region which produces an eruption during its decay phase. The soft X-ray arcade develops high shear over a time span of two days and transitions to sigmoidal shortly before the eruption. We propose that the continuous sigmoidal soft X-ray threads indicate that a flux rope has formed which is lying low in the solar atmosphere with a bald patch separatrix surface topology. The formation of the flux rope is driven by the photospheric evolution which is dominated by fragmentation of the main polarities, motion due to supergranular flows and cancellation at the polarity inversion line.

  13. Distal intestinal obstruction in CF patients.

    PubMed

    Maus, J; Mana, F; Reynaert, H; Urbain, D

    2015-01-01

    Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) - the incomplete of complete intestinal obstruction by intestinal contents in the terminal ileum and proximal colon- is frequently seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Diagnosis is based on suggestive symptoms of abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant, a palpable mass on examination and signs of obstruction on plain radiography. Treatment consists of intensive laxative treatment with oral laxatives and enemas. Surgery only serves as the last resort for patients not responding to medical therapy, because of the well-known high rate of peri- and postoperative morbidity of surgery in CF patients. In this article we present 3 cases of DIOS, followed by a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26118577

  14. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum due to a sigmoid diverticulum.

    PubMed

    George, Jayan; Ben-Sassi, Abozed; Dixon, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous haemoperitoneum is rare. When it occurs it is a life-threatening condition. Common causes of this are gynaecological in nature and rarely due to colonic diverticular perforation. Diverticulitis is a common condition affecting people in western countries. This presentation of spontaneous haemoperitoneum highlights the disproportionate abdominal pain and opioid-induced constipation. Significant bloods on admission included haemoglobin of 148?g/L, C reactive protein (CRP) of 1.1?mg/L, white cell count (WCC) of 12.7×10(9)/L (neutrophils 10.9×10(9)/L). Bloods repeated 10?h later revealed the haemoglobin had dropped to 100?g/L, CRP had increased significantly to 120?mg/L, WCC: 7.4×10(9)/L (neutrophils 5.3×10(9)/L) and a reduced packed cell volume: 0.307?L/L. CT scan revealed free fluid and a possible mass. At laparoscopy, frank haemoperitoneum was seen and a decision was made to open and perform a Hartmann's procedure. The patient did very well postoperatively and was discharged on the ninth postoperative day. He is currently awaiting reversal of the ileostomy. PMID:25480140

  15. Deep Temporal Sigmoid Belief Networks for Sequence Modeling

    E-print Network

    Carin, Lawrence

    Deep Temporal Sigmoid Belief Networks for Sequence Modeling Zhe Gan, Chunyuan Li, Ricardo Henao, Durham, NC 27708 {zhe.gan, chunyuan.li, r.henao, david.carlson, lcarin}@duke.edu Abstract Deep dynamic] is heuristic and not derived from a principled statistical formalism. Recently, deep directed generative models

  16. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A SIGMOID ERUPTION OF ACTIVE REGION 11283

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang; Wu, S. T.; Hu Qiang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu

    2013-07-10

    Current magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the initiation of solar eruptions are still commonly carried out with idealized magnetic field models, whereas the realistic coronal field prior to eruptions can possibly be reconstructed from the observable photospheric field. Using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation prior to a sigmoid eruption in AR 11283 as the initial condition in an MHD model, we successfully simulate the realistic initiation process of the eruption event, as is confirmed by a remarkable resemblance to the SDO/AIA observations. Analysis of the pre-eruption field reveals that the envelope flux of the sigmoidal core contains a coronal null and furthermore the flux rope is prone to a torus instability. Observations suggest that reconnection at the null cuts overlying tethers and likely triggers the torus instability of the flux rope, which results in the eruption. This kind of simulation demonstrates the capability of modeling the realistic solar eruptions to provide the initiation process.

  17. Intraspecies Competition for Niches in the Distal Gut Dictate Transmission during Persistent Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lilian H.; Monack, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to be transmitted, a pathogen must first successfully colonize and multiply within a host. Ecological principles can be applied to study host-pathogen interactions to predict transmission dynamics. Little is known about the population biology of Salmonella during persistent infection. To define Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population structure in this context, 129SvJ mice were oral gavaged with a mixture of eight wild-type isogenic tagged Salmonella (WITS) strains. Distinct subpopulations arose within intestinal and systemic tissues after 35 days, and clonal expansion of the cecal and colonic subpopulation was responsible for increases in Salmonella fecal shedding. A co-infection system utilizing differentially marked isogenic strains was developed in which each mouse received one strain orally and the other systemically by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Co-infections demonstrated that the intestinal subpopulation exerted intraspecies priority effects by excluding systemic S. Typhimurium from colonizing an extracellular niche within the cecum and colon. Importantly, the systemic strain was excluded from these distal gut sites and was not transmitted to naïve hosts. In addition, S. Typhimurium required hydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates acquisition of hydrogen from the gut microbiota, during the first week of infection to exert priority effects in the gut. Thus, early inhibitory priority effects are facilitated by the acquisition of nutrients, which allow S. Typhimurium to successfully compete for a nutritional niche in the distal gut. We also show that intraspecies colonization resistance is maintained by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands SPI1 and SPI2 during persistent distal gut infection. Thus, important virulence effectors not only modulate interactions with host cells, but are crucial for Salmonella colonization of an extracellular intestinal niche and thereby also shape intraspecies dynamics. We conclude that priority effects and intraspecies competition for colonization niches in the distal gut control Salmonella population assembly and transmission. PMID:25474319

  18. Minimally invasive colon resection (laparoscopic colectomy).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Verdeja, J C; Goldstein, H S

    1991-09-01

    The successful application of laparoscopic surgery to gallbladder disease and acute appendicitis has encouraged clinical investigators to develop this technology further in an attempt to manage other pathologic disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. After gaining experience with various laparoscopic skills while performing clinical biliary tract surgery, appendectomy and then in a controlled animal laboratory, a pilot program for laparoscopic colonic surgery was initiated. Twenty patients with ages ranging from 43 to 88 years (mean age of 57 years) underwent laparoscope-assisted colon resection. In nine patients, a right hemicolectomy was performed and a sigmoid colectomy in eight. A low anterior resection, Hartman's procedure, and abdominal perineal resection were each performed in one patient. Indications for surgery were large villous adenomas or adenocarcinoma in 12, diverticular disease in 5, sigmoid endometrioma in 1, cecal volvulus in 1, and inflammatory bowel disease in 1. Eighty percent of patients were able to tolerate a liquid diet on the first postoperative day and 70% were discharged within 96 h eating a regular diet and having normal bowel movements. There were three operative complications: a 3 unit postoperative bleed managed without surgery, one patient developed marked edema of the rectosigmoid anastomosis requiring decompression with a rectal tube, and one individual with metastatic colon cancer was operated on for a mechanical small bowel obstruction 7 days after the initial laparoscopic surgery. Although laparoscope-assisted colonic surgery may still be considered a procedure in evolution, we feel that in time it has the potential to be as popular as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:1688289

  19. Case report: Sigmoid strangulation from evisceration through a perforated rectal prolapse ulcer – An unusual complication of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer Z.; Kittmer, Tiffaney; Forbes, Shawn; Ruo, Leyo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal prolapse occurs particularly in elder females and presentation can sometimes lead to complications such as strangulation and evisceration of other organs through the necrotic mucosa. Presentation of case This is a case of a 61 year-old female with rectal prolapse complicated by rectal perforation through which a segment of sigmoid colon eviscerated and became strangulated. This patient initially presented with sepsis requiring ICU admission, but fully recovered following a Hartmann’s procedure with a sacral rectopexy. Discussion Complications of rectal prolapse include incarceration, strangulation, and rarely, perforation with evisceration of other viscera requiring urgent operation. This report provides a brief overview of complications associated with rectal prolapse, reviews similar cases of transrectal evisceration, and discusses the management of chronic rectal prolapse. Conclusion Prompt surgical consult is warranted if any signs or symptoms suggestive of complications from prolapse are present. PMID:25680532

  20. Colonic polyp detection with spiral CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Elizabeth G.; Loh, John; Brink, James A.; Balfe, Dennis M.; Heiken, Jay P.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Wang, Ge; Vannier, Michael W.

    1997-05-01

    The emerging techniques of 3D spiral CT for 'virtual colonoscopy' show promise as a noninvasive screening modality for the detection of polyps. Our purpose was to evaluate three key post-processing parameters required for depiction of colonic polyps using perspective volume rendering (PVR): image reconstruction, window setting, and opacity map assignment of the attenuation histogram. Spiral CT scans of two different patients with known polyps confirmed by colonoscopy were performed. First, image quality was compared between images generated after interpolation of raw projection data and interpolation of reconstructed image data for longitudinal voxel dimensions of 1x, 2x, 4x, 6x and 8x in-plane voxel dimensions. Second, the dimensions of colonic polyps relative to haustral folds were measured on PVR images for various window settings and compared to similar measures performed on photography performed at colonoscopy. Third, a double sigmoidal and a stair-step opacity function were each applied to a 3D PVR image of a polyp, and quantitative differences in image smoothness were compared using a texture analysis method. In conclusion, spiral CT images reconstructed with 50 percent overlap and displayed with a standard display window permit accurate depiction of polyp dimensions relative to surrounding structures on PVR windows. Image artifacts may be suppressed with use of a double sigmoidal opacity map.

  1. Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marjorie M; Talley, Nicholas J; Inganäs, Linn; Engstrand, Lars; Jones, Michael P; Nyhlin, Henry; Agréus, Lars; Kjellstrom, Lars; Öst, Åke; Andreasson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder defined by symptoms in the absence of overt pathology. Colonic spirochetosis (CS), defined by histologic observation of spirochetal strains of Brachyspira in colonic biopsies, is uncommon and considered of doubtful significance. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CS in the general population, identify subtle colon pathologies, and evaluate a link with symptoms of IBS. Colonoscopy was performed in 745 subjects (aged 19-70 years, mean age 51 years, 43% male) with biopsies (ileum and 4 colonic sites) from a random population sample, Stockholm, Sweden, who completed a validated questionnaire of gastrointestinal symptoms; IBS was identified by Rome III criteria. CS was identified by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a general population, 17 individuals (2.28%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2%-3.5%) were diagnosed as having CS by histology; 6 (35%) had IBS. CS was always present in the sigmoid colon, but only 14 rectal biopsies. Eosinophils were increased in colon biopsies in CS cases versus controls, in the transverse (P = .02), sigmoid colon (P = .001), and rectum (P = .0005) with subepithelial eosinophil clusters (P = .053). Lymphoid follicles (at any site) were present in 13 CS (P = .0003). There was a 3-fold increased risk of IBS in CS (odds ratio, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-10.11; P = .015). Polyps and diverticular disease were similar in CS cases and controls. The prevalence of CS in a general population is 2% and associated with nonconstipating IBS. Colonic eosinophilia with lymphoid follicles may signify the presence of CS. PMID:25540866

  2. Recurrent Sigmoid Volvulus Associated With Eventration of Diaphragm in a Twenty-Six-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Shailesh Mukund; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Shetty, Gurucharan; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Chauhan, Udit; Udiya, Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent sigmoid volvulus is a clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete sigmoid volvulus. Although it is commonly seen in the elderly, it can be occasionally seen in younger patients. Patients with recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus are relatively asymptomatic or present with mild abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent conversion to acute gangrenous volvulus. We present a case of recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus in association with eventration of diaphragm in a 26-year-old man. PMID:25901269

  3. Atomic bomb survivors and the sigmoidal response model

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiological data on health effects of low-level radiation based on 40-yr followup studies of 75000 atomic bomb survivors and 35000 control people show that there were no measurable risks from low-level radiation in regard to noncancer diseases, genetic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. However, seemingly sigmoidal responses of bomb radiation-induced cancers, which must have been caused by tumorigenic mutations contradict experimental results that mutations linearly increase with increase in radiation dose. An explanation is proposed for this superficial contradiction.

  4. Field Topology Analysis of a Long-lasting Coronal Sigmoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, A. S.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  5. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  6. Thrombectomy and distal protection devices.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, R; Musto, C; La Manna, A; Tanigawa, J; Goktekin, O; Di Mario, C

    2005-10-01

    Visible distal embolization is a relatively rare complication during percutaneous coronary interventions but it may occur in 15-20% of angioplasties in saphenous vein grafts (SVG) and in thrombus containing lesions of native coronary arteries, especially in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Mechanical thrombectomy devices and distal protection devices have been introduced to reduce the incidence of distal embolisation. Angiojet thrombectomy has shown positive outcomes in thrombus containing lesions when compared with intracoronary thrombolysis but a randomised trial failed to show benefit in the context of AMI. The X-Sizer, Excimer LASER and various simple aspiration thrombectomy catheters show promise in treatment of AMI with improvement shown in surrogate end-points such as resolution of ST-elevation but there have been no randomised trials large enough to demonstrate changes in hard clinical end-points. Distal protection devices have come to be routinely used during SVG treatment and, after the results of the SAFER and FIRE trials; they became a treatment recommendation in the recently issued European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. For AMI, these devices showed great promise in early single-centre studies which have been offset by the lack of clinical benefit in the multi-centre EMERALD trial. Proximal occlusion devices may further decrease the incidence of distal embolisation, especially in the treatment of totally occluded SVGs or native arteries, by reversing the blood flow and offering protection at a very early stage of the procedure before wire passage. Despite continuous technical improvement and a growing number of miniaturised thrombectomy devices and filters, because of the paucity of controlled large studies, it remains unclear whether these devices will remain limited to niche' applications or will become a regular companion to balloons and stents in mainstream angioplasty procedures. PMID:16179884

  7. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-11-20

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  8. Plasma Composition in a Sigmoidal Anemone Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2013-11-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  9. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis

    PubMed Central

    McCoubrey, A; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multiloculated cyst located in the sigmoid mesentery. This was lined largely by benign ciliated serous-type epithelium but a focus of well differentiated serous adenocarcinoma projected into the lumen. Two further peritoneal cysts were present, both of which were lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium. There was a coincidental renal cell carcinoma. This is a unique case of multiple omental, peritoneal, and retroperitoneal cysts (classified as cystic endosalpingiosis), one of which developed a focus of serous adenocarcinoma. Although rarely serous adenocarcinomas, similar to those occurring within the ovary, arise in the retroperitoneum, this is the first reported occurrence in association with a pre-existing benign lesion. PMID:16254118

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Laing distal myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ankles. This weakness leads to tightening of the Achilles tendon (the band that connects the heel of ... glossary definitions help with understanding Laing distal myopathy? Achilles tendon ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cardiac ; cell ; contraction ; distal ; ...

  11. Stenting for Obstructing Colon Cancer: Fewer Complications and Colostomies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter; Goldstein, Rachel; Coury, Joseph; Hackford, Alan; Dao, Haisar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Colonic stenting has been used in the setting of malignant obstruction to avoid an emergent colectomy. We sought to determine whether preoperative placement of a colonic stent decreases morbidity and the rate of colostomy formation. Methods: Cases of obstructing sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectal cancer from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. All patients were treated at hospitals in the United States, and the database generated national estimates. Postoperative complications, mortality, and the rate of colostomy formation were analyzed. Results: Of the estimated 7891 patients who presented with obstructing sigmoid, rectosigmoid, or rectal cancer necessitating intervention, 12.1% (n = 956) underwent placement of a colonic stent, and the remainder underwent surgery without stent placement. Of the patients who underwent stenting, 19.9% went on to have colon resection or stoma creation during the same admission. Patients who underwent preoperative colonic stent placement had a lower rate of total postoperative complications (10.5% vs 21.7%; P < .01). There was no significant difference in mortality (4.7% vs 4.2%; P = .69). The rate of colostomy formation was more than 2-fold higher in patients who did not undergo preoperative stenting (42.5% vs 19.5%; P < .01). Preoperative stenting was associated with increased use of laparoscopy (32.6% vs 9.7%; P < .01). Conclusions: Our study characterizes the national incidence of preoperative placement of a colonic stent in the setting of malignant obstruction. Preoperative stent placement is associated with lower postoperative complications and a lower rate of colostomy formation. The results support the hypothesis that stenting as a bridge to surgery may benefit patients by converting an emergent surgery into an elective one. PMID:25848200

  12. Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis in the Presence of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Heye, P.; Descloux, A.; Singer, G.; Rosenberg, R.; Kocher, T.

    2014-01-01

    Even though the incidence of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is low, it is also associated with a high mortality rate. The condition predominantly affects the skin, but may also affect the gastrointestinal tract, dramatically increasing mortality. We present a case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in the presence of TEN. The patient was taking medication, known to be a risk factor, and presented an affected total body surface area and temporal development similar to previously reported cases of TEN. Characteristic abdominal symptoms, however, were missing. Gastrointestinal involvement in TEN appears to be a poor prognostic factor; medical staff must therefore be alert to patients with TEN who complain of abdominal discomfort. The exact pathogenesis, however, remains unclear. PMID:24707250

  13. Function estimation by feedforward sigmoidal networks with bounded weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Protopoescu, V.; Qiao, H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors address the problem of PAC (probably and approximately correct) learning functions f : [0, 1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [{minus}K, K] based on iid (independently and identically distributed) sample generated according to an unknown distribution, by using feedforward sigmoidal networks. They use two basic properties of the neural networks with bounded weights, namely: (a) they form a Euclidean class, and (b) for hidden units of the form tanh ({gamma}z) they are Lipschitz functions. Either property yields sample sizes for PAC function learning under any Lipschitz cost function. The sample size based on the first property is tighter compared to the known bounds based on VC-dimension. The second estimate yields a sample size that can be conveniently adjusted by a single parameter, {gamma}, related to the hidden nodes.

  14. Prompt Management Is Most Important for Colonic Perforation After Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ho; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of complications after colonoscopy is very low. The complications after colonoscopy that are of clinical concern are bleeding and perforation. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical outcomes and the risk factors of a colostomy or a colectomy after colonoscopic colon perforation. Methods From March 2009 to December 2012, the records of all patients who were treated for colorectal perforation after colonoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, purpose of colonoscopy, management of the colonic perforation, and interval from colonoscopy to the diagnosis of a colonic perforation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the risk factors associated with major surgery for the treatment of a colon perforation after colonoscopy. Results A total 27 patients were included in the present study. The mean age was 62 years, and 16 were males. The purpose of colonoscopy was diagnostic in 18 patients. The most common perforation site was the sigmoid colon. Colonic perforation was diagnosed during colonoscopy in 14 patients, just after colonoscopy in 5 patients, and 24 hours or more after colonoscopy in 8 patients. For the treatment of colonic perforation, endoscopic clipping was performed in 3 patients, primary closure in 15 patients, colon resection in 2 patients, Hartmann's procedures in 4 patients, and diverting colostomy in 3 patients. If the diagnosis of perforation after colonoscopy was delayed for more than 24 hours, the need for major treatment was increased significantly. Conclusion Although a colonic perforation after colonoscopy is rare, if the morbidity and the mortality associated with the colonic perforation are to be reduced, prompt diagnosis and management are very important. PMID:25360430

  15. Autonomic Nerve Regulation of Colonic Peristalsis in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Babygirija, Reji; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Colonic peristalsis is mainly regulated via intrinsic neurons in guinea pigs. However, autonomic regulation of colonic motility is poorly understood. We explored a guinea pig model for the study of extrinsic nerve effects on the distal colon. Methods Guinea pigs were sacrificed, their distal colons isolated, preserving pelvic nerves (PN) and inferior mesenteric ganglia (IMG), and placed in a tissue bath. Fecal pellet propagation was conducted during PN and IMG stimulation at 10 Hz, 0.5 ms and 5 V. Distal colon was connected to a closed circuit system, and colonic motor responses were measured during PN and IMG stimulation. Results PN stimulation increased pellet velocity to 24.6 ± 0.7 mm/sec (n = 20), while IMG stimulation decreased it to 2.0 ± 0.2 mm/sec (n = 12), compared to controls (13.0 ± 0.7 mm/sec, P < 0.01). In closed circuit experiments, PN stimulation increased the intraluminal pressure, which was abolished by atropine (10?6 M) and hexamethonium (10?4 M). PN stimulation reduced the incidence of non-coordinated contractions induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10?4 M). IMG stimulation attenuated intraluminal pressure increase, which was partially reversed by alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine; 10?6 M). Conclusions PN and IMG input determine speed of pellet progression and peristaltic reflex of the guinea pig distal colon. The stimulatory effects of PN involve nicotinic, muscarinic and nitrergic pathways. The inhibitory effects of IMG stimulation involve alpha-2 adrenoceptors. PMID:24847719

  16. Colonic perforation by a large gallstone: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Halleran, Devin R.; Halleran, David R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herein we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with gallstone perforation of the sigmoid colon. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 86-year-old woman with known cholelithiasis presented to our office with one week of abdominal pain and nausea. X-rays taken at presentation demonstrated pneumobilia, and CT scan showed a 3.5 cm gallstone in the sigmoid colon. Medical management was unsuccessful in passing the stone, and a colonoscopy on day 4 was unsuccessful in incorporating the stone. Subsequent clinical deterioration prompted a laparotomy, where a perforation was discovered. A Hartmann's procedure was performed and the patient recovered after a complicated post-operative course. DISCUSSION Gallstone ileus is an uncommon, but medically important, cause of bowel obstruction. This presentation is considered a surgical emergency and thus prompt identification and removal is essential. Obstructions tend to occur in either the stomach or along the various segments of the small intestine but have been reported in the colon as well. CONCLUSION In cases of gallstones that manage to pass into the large intestine, it is prudent to attempt conservative measures for passage. Failure to do so should raise suspicion of a possible stricture, either benign or malignant, preventing its evacuation. Earlier surgical intervention should be considered in these cases. PMID:25498567

  17. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  18. Smooth Sigmoid Surrogate (SSS): An Alternative to Greedy Search in Recursive Partitioning

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    Smooth Sigmoid Surrogate (SSS): An Alternative to Greedy Search in Recursive Partitioning Xiaogang, Department of Preventive Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 Qiong Yang, Department examine an alternative method by replacing the indicator threshold function involved in recursive

  19. Adult sigmoidorectal intussusception related to colonic lipoma: A rare case report with an atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed; Elghawy, Karim; Scholten, Donald; Wilson, Kenneth; McCann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adult intussusception is rare. Lipoma is the second most common benign tumor of the colon and most common to cause colonic intussusception in adults, but rare. Presentation of case A 35-years-old male presented with a history of intermittent abdominal pain and bright red rectal bleeding, with symptoms waxing and waning for one month. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended with tenderness over the periumbilical, suprapubic, and left lower quadrant regions with guarding. CT demonstrated colo-colonic intussusception of the sigmoid colon with a 2.3 cm × 2.6 cm intra-mural lipoma of the rectosigmoid region. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy with partial reduction of the intussusception, sigmoid colon resection and end colostomy. Histopathology confirmed a 2.5 cm sub-mucosal lipoma without evidence of malignancy. Discussion Sixty–sixty five percent of cases with intussusception of the large bowel in adults are related to a malignant etiology and most cases of sigmoidorectal intussusception reported in the literature are secondary to underlying malignancy. Colo-colic intussusception is the most common type of intussusception in adults. The incidence of lipomas of the large intestine is reported to range from 0.035% to 4.4%. Ninety percent of colonic lipomas are submuscosal and are mostly located in the right hemicolon. Only 25% of patients with colonic lipoma develop symptoms. Colonic lipomas of the rectosigmoid region represent a very rare occurrence and subsequent etiology for sigmoidorectal intussusceptions in adults. Conclusion Colonic lipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adults with intussusception, with reduction and resection leading to excellent results. PMID:25839433

  20. On the Structure and Evolution of Complexity in Sigmoids: A Flux Emergence Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Savcheva, A.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.

    2009-02-01

    Sigmoids are structures with a forward or inverse S-shape, generally observed in the solar corona in soft X-ray emission. It is believed that the appearance of a sigmoid in an active region is an important factor in eruptive activity. The association of sigmoids with dynamic phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) make the study of sigmoids important. Recent observations of a coronal sigmoid, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board Hinode, showed the formation and eruption phase with high spatial resolution. These observations revealed that the topological structure of the sigmoid is complex: it consists of many differently oriented loops that all together form two opposite J-like bundles or an overall S-shaped structure. A series of theoretical and numerical models have been proposed, over the past years, to explain the nature of sigmoids but there is no explanation on how the aforementioned complexity in sigmoids is built up. In this paper, we present a flux emergence model that leads to the formation of a sigmoid, whose structure and evolution of complexity are in good qualitative agreement with the recent observations. For the initial state of the experiment a twisted flux tube is placed below the photosphere. A density deficit along the axis of the tube makes the system buoyant in the middle and it adopts an ?-shape as it rises toward the outer atmosphere. During the evolution of the system, expanding field lines that touch the photosphere at bald-patches (BPs) form two seperatrix surfaces where dissipation is enhanced and current sheets are formed. Originally, each of the BP seperatrix surfaces has a J-like shape. Each one of the J's consist of reconnected field lines with different shapes and different relative orientation. The further dynamical evolution of the emerging flux tube results in the occurrence of many sites that resemble rotational discontinuities. Thus, additional current layers are formed inside the rising magnetized volume increasing the complexity of the system. The reconnected field lines along these layers form an overall S-shaped structure. The reconnection process continues to occur leading to the formation of another current concentration in the middle of the sigmoid where a flaring episode occurs. This central brightening is accompanied by the eruption of a flux rope from the central area of the sigmoid and the appearance of "post-flare" loops underneath the current structure.

  1. Colonic metastases from small cell carcinoma of the lung presenting with an acute abdomen: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Costa Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; dos Reis, Luís Simões; Costa Almeida, Carlos Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colonic metastases are rare, and usually secondary from malignant tumours of the stomach, breast, ovarian, cervix, kidney, lung, prostate, or skin. Around one third are asymptomatic or found only at autopsy. Case Report A middle-aged male smoker, who had a small cell carcinoma of the lung diagnosed two years previously and treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, was admitted to the emergency room with intense abdominal pain and constipation. With the suspicion of an acute appendicitis he was submitted to surgery. At laparotomy he was found to have a normal appendix but two hard colonic lesions: a mobile one in the right colon and the other fixing the sigmoid colon to the sacrum. A right hemicolectomy and a sigmoid loop colostomy were performed. Pathology showed those lesions to be colonic metastases from small cell carcinoma of the lung. Discussion Colonic secondaries are most frequently diagnosed in patients who have had a known primary tumour, and may present with bowel obstruction, lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage, gastrointestinal fistula, or intestinal perforation. Presentation with acute abdomen is rare, and survival is usually limited. Conclusion Colonic metastatic disease should be considered in any patient presenting with an acute abdomen and past history of lung malignancy. PMID:25732616

  2. A Case of Colon Cancer Associated with Ulcerative Colitis: Evaluation Using CT Colonography.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Yuhara, Hiroki; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Igarashi, Muneki; Mine, Tetsuya; Tomita, Sakura; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old female with ulcerative colitis was found to have advanced sigmoid colon cancer on colonoscopy. Computed tomography (CT) was performed after colonoscopy for the evaluation of metastasis. CT colonography (CTC) could be understood adding carbon dioxide because of soon after colonoscopic examination. Images of CTC were evaluated by two- and three-dimensional images including virtual endoscopic, virtual colon dissection and air images, and then compared with conventional endoscopic images. Virtual endoscopic images of flat elevated cancer with shallow ulcer were similar to those findings by conventional endoscopy. This lesion could be depicted by computer-aided detection. PMID:26369263

  3. Shear zone deformation determined from sigmoidal tension gashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, Richard J.

    2013-05-01

    The potential of using sigmoidal tension gashes as strain markers for assessing strain localisation in shear zones is discussed. The appropriate analytical methods for this purpose depend on the assumed mechanism of tension gash formation. Two such models are considered. The first is one in which the curvature of the gash is produced by passive rotation of different segments of the gash in response shear strain gradients across the shear zone. The other model is one in which the curvature of the gashes is governed by the folding of the competent rock bridges between adjacent gashes. In the latter case, the tension gashes progressively grow within spaces created by the buckling bridges and therefore lead to a bulk dilatation of the shear zone. However, for the folded bridge mechanism to continue to operate beyond shear strains greater than unity requires a significant volume loss which in turn may signal the increase of the shear strength of the zone. The geometrical characteristics of gash arrays resulting from these two mechanisms are described and criteria given for the recognition of the two types of gash arrays. A new graphical method is proposed for the analysis of deformation in shear zones containing folded-bridge tension gashes. Tension gash arrays from Marloes, West Wales are used as examples of the procedures for shear zone analysis.

  4. In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

  5. Uniform persistence for sigmoidal diet selection with keystone prey species.

    PubMed

    Sikder, A

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we discuss uniform persistence (UP) criteria of two prey- one predator systems, where we consider that the predator's diet selection is a sigmoidal function of the most profitable prey type in place of a step function of conventional diet choice theory. We also derive UP results of the system with direct interspecific competition between the prey. The role of the most profitable prey item as a keystone species, the magnitude of its carrying capacity, the ability to withstand predation of both prey species, and the ratios of their profitability values (to predators) are important to whether or not adaptive foraging may promote UP. In general, foraging decision rules play no role in UP if the alternative prey item is the keystone species. The result is also not affected by the effect of direct competitive coexistence or dominance relationship of the prey. In some cases, dominance of one of the prey species provides the most advantageous situation for ensuring UP. PMID:10958414

  6. Application of Quasi-Separatrix Layer Maps to Understanding the Structure and Evolution of Sigmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, Antonia; DeLuca, E.; Van Ballegooijen, A.

    2010-05-01

    We present some preliminary work in attempt to utilize Quasi-Separatrix Layer (QSL) maps for understanding the structure and evolution of sigmoids. We show sample QSL maps calculated at different heights above the photosphere and different times over the evolution of the quiescent sigmoid from February, 2007, observed with Hinode/XRT. The QSL maps use already existing static MHD models of the sigmoid, based on the flux rope insertion method. We give a short overview of the method used to set-up these maps. By comparing current distributions and the squashing factors at different height and cross sections over the sigmoid location we suggest the use of QSLs as tracers of surface and/or volumetric currents. We look at the distribution, structure, and concentration of QSLs in combination with the size and location of bald patches at different stages of the sigmoid development. We attempt to use this analysis to help us discriminate between the main scenarios for the formation and X-ray appearance of the S-like structure - flux emergence (or cancellation) and twisting foot point motions. This method may possibly shed some light on the pre-eruption configuration and eruption mechanism in sigmoids as well.

  7. Distinct gene expression profiles of proximal and distal colorectal cancer: implications for cytotoxic and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Maus, M K H; Hanna, D L; Stephens, C L; Astrow, S H; Yang, D; Grimminger, P P; Loupakis, F; Hsiang, J H; Zeger, G; Wakatsuki, T; Barzi, A; Lenz, H-J

    2015-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with genetic profiles and clinical outcomes dependent on the anatomic location of the primary tumor. How location has an impact on the molecular makeup of a tumor and how prognostic and predictive biomarkers differ between proximal versus distal colon cancers is not well established. We investigated the associations between tumor location, KRAS and BRAF mutation status, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proteins involved in major signaling pathways, including tumor growth (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)), DNA repair (excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1)) and fluoropyrimidine metabolism (thymidylate synthase (TS)). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 431 advanced CRC patients were analyzed. The presence of seven different KRAS base substitutions and the BRAF V600E mutation was determined. ERCC1, TS, EGFR and VEGFR2 mRNA expression levels were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR. BRAF mutations were significantly more common in the proximal colon (P<0.001), whereas KRAS mutations occurred at similar frequencies throughout the colorectum. Rectal cancers had significantly higher ERCC1 and VEGFR2 mRNA levels compared with distal and proximal colon tumors (P=0.001), and increased TS levels compared with distal colon cancers (P=0.02). Mutant KRAS status was associated with lower ERCC1, TS, EGFR and VEGFR2 gene expression in multivariate analysis. In a subgroup analysis, this association remained significant for all genes in the proximal colon and for VEGFR2 expression in rectal cancers. The mRNA expression patterns of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, as well as associations with KRAS and BRAF mutation status depend on primary tumor location. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings and determine the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25532759

  8. Spinal cord influences on the colonic myoelectrical activity of fed and fasted rats.

    PubMed Central

    Du, C; Ferré, J P; Ruckebusch, Y

    1987-01-01

    1. The myoelectrical activity of the large intestine of fed and fasted rats was recorded with chronically implanted nichrome wire electrodes after destruction of the spinal cord, after spinal cord transection, and after spinal anaesthesia. 2. After spinal cord ablation, the cyclical organization of the colonic electrical spiking activity, as well as the gastrocolic reflex and accompanying postprandial enhancement of the cyclical pattern of activity, persisted on the proximal and distal colon. On the transverse colon, however, the spiking activity was considerably increased. This latter effect obliterated the gastrocolic response due to feeding but not the subsequent postprandial enhancement of the cyclical pattern of activity. 3. After spinal cord transection, the level of spiking activity also increased on both the transverse and distal colon, but no major changes in cyclical activity or in postprandial responses were recorded. 4. Spinal anaesthesia produced by intrathecal lidocaine increased the motility of the transverse colon to a level which masked the gastrocolic reflex. 5. These results suggest a prevertebral ganglia and/or a local control mechanism for the cyclical organization of the spiking activity of the colon. The central control mechanisms involve mostly spinal inhibitory influences on the transverse colon and supraspinal inhibitory influences on the distal colon. PMID:3656127

  9. Spatial Modeling of Colonic Lesions With Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Goli, Ali; Imanieh, Mohammad Hossein; Geramizadeh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Geographic information system (GIS) software has been used in health care systems to display and analyze spatial pattern of diseases and health services. Objectives: This study was performed to assess spatial patterns of colon’s pathologic lesions based on the pathologic reports and assess whether it is possible to use GIS software in health services. Patients and Methods: Archives of pathology of Namazi and Faghihi hospitals, two main referral centers of south-west of Iran, were obtained and reviewed between January 2009 and September 2011 for biopsy reports of patients who underwent colonoscopy. Abnormal biopsies were categorized into five different subgroups according to the type of pathologic specimens. By GIS, spatial patterns of colon biopsies were plotted in different maps and spatial auto-correlation of colon biopsies was calculated using the Moran’s Index. Results: A total of 4815 biopsies from 2663 different patients were reviewed, 53.8% of which were men. Abnormal biopsies were 2781 of all specimens (57.8%). Neoplastic lesions, inflammatory bowel diseases and polyps were 9.3%, 19.3% and 29.2% of total biopsies, respectively. Pathologic biopsies were more common in the distal colon. Maps of all biopsies and maps of specific pathologies were manifested in GIS. Conclusions: Our study showed that left-sided lesions are still more common in the Iranian population. On the other hand, surveying the right side of colon is as important as the distal part, which necessitates total colonoscopy. PMID:25763265

  10. Vanilloid receptor-1 regulates neurogenic inflammation in colon and protects mice from colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Vinuesa, Amaya G; Sancho, Rocío; García-Limones, Carmen; Behrens, Axel; ten Dijke, Peter; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Neuroinflammation driven by the vanilloid-type ion channel receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV-1) is suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Because inflammatory bowel disease is known to elevate the risk of colon cancer, we examined postulated roles for TRPV-1-driven neuroinflammation in promoting colitis-associated and spontaneous colon cancer development. Using a well-established model of colitis-associated cancer (CAC), we found that mice genetically deficient in TRPV-1 showed a higher incidence and number of tumors in the distal colon. In like manner, genetic deficiency of TRPV-1 in the APC(Min/+) model of spontaneous colon cancer accentuated the number of colonic adenomas formed. Mechanistic analyses in the CAC model revealed an increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the tumors along with elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 and activation of the STAT3 and NF-?B signaling pathways. Notably, TPRV-1-deficient mice exhibited a defect in expression of the anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) which contributed to the generation of a local proinflammatory environment. Together, our findings argue that by limiting neuroinflammatory processes, TRPV-1 exerts a protective role that restricts the initiation and progression of colon cancer. PMID:22396497

  11. Colonic angiosarcoma: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al Beteddini, Osama S.; Brenez, Daniel; Firket, Christophe; Algaba, Roberto; Tabech, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Angiosarcomas are rare tumours that arise from the vascular endothelium. They can occur anywhere in the body, mostly affecting the head and neck. Their occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract is quite rare with a few reported cases in medical literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 40-year-old man presented with metastatic sigmoid colon angiosarcoma, for which he was operated due to endoscopically uncontrollable massive tumour bleeding. The patient is presently still alive at 24 months after his first presentation. He is receiving palliative care. DISCUSSION This article presents a review of the literature on this rare clinical entity, emphasising the very aggressive behaviour and the poor outcome of this malignancy. We present, briefly, 17 reported cases on primary colonic angiosarcoma since 1949. CONCLUSION The role of chemotherapy and radiation is established neither in the adjuvant setting nor in metastatic disease. Surgery is the mainstay to treat localised colorectal angiosarcomas. PMID:23279809

  12. Robotic distal pancreatectomy: a valid option?

    PubMed

    Jung, M K; Buchs, N C; Azagury, D E; Hagen, M E; Morel, P

    2013-10-01

    Although reported in the literature, conventional laparoscopic approach for distal pancreatectomy is still lacking widespread acceptance. This might be due to two-dimensional vision and decreased range of motion to reach and safely dissect this highly vascularized retroperitoneal organ by laparoscopy. However, interest in minimally invasive access is growing ever since and the robotic system could certainly help overcome limitations of the laparoscopic approach in the challenging domain of pancreatic resection, notably in distal pancreatectomy. Robotic distal pancreatectomy with and without spleen preservation has been reported with encouraging outcomes for benign and borderline malignant disease. As a result of upgraded endowristed manipulation and three-dimensional visualization, improved outcome might be expected with the launch of the robotic system in the procedure of distal pancreatectomy. Our aim was thus to extensively review the current literature of robot-assisted surgery for distal pancreatectomy and to evaluate advantages and possible limitations of the robotic approach. PMID:24101006

  13. Sigmoidal equilibria and eruptive instabilities in laboratory magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Belova, E.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) has recently been modified to study quasi-statically driven line-tied magnetic flux ropes in the context of storage-and-release eruptions in the corona. Detailed in situ magnetic measurements and supporting MHD simulations permit quantitative analysis of the plasma behavior. We find that the behavior of these flux ropes depends strongly on the properties of the applied potential magnetic field arcade. For example, when the arcade is aligned parallel to the flux rope footpoints, force free currents induced in the expanding rope modify the pressure and tension in the arcade, resulting in a confined, quiescent discharge with a saturated kink instability. When the arcade is obliquely aligned to the footpoints, on the other hand, a highly sigmoidal equilibrium forms that can dynamically erupt (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). To our knowledge, these storage-and-release eruptions are the first of their kind to be produced in the laboratory. A new 2D magnetic probe array is used to map out the internal structure of the flux ropes during both the storage and the release phases of the discharge. The kink instability and the torus instability are studied as candidate eruptive mechanisms--the latter by varying the vertical gradient of the potential field arcade. We also investigate magnetic reconnection events that accompany the eruptions. The long-term objective of this work is to use internal magnetic measurements of the flux rope structure to better understand the evolution and eruption of comparable structures in the corona. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization (CMSO). Qualitative sketches of flux ropes formed in (1) a parallel potential field arcade; and (2) an oblique potential field arcade. One-dimensional magnetic measurements from (1) a parallel arcade discharge that is confined; and (2) an oblique arcade discharge that erupts.

  14. Effect of capsaicin on electrical slow waves in the isolated cat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Anuras, S; Christensen, J; Templeman, D

    1977-01-01

    Because of the laxative effect of capsaicin, we examined the effect of that agent on the electromyogram of the isolated cat colon. At a concentration of 10(-4)M, it caused a significant reduction in the frequency of the electrical slow waves in the proximal half of the colon. Frequency fell to its lowest value, 45% of control (P less than 0-001), in the most proximal 10% of the organ below the ileocecal junction, and the effect progressively diminished along the colon. In the distal half of the colon, the change in frequency was not significant. Sectioning of the colon into segments reduced the frequency of the slow waves in the proximal half of the colon, and capsaicin, in a concentration of 10(-4)M, further reduced the frequency in the segments representing the proximal 30% of the colon. This effect of capsaicin is like that reported previously with other laxative agents. PMID:892614

  15. [Acute sigmoid diverticulitis: toward a more and more conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Joliat, G-R; Pittet, O; Demartines, N; Hahnloser, D

    2015-09-16

    Acute diverticulitis of the colon is a frequent pathology especially among elderly people and people of Caucasian origin. The prevalence is higher among sedentary people and in people with low-fiber diet. Its diagnosis is mainly based on computed tomography (CT) that allows guiding the therapeutic management. Over the last few years the treatment of acute diverticulitis has passably changed with in particular an evolution toward a restriction of the elective and emergency surgery indications and a reduction of the antiobiotherapy and hospitalization number. This article reviews the epidemiology, the diagnostic tools, and the management of this frequent digestive pathology. PMID:26591083

  16. Distal phalanges of Eosimias and Hoanghonius.

    PubMed

    Gebo, Daniel L; Beard, K Christopher; Ni, Xijun; Dagosto, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Seven primate distal phalanges have been identified from two middle Eocene fossil localities (Locality 1 and Nanbaotou) in the Yuanqu Basin, China, providing the first evidence of distal phalangeal morphology in Asian Eocene adapiform and eosimiid primates. The bones are best allocated to the basal anthropoid Eosimias centennicus and to hoanghoniine adapiforms. All distal phalangeal specimens display a morphology consistent with nail-bearing fingers and toes. The hallucal distal phalanx of the basal anthropoid Eosimias is more similar to that of primitive tarsiiforms than to crown group anthropoids. The adapiform distal phalanges from Locality 1 are allocated to Hoanghonius stehlini while those from Nanbaotou are tentatively assigned to an indeterminate hoanghoniine because dental remains of adapiforms have yet to be identified from this site. The distal phalangeal anatomy of hoanghoniines differs slightly from that documented for adapines and notharctines. One distal phalanx from Locality 1 shows a second pedal digit "grooming claw" morphology as noted for notharctines by Maiolino et al. (2012) and cercamoniines by Von Koenigswald et al. (2012). PMID:26194032

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed August 2009 What is distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V? Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed August 2009 What is distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II? Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II ...

  19. Pan-colonic pharmacokinetics of catechins and procyanidins in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Smithson, Andrew T; Ickes, Anne K; Neilson, Andrew P

    2015-10-01

    Poor absorption and bioavailability of procyanidins from the upper gastrointestinal tract result in the majority of the dose reaching the colon. During colonic transit, progressive microbial metabolism likely produces gradients of procyanidins and microbial metabolites along the length of the colon, suggesting that proximal and distal regions are exposed to different profiles of procyanidins and metabolites. However, previous studies have largely treated the colon as a single organ or looked at fecal profiles, and differences in the profiles of native and metabolite compounds between regions have not been observed. The metabolism kinetics of procyanidins larger than trimers and formation of metabolites in the colon have not been well characterized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of delivery and microbial metabolism of monomeric, dimeric and oligomeric procyanidins in the cecum and proximal, mid and distal colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged grape seed extract and sacrificed over 18 h. Analysis of luminal contents showed distinct native and metabolite profiles for each region. Procyanidins had maximum concentrations at approximately 3h postgavage for all sections. Metabolites reached maximum concentrations from 3 to 18 h postgavage. The appearance of metabolites was highly dependent on species: larger metabolites were found at earlier times in the more proximal segments, and smaller metabolites were found at later times in more distal regions. This study allowed for the observation of regions in the lower gastrointestinal tract, giving insight into the distribution and delivery of procyanidins and their microbial metabolites throughout the colon. PMID:26026837

  20. Surgical Treatment of Distal Biceps Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Laura E; Huang, Jerry I

    2016-01-01

    Distal biceps ruptures occur from eccentric loading of a flexed elbow. Patients treated nonoperatively have substantial loss of strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination. Surgical approaches include 1-incision and 2-incision techniques. Advances in surgical technology have facilitated the popularity of single-incision techniques through a small anterior incision. Recently, there is increased focus on the detailed anatomy of the distal biceps insertion and the importance of anatomic repair in restoring forearm supination strength. Excellent outcomes are expected with early repair of the distal biceps, with restoration of strength and endurance to near-normal levels with minimal to no loss of motion. PMID:26614933

  1. Colon Stricture After Ischemia Following a Robot-Assisted Ultra-Low Anterior Resection With Coloanal Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae Ro; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-08-01

    Four consecutive cases of a colonic stricture following a da Vinci robot-assisted ultra-low anterior resection (LAR) with coloanal anastomosis and diverting ileostomy for the treatment of rectal cancer are reported. The colonic strictures developed after early proximal colonic ischemia without anastomotic site leakage or disruption. All patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiation therapy. During the postoperative recovery period, patients developed colonic ischemia, presenting with a high, spiking fever, but without any symptoms of peritonitis. Patients were treated with conservative management (antibiotic therapy) and discharged after two weeks when in good condition. Several months after discharge, all four patients developed a long-segment colonic stricture from the anastomosis site to the distal colon. Management of the colon strictures, including the anastomotic site, involved colonic dilation with a Hegar dilator in an outpatient clinic for several months. The ileostomies in three patients could not be closed. PMID:26361618

  2. Colon Stricture After Ischemia Following a Robot-Assisted Ultra-Low Anterior Resection With Coloanal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dae Ro; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Four consecutive cases of a colonic stricture following a da Vinci robot-assisted ultra-low anterior resection (LAR) with coloanal anastomosis and diverting ileostomy for the treatment of rectal cancer are reported. The colonic strictures developed after early proximal colonic ischemia without anastomotic site leakage or disruption. All patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiation therapy. During the postoperative recovery period, patients developed colonic ischemia, presenting with a high, spiking fever, but without any symptoms of peritonitis. Patients were treated with conservative management (antibiotic therapy) and discharged after two weeks when in good condition. Several months after discharge, all four patients developed a long-segment colonic stricture from the anastomosis site to the distal colon. Management of the colon strictures, including the anastomotic site, involved colonic dilation with a Hegar dilator in an outpatient clinic for several months. The ileostomies in three patients could not be closed. PMID:26361618

  3. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePLUS

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening ... Colon cancer screening can detect polyps and early cancers in the intestines. This type of screening can find problems ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Distal arthrogryposis type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and MYBPC1 . These genes are active (expressed) in muscle cells, where they interact with other muscle proteins to ... cell ; clubfoot ; contraction ; distal ; expressed ; gene ; inherited ; joint ; muscle cells ; sarcomere ; syndrome You may find definitions for these ...

  5. Enzyme-Based Logic: OR Gate with Double-Sigmoid Filter Response

    E-print Network

    Zavalov, Oleksandr; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny; 10.1021/jp305183d

    2013-01-01

    The first realization of a biomolecular OR gate function with double-sigmoid response (sigmoid in both inputs) is reported. Two chemical inputs activate the enzymatic gate processes resulting in the output signal: chromogen oxidation, which occurs when either one of the inputs or both are present (corresponding to the OR binary function), and can be optically detected. High-quality gate functioning in handling of sources of noise is enabled by "filtering" involving pH control with an added buffer. The resulting gate response is sigmoid in both inputs when proper system parameters are chosen, and the gate properties are theoretically analyzed within a model devised to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

  6. Enzyme-Based Logic: OR Gate with Double-Sigmoid Filter Response

    E-print Network

    Oleksandr Zavalov; Vera Bocharova; Vladimir Privman; Evgeny Katz

    2013-05-07

    The first realization of a biomolecular OR gate function with double-sigmoid response (sigmoid in both inputs) is reported. Two chemical inputs activate the enzymatic gate processes resulting in the output signal: chromogen oxidation, which occurs when either one of the inputs or both are present (corresponding to the OR binary function), and can be optically detected. High-quality gate functioning in handling of sources of noise is enabled by "filtering" involving pH control with an added buffer. The resulting gate response is sigmoid in both inputs when proper system parameters are chosen, and the gate properties are theoretically analyzed within a model devised to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

  7. A morphometric study of the canine colon: comparison of control dogs and cases of colonic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Spinato, M T; Barker, I K; Houston, D M

    1990-01-01

    The microstructure of the canine colon was described morphometrically. The artifacts induced by administration of enemas and biopsy technique were studied by comparing biopsy specimens to tissues obtained at necropsy from 15 normal dogs. Biopsies from control dogs and clinical cases of colonic disease were then evaluated quantitatively, and histological abnormalities which might clarify mechanisms underlying large bowel dysfunction in the dog were sought. In control dogs, gland length and diameter, epithelial, goblet cell and mucosal mast cell numbers, and intraepithelial lymphocyte and mitotic indices were remarkably uniform throughout the colon. Minor variations were found in the proximal and distal regions of the colon. An apparent shortening of glands, and a reduction in mucous goblets and intraepithelial lymphocytes in biopsies were attributed to suboptimal orientation and irritation caused by enemas. The only significant difference from controls identified by morphometric analysis of biopsies from clinical cases was fewer epithelial cells lining longitudinal sections of glands. It was concluded that failure to identify morphometric variations in the colonic mucosa of clinical cases might reflect either a biased, homogeneously mild clinical syndrome in this group, or the possibility that in many of the clinical cases, a functional rather than physical abnormality was involved. The proprial inflammatory cell population was not examined quantitatively; further investigation of this component is merited. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2249180

  8. Obscure-occult bleeding: resolution of unexplained chronic sideropenic anaemia by colonoscopic removal of a colonic leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Urgesi, Riccardo; Pastorelli, Alfredo; Zampaletta, Costantino; Masini, Andrea; Pelecca, Giorgio; Faggiani, Roberto; Anti, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Although leiomyomas of the stomach or small intestine are relatively common, those of the colon or rectum are rare. Several cases of endoscopic resection of colorectal leiomyomas have been described. However, conventional polypectomy of leiomyomas can result in perforation. To reduce the risk of perforation, submucosal injection can be performed before removal. We report a case of chronic sideropenic anaemia in a patient affected by leiomyoma of the sigmoid colon in which after complete endoscopic enucleation of the lesion we obtained the stable resolution of anaemia. PMID:22714624

  9. Colonic Varices Due to Chronic Pancreatitis: A Rare Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Sho; Sato, Takahiro; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    A 75-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis presented with painless bloody stool. Computed tomography revealed a splenic vein occlusion with several collaterals towards the descending colon. Colonoscopy showed tortuous varices in the descending colon, which suggested recent bleeding. Sinistral portal hypertension (SPH) due to chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed, so splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy were performed. Our case illustrates a rare complication of SPH. PMID:26157952

  10. Management of distal humeral coronal shear fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515

  11. Colon Perforation and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in Behçet’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ba?, Y?lmaz; Güney, Güven; Uzbay, P?nar; Zobac?, Ethem; Ardal?, Selin; Özkan, Ay?egül Taylan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 38 Final Diagnosis: Behçet’s disease Symptoms: Severe abdominal pain • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Parsiyel colectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behçet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease involving multiple systems, with vasculitis being the most important pathological feature. Multiple colon perforations are thought to be secondary to vasculitis and they occur in patients with ulcers. These may be encountered within the entire colon but most commonly in the ileocecal region. Intestinal perforation and Budd-Chiari syndrome are infrequent in Behçet’s disease, and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Budd-Chiari syndrome results from occlusion of either hepatic veins or adjacent inferior vena cava, or both. Case Report: We report a patient with Behçet’s disease having multiple perforations in the transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The patient also had Budd-Chiari syndrome due to inferior vena cava thrombosis extending into the right and middle hepatic vein. Our observations are presented with a review of the literature. Conclusions: In Behçet’s disease, treatment of colon perforation necessitates urgent surgery, whereas management of Budd-Chiari syndrome is directed towards the underlying cause. Behçet’s disease, as a chronic multisystemic disease with various forms of vasculitis, is resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Prognosis is worse in Behçet’s disease with colon perforation than that in Budd-Chiari syndrome alone. PMID:25934795

  12. NOTE Communicated by Yoshua Bengio Deep, Narrow Sigmoid Belief Networks Are Universal

    E-print Network

    Hinton, Geoffrey E.

    , there is a deep belief net- work with maximal layer width of size n + 1 and depth 3 · (2n - 1) + 1NOTE Communicated by Yoshua Bengio Deep, Narrow Sigmoid Belief Networks Are Universal Approximators deep belief networks can ap- proximate any distribution over binary vectors to arbitrary accuracy, even

  13. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Daeho; Chae, Geunhyoung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air), the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer. PMID:26437414

  14. A New Robust Design Strategy for Sigmoidal Models Based on Model Nesting

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, Timothy E.

    which minimize the determinant 1M - l ee,~O)I are called locally D-optimal, where the term "locallyA New Robust Design Strategy for Sigmoidal Models Based on Model Nesting Timothy E. O parameters. In this situation, optimal design-theory produces designs which typically have only p support

  15. Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data Augmentation Zhe Gan Ricardo Henao David Carlson Lawrence Carin

    E-print Network

    Carin, Lawrence

    Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data Augmentation Zhe Gan Ricardo Henao David Carlson Abstract Deep directed generative models are devel- oped. The multi-layered model is designed by stacking available datasets: MNIST, Caltech 101 Silhouettes and OCR letters. 1 Introduction The Deep Belief Network

  16. Focal parietal necrosis of the sigmoid due to atypical neuroleptics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Devresse, Arnaud; Maldague, Philippe; Coulier, Bruno; Pierard, Frédéric; Gielen, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old man with schizoid personality disorder who suffered from a very focal and transparietal necrosis of the sigmoid after an overdose of atypical neuroleptics. This is a singular, rather unknown and potentially lethal side effect of these drugs. The physiopathology of this complication is multifactorial. PMID:22870793

  17. Properties of cholinergic and non-cholinergic submucosal neurons along the mouse colon

    PubMed Central

    Foong, Jaime Pei Pei; Tough, Iain R; Cox, Helen M; Bornstein, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    Submucosal neurons are vital regulators of water and electrolyte secretion and local blood flow in the gut. Due to the availability of transgenic models for enteric neuropathies, the mouse has emerged as the research model of choice, but much is still unknown about the murine submucosal plexus. The progeny of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre × ROSA26YFP reporter mice, ChAT-Cre;R26R-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) mice, express YFP in every neuron that has ever expressed ChAT. With the aid of the robust YFP staining in these mice, we correlated the neurochemistry, morphology and electrophysiology of submucosal neurons in distal colon. We also examined whether there are differences in neurochemistry along the colon and in neurally mediated vectorial ion transport between the proximal and distal colon. All YFP+ submucosal neurons also contained ChAT. Two main neurochemical but not electrophysiological groups of neurons were identified: cholinergic (containing ChAT) or non-cholinergic. The vast majority of neurons in the middle and distal colon were non-cholinergic but contained vasoactive intestinal peptide. In the distal colon, non-cholinergic neurons had one or two axons, whereas the cholinergic neurons examined had only one axon. All submucosal neurons exhibited S-type electrophysiology, shown by the lack of long after-hyperpolarizing potentials following their action potentials and fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). Fast EPSPs were predominantly nicotinic, and somatic action potentials were mediated by tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated channels. The size of submucosal ganglia decreased but the proportion of cholinergic neurons increased distally along the colon. The distal colon had a significantly larger nicotinic ion transport response than the proximal colon. This work shows that the properties of murine submucosal neurons and their control of epithelial ion transport differ between colonic regions. There are several key differences between the murine submucous plexus and that of other animals, including a lack of conventional intrinsic sensory neurons, which suggests there is an incomplete neuronal circuitry within the murine submucous plexus. PMID:24344165

  18. Disturbed Colonic Motility Contributes to Anorectal Symptoms and Dysfunction After Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric K.; Bartholomeusz, Dylan L.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata; Moore, James W.; Schoeman, Mark N.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of colonic motility in the pathogenesis of anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients, median age 71 (range, 50-81) years with localized prostate carcinoma randomized to one of two radiation dose schedules underwent colonic transit scintigraphy and assessment of anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), anorectal function (manometry), and anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and at 1 month and 1 year after RT. Results: Whole and distal colonic transit increased 1 month after RT, with faster distal colonic transit only persisting at 1 year. Frequency and urgency of defecation, fecal incontinence, and rectal bleeding increased 1 month after RT and persisted at 1 year. Basal anal pressures remained unchanged, but progressive reductions occurred in anal squeeze pressures and responses to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Rectal compliance decreased progressively in the patients, although no changes in anorectal sensory function ensued. Radiotherapy had no effect on the morphology of the internal and external anal sphincters. Distal colonic retention was weakly related to rectal compliance at 1 month, but both faster colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance were more frequent with increased fecal urgency. At 1 year, a weak inverse relationship existed between colonic half-clearance time and frequency of defecation, although both faster whole-colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance occurred more often with increased stool frequency. Conclusion: Colonic dysmotility contributes to anorectal dysfunction after RT for carcinoma of the prostate. This has implications for improving the management of anorectal radiation sequelae.

  19. Distal-Selective Hydroformylation using Scaffolding Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In hydroformylation, phosphorus-based directing groups have been consistently successful at placing the aldehyde on the carbon proximal to the directing group. The design and synthesis of a novel catalytic directing group are reported that promotes aldehyde formation on the carbon distal relative to the directing functionality. This scaffolding ligand, which operates through a reversible covalent bond to the substrate, has been applied to the diastereoselective hydroformylation of homoallylic alcohols to afford ?-lactones selectively. Altering the distance between the alcohol and the olefin revealed that homoallylic alcohols gives the distal lactone with the highest levels of regioselectivity. PMID:24902624

  20. Distal-selective hydroformylation using scaffolding catalysis.

    PubMed

    Joe, Candice L; Blaisdell, Thomas P; Geoghan, Allison F; Tan, Kian L

    2014-06-18

    In hydroformylation, phosphorus-based directing groups have been consistently successful at placing the aldehyde on the carbon proximal to the directing group. The design and synthesis of a novel catalytic directing group are reported that promotes aldehyde formation on the carbon distal relative to the directing functionality. This scaffolding ligand, which operates through a reversible covalent bond to the substrate, has been applied to the diastereoselective hydroformylation of homoallylic alcohols to afford ?-lactones selectively. Altering the distance between the alcohol and the olefin revealed that homoallylic alcohols gives the distal lactone with the highest levels of regioselectivity. PMID:24902624

  1. Distal Humerus Fractures: Open Reduction Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Mark A; Stephens, Brent; Stone, Geoffrey P; Cottrell, Benjamin J

    2015-11-01

    Distal humerus fractures are challenging injuries for the upper extremity surgeon. However, recent techniques in open reduction internal fixation have been powerful tools in getting positive outcomes. To get such results, the surgeon must be aware of how to properly use these techniques in their respective practices. The method of fixation depends on the fracture, taking the degree of comminution and the restoration of the columns and articular surface into account. This article helps surgeons understand the concepts behind open reduction internal fixation of the distal humerus and makes them aware of pitfalls that may lead to negative results. PMID:26498548

  2. Comparison of Maxillary Molar Distalization with an Implant-Supported Distal Jet and a Traditional Tooth-Supported Distal Jet Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Cozzani, Mauro; Pasini, Marco; Zallio, Francesco; Ritucci, Robert; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Mazzotta, Laura; Giuca, Maria Rita; Piras, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate and compare the efficiency of two appliances for molar distalization: the bone-anchored distal screw (DS) and the traditional tooth-supported distal jet (DJ) for molar distalization and anchorage loss. Methods. Tests (18 subjects) were treated with a DS and controls (18 subjects) were treated with a DJ. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before and at the end of molar distalization and were analysed. Shapiro Wilk test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were applied according to values distribution. The ? level was fixed at 0.05. Results. Maxillary first molars were successfully distalized into a Class I relationship in all patients. The mean molar distalization and treatment time were similar in both groups. The DS group exhibited a spontaneous distalization (2.1 ± 0.9?mm) of the first premolar with control of anchorage loss, distal tipping, extrusion, and skeletal changes. Conclusions. The DS is an adequate compliance-free distalizing appliance that can be used safely for the correction of Class II malocclusions. In comparison to the traditional DJ, the DS enables not only a good rate of molar distalization, but also a spontaneous distalization of the first premolars. PMID:25018770

  3. Neonatal colonic perforation

    PubMed Central

    Saraç, Fatma; Atao?lu, Emel; Tatar, Cihad; Hatipo?lu, Halil U?ur; Abbaso?lu, Latif

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal colonic perforation is a rarely seen condition. Plain abdominal radiography of a 28-hour newborn consulted for vomiting and bloody stool revealed the presence of subdiaphragmatic free air, which necessitated surgical exploration. Transverse colonic perforation was detected during the exploration, and subsequently, a colostomy and appendectomy were performed. The postoperative follow-up period was uneventful. Necrotizing enterocolitis, Hirschsprung disease, and mechanical obstruction are some of the causes of colonic perforation during the neonatal period. Herein, we have shared a case of colonic perforation in an asphyctic newborn delivered after prolonged labor. PMID:25931945

  4. Neonatal colonic perforation.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Fatma; Atao?lu, Emel; Tatar, Cihad; Hatipo?lu, Halil U?ur; Abbaso?lu, Latif

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal colonic perforation is a rarely seen condition. Plain abdominal radiography of a 28-hour newborn consulted for vomiting and bloody stool revealed the presence of subdiaphragmatic free air, which necessitated surgical exploration. Transverse colonic perforation was detected during the exploration, and subsequently, a colostomy and appendectomy were performed. The postoperative follow-up period was uneventful. Necrotizing enterocolitis, Hirschsprung disease, and mechanical obstruction are some of the causes of colonic perforation during the neonatal period. Herein, we have shared a case of colonic perforation in an asphyctic newborn delivered after prolonged labor. PMID:25931945

  5. Huqi San-Evoked Rat Colonic Anion Secretion through Increasing CFTR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaowei; Shi, Zhengming; Wang, Wen; Yu, Xiaotong; Feng, Ping; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuejiang; Xu, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    Huqi San (HQS) is a Chinese herbal preparation of eight medicinal herbs that promote diuresis, detoxification, blood circulation, and cholestasis. Defects in transporter expression and function can cause cholestasis and jaundice. However, the mechanism of the cholestasis underlying HQS effects, especially on the gastrointestinal tract ion secretion, has not been elucidated. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to study the expression and localization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and ?-ENaC in rat alimentary tract, and then the effect of HQS on the ion transport in rat distal colon mucosa was investigated using the short-circuit current (ISC) technique. The results showed that pretreatment with HQS significantly enhanced mRNA transcripts and protein content of CFTR in liver and distal colon but not ?-ENaC in alimentary organs. HQS increases ISC and decreases the transepithelial resistance. Pretreatment with epithelial Na+ channel blocker did not affect the ISC responses elicited by HQS, but removal of extracellular Cl? or pretreatment with Cl? channel or Na+-K+-2Cl? cotransporter blocker inhibited HQS-elicited ISC responses. These findings demonstrated that HQS, RA, and RP can stimulate Cl? secretion in the distal colon by increasing the mRNA transcripts and protein content of CFTR in liver and distal colon. PMID:26290673

  6. The Role of Erupting Sigmoid in Triggering a Flare with Parallel and Large-scale Quasi-circular Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Liu, Chang; Sun, Xudong; Wang, Haimin; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present observations and analysis of an interesting sigmoid formation, eruption, and the associated flare that occurred on 2014 April 18 using multi-wavelength data sets. We discuss the possible role of the sigmoid eruption in triggering the flare, which consists of two different sets of ribbons: parallel ribbons and a large-scale quasi-circular ribbon. Several observational evidence and nonlinear force-free field extrapolation results show the existence of a large-scale fan-spine type magnetic configuration with a sigmoid lying under a section of the fan dome. The event can be explained with the following two phases. During the preflare phase, we observed the formation and appearance of the sigmoid via tether-cutting reconnection between the two sets of sheared fields under the fan dome. The second, main flare phase features the eruption of the sigmoid, the subsequent flare with parallel ribbons, and a quasi-circular ribbon. We propose the following multi-stage successive reconnection scenario for the main flare. First, tether-cutting reconnection is responsible for the formation and the eruption of the sigmoid structure. Second, the reconnection occurring in the wake of the erupting sigmoid produces the parallel flare ribbons on the both sides of the circular polarity inversion line. Third, the null-type reconnection higher in the corona, possibly triggered by the erupting sigmoid, leads to the formation of a large quasi-circular ribbon. For the first time, we suggest a mechanism for this type of flare consisting of a double set of ribbons triggered by an erupting sigmoid in a large-scale fan-spine-type magnetic configuration.

  7. Comparative evaluation of molar distalization therapy using pendulum and distal screw appliances

    PubMed Central

    Cafagna, Alessandra; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare dentoalveolar and skeletal changes produced by the pendulum appliance (PA) and the distal screw appliance (DS) in Class II patients. Methods Forty-three patients (19 men, 24 women) with Class II malocclusion were retrospectively selected for the study. Twenty-four patients (mean age, 12.2 ± 1.5 years) were treated with the PA, and 19 patients (mean age, 11.3 ± 1.9 years) were treated with the DS. The mean distalization time was 7 months for the PA group and 9 months for the DS group. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at T1, before treatment, and at T2, the end of distalization. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of the two groups between T1 and T2. Results PA and DS were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (4.7 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molars showed less distal tipping in the DS group than in the PA group (3.2° vs. 9.0°, respectively). Moreover, significant premolar anchorage loss (2.7 mm) and incisor proclination (5.0°) were noted in the PA group, whereas premolar distal movement (1.9 mm) and no significant changes at the incisor (0.1°) were observed in the DS group. No significant sagittal or vertical skeletal changes were detected between the two groups during the distalization phase. Conclusions PA and DS seem to be equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars; however, greater distal molar tipping and premolar anchorage loss can be expected using PA. PMID:26258063

  8. General Information about Colon Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Colon cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the colon. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the colon or to other ...

  9. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (/sup 3/H)-biotin and (/sup 14/C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 ..mu..M biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host.

  10. Histological reactivity of a monoclonal antibody against rat colon cancer cells on human and rat normal gut and colonic tumours.

    PubMed

    Genne, P; Olsson, N O; Caignard, A; Oriol, R; Bara, J; Hammann, A; Martin, F

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, F11C, was raised against rat colon cancer cells. Its immunoreactivity on normal human and rat gut as well as human and rat colonic tumours was studied by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique. In both normal rat and human gastrointestinal tract, F11C stained surface epithelial cells from the fundus to distal colon, mainly as supranuclear vesicles. These vesicles appeared to be part of the Golgi apparatus on electron microscopy with immunogold labelling. Twenty primary rat colon tumours and 28 of 43 human colon tumours were also stained, with a heterogeneous pattern but much more strongly than the normal colonic mucosa. Biochemical purification suggested that in rat tumours F11C epitope was carried by a high molecular weight glycoprotein. Absorption experiments with synthetic oligosaccharides showed that F11C monoclonal antibody reacted with blood group A-related oligosaccharides. Nevertheless, F11C reactivity on human tissues was not related to the individual ABO or Lewis phenotype. PMID:1372780

  11. Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Thelin, Camille; Alquist, Caroline R; Engel, Lee S; Dewenter, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon, a rare oncologic variant, was diagnosed in a 25-year-old man who presented with partial bowel obstruction. To understand better the pathology of this neoplasm, a retrospective review of Entrez PubMed entries describing primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon and/or rectum was performed. Only 13 previous cases of primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colon and/or rectum have been reported, with an average presentation age of 57 years and generally afflicting the descending colon of men. Herein we present a case occurring in the distal ascending colon of the youngest patient in the literature to date. Our patient's diagnosis is rare in occurrence, location, and age of onset. PMID:25311456

  12. Effect of areca on contraction of colonic muscle strips in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dong-Ping; Li, Wei; Qu, Song-Yi; Zheng, Tian-Zhen; Yang, Ying-Li; Ding, Yong-Hui; Wei, Yu-Ling; Chen, Lian-Bi

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of areca on the contractile activity of isolated colonic muscle strips in rats and mechanism involved. METHODS: Each strip (LMPC, longitudinal muscle of proximal colon; CMPC, circular muscle of proximal colon; LMDC, longitudinal muscle of distal colon; CMDC, circular muscle of distal colon.) was suspended in a tissue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution (37 °C), bubbled continuously with 950 mL•L?¹ O2 and 50 mL•L?¹ CO2. The mean contractile amplitude (A), the resting tension (T), and the contractile frequency (F) were simultaneously recorded on recorders. RESULTS: Areca dose dependently increased the mean contractile amplitude, the resting tension of proximal and distal colonic smooth muscle strips in rats (P < 0.05). It also partly increased the contractile frequency of colonic smooth muscle strips in rats (P < 0.05). The effects were partly inhibited by atropine (the resting tension of LMPC decreased from 0.44 ± 0.12 to 0.17 ± 0.03; the resting tension of LMDC decreased from 0.71 ± 0.14 to 0.03 ± 0.01; the mean contractile amplitude of LMPC increased from -45.8 ± 7.2 to -30.5 ± 2.9; the motility index of CMDC decreased from 86.6 ± 17.3 to 32.8 ± 9.3; P < 0.05 vs areca), but the effects were not inhibited by hexamethonium (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Areca stimulated the motility of isolated colonic smooth muscle strips in rats. The stimulation of areca might be relevant with M receptor partly. PMID:11925623

  13. Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Privman; Jan Halamek; Mary A. Arugula; Dmitriy Melnikov; Vera Bocharova; Evgeny Katz

    2010-09-13

    The first realization of a designed, rather than natural, biochemical filter process is reported and analyzed as a promising network component for increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic systems. Key challenge in biochemical logic research has been achieving scalability for complex network designs. Various logic gates have been realized, but a "toolbox" of analog elements for interconnectivity and signal processing has remained elusive. Filters are important as network elements that allow control of noise in signal transmission and conversion. We report a versatile biochemical filtering mechanism designed to have sigmoidal response in combination with signal-conversion process. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chromogenic electron donor by hydrogen peroxide, was altered by adding ascorbate, allowing to selectively suppress the output signal, modifying the response from convex to sigmoidal. A kinetic model was developed for evaluation of the quality of filtering. The results offer improved capabilities for design of scalable biomolecular information processing systems.

  14. Sigmoid diverticulitis perforation in burns: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cirodde, A; Jault, P; Leclerc, T; Donat, N; Bargues, L

    2012-03-31

    Burned patients are prone to develop severe intestinal complications because of decreased splanchnic circulation. We report three cases of sigmoid perforation in burn patients appearing late during hospitalization. The common aetiological factor was a state of septic shock treated with infusion of vasopressors. Two patients also received corticosteroids as treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. These cases underline the necessity to maintain adequate organ perfusion and to prevent intestinal ischaemia in severe burns. PMID:23012612

  15. Minimal plus one point designs for testing lack of fit for some sigmoid curve models.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Raghavarao, Damaraju

    2013-03-11

    D-optimal designs for nonlinear models are often minimally supported. They have been frequently criticized for their inability to test for lack of fit. We construct alternative designs to address this issue for some commonly used sigmoid curves, including logistic, probit, and Gompertz models with two, three, or four parameters. For each model, we compare five nonminimally supported designs in terms of their efficiency, and propose designs that are both statistically efficient and practically convenient for practitioners. PMID:23437939

  16. Aerotactile integration from distal skin stimuli.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Donald; Gick, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Tactile sensations at extreme distal body locations can integrate with auditory information to alter speech perception among uninformed and untrained listeners. Inaudible air puffs were applied to participants' ankles, simultaneously with audible syllables having aspirated and unaspirated stop onsets. Syllables heard simultaneously with air puffs were more likely to be heard as aspirated. These results demonstrate that event-appropriate information from distal parts of the body integrates in speech perception, even without frequent or robust location-specific experience. In addition, overall performance was significantly better for those with hair on their ankles, which suggests that the presence of hair may help establish signal relevance, and so aid in multi-modal speech perception. PMID:24649526

  17. Colon capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Cristiano; Hassan, Cesare; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a minimally invasive technique specifically designed to explore the colon without sedation and air insufflation. CCE may overcome some of the limitations of colonoscopy. Second-generation CCE (CCE-2) was proved accurate in detecting colonic neoplastic lesions when used in average-risk individuals. The evidence to date supports the use of CCE-2 in cases of colonoscopy failure, in patients unwilling to undergo colonoscopy, and when colonoscopy is contraindicated. Other potential applications, such as colorectal cancer screening or diagnostic surveillance of inflammatory bowel disease, require clarification. PMID:25839692

  18. The development of colon innervation in trisomy 16 mice and Hirschsprungs disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji Cheng; Mi, Kai Hong; Zhou, Ji Lin; Busch, LC; Kuhnel, W

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the colon innervation of trisomy 16 mouse, an animal model for Down’s syndrome, and the expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in the stenosed segment of colon in Hirschsprungs disease (HD). METHODS: Trisomy 16 mouse breeding; cytogenetic analysis of trisomy 16 mice; and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry of colons of trisomy 16 mice and HD were carried out. RESULTS: Compared with their normal littermates, the nervous system of colon in trisomy 16 mice was abnormally developed. There existed developmental delay of muscular plexuses of colon, no submucosal plexus was found in the colon, and there was 5 mm aganglionic bowel aparting from the anus in trisomy 16 mice. The mesentery nerve fibers were as well developed as shown in their normal littermates. Abundant proliferation of PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibers was evealed in the stenosed segment of HD colon. CONCLUSION: Trisomy 16 mice could serve as an animal model for Hirschsprung’s disease for aganglionic bowel in the distal part of colon. Abundant proliferation of PGP 9.5 positive fibers resulted from extrinsic nerve compensation, since no ganglionic cells were observed in the stenosed segment of the colon in HD. HD has a genetic tendency. PMID:11819726

  19. DVR plating of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke, J; Fernandez, D L

    2015-11-01

    Volar plating has become the standard of care for most distal radius fractures. When done for the right indication and with adequate mastering of the technique complication ratio is low. The concept of subchondral support is key in this technique. Osteoporotic patients will especially benefit from this type of fixation which allows early immobilization, quick return to activities of daily living and early good outcome. PMID:26319206

  20. Periosteal osteoid osteoma of the distal femur

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Mohammed Fahd; Almoubaker, Salma; Chbani, Badr; Chahbouni, Sanae; Marzouki, Amine; Amarti, Afaf; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2010-01-01

    Periosteal osteoid osteoma is extremely rare. The diagnosis is not always clear. We report a case of periosteal osteoid osteoma arising from the posterior surface of the right distal femur in a 21-year-old woman. After careful evaluation and excisional biopsy, histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma, showing the nidus, surrounding osteosclerosis, and catarrhal synovitis. The lesion was treated successfully with excision of the nidus. PMID:21808706

  1. Distal Embolic Protection for Renal Arterial Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubel, Gregory J. Murphy, Timothy P.

    2008-01-15

    Distal or embolic protection has intuitive appeal for its potential to prevent embolization of materials generated during interventional procedures. Distal protection devices (DPDs) have been most widely used in the coronary and carotid vascular beds, where they have demonstrated the ability to trap embolic materials and, in some cases, to reduce complications. Given the frequency of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal artery stenosis undergoing stent placement, it is reasonable to propose that these devices may play an important role in limiting distal embolization in the renal vasculature. Careful review of the literature reveals that atheroembolization does occur during renal arterial interventions, although it often goes undetected. Early experience with DPDs in the renal arteries in patients with suitable anatomy suggests retrieval of embolic materials in approximately 71% of cases and renal functional improvement/stabilization in 98% of cases. The combination of platelet inhibition and a DPD may provide even greater benefit. Given the critical importance of renal functional preservation, it follows that everything that can be done to prevent atheroembolism should be undertaken including the use of DPDs when anatomically feasible. The data available at this time support a beneficial role for these devices.

  2. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Login Laparoscopic Colon Resection Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon About ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  3. Colon diverticula - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can cause problems. The most common problem is diverticulitis, which occurs when a small, hard piece of ... Treatment of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding involves surgical removal of the segment of colon containing the diverticula. While the patient is ...

  4. Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

  5. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  6. Ensemble classification of colon biopsy images based on information rich hybrid features.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Saima; Hussain, Mutawarra; Aksam Iftikhar, Muhammad; Jalil, Abdul

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, classification of colon biopsy images has become an active research area. Traditionally, colon cancer is diagnosed using microscopic analysis. However, the process is subjective and leads to considerable inter/intra observer variation. Therefore, reliable computer-aided colon cancer detection techniques are in high demand. In this paper, we propose a colon biopsy image classification system, called CBIC, which benefits from discriminatory capabilities of information rich hybrid feature spaces, and performance enhancement based on ensemble classification methodology. Normal and malignant colon biopsy images differ with each other in terms of the color distribution of different biological constituents. The colors of different constituents are sharp in normal images, whereas the colors diffuse with each other in malignant images. In order to exploit this variation, two feature types, namely color components based statistical moments (CCSM) and Haralick features have been proposed, which are color components based variants of their traditional counterparts. Moreover, in normal colon biopsy images, epithelial cells possess sharp and well-defined edges. Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) based features have been employed to exploit this information. Different combinations of hybrid features have been constructed from HOG, CCSM, and Haralick features. The minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection method has been employed to select meaningful features from individual and hybrid feature sets. Finally, an ensemble classifier based on majority voting has been proposed, which classifies colon biopsy images using the selected features. Linear, RBF, and sigmoid SVM have been employed as base classifiers. The proposed system has been tested on 174 colon biopsy images, and improved performance (=98.85%) has been observed compared to previously reported studies. Additionally, the use of mRMR method has been justified by comparing the performance of CBIC on original and reduced feature sets. PMID:24561346

  7. A noninvasive scintigraphic assessment of the colonic transit of nondigestible solids in man

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.B.; Valenzuela, G.A.; Stubbs, C.C.; Croft, B.Y.; Teates, C.D.; Plankey, M.W.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-07-01

    A noninvasive, scintigraphic technique for quantifying large intestinal transit time that provides low radiation doses was developed. The scintigraphic large intestinal transit (SLIT) method uses a total of 100 microCi of 111In encapsulated in ten 2-cm nondigestible capsules, which are ingested after a 6-hr fast. Two hundred fifty microcuries of 99mTc-sulfur colloid were given to outline the gastrointestinal tract. Images were acquired at 4-hr intervals until all capsules were excreted. Normal volunteers (n = 10) consumed a standardized diet 2 days prior and during imaging. Segmental transit times were measured in the following: ascending, transverse, descending, recto-sigmoid colons; hepatic and splenic flexures. The radiation absorbed dose to the large intestine for the SLIT technique is less than half of that associated with other radiographic methods of colonic transit time measurement.

  8. Distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 Receptors Along the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Yaakob, Nor S; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Chetty, Navinisha; Coupar, Ian M; Irving, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with abnormal serotonin (5-HT) signaling or metabolism where the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are clinically relevant. The aim was to examine the distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the normal human colon and how this is associated with receptor interacting chaperone 3, G protein coupled receptor kinases, and protein LIN-7 homologs to extend previous observations limited to the sigmoid colon or the upper intestine. Methods Samples from ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid human colon were dissected into 3 separate layers (mucosa, longitudinal, and circular muscles) and ileum samples were dissected into mucosa and muscle layers (n = 20). Complementary DNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from extracted RNA and expression was determined by quantitative or end point polymerase chain reaction. Results The 5-HT3 receptor subunits were found in all tissues throughout the colon and ileum. The A subunit was detected in all samples and the C subunit was expressed at similar levels while the B subunit was expressed at lower levels and less frequently. The 5-HT3 receptor E subunit was mainly found in the mucosa layers. All splice variants of the 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors were expressed throughout the colon although the 5-HT4 receptor d, g, and i variants were expressed less often. Conclusions The major differences in 5-HT receptor distribution within the human colon are in relation to the mucosa and muscular tissue layers where the 5-HT3 receptor E subunit is predominantly found in the mucosal layer which may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:26130632

  9. Insights into the mechanics of en-échelon sigmoidal vein formation using ultra-high resolution photogrammetry and computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Samuel T.; Micklethwaite, Steven; Bourke, Paul; Verrall, Michael; Kovesi, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Two novel techniques, photo based reconstruction (photogrammetry) and computed tomography (CT), are used to investigate the formation of an exceptional array of sigmoidal veins in a hand sample from Cape Liptrap, Southern Victoria, and to provide constraint on models for their development. The accuracies of the photogrammetric models were tested by comparison with a laser scan generated three dimensional (3D) model. The photogrammetric model was found to be accurate to at least 0.25 mm and substantially more detailed than the laser scan. A methodology was developed by which 3D structural measurements could be extracted from the photogrammetric model. This was augmented with the CT model which, through its capacity to elucidate internal structure, was used to constrain the geometry and linkage of structures within the rock volume. The photogrammetric and CT data were then combined with detailed photomicrographs to evaluate the evolution of the sigmoidal veins in the sample. The angle between the sigmoidal vein margins and an inferred shear zone, as well as the orientations of the crystal fibres, were found to imply a rotation of >27°. However coeval pressure solution seams and older veinlets in the rock bridges between the veins were only found to have rotated by ?10°, an observation not easily explained using existing models for sigmoidal vein formation. A new model is proposed in which a significant component of sigmoidal vein geometry is due to localised dilation caused by slip on the pressure solution seams. The process involves strain partitioning onto pressure solution seams, which leads to exaggeration of sigmoidal vein geometries. If not accounted for, the apparent vein rotation due to slip partitioning introduces errors into calculations of simple shear and volume strain based on sigmoidal arrays of this type. Furthermore, the CT data demonstrated that in 3D the veins are continuous and channel-like, implying a far higher degree of connectivity and fluid transport than is suggested by their 2D form.

  10. 3D magnetic configuration of the H? filament and X-ray sigmoid in NOAA AR 8151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régnier, S.; Amari, T.

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the structure and relationship of an H? filament and an X-ray sigmoid observed in active region NOAA 8151. We first examine the presence of such structures in the reconstructed 3D coronal magnetic field obtained from the non-constant-? force-free field hypothesis using a photospheric vector magnetogram (IVM, Mees Solar Observatory). This method allows us to identify several flux systems: a filament (height 30 Mm, aligned with the polarity inversion line (PIL), magnetic field strength at the apex 49 G, number of turns 0.5-0.6), a sigmoid (height 45 Mm, aligned with the PIL, magnetic field strength at the apex 56 G, number of turns 0.5-0.6) and a highly twisted flux tube (height 60 Mm, magnetic field strength at the apex 36 G, number of turns 1.1-1.2). By searching for magnetic dips in the configuration, we identify a filament structure which is in good agreement with the H? observations. We find that both filament and sigmoidal structures can be described by a long twisted flux tube with a number of turns less than 1 which means that these structures are stable against kinking. The filament and the sigmoid have similar absolute values of ? and Jz in the photosphere. However, the electric current density is positive in the filament and negative in the sigmoid: the filament is right-handed whereas the sigmoid is left-handed. This fact can explain the discrepancies between the handedness of magnetic clouds (twisted flux tubes ejected from the Sun) and the handedness of their solar progenitors (twisted flux bundles in the low corona). The mechanism of eruption in AR 8151 is more likely not related to the development of instability in the filament and/or the sigmoid but is associated with the existence of the highly twisted flux tube (˜1.1-1.2 turns).

  11. Induction of bradykinin B1 receptors in rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Teather, S; Cuthbert, A W

    1997-07-01

    1. Des-Arg9 bradykinin (DAB), a classical B1-kinin receptor agonist was without effect when applied to the basolateral surface of rat isolated colon epithelium. Three hours after tissues were isolated DAB caused, after a delay of up to 2 min, a maintained increase of short circuit current (SCC). 2. The SCC increase in colonic epithelia, mounted in vitro for three hours, caused by DAB was due to electrogenic chloride secretion as the current increase was reversed by frusemide and did not occur in the absence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels. The EC50 for DAB was approximately 50 nM. 3. An inhibitor of transcription (actinomycin D) and of translation (cycloheximide) prevented the appearance of DAB sensitivity without affecting the responses to another secretagogue (forskolin). 4. The classical B1-kinin receptor antagonist, Leu8-des-Arg9 bradykinin, was shown to be an agonist in rat colon epithelium. Other B1-kinin receptor antagonists (des-Arg10-Hoe 140 and R-715) inhibited the responses to DAB in 'aged' colonic epithelia, and the inhibition was easily surmounted by increasing the concentration of DAB. 5. Response to DAB did not appear to involve to any significant extent, the formation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine or nitric oxide. Furthermore, no neuronal involvement was apparent in the stripped colonic preparations. The responses to DAB were not significantly different in epithelia taken from different parts of the distal colon. 6. The differences between the responses of the colonic epithelium to B1- and B2-kinin receptor agonists are discussed. PMID:9222560

  12. Colon adenocarcinoma with dome-like phenotype: characteristic endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) findings.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Amano, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Aisa; Otake, Yuriko; Saiki, Hirotsugu; Kondo, Hisashi; Urabe, Makiko; Takahashi, Kei; Yamamoto, Masashi; Hayashi, Shiro; Nakajima, Sachiko; Nishida, Tsutomu; Komori, Takamichi; Morita, Shunji; Adachi, Shiro; Inada, Masami

    2015-08-01

    An 80-year-old man underwent colonoscopy for proctorrhagia. Conventional white-light imaging showed a superficially flat and elevated lesion that appeared to be a submucosal tumor of the sigmoid colon. Chromoendoscopy with Indigo Carmine showed that the margin of the tumor was covered with normal epithelium but that there was a slight depression on its surface. Magnification endoscopy with Crystal Violet staining revealed the amorphous surface structure of the depressed lesion, but the surrounding mucosa showed a normal pit pattern. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated that a hypoechoic mass was located in the submucosal layer, and a biopsy specimen obtained from the surface of the lesion showed evidence of adenocarcinoma. We then performed sigmoidectomy on the patient. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for two mismatch repair proteins (MLH1 and MSH2), but in situ hybridization revealed that the specimen was negative for the Epstein?-?Barr virus. We finally diagnosed the lesion as adenocarcinoma with a dome-like phenotype of the sigmoid colon. PMID:26355327

  13. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  14. FORMATION OF TORUS-UNSTABLE FLUX ROPES AND ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN ERUPTING SIGMOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Aulanier, G.; Toeroek, T.; Demoulin, P.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the physical mechanisms that form a three-dimensional coronal flux rope and later cause its eruption. This is achieved by a zero-beta magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an initially potential, asymmetric bipolar field, which evolves by means of simultaneous slow magnetic field diffusion and sub-Alfvenic, line-tied shearing motions in the photosphere. As in similar models, flux-cancellation-driven photospheric reconnection in a bald-patch (BP) separatrix transforms the sheared arcades into a slowly rising and stable flux rope. A bifurcation from a BP to a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) topology occurs later on in the evolution, while the flux rope keeps growing and slowly rising, now due to shear-driven coronal slip-running reconnection, which is of tether-cutting type and takes place in the QSL. As the flux rope reaches the altitude at which the decay index -partial derivln B/partial derivln z of the potential field exceeds approx3/2, it rapidly accelerates upward, while the overlying arcade eventually develops an inverse tear-drop shape, as observed in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This transition to eruption is in accordance with the onset criterion of the torus instability. Thus, we find that photospheric flux-cancellation and tether-cutting coronal reconnection do not trigger CMEs in bipolar magnetic fields, but are key pre-eruptive mechanisms for flux ropes to build up and to rise to the critical height above the photosphere at which the torus instability causes the eruption. In order to interpret recent Hinode X-Ray Telescope observations of an erupting sigmoid, we produce simplified synthetic soft X-ray images from the distribution of the electric currents in the simulation. We find that a bright sigmoidal envelope is formed by pairs of J-shaped field lines in the pre-eruptive stage. These field lines form through the BP reconnection and merge later on into S-shaped loops through the tether-cutting reconnection. During the eruption, the central part of the sigmoid brightens due to the formation of a vertical current layer in the wake of the erupting flux rope. Slip-running reconnection in this layer yields the formation of flare loops. A rapid decrease of currents due to field line expansion, together with the increase of narrow currents in the reconnecting QSL, yields the sigmoid hooks to thin in the early stages of the eruption. Finally, a slightly rotating erupting loop-like feature (ELLF) detaches from the center of the sigmoid. Most of this ELLF is not associated with the erupting flux rope, but with a current shell that develops within expanding field lines above the rope. Only the short, curved end of the ELLF corresponds to a part of the flux rope. We argue that the features found in the simulation are generic for the formation and eruption of soft X-ray sigmoids.

  15. Formation of Torus-Unstable Flux Ropes and Electric Currents in Erupting Sigmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Démoulin, P.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the physical mechanisms that form a three-dimensional coronal flux rope and later cause its eruption. This is achieved by a zero-? magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an initially potential, asymmetric bipolar field, which evolves by means of simultaneous slow magnetic field diffusion and sub-Alfvénic, line-tied shearing motions in the photosphere. As in similar models, flux-cancellation-driven photospheric reconnection in a bald-patch (BP) separatrix transforms the sheared arcades into a slowly rising and stable flux rope. A bifurcation from a BP to a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) topology occurs later on in the evolution, while the flux rope keeps growing and slowly rising, now due to shear-driven coronal slip-running reconnection, which is of tether-cutting type and takes place in the QSL. As the flux rope reaches the altitude at which the decay index -?ln B/?ln z of the potential field exceeds ~3/2, it rapidly accelerates upward, while the overlying arcade eventually develops an inverse tear-drop shape, as observed in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This transition to eruption is in accordance with the onset criterion of the torus instability. Thus, we find that photospheric flux-cancellation and tether-cutting coronal reconnection do not trigger CMEs in bipolar magnetic fields, but are key pre-eruptive mechanisms for flux ropes to build up and to rise to the critical height above the photosphere at which the torus instability causes the eruption. In order to interpret recent Hinode X-Ray Telescope observations of an erupting sigmoid, we produce simplified synthetic soft X-ray images from the distribution of the electric currents in the simulation. We find that a bright sigmoidal envelope is formed by pairs of J-shaped field lines in the pre-eruptive stage. These field lines form through the BP reconnection and merge later on into S-shaped loops through the tether-cutting reconnection. During the eruption, the central part of the sigmoid brightens due to the formation of a vertical current layer in the wake of the erupting flux rope. Slip-running reconnection in this layer yields the formation of flare loops. A rapid decrease of currents due to field line expansion, together with the increase of narrow currents in the reconnecting QSL, yields the sigmoid hooks to thin in the early stages of the eruption. Finally, a slightly rotating erupting loop-like feature (ELLF) detaches from the center of the sigmoid. Most of this ELLF is not associated with the erupting flux rope, but with a current shell that develops within expanding field lines above the rope. Only the short, curved end of the ELLF corresponds to a part of the flux rope. We argue that the features found in the simulation are generic for the formation and eruption of soft X-ray sigmoids.

  16. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  17. Nonlinear Force-free Modeling of a Long-lasting Coronal Sigmoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, Antonia; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2009-10-01

    A study of the magnetic configuration and evolution of a long-lasting quiescent coronal sigmoid is presented. The sigmoid was observed by Hinode/XRT and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) between 2007 February 6 and 12 when it finally erupted. We construct nonlinear force-free field models for several observations during this period, using the flux-rope insertion method. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) allows us to finely select best-fit models that match the observations. The modeling shows that a highly sheared field, consisting of a weakly twisted flux rope embedded in a potential field, very well describes the structure of the X-ray sigmoid. The flux rope reaches a stable equilibrium, but its axial flux is close to the stability limit of about 5 × 1020 Mx. The relative magnetic helicity increases with time from February 8 until just prior to the eruption on February 12. We study the spatial distribution of the torsion parameter ? in the vicinity of the flux rope, and find that it has a hollow-core distribution, i.e., electric currents are concentrated in a current layer at the boundary between the flux rope and its surroundings. The current layer is located near the bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS) of the magnetic configuration, and the X-ray emission appears to come from this current layer/BPSS, consistent with the Titov and Démoulin model. We find that the twist angle ? of the magnetic field increases with time to about 2? just prior to the eruption, but never reaches the value necessary for the kink instability.

  18. Weanling, but not adult, rabbit colon absorbs bile acids: flux is linked to expression of putative bile acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Kanchanapoo, Jainuch; Ao, Mei; Prasad, Roli; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Rao, Mrinalini C

    2006-03-01

    Intestinal handling of bile acids is age dependent; adult, but not newborn, ileum absorbs bile acids, and adult, but not weanling or newborn, distal colon secretes Cl(-) in response to bile acids. Bile acid transport involving the apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) and lipid-binding protein (LBP) is well characterized in the ileum, but little is known about colonic bile acid transport. We investigated colonic bile acid transport and the nature of the underlying transporters and receptors. Colon from adult, weanling, and newborn rabbits was screened by semiquantitative RT-PCR for Asbt, its truncated variant t-Asbt, LBP, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, organic solute transporter-alpha, and farnesoid X receptor. Asbt and LBP showed maximal expression in weanling and significantly less expression in adult and newborn rabbits. The ileum, but not the colon, expressed t-Asbt. Asbt, LBP, and farnesoid X receptor mRNA expression in weanling colon parallel the profile in adult ileum, a tissue designed for high bile acid absorption. To examine their functional role, transepithelial [(3)H]taurocholate transport was measured in weanling and adult colon and ileum. Under short-circuit conditions, weanling colon and ileum and adult ileum showed net bile acid absorption: 1.23 +/- 0.62, 5.53 +/- 1.20, and 11.41 +/- 3.45 nmol x cm(-2) x h(-1), respectively. However, adult colon secreted bile acids (-1.39 +/- 0.47 nmol x cm(-2) x h(-1)). We demonstrate for the first time that weanling, but not adult, distal colon shows net bile acid absorption. Thus increased expression of Asbt and LBP in weanling colon, which is associated with parallel increases in taurocholate absorption, has relevance in enterohepatic conservation of bile acids when ileal bile acid recycling is not fully developed. PMID:16166347

  19. Laparoscopic colostomy for acute left colon obstruction caused by diverticular disease in high risk patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Elisa; Cappiello, Antonio; Guarino, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Nicola; Loffredo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The colostomy is often necessary in complicated divertcular disease. The laparoscopic colostomy is not widely used for the treatment of complicated diverticular disease. Its use in patients with high operative risk is still on debate. The aim of this case report was to present the benefits of laparoscopic colostomy in patients with high peri-and postoperative risk factors. Presentation of case We present a case of 76-year-old female admitted to emergency unit for left colonic obstruction. The patient had a past history of liver cirrhosis HCV-related with a severe malnutrition, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diverticular disease, hiatal ernia, previous appendectomy. Patient was classified according to their preoperative risk ASA 3 (classification of the American society of Anestesia-ASA score). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed a marked thickening in the sigmoid colon and a marked circumferential stenosis in the sigmoid colon in absence of neoplasm, and/or abscess. The laparoscopic procedure is proposed as first intention. Discussion The operation time was 50 min, and the hospital stay was 4 days. Post operative complications grade I according to the Clavien Dindo Classification. Conclusions Laparoscopic colostomy is safe and feasible procedure in experienced hands. It is associated with low morbidity and short stay in hospital and should be considered a good alternative to a laparotomy. PMID:26036456

  20. Use of a computer to evaluate sigmoidal curves in serology by a new procedure.

    PubMed

    Fey, H

    1981-01-01

    Serological standard curves are mostly sigmoidal in shape. Their transformation into straight lines by linear regression can be the source of serious error. Log/log or logit/log handling of the values can straighten the curve but only if their distribution is normal. A new way of calculating concentrations of antibody or antigen which leaves the standard curve unmanipulated is described. Computer programs for TI 59 (Texas Instruments) and--in BASIC--for a personal computer have been written and greatly facilitate routine work. PMID:7310137

  1. Mathematical solution for nonlinear cylindrical bending of sigmoid functionally graded plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaci, A.; Bakhti, K.; Hebali, H.; Tounsi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Problems of nonlinear cylindrical bending of sigmoid functionally graded plates in which material properties vary through the thickness are considered. The variation of the material properties follows two power-law distributions in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The nonlinear strain-displacement relations in the von Kármán sense are used to study the effect of geometric nonlinearity. The governing equations are reduced to a linear differential equation with nonlinear boundary conditions, yielding a simple solution procedure. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of the material distribution on the deflections and stresses.

  2. Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid: NLFFF Modeling and MHD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Wu, S.; Feng, X.; Hu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    We present a magnetic analysis of the formation and eruption of an active region sigmoid in AR 11283 from 2011 September 4 to 6, which is jointly based on observations, static nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation and dynamic MHD simulation. A time sequence of NLFFF model's outputs are used to reproduce the evolution of the magnetic field of the region over three days leading to a X-class flare near the end of 2011 September 6. In the first day, a new bipolar emerges into the negative polarity of a pre-existing mature bipolar, forming a magnetic topology with a coronal null on the magnetic separatrix surface between the two flux system, while the field is still near potential at the end of the day. After then photospheric shearing and twisting build up non-potentiality in the embedded core region, with a flux rope (FR) formed there above the polarity inversion line by tether-cutting reconnection between the strongly sheared field lines. Within this duration, the core field has gained a magnetic free energy of ˜ 1032 erg. In this core a sigmoid is observed distinctly at 22:00 UT on September 6, closely before its eruption at 22:12 UT. Comparison of the SDO/AIA observations with coronal magnetic field suggests that the sigmoid is formed by emission due to enhanced current sheet along the BPSS (bald-patch separatrix surface, in which the field lines graze the line-tied photosphere at the neutral line) that separates the FR from the ambient flux. Quantitative inspection of the pre-eruption field on 22:00 UT suggests a mechanism for the eruption: tether cutting at the null triggers a torus instability of the FR--overlying field system. This pre-eruption NLFFF is then input into a time-dependent MHD model to simulate the fast magnetic evolution during eruption, which successfully reproduces the observations. The highly asymmetric magnetic environment along with the lateral location of the null leads to a strongly inclined non-radial direction of the eruption. The study of this kind provides important insights in a quantitative way to many open issues on the formation and eruption of sigmoidal FR.

  3. Immediate postoperative parastomal end sigmoid hernia resulting in evisceration and strangulation.

    PubMed

    Azouz, Vitali; Simmons, Jeremy D; Abourjaily, Georges S

    2014-01-01

    Parastomal evisceration is a very rare complication occurring after stoma formation. We report the case of this complication which occurred within 3 days status post end sigmoid colostomy in a 69-year-old male who initially presented with perianal infection-severe necrotizing fasciitis. This case highlights the significance of the size of a stomatal aperture and should remind general surgeons of the one of dangerous complications indicated by a stomatal aperture that is just a centimeter larger than the accepted ideal size. PMID:24876516

  4. Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histopathological Aspects of Sigmoid Actinomycosis; A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Farhad; Sohrabi, Masoudreza

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare and chronic infectious disease caused by a non-spore gram- positive, anaerobic bacterium that rarely infects the colon, in particular the left colon. A 53-year-old woman was referred to us due to chronic abdominal pain, bloating, a few episodes of bloody-mucous rectal discharge, and change of bowel habits. Her medical history and physical examination were unremarkable. Colonoscopy revealed a polypoid mass like lesion located 20 cm proximal to the anal verge above the rectosigmoid junction. Several biopsy samples were taken. Histopathological evaluation showed actinomycosis infection. Consequently the patient was treated with intravenous and then six months oral penicillin. Her complaints and colonic mass resolved totally. Diagnosis of colonic actinomycosis is not an easy task. It is advisable to keep this infection in mind among the differential diagnoses of unusual abdominal masses. Colonoscopy and histopathological examination can be the preferred modality for diagnosis of colonic actinomycosis infection. PMID:25628853

  5. Efficacy of cetuximab in metastatic colon cancer - case report.

    PubMed

    Grigorean, V T; Ciuhu, A N; Rahnea Nita, G; Strambu, V; Straja, D N; Popescu, M; Sandu, A M; Rahnea Nita, R A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, targeted therapies have proved effective in the treatment of colon cancer, but even in these conditions,metastatic disease is generally considered incurable.Cetuximab is approved for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients with KRAS wild-type, in order to increase survival and hinder progression of the disease. We report a case of a 55 year-old woman, diagnosed with stenosing sigmoid cancer and liver metastases, which underwent multimodal treatment: palliative surgery -Hartmann segmental colectomy, and adjuvant chemotherapy -second line monotherapy with cetuximab, according to standard protocols. After 6 months of XELOX chemotherapy,during which she showed progression of metastatic disease, she was switched to monotherapy with cetuximab, with favorable outcome. Comparing relevant literature, in which complete response to treatment with cetuximab is obtained in low percentages ( 3%) after 3 months of treatment with cetuximab the patient shows clinical and paraclinical complete response and increased quality of life. Proper selection of patients with metastatic colon cancer for treatment with anti-EGFR therapy may lead to prolonged survival and time to progression. PMID:24956345

  6. Amoeboma of colon mimicking colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kaushik; Sengupta, Moumita; Mitra, Sumit; Ray, Suchandra

    2014-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of the infection. We describe a case of 65-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. On the clinical and radiological examination provisional diagnosis of colonic carcinoma was suspected. After resection of perforated caecal growth, histopathological sections showed numerous trophozoites of E. histolytica in a background of abundant necrosis. This case revealed differentiation between amoeboma and carcinoma is critical. PMID:25250235

  7. Amoeboma of colon mimicking colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Sengupta, Moumita; Mitra, Sumit; Ray, Suchandra

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of the infection. We describe a case of 65-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. On the clinical and radiological examination provisional diagnosis of colonic carcinoma was suspected. After resection of perforated caecal growth, histopathological sections showed numerous trophozoites of E. histolytica in a background of abundant necrosis. This case revealed differentiation between amoeboma and carcinoma is critical. PMID:25250235

  8. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L.; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, “Do chimpanzees display distal communication?” Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. PMID:26292996

  9. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    PubMed

    Leavens, David A; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, "Do chimpanzees display distal communication?" Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. PMID:26292996

  10. RECURRENT EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS AND THE ''SIGMOID-TO-ARCADE'' TRANSFORMATION IN THE SUN DRIVEN BY DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Tsinganos, K.

    2014-05-10

    We report on three-dimensional MHD simulations of recurrent mini coronal mass ejection (CME)-like eruptions in a small active region (AR), which is formed by the dynamical emergence of a twisted (not kink unstable) flux tube from the solar interior. The eruptions develop as a result of the repeated formation and expulsion of new flux ropes due to continuous emergence and reconnection of sheared field lines along the polarity inversion line of the AR. The acceleration of the eruptions is triggered by tether-cutting reconnection at the current sheet underneath the erupting field. We find that each explosive eruption is followed by reformation of a sigmoidal structure and a subsequent ''sigmoid-to-flare arcade'' transformation in the AR. These results might have implications for recurrent CMEs and eruptive sigmoids/flares observations and theoretical studies.

  11. Enzyme-Based Logic Analysis of Biomarkers at Physiological Concentrations: AND Gate with Double-Sigmoid "Filter" Response

    E-print Network

    Jan Halamek; Oleksandr Zavalov; Lenka Halamkova; Sevim Korkmaz; Vladimir Privman; Evgeny Katz

    2013-04-14

    We report the first realization of a biomolecular AND gate function with double-sigmoid response (sigmoid in both inputs). Two enzyme biomarker inputs activate the gate output signal which can then be used as indicating liver injury, but only when both of these inputs have elevated pathophysiological concentrations, effectively corresponding to logic-1 of the binary gate functioning. At lower, normal physiological concentrations, defined as logic-0 inputs, the liver-injury output levels are not obtained. High-quality gate functioning in handling of various sources of noise, on time scales of relevance to potential applications is enabled by utilizing "filtering" effected by a simple added biocatalytic process. The resulting gate response is sigmoid in both inputs when proper system parameters are chosen, and the gate properties are theoretically analyzed within a model devised to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

  12. Max Millennium/Whole Sun Month Observations of a Sigmoid Region (AR 8668)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarro, D. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Nitta, N.; Myers, D. C.; Gregory, S. E.; Qiu, J.; Alexander, D.; Hudson, H. S.; Thompson, B. J.; LaBonte, B. J.

    2000-05-01

    We report on observations of a sigmoidal region AR 8668 obtained during the Whole Sun Month #3 campaign and Max Millennium Coordinated Observing Program #2. The observations pertain to the period 1999 August 16-17 during which several GOES B and C class flares occurred in AR 8668. Near simultaneous observations were obtained by SOHO (EIT 195 Angstroms/ and MDI full-disk magnetograms), TRACE 171 Angstroms/, Yohkoh SXT, Big Bear (H? ), and Mees (IVM vector magnetograms). The multi-wavelength nature of these data, combined with their overlapping spatial and temporal coverages, provide a unique opportunity to study the magnetic topology and flaring evolution of twisted flux structures associated with sigmoids. An objective of this study is to co-align images and magnetograms obtained before and during the observed flares, and compare the results with inferences from the topological model of Titov and Demoulin, A&A 351, 707 (1999). We will present examples of these coalignments and identify sites of magnetic energy release that are associated with topological features (e.g. separatrices) predicted by this model.

  13. Grade 3 Radiation Recall Sigmoiditis after Treatment for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bachand, Francois

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Grade 3 radiation recall sigmoiditis after administration of a combination of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab, following irradiation for a locally advanced cervical cancer. A 50-year-old woman was diagnosed with an FIGO Stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. She underwent concurrent chemoradiation followed by high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy. She had a complete loco-regional response. A supraclavicular recurrence was diagnosed three months after completing treatment and two cycles of carboplatin, docetaxel, and bevacizumab were given in April 2014. Shortly after the second cycle, she was admitted to the hospital for significant abdominal pain, diarrhea followed by symptoms of bowel subocclusion. The CT scan and endoscopic images revealed thickening of the sigmoid wall with important edema and telangiectasia. The biopsy was consistent with acute radiation-induced colitis. Because of persistent digestive symptoms, a diverting ileostomy was done few months later. The location, timing, pathology, and its association with a high-dose region are analyzed in this case report. PMID:26623208

  14. Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades

    E-print Network

    Oleksandr Zavalov; Vera Bocharova; Jan Halamek; Lenka Halamkova; Sevim Korkmaz; Mary A. Arugula; Soujanya Chinnapareddy; Evgeny Katz; Vladimir Privman

    2013-05-25

    Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a "filtering" biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functioning as an AND gate, where the output signal was activated only by a simultaneous action of two enzymatic biomarkers. This response can be used as an indicator of liver damage, but only if both of these of the inputs are present at their elevated, pathophysiological values of concentrations. A kinetic numerical model was developed and used to estimate the range of parameters for which the experimentally realized logic gate is close to optimal. We also analyzed the system to evaluate its noise-handling properties.

  15. Severe headache as a presenting complaint in sigmoid sinus thrombosis complicated by functional overlay

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Pradhyuman; Banwari, Girish; Parikh, Nimesh; Gandhi, Hitendra

    2015-01-01

    An otherwise serious and potentially fatal organic condition may present with a co-existing strong functional component. We encountered a female patient who presented with bouts of severe headache over the occipital region, associated with blurring of vision. Initially, non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan (Brain) showed normal study, and she was deemed as having functional symptoms. Later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Brain) showed filling defect in right sigmoid sinus and magnetic resonance (MR) venography confirmed right sigmoid sinus thrombosis. On adequate anticoagulation, she did not improve and still had bouts of severe headache, although no longer associated with impaired vision. The treating neurophysician concluded that symptoms could no longer be accounted for by the organic condition. Overt and covert psychosocial stressors were found to be present in a detailed psychological exploration. Psychological intervention effectively controlled the headache. Thus, functional overlay can complicate the clinical picture in a severe organic condition and may require active psychiatric intervention over and above medical treatment. PMID:26257489

  16. Colon Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Colon C180–C 189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

  17. Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Shai; Benaron, David A.; Parachikov, Ilian H.; Soetikno, Roy

    2003-06-01

    Advances in optical and computer technology have enabled the development of a device that utilizes white-light reflectance spectrophotometry to measure capillary hemoglobin saturation in intestinal mucosa during colonoscopy. Studies were performed using the colon oximeter in anesthetized animals and patients undergoing colonoscopy. Mucosal hemoglobin saturation in the normal colon (mean +/- S.D.) is 72% +/- 3.5%. In an animal model, ischemia via arterial ligation and hypoxemia via hypoxic ventilation each result in a decrease of over 40% in the mucosal saturation. In human patients with colon polyps, ischemia induced by epinephrine injection, stalk ligation using a loop, or clipping of the polyp stalk each result in a decrease of over 40% in the mucosal saturation (p<0.02). In contrast, saline injection does not decrease the mucosal saturation (p=N.S.). A patient who previously underwent partial colectomy with sacrifice of the inferior mesenteric artery had a saturation of 55% in the remaining sigmoid colon, with normal values in the superior mesenteric artery territory (p<0.05). A novel device for measuring capillary hemoglobin saturation in intestinal mucosa during colonoscopy is capable of providing reproducible measurements in normal patients and clearly detects dramatic decreases in saturation with ischemic and hypoxic insults.

  18. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Quality: Distal and Proximal Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…

  19. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal

  20. Proximal versus Distal Validity Coefficients for Teacher Observational Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of measures of student learning computed using end-of-year assessments (distal measures) versus measures of student learning associated with a single lesson (proximal measures) as criterion scores for the validity of observations of teachers' pedagogical skills. The validity coefficients computed using distal

  1. Neuronal populations in the submucous plexus of the human colon.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, C H; Burnstock, G

    1989-01-01

    The submucous plexus of the human distal colon was studied in order to determine whether or not it contains two or more ganglionated plexuses which can be separately identified. Nerve cells were visualised in sections through the wall of the distal colon, and in wholemount preparations of laminae from the submucous plexus by staining for NADH-diaphorase activity. The submucous plexus appeared to contain three identifiable plexuses: Henle's plexus was located adjacent to the circular muscle layer, Meissner's plexus was located adjacent to the muscularis mucosae and a third intermediate plexus was found which lay closer to the muscularis mucosae than to the circular muscle. In Henle's plexus, there were fewer smaller neurons than in the other plexuses: 15.1% had an area less than 180 microns 2, while in the intermediate plexus and in Meissner's plexus the equivalent figures were 43.1% and 43.2%, respectively. In Meissner's plexus, approximately half the ganglia were associated with single fibre tracts and half with two or more fibre tracts, but in the intermediate plexus and Henle's plexus, approximately three quarters of the ganglia were associated with single fibre tracts and the remaining quarter with multiple tracts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2621148

  2. Distal renal tubular acidosis in infancy: a bicarbonate wasting state.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J; Vallo, A; Garcia-Fuentes, M

    1975-04-01

    Three unrelated infants with apparently distal RTA were investigated. Growth retardation, polyuria, nephrocalcinosis, inappropriately high urinary pH, and marked dependence of bicarbonate excretion on urinary flow were characteristic of the distal or classic form of RTA, but the urinary loss of bicarbonate at normal serum values exceeded that usually found in children or adults with this disorder. Renal tubular function was studied during hypotonic saline diuresis in the three patients and in seven healthy control infants of similar age. Fractional delivery of sodium to the distal nephron was significantly higher in the patients than in control subjects. Sodium transport at the diluting segment was not impaired. The results support the assumption that the bicarbonate wasting was the consequence of an increased delivery of this substance to an already impaired distal nephron and thus further inhibited the distal mechanisms of net acid excretion. PMID:236365

  3. 522 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 48, NO. 2, MARCH 1999 On the Use of Sigmoid Functions for Multistage

    E-print Network

    Lee, Yong Hoon

    522 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 48, NO. 2, MARCH 1999 On the Use of Sigmoid be adjusted depending on the residual noise power at each stage. In addition, multilevel quantizers that best detectors employ- ing these soft-decision functions perform considerably better than those with hard

  4. Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions. PMID:25275396

  5. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  6. A New SIR-Based Sigmoid Power Control Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gumaei, Yousef Ali; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2014-01-01

    Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant. PMID:25286044

  7. Smoothing tautologies, hidden dynamics, and sigmoid asymptotics for piecewise smooth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Mike R.

    2015-10-01

    Switches in real systems take many forms, such as impacts, electronic relays, mitosis, and the implementation of decisions or control strategies. To understand what is lost, and what can be retained, when we model a switch as an instantaneous event, requires a consideration of so-called hidden terms. These are asymptotically vanishing outside the switch, but can be encoded in the form of nonlinear switching terms. A general expression for the switch can be developed in the form of a series of sigmoid functions. We review the key steps in extending Filippov's method of sliding modes to such systems. We show how even slight nonlinear effects can hugely alter the behaviour of an electronic control circuit, and lead to "hidden" attractors inside the switching surface.

  8. Anesthesia management of surgery for sigmoid perforation and acute peritonitis patient following heart transplantation: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu-Li; Dai, Shu-Hong; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Yan; Sun, Yu-E; Ma, Zheng-Liang; Gu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Here we described a case in which a patient underwent emergency laparotomy for acute peritonitis and sigmoid perforation under general anesthesia with a history of heart transplantation. A good knowledge in the physiology of the transplanted heart is critical for effective and safe general anesthesia. We chose etomidate that have a weaker impact on cardiovascular function plus propofol for induction, and propofol plus cisatracurium for maintenance with intermittently analgesics and vasoactive drugs to facilitate the anesthesia. In addition, fluid input, electrolyte and acid-base balance were well adjusted during the whole procedure. The patient was in good condition after the surgery. In this case report we are aiming to provide some guidance for those scheduled for non-cardiac surgery after heart transplant. PMID:26379997

  9. Smoothing tautologies, hidden dynamics, and sigmoid asymptotics for piecewise smooth systems

    E-print Network

    Mike R. Jeffrey

    2015-08-20

    Switches in real systems take many forms, such as impacts, electronic relays, mitosis, and the implementation of decisions or control strategies. To understand what is lost, and what can be retained, when we model a switch as an instantaneous event, requires a consideration of so-called hidden terms. These are asymptotically vanishing outside the switch, but can be encoded in the form of nonlinear switching terms. A general expression for the switch can be developed in the form of a series of sigmoid functions. We review the key steps in extending the Filippov's method of sliding modes to such systems. We show how even slight nonlinear effects can hugely alter the behaviour of an electronic control circuit, and lead to `hidden' attractors inside the switching surface.

  10. Smoothing tautologies, hidden dynamics, and sigmoid asymptotics for piecewise smooth systems.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Mike R

    2015-10-01

    Switches in real systems take many forms, such as impacts, electronic relays, mitosis, and the implementation of decisions or control strategies. To understand what is lost, and what can be retained, when we model a switch as an instantaneous event, requires a consideration of so-called hidden terms. These are asymptotically vanishing outside the switch, but can be encoded in the form of nonlinear switching terms. A general expression for the switch can be developed in the form of a series of sigmoid functions. We review the key steps in extending Filippov's method of sliding modes to such systems. We show how even slight nonlinear effects can hugely alter the behaviour of an electronic control circuit, and lead to "hidden" attractors inside the switching surface. PMID:26520091

  11. [Morphofunctional regeneration of epithelial cells in the colon and apudocytes in the pathogenesis and prognosis of the course of non-specific ulcerous colitis].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, A M; Osadchuk, M A

    2006-01-01

    One hundred twenty patients with nonspecific ulcerative colitis (NUC) were examined. The patients were divided into three groups equal in number according to the severity of the disease. The controls were 24 practically healthy individuals, 64 patients with irritated bowel syndrome (IBS) without pathological changes in the colon mucosa, and 64 IBS patients with atrophic or inflammatory changes in the colon mucosa. The study showed that the development of NUC was associated with an abrupt decrease in the level of proliferation markers (cycline D, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen - PCNA) in the epithelial cells of the sigmoid colon. Their number progressively decreases in more severe cases, while cell apoptosis intensifies. Such changes in cell renewal are closely connected with the functional and structural rebuilding of the diffuse endocrine system, which manifests in an increase of the total number of apudocytes as well as serotonin- and melatonin-producing cells together with a decrease in the number of VIP-producing cells. PMID:17294881

  12. Sphingolipids in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Truman, Jean-Philip; Snider, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death in the western world. Despite increasing knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways implicated in colon cancer, therapeutic outcomes are still only moderately successful. Sphingolipids, a family of N-acyl linked lipids, have not only structural functions but are also implicated in important biological functions. Ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate are the most important bioactive lipids, and they regulate several key cellular functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that many cancers present alterations in sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging roles of sphingolipids, both endogenous and dietary, in colon cancer and the interaction of sphingolipids with WNT/?-catenin pathway, one of the most important signaling cascades that regulate development and homeostasis in intestine PMID:24060581

  13. Colonic motility in man

    PubMed Central

    Parks, T. G.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of the motor activity of the large intestine have led to a better understanding of the normal physiology of this organ. The disturbed patterns which occur in functional and pathological states are easily recorded by modern technology. While of limited use as a diagnostic aid, investigation of the motor activity has contributed significantly to elucidate the aetiology of various disorders of colonic function. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4729189

  14. Formation of a double-decker magnetic flux rope in the sigmoidal solar active region 11520

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Sun, X. D.; Wang, Y. M.; Kliem, B.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line a half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1-0.6 km s{sup –1}. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field structures further reveal the locations of the reconnection to be in a bald-patch region and in a hyperbolic flux tube. About 2 hr before the eruption, indications of a second MFR in the form of an S-shaped hot channel are seen. It lies above the original MFR that continuously exists and includes a filament. The whole structure thus makes up a stable double-decker MFR system for hours prior to the eruption. Eventually, after entering the domain of instability, the high-lying MFR impulsively erupts to generate a fast coronal mass ejection and X-class flare; while the low-lying MFR remains behind and continuously maintains the sigmoidicity of the active region.

  15. Formation of a Double-decker Magnetic Flux Rope in the Sigmoidal Solar Active Region 11520

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Sun, X. D.; Guo, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Kliem, B.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line a half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1-0.6 km s-1. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field structures further reveal the locations of the reconnection to be in a bald-patch region and in a hyperbolic flux tube. About 2 hr before the eruption, indications of a second MFR in the form of an S-shaped hot channel are seen. It lies above the original MFR that continuously exists and includes a filament. The whole structure thus makes up a stable double-decker MFR system for hours prior to the eruption. Eventually, after entering the domain of instability, the high-lying MFR impulsively erupts to generate a fast coronal mass ejection and X-class flare; while the low-lying MFR remains behind and continuously maintains the sigmoidicity of the active region.

  16. Difficult colon polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vormbrock, Klaus; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the world. We now know that 90% of CRC develop from adenomatous polyps. Polypectomy of colon adenomas leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of CRC. At present most of the polyps are removed endoscopically. The vast majority of colorectal polyps identified at colonoscopy are small and do not pose a significant challenge for resection to an appropriately trained and skilled endoscopist. Advanced polypectomy techniques are intended for the removal of difficult colon polyps. We have defined a “difficult polyp” as any lesion that due to its size, shape or location represents a challenge for the colonoscopist to remove. Although many “difficult polyps” will be an easy target for the advanced endoscopist, polyps that are larger than 15 mm, have a large pedicle, are flat and extended, are difficult to see or are located in the cecum or any angulated portion of the colon should be always considered difficult. Although very successful, advanced resection techniques can potentially cause serious, even life-threatening complications. Moreover, post polypectomy complications are more common in the presence of difficult polyps. Therefore, any endoscopist attempting advanced polypectomy techniques should be adequately supervised by an expert or have an excellent training in interventional endoscopy. This review describes several useful tips and tricks to deal with difficult polyps. PMID:22816006

  17. [Jejunal pouch interposition and distal gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Miwa, K; Kinami, S; Sahara, H; Matsumoto, H; Segawa, M; Michiwa, Y; Miyazaki, I

    1997-06-01

    We developed a new technique of reconstruction in Billroth 1 gastrectomy, jejunal pouch interposition (JPI). The interposed jejunal segment consists of a proximally double-plicated pouch and a distally isoperistaltic conduit. From 1987 to 1994, the JPI was performed on 102 patients with gastric carcinoma. The postoperative functional assay was carried out at least one year later after surgery. Sixty-five patients with the conventional Billroth 1 reconstruction (B-1) during the same period were employed as the control. Gastric emptying time estimated with scinti-scanning was significantly delayed in the JPI group compared with the B-1 group (p < 0.05). All individuals with JPI had meals three times a day whereas 13% of those with B-1 required those more than three times (p < 0.05). The incidence of dumping syndrome was significantly lower in the JPI group (6%) than the B-1 group (20%) (p < 0.05). The reflux of bile into the residual stomach was observed in the scintiscanning at 78% of patients with B-1 whereas 10% of those with JPI (p < 0.01). Endoscopy revealed that regurgitation gastritis was significantly decreased in the JPI group compared with that in the B-1 group (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the JPI prevents small stomach syndrome, dumping syndrome and alkaline reflux gastritis after the B-1 reconstruction. PMID:9255808

  18. Fluid absorption in isolated perfused colonic crypts.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S K; Binder, H J; Boron, W F; Geibel, J P

    1995-01-01

    A spatial segregation of ion transport processes between crypt and surface epithelial cells is well-accepted and integrated into physiological and pathophysiological paradigms of small and large intestinal function: Absorptive processes are believed to be located in surface (and villous) cells, whereas secretory processes are believed to be present in crypt cells. Validation of this model requires direct determination of fluid movement in intestinal crypts. This study describes the adaptation of techniques from renal tubule microperfusion to hand-dissect and perfuse single, isolated crypts from rat distal colon to measure directly fluid movement. Morphologic analyses of the isolated crypt preparation revealed no extraepithelial cellular elements derived from the lamina propria, including myofibroblasts. In the basal state, crypts exhibited net fluid absorption (mean net fluid movement = 0.34 +/- 0.01 nl.mm-1.min-1), which was Na+ and partially HCO3- dependent. Addition of 1 mM dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, 60 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide, or 0.1 mM acetylcholine to the bath (serosal) solution reversibly induced net fluid secretion (net fluid movement approximately -0.35 +/- 0.01 nl.mm-1.min-1). These observations permit speculation that absorption is a constitutive transport function in crypt cells and that secretion by crypt cells is regulated by one or more neurohumoral agonists that are released in situ from lamina propria cells. The functional, intact polarized crypt described here that both absorbs and secretes will permit future studies that dissect the mechanisms that govern fluid and electrolyte movement in the colonic crypt. Images PMID:7593625

  19. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. PMID:22858341

  20. Intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from colon cancer after resection of liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Shoji; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Onoe, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An extremely rare case of intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma is herein presented. Sigmoid colon cancer (T3, N0, M0, stage IIA) had been diagnosed and treated by sigmoidectomy in October 1993. In December 2002, a liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth was found, and this was treated by extended right hepatic lobectomy and caudate lobectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. In February 2014, intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis was found, and this was treated by subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The intrapancreatic metastasis was judged to have arisen from cancer cell implantation, either by spontaneous shedding of cancer cells or as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Twelve months have passed since the last surgical intervention, and there has been no sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intrabiliary growth of a liver metastasis originating from colorectal adenocarcinoma is difficult but very important for determining the therapeutic strategy. Careful examination is needed to diagnose intrahepatic biliary dilatation, especially for patients with a history of carcinoma in the digestive tract and even if years have passed since curative resection of the digestive tract cancer. Aggressive surgical management for localized recurrence of a hepatic metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma may improve patient survival. PMID:26293132

  1. Tubercular osteomyelitis of distal ulna presenting as epiphyseal injury.

    PubMed

    Burnwal, Ranjan; Neogi, Devdatta Suhas; D Ortho, Surendra Shukla

    2012-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. T.B can involve any bone theoretically but involvement of distal metaphysis and epiphysis is a rare presentation. We present a case of 11yr old female child who presented to us with pain and swelling in distal forearm and radiograph revealing an osteolytic lesion in distal ulnar metaphysic and volar displacement of epiphysis. Histopathology and BACTEC culture led us to a diagnosis. Awareness of atypical presentations of TB is most important in endemic areas to ensure proper management of such patients. PMID:23400512

  2. An Asian Perspective on the Management of Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis There is little data with regards to the epidemiology, pathology, or management of distal radius fractures from centers in Asia. Asia includes five advanced economies, namely Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and a number of emerging economies prominent among which are China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. This article examines the available epidemiological data from Asia, and compares the management of distal radius fractures in the advanced and emerging Asian economies and how they match up to the current management in the west. It concludes by offering solutions for improving outcomes of distal radius fractures in both the advanced and emerging economies of Asia. PMID:22554658

  3. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 inhibits propagating colonic contractions in the rat isolated large intestine.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, J E; Mohan, V; Peters, J; Anderson, R C; Gopal, P K; Roy, N C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test an in vitro motility model by investigating whether a probiotic that reduces diarrhea in humans would reduce motility in the rat colon in vitro. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) the active ingredient in Mutaflor® was used as an example probiotic because it is effective for treating infectious diarrheal diseases. The effect of EcN on motility was compared in two colonic preparations. In distal colon segments EcN extract decreased the tension of spontaneous contractions by 74% and frequency by 46% compared with pre-treatment controls. In the whole large intestine the number of synchronized spontaneous propagating contractions decreased by 86% when EcN extract was applied externally and 69% when applied via the lumen compared with pre-treatment. From the inhibition produced by EcN extract in the distal colon segment a myogenic action was inferred and in the whole large intestine neural involvement was implicated. Both are consistent with its anti-diarrheal effect in humans. PMID:25415771

  4. Distal Insertions of the Biceps Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Eric A.; Anz, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Avulsion of the biceps femoris from the fibula and proximal tibia is encountered in clinical practice. While the anatomy of the primary posterolateral corner structures has been qualitatively and quantitatively described, a quantitative analysis regarding the insertions of the biceps femoris on the fibula and proximal tibia is lacking. Purpose: To quantitatively assess the insertions of the biceps femoris, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), and anterolateral ligament (ALL) on the fibula and proximal tibia as well as establish relationships among these structures and to pertinent surgical anatomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissections were performed on 12 nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens identifying the biceps femoris, FCL, and ALL, and their insertions on the proximal tibia and fibula. The footprint areas, orientations, and distances from relevant osseous landmarks were measured using a 3-dimensional coordinate measurement device. Results: Dissection produced 6 easily identifiable and reproducible anatomic footprints. Tibial footprints included the insertion of the ALL and an insertion of the biceps femoris (TBF). Fibular footprints included the insertion of the FCL, a distal insertion of the biceps femoris (DBF), a medial footprint of the biceps femoris (MBF), and a proximal footprint of the biceps femoris (PBF). The mean area of these footprints (95% CI) was as follows: ALL, 53.0 mm2 (38.4-67.6); TBF, 93.9 mm2 (72.0-115.8); FCL, 86.8 mm2 (72.3-101.2); DBF, 119 mm2 (91.1-146.9); MBF, 46.8 mm2 (29.0-64.5); and PBF, 215 mm2 (192.4-237.5). The mean distance (95% CI) from the Gerdy tubercle to the center of the ALL footprint was 24.3 mm (21.6-27.0) and to the center of the TBF was 22.5 mm (21.0-24.0). The center of the DBF was 8.68 mm (7.0-10.3) from the anterior border of the fibula, the center of the FCL was 14.6 mm (12.5-16.7) from the anterior border of the fibula and 20.7 mm (19.0-22.4) from the tip of the fibular styloid, and the center of the PBF was 8.96 mm (8.2-9.7) from the tip of the fibular styloid. Conclusion: A tibial footprint, distal fibular footprint, medial fibular footprint, and proximal fibular footprint were all consistent components of the insertion of the biceps femoris. Consistent relationships existed between the biceps femoris and insertions of the ALL and FCL. Clinical Relevance: The size of these footprints and distances from pertinent surgical landmarks will guide repairs of biceps femoris avulsion injuries. PMID:26535398

  5. beta-Catenin-accumulated crypts in the colonic mucosa of juvenile ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Hata, Kazuya; Tanaka, Takuji; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Rikako; Qiang, Sheng Hong; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Takeshi; Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Hara, Akira; Mori, Hideki

    2006-07-28

    Although Apc(Min/+) mice are widely used for an animal model of human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a majority of intestinal polyps locate in the small intestine. We recently reported that numerous beta-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC), which are reliable precursor lesions for colonic adenocarcinoma, develop in the large bowel of aged Apc(Min/+) mice. In this study, we determined the presence and location of BCAC in the large intestine of juvenile Apc(Min/+) mice (3 and 5 weeks of age). Surprisingly, BCAC were noted in the colon of even Apc(Min/+) mice of both ages, and mainly located in the distal and middle segments of the colon. Also, a few microadenomas were detected in Apc(Min/+) mice of 5-week old. Our results may indicate need of further investigation of the colorectal mucosa of Apc(Min/+) mice for examining colorectal carcinogenesis using Apc(Min/+) mice. PMID:16168560

  6. Colon Cancer Is colon cancer a func.on of race or gene.cs?

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Colon Cancer Is colon cancer a func.on of race or gene.cs? #12;Colon Cancer · What is colon cancer? · What genes are associated with colon cancer? · What external factors contribute to colon cancer? · What is done to diagnose

  7. Human Colon-Derived Soluble Factors Modulate Gut Microbiota Composition

    PubMed Central

    Hevia, Arancha; Bernardo, David; Montalvillo, Enrique; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Garrote, Jose A.; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Arranz, Eduardo; Knight, Stella C.; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    The commensal microbiota modulates immunological and metabolic aspects of the intestinal mucosa contributing to development of human gut diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. The host/microbiota interaction often referred to as a crosstalk, mainly focuses on the effect of the microbiota on the host neglecting effects that the host could elicit on the commensals. Colonic microenvironments from three human healthy controls (obtained from the proximal and distal colon, both in resting conditions and after immune – IL-15- and microbiota – LPS-in vitro challenges) were used to condition a stable fecal population. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene-based analyses were performed to study the effect induced by the host on the microbiota composition and function. Non-supervised principal component analysis (PCA) showed that all microbiotas, which had been conditioned with colonic microenvironments clustered together in terms of relative microbial composition, suggesting that soluble factors were modulating a stable fecal population independently from the treatment or the origin. Our findings confirmed that the host intestinal microenvironment has the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota composition via yet unidentified soluble factors. These findings indicate that an appropriate understanding of the factors of the host mucosal microenvironment affecting microbiota composition and function could improve therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota composition. PMID:25918688

  8. Relationships between electromyographic ileal and colonic motility patterns in cats during fasting and feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherbut, C; Achard, F; Denavit, M; Roche, M

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between ileal and colonic electromyographic motility patterns were investigated in six awake cats chronically fitted with subserosal electrodes implanted in the smooth muscles of the ileum and colon. Smooth muscle electrical activity (electromyogram) was recorded in both fed and fasted conditions under a 12-12 hours dark-light schedule. It consisted of electrical long spike bursts having two different patterns for each condition. Short sequences of three to five long spike bursts were propagated either aborally or orally from any part of the colon; they were most frequent during the interdigestive or fasting period and no relationship was observed between these long spike bursts and the electrical activity of the ileum. During the digestive or feeding period, the colonic activity was organized in long sequences of 10-15 long spike bursts, termed migrating spike bursts, which started near the caecal junction and propagated aborally to the distal colon. These migrating spike bursts were correlated with the ileal motility. This relationship demonstrated between ileum and colon after feeding is dependent upon the amount of food intake. PMID:3742348

  9. Pentose phosphate pathway in rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Butler, R N; Arora, K K; Collins, J G; Flanigan, I; Lawson, M J; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Williams, J F

    1990-10-01

    The colonic cells of the large intestine are one of the most proliferative tissues of the animal body. The pentose pathway has an essential role in cell division and growth being the only pathway forming ribose 5-P necessary for all nucleotide and nucleic acid sunthesis. The pentose pathway may also provide reducing potential as NADPH for biosynthesis and C-3- C-8 glycolyl compounds. The maximum catalytic capacities of the reactions of the non-oxidative pentose pathway for the conversion of ribose 5-P to hexose and triose phosphates by the proximal and distal colon under feeding and starvation regimes are among the highest in the animal body. The qualitative presence of the oxidative pentose pathway was assessed by measurement of the C-1/C-6 ratio value of 1.67-1.82. Enzymes of the F-type and L-type pentose pathways are present in colonocytes and their maximum catalytic activities in colonocyte cytosol are reported. The contribution of the F-type pentose cycle to the total glucose metabolism of colonocytes, measured by the specific yield method, is negligibly low (approximately 1.5%). Colonic epithelial cells use glucose at a high rate (7.1 +/- 0.33 mumol min-1g-1 dry wt) and 79% of the glucose is converted to lactate. Arabinose 5-P has an intermediary role in the formation of keto pentose, sedoheptulose and hexose phosphates from ribose 5-P by colonocyte cytosol. The intermediary and reaction products of [1-13C] ribose 5-P dissimilation by colonocytes is investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The 13C positional isotope distributions show labelling of C-1 and C-3 of hexose 6-phosphates consistent with either the theoretical predictions of the F-type pentose pathway or of the activities of exchange reactions catalysed by transketolase and/or transaldolase. Measurements of exchange reactions showed that the C-1/C-3 labelling of these compounds is mostly, if not wholly, attributable to exchange catalysis by these group transferring enzymes. The results suggest that the F-type PC has little role in the glucose metabolism of colonocytes and pentose phosphate formation may thus occur by a contribution (approx 20% of the total glucose metabolism) by the alternate L-type pathway. PMID:1965276

  10. Virtual colon flattening based on colonic outer surface.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Chen, Kemin; Zhao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Virtual colon flattening (VF) is a non-invasive procedure to inspect the colonic inner surface for detecting colorectal polyps. Unfortunately, the performance of VF is impeded by deformation distortions of colonic inner surface. Conventionally, the colonic inner surface itself is used to correct deformation distortions. In this paper, we propose a colonic outer surface based VF method to correct distortions instead of colonic inner surface. The proposed method was validated with 60 cases and 200 annotated polyps. Visual inspections were carried out by three operators independently and were compared with three existing VF methods which are based on colonic inner surface. The correct detection rate of the proposed method and the three existing methods were 88.0%, 76.5%, 80.0% and 81.5% respectively. False positives per case were 0.16, 0.32, 0.21, and 0.26 respectively. The proposed method has higher correct detection rate and less false positives than the other three VF methods, demonstrating the usefulness of colonic outer surface as a correction tool for VF results. PMID:24110188

  11. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  12. Role of local prostaglandin synthesis in the modulation of proliferative activity of rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, P A; Saito, R; DeRubertis, F R

    1983-01-01

    The role of local prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in the modulation of the proliferative activity of colonic epithelium was examined in rat colon. Experimental rats were given either indomethacin (5 mg/kg s.c. every 8 h for three doses) or aspirin (0.5 g/100 g diet for 3 d). In rats treated with indomethacin or aspirin, the incorporation of [3H]thymidine (dThd) into DNA in vivo was increased approximately twofold over control in mucosal scrapings from distal colon, and approximately threefold over control in the proliferating pool of epithelial cells isolated from distal colon. [3H]dThd incorporation into DNA was also examined ex vivo immediately after distal colonic resection. It was approximately twofold higher in mucosa of colonic segments (1-h incubation) from rats treated with indomethacin or aspirin in vivo, compared with corresponding values of segments from control rats. Immunoreactive (i) prostaglandin E (PGE), the dominant PG product of colon segment incubates by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of [14C]arachidonate metabolites, was markedly (95%) reduced in the media of 1-h colon incubates from indomethacin- or aspirin-treated rats, compared with control rats. Moreover, the cyclic (c)AMP content of mucosa of segments from indomethacin- or aspirin-treated rats was significantly lower than that of control rats. Prolonged incubation (4-24 h) of colonic segments from indomethacin-treated rats, in the absence of indomethacin in vitro, led to an eventual return of [3H]dThd incorporation into DNA, iPGE, and mucosal cAMP to control values. Conversely, inclusion of indomethacin (0.25 mM) in the incubations (6 h) of colonic segments from indomethacin-treated rats resulted in persistent suppression of iPGE and mucosal cAMP, as well as persistent enhancement of [3H]dThd incorporation into mucosal DNA. However, incubation of colonic segments from control rats (no in vivo drug exposure) with indomethacin or aspirin in vitro for periods up to 24 h failed to alter DNA synthesis, despite marked reduction in media iPGE and lower mucosal cAMP. The latter observations suggested that additional in vivo factors initiated the enhancement of DNA synthesis in indomethacin- or aspirin-treated rats. Exogenous PGE2, D2, I2, or F2 alpha, each of which increased the endogenous mucosal cAMP content of incubated colonic segments from control, indomethacin- or aspirin-treated rats, all suppressed [3H]dThd incorporation into mucosal DNA in vitro. Dibutyryl cAMP, but not dibutyryl cGMP, had an analogous suppressive effect on in vitro [3H]dThd incorporation into DNA. Thus, the present observations are consistent with an inhibitory action of endogenous colonic PG synthesis on the proliferative activity of colonic epithelium. This action may be mediated through cAMP. Images PMID:6313761

  13. Radiographic Predictors of DRUJ Instability with Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Onishi, Tadanobu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Because the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is an inherently unstable joint, the diagnosis and treatment of DRUJ instability is often difficult in a clinical hand surgery practice. Several soft tissue stabilizers are recognized, of which the deep limbs of the radioulnar ligament are primary stabilizers. This article discusses the predictors of DRUJ instability in distal radius fractures based on our clinical and biomechanical analyses. PMID:24533238

  14. Associations between Trans Fatty Acid Consumption and Colon Cancer among Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study I

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Satia, Jessie A; Schroeder, Jane C; Millikan, Robert C; Martin, Christopher F; Ibrahim, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in incidence and mortality rates of colon cancer exist between Whites and African Americans. Prior studies examined the association between trans fatty acid consumption and colorectal cancer, but none assessed this possible relationship within a large study population of African Americans and Whites. Using data from a population-based case-control study in North Carolina, we investigated this association with attention to possible racial differences. Cases and matched controls were queried on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and diet. Cases reported higher daily consumption (grams/day) of trans fatty acids [mean 5.9 (SD 2.9) and median 5.5 (IQR 3.8-7.5)] compared to controls [mean 5.2 (SD 2.4) and median 4.7 (IQR 3.5-6.4)]. Energy-adjusted trans fatty acid consumption was not associated with colon cancer. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of consumption, those in the highest quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.49) for Whites and 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.61, 1.62) for African Americans. No association was found between increased consumption of trans fatty acid and specific tumor location (proximal or distal colon). In conclusion, trans fatty acid consumption is not associated with colon cancer and does not contribute to disparities in colon cancer rates. PMID:19838914

  15. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-03-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (I sc). Subsequent I sc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. I sc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  16. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-01-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (Isc). Subsequent Isc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. Isc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  17. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  18. Pathways To Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author's previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  19. Early experience of the compression anastomosis ring (CARTM 27) in left-sided colon resection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yeon; Woo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hong-Jo; Park, Ki-Jae; Roh, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ki-Han; Lee, Hak-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate clinical validity of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) anastomosis in left-sided colonic resection. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27 between November 2009 and January 2011. Eligibility criteria of the use of the CAR™ 27 were anastomoses between the colon and at or above the intraperitoneal rectum. The primary short-term clinical endpoint, rate of anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes, including intra- and postoperative complications, length of operation time and hospital stay, and the ring elimination time were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 79 patients (male, 43; median age, 64 years) underwent an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27. Colectomy was performed laparoscopically in 70 patients, in whom two patients converted to open procedure (2.9%). There was no surgical mortality. As an intraoperative complication, total disruption of the anastomosis occurred by premature enforced tension on the proximal segment of the anastomosis in one patient. The ring was removed and another new CAR™ 27 anastomosis was constructed. One patient with sigmoid colon cancer showed postoperative anastomotic leakage after 6 d postoperatively and temporary diverting ileostomy was performed. Exact date of expulsion of the ring could not be recorded because most patients were not aware that the ring had been expelled. No patients manifested clinical symptoms of anastomotic stricture. CONCLUSION: Short-term evaluation of the CAR™ 27 anastomosis in elective left colectomy suggested it to be a safe and efficacious alternative to the standard hand-sewn or stapling technique. PMID:22147979

  20. Fifteen-year-old colon cancer patient with a 10-year history of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Noh, Seung Yeon; Oh, Seung Young; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun; Park, Kwi-Won

    2013-04-21

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is regarded as one of the risk factors for colorectal cancer, and early detection of cancer in these patients may be difficult, especially in pediatric patients. Prognosis of pediatric colorectal cancer is known to be poor, because of delayed diagnosis and unfavorable differentiation. We report a case of a pediatric patient with a 10-year history of ulcerative colitis who was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer when he was 15 years old. He underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Postoperative pathological examination of the tumor revealed adenocarcinoma. The pericolic tissue layer was infiltrated, but metastases were not found in either of the two lymph nodes. Children with a long history of predisposing factors such as IBD need particular attention to the possibility of colorectal cancer. Early diagnosis through regular screening with colonoscopy is one of the most important critical factors for a good prognosis. PMID:23613641

  1. About Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Colon CFR includes lifestyle, medical history, and family history data collected from more than 41,000 men and women from 14,500 families with and without colorectal cancer. The Colon CFR began recruiting families in 1997, and all participants are followed up every 5 years to update personal and family histories and expand recruitment if new cases have occurred since baseline.

  2. The distal residue-CO interaction in carbonmonoxy myoglobins: a molecular dynamics study of two distal histidine tautomers.

    PubMed Central

    Jewsbury, P; Kitagawa, T

    1994-01-01

    Four independent 90 ps molecular dynamics simulations of sperm-whale wild-type carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO) have been calculated using a new AMBER force field for the haem prosthetic group. Two trajectories have the distal 64N delta nitrogen protonated, and two have the 64N epsilon nitrogen protonated; all water molecules within 16 A of the carbonyl O are included. In three trajectories, the distal residue remains part of the haem pocket, with the protonated distal nitrogen pointing into the active site. This is in contrast with the neutron diffraction crystal structure, but is consistent with the solution phase CO stretching frequencies (upsilon CO) of MbCO and various of its mutants. There are significant differences in the "closed" pocket structures found for each tautomer: the 64N epsilon H trajectories both show stable distal-CO interactions, whereas the 64N delta H tautomer) has a weaker interaction resulting in a more mobile distal side chain. One trajectory (a 64N delta H tautomer) has the distal histidine moving out into the "solvent", leaving the pocket in an "open" structure, with a large unhindered entrance to the active site. These trajectories suggest that the three upsilon CO frequencies observed for wild-type MbCO in solution, rather than representing significantly different Fe-C-O geometries as such, arise from three different haem pocket structures, each with different electric fields at the ligand. Each pocket structure corresponds to a different distal histidine conformer: the A3 band to the 64N epsilon H tautomer, the A1,2 band to the 64N delta H tautomer, and the A0 band to the absence of any significant interaction with the distal side chain. PMID:7696465

  3. Comparison of Segmental Colon Transit Time With Total Energy Expenditure in Psychiatry Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, On; Kwon, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. We examined the colon transit time (CTT) according to the total energy expenditure (TEE) in psychiatry unit patients. The study participants included 67 adults, with a mean age of 49.8 years. The participants used an accelerometer for 7 days to measure their 1-week TEE. They took a capsule containing 20 radio-opaque markers for 3 days. On the 4th day and 7th day, a supine abdominal radiography was performed. According to the TEE of all study participants, the upper 30%, middle 30%, and lower 40% were classified into groups according to high (H), moderate (M), and low (L) physical activity. The mean total CTT was 52.0 hours. The segmental CTT for the right, left, and recto-sigmoid colon were 15.3 hours, 19.2 hours, and 17.4 hours. Total CTT in the H group was significantly shorter than that in the L group (p = .010). A comparison of the segmental CTT between the L, M, and H groups showed that the right CTT (p = .010) of the H group was significantly shorter than that of the M group. The left CTT of the M group (p = .028) and H group (p = .004) was significantly shorter than that of the L group. The recto-sigmoid CTT (p = .016) of the M group was significantly shorter than that of the L group. The study showed that moderate and high TEE was assisted with reduced CTT. PMID:25181498

  4. Comparison of Segmental Colon Transit Time With Total Energy Expenditure in Psychiatry Unit Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Lee, On; Kwon, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. We examined the colon transit time (CTT) according to the total energy expenditure (TEE) in psychiatry unit patients. The study participants included 67 adults, with a mean age of 49.8 years. The participants used an accelerometer for 7 days to measure their 1-week TEE. They took a capsule containing 20 radio-opaque markers for 3 days. On the 4th day and 7th day, a supine abdominal radiography was performed. According to the TEE of all study participants, the upper 30%, middle 30%, and lower 40% were classified into groups according to high (H), moderate (M), and low (L) physical activity. The mean total CTT was 52.0 hours. The segmental CTT for the right, left, and recto-sigmoid colon were 15.3 hours, 19.2 hours, and 17.4 hours. Total CTT in the H group was significantly shorter than that in the L group (p = .010). A comparison of the segmental CTT between the L, M, and H groups showed that the right CTT (p = .010) of the H group was significantly shorter than that of the M group. The left CTT of the M group (p = .028) and H group (p = .004) was significantly shorter than that of the L group. The recto-sigmoid CTT (p = .016) of the M group was significantly shorter than that of the L group. The study showed that moderate and high TEE was assisted with reduced CTT. PMID:25181498

  5. Temporal Bone Pneumatization and Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and/or Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Wenjuan, Liu; Zhaohui, Liu; Ning, Zheng; Pengfei, Zhao; Cheng, Dong; Zhenchang, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although air cells within temporal bone may play an important role in the transmission of pulsatile tinnitus (PT) noise, it has not been studied systematically. Purpose. To evaluate the difference in temporal bone pneumatization between PT patients with sigmoid sinus diverticulum and/or dehiscence (SSDD) and healthy people. Material and Methods. A total of 199 unilateral persistent PT patients with SSDD and 302 control subjects underwent dual-phase contrast-enhanced CT (DP-CECT), to assess the grade of temporal bone pneumatization in each ear. Results. In the bilateral temporal bone of 302 controls, 16 ears were grade I, 53 were grade II, 141 were grade III, and 394 were grade IV. Among the affected ears of 199 PT cases, 1 ear was grade I, 18 were grade II, 53 were grade III, and 127 were grade IV. There was no significant difference in the pneumatization grade between the affected PT ear and either ear in the healthy subjects (p > 0.05).??Conclusion. Although air cells within the temporal bone are an important factor in the occurrence of PT, its severity does not differ significantly from the pneumatization of healthy people. PMID:26581544

  6. Formation and eruption of an active region sigmoid. I. A study by nonlinear force-free field modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.

  7. Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid. I. A Study by Nonlinear Force-free Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.

  8. What I Need to Know about Colon Polyps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contents What are colon polyps? .......................................... 1 Colon and Rectal Cancer ....................................... 2 Who develops colon polyps? .................................. 2 Who should ... the words in bold type. 1 Colon and Rectal Cancer Colon and rectal cancer usually start from polyps. ...

  9. Coated capsules for drug targeting to proximal and distal part of human intestine.

    PubMed

    Dvorácková, Katerina; Rabisková, Miloslava; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David; Muselík, Jan; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Bajerová, Martina; Drottnerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Coated hard capsules are becoming increasingly important for a number of reasons such as administration of new active ingredients, oral vaccination, colon drug delivery or their use in preclinical and clinical trials. The independency of coating composition on capsules filling is the major advantage of this dosage form. In our study, two types of hard capsules (gelatin and hypromellose) were coated by non-aqueous solutions of Eudragit L and S 12.5, respectively, to achieve intestinal and distal ileic drug delivery. Gelatin hard capsules were coated with Eudragit film either directly or using hydroxypropyl cellulose sub-coating prior to the final coating. Hypromellose capsules were coated directly. Coated capsules were evaluated for coating thickness by optical microscope and for dissolution in different pH media. Gelatin capsules do not seem to be suitable for direct coating with Eudragit due to insufficient film adhesion to the smooth capsule surface and a brittleness of formed films. These problems can be solved by hydroxypropyl celullose interlayer application. Hypromellose hard capsules could be directly easily coated with both Eudragit solutions. Dissolution of caffeine from coated capsules showed the potency for enteric delivery in gelatin capsules with interlayer and Eudragit L film in 7.5 and 10.0% concentrations and in hypromellose capsules coated with EudragitL in 5-17.5% coating levels. Gelatine capsules with interlayer and 10% Eudragit S film and hypromellose capsules only with high coating level (20%) provided potential distal ileum targeting of incorporated drug. Eudragit S film sprayed onto hypromellose capsules surface was brittle especially in the junction zone between capsule cap and body. Better plasticity of Eudragit S coating could be probably achieved using a different plasticizer. PMID:20369797

  10. An intrinsic timer specifies distal structures of the vertebrate limb

    PubMed Central

    Saiz-Lopez, Patricia; Chinnaiya, Kavitha; Campa, Victor M.; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A.; Towers, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    How the positional values along the proximo-distal axis (stylopod-zeugopod-autopod) of the limb are specified is intensely debated. Early work suggested that cells intrinsically change their proximo-distal positional values by measuring time. Recently, however, it is suggested that instructive extrinsic signals from the trunk and apical ectodermal ridge specify the stylopod and zeugopod/autopod, respectively. Here, we show that the zeugopod and autopod are specified by an intrinsic timing mechanism. By grafting green fluorescent protein-expressing cells from early to late chick wing buds, we demonstrate that distal mesenchyme cells intrinsically time Hoxa13 expression, cell cycle parameters and the duration of the overlying apical ectodermal ridge. In addition, we reveal that cell affinities intrinsically change in the distal mesenchyme, which we suggest results in a gradient of positional values along the proximo-distal axis. We propose a complete model in which a switch from extrinsic signalling to intrinsic timing patterns the vertebrate limb. PMID:26381580

  11. Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Most part of impact ejecta is deposited ballistically at some distance from a crater, defined by ejection velocity V and ejection angle ?: d=v2sin?/g. In case of giant impacts, planetary curvature should be taken into account [1]. Combined with ejecta scaling [2], these relations allow to define ejecta thickness as a function of distance. Ejecta from large craters are deposited at velocity high enough to mobilize substrate material and to thicken ejecta deposits [3]. Ballistic approximation is valid for airless bodies (if impact vaporization is not vast) or for proximal ejecta of large impact craters, where ejecta mass per unit area is substantially greater than the mass of involved vapor/atmosphere (M-ratio). Deposition of distal ejecta, in which ejecta mass is negligible compared to the atmosphere, may be also treated in a simplified manner, i.e. as 1) passive motion of ejected particles within an impact plume and 2) later, as sedimentation of particles in undisturbed atmosphere (equilibrium between gravity and drag). In all intermediate M-ratio values, impact ejecta move like a surge, i.e. dilute suspension current in which particles are carried in turbulent flows under the influence of gravity. Surges are well-known for near-surface explosive tests, described in detail for volcanic explosions (Plinian column collapse, phreato-magmatic eruption, lateral blast), and found in ejecta from the Chicxulub [4] and the Ries [5]. Important aspects of surge transport include its ability to deposit ejecta over a larger area than that typical of continuous ballistic ejecta and to create multiple ejecta layers. Numerical model Two-phase hydrodynamics. Surges should be modeled in the frame of two-phase hydrodynamics, i.e. interaction between solid/molten particles and atmospheric gas/impact vapor should be taken into account. There are two techniques of solving equations for dust particle motion in a gas flow. The first one describes solid/molten particles as a liquid with specific properties, i.e. finite-difference equations are the same as in standard hydrodynamics [6-8]. Another approach is based on solving equations of motion for representative particles [9]. Each of these markers describes the motion of a large number of real particles with similar sizes, velocities, and trajectories. Equation of motion (gravity, viscosity, and drag) is solved for every marker and then exchange of momentum, heat and energy with surrounding vaporair mixture is taken into account. This approach is used in the SOVA code [10] and allows to vary particle sizes within a broad range (from a few m to a few microns). Implicit procedure of velocity update allows a larger time step. The substantial advantage of the model is its three-dimensional geometry, allowing modeling of asymmetric deposits of oblique impact ejecta. Turbulent diffusion is taken into account in a simplified manner [6]. Fragments size-frequency distribution (SFD) may be of crucial importance: while large fragments move ballistically, the smallest ones are passively involved in gas motion. Ejected material is usually transformed into particles under tension. The initial particle velocity is given by the hydrodynamic velocity, but the object's initial position within the cell is randomly defined. The SFD of solid fragments in high velocity impacts has been studied experimentally [2,11], numerically [12,13], and has been derived from the lunar and terrestrial crater observations [14,15]. Various approaches may be used to implement fragment size in a dynamic model: in Grady-Kipp model the average fragment size is defined by strain rate [12]; alternatively, average ejection velocity [16] or maximum shock compression [17] may be used. All methods may be verified through comparison with known data. Volcanic direct blast. Numerical modeling of pyroclastic flows, checked against recent observations and young deposits, may be then a useful instrument for reconstruction of terrestrial craters' ejecta, which are mostly eroded or buried; and for impact ejecta study on other planets

  12. Molar distalization with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes efficient techniques for distalization of maxillary and mandibular molars with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs). There are numerous occasions where the distalization of molars is required in lieu of the odontectomy of bicuspids. In the past, extra-oral force has been used, (i.e. Cervical or Combination Head Gear, or intra-oral force, i.e. Posterior Sagittal Appliance, Modified Greenfield Appliance, Williams DMJ 20001, CD Distalizer, Magill Sagittal, Pendulum Appliance, etc.). All the intra-oral appliances have a common denominator the orthodontic clinician has to deal with, the undesirable expression of the Third Law of Newton. The utilization of TADs allows us to circumvent this shortcoming, establishing an absolute anchorage, and thus completely negate the expression of the Third Law of Newton. PMID:25881377

  13. Fractures of the Distal Tibia Treated with Polyaxial Locking Plating

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-Qing; Luo, Cong-Feng; Zhou, Zu-Bin; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the healing rate, complications, and functional outcomes in 32 adult patients with very short metaphyseal fragments in fractures of the distal tibia treated with a polyaxial locking system. The average distance from the distal extent of the fracture to the tibial plafond was 11 mm. All fractures healed and the average time to union was 14 weeks. Six patients (19%) reported occasional local disturbance over the medial malleolus. There were two cases of postoperative superficial infections and evidence of delayed wound healing. Using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle score, the average functional score was 87.3 points (of 100 total possible points). Our results show the polyaxial locking plates, which offer more fixation versatility, may be a reasonable treatment option for distal tibia fractures with very short metaphyseal segments. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18719970

  14. On PAC learning of functions with smoothness properties using feedforward sigmoidal networks

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-04-01

    We consider Probably and Approximately Corrct (PAC) learning of an unknown function f: [0,1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [0,1], based on finite samples using feedforward sigmoidal networks. The unknown function f is chosen from the family F{intersection}C([0,1]{sup d}) or F{intersection}L{sup {infinity}}([0,1]{sup d}), where F has either bounded modulus of smoothness or bounded capacity or both. The learning sample is given by (X{sub 1},f(X{sub 1})),(X{sub 2},f(X{sub 2})),{hor_ellipsis},(X{sub n},f(X{sub n})), where X{sub 1},X{sub 2},{hor_ellipsis},X{sub n} are independently and identically distributed according to an unknown distribution. We consider the feedforward networks with a a single hidden layer of 1/(1 + e{sup {minus}{gamma}z})-units and bounded parameters, but the results can be extended to other neural networks where the hidden units satisfy suitable smoothness conditions. We analyze three function estimators based on nearest neighbor rule, local averaging, and Nadaraya-Watson estimator, all computed using the Haar system. It is shown that given a sufficiently large sample, each of these estimators approximates the best neural network to any given error with arbitrarily high probability. This result is crucical for establishing the essentially equivalent capabilities of neural networks and the above estimators for PAC learning from finite samples. Practical importance of this ``equivalence`` stems from the fact that computing a neural network which approximates the best possible one is computationally difficult, whereas the three estimators are linear-time computable in terms of sample size.

  15. Colon cleansing: Health or hype?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain a healthy bacterial composition, known as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body ... potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing changes your microflora. “You may think you’re getting rid of ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for ...

  17. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma: safe and reasonable?

    PubMed Central

    Postlewait, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of technological advances during the past two decades, surgeons now use minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches to pancreatic resection more frequently, yet the role of these approaches for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma resections remains uncertain, given the aggressive nature of this malignancy. Although there are no controlled trials comparing MIS technique to open surgical technique, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is performed with increasing frequency. Data from retrospective studies suggest that perioperative complication profiles between open and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy are similar, with perhaps lower blood loss and fewer wound infections in the MIS group. Concerning oncologic outcomes, there appear to be no differences in the rate of achieving negative margins or in the number of lymph nodes (LNs) resected when compared to open surgery. There are limited recurrence and survival data on laparoscopic compared to open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but in the few studies that assess long term outcomes, recurrence rates and survival outcomes appear similar. Recent studies show that though laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy entails a greater operative cost, the associated shorter length of hospital stay leads to decreased overall cost compared to open procedures. Multiple new technologies are emerging to improve resection of pancreatic cancer. Robotic pancreatectomy is feasible, but there are limited data on robotic resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and outcomes appear similar to laparoscopic approaches. Additionally fluorescence-guided surgery represents a new technology on the horizon that could improve oncologic outcomes after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, though published data thus far are limited to animal models. Overall, MIS distal pancreatectomy appears to be a safe and reasonable approach to treating selected patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, though additional studies of long-term oncologic outcomes are merited. We review existing data on MIS distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26261727

  18. Reverse telescoping in distal skarns at Campiglia Marittima (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoni, Simone; Dini, Andrea; Rocchi, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Skarn deposits commonly results from the metasomatic alteration of a rock, usually carbonate-rich, by infiltration of hydrothermal fluids. Most carbonate-hosted skarn deposits show a direct spatial relationship with magmatic intrusions and an intimate relationship with porphyry copper deposits. Their primary mineralogical and geochemical features indicate metasomatism by high-temperature magmatic fluids. Conversely, many distal Pb-Zn-Ag skarns pose an important challenge because there is no apparent association with magmatic intrusions and external, meteoric and/or basinal fluids should become increasingly dominant with increasing distance from the igneous source. Nevertheless recent investigation of distal skarn deposits indicates that ore-forming fluids match the composition of proximal magmatic fluids in granitoid-related mineral deposits. Besides that metal producer (Pb, Zn, Ag, Cu, Fe, W, Sn), skarn deposits can be key to understanding fluid dynamics at the periphery of magmatic-hydrothermal systems, unraveling pathways to hidden ore deposits (e.g porphyry copper). In this scenario, research on distal skarns opens new perspectives for deep mineral exploration and/or modeling of intrusion centered geothermal systems, because they should represent the outer limit of the hydrothermal system dominated by magmatic aqueous fluids. Here we present exceptional evidences from a distal Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit in Campiglia Marittima, Italy, where the magma, after having released the metasomatic fluids, fled up chasing its own fluid stream and invading large pockets of the newly formed skarn bodies at shallower level. Detailed underground mapping and petrologic data indicate that, after the formation of a typical distal Pb-Zn-Ag skarn, the intrusion of the parent magma produced prograde reactions in the skarn silicates, mobilization of the Pb-Zn-Ag sulfides and precipitation of a new Cu-Fe sulfide assemblage. This is a very unusual case of reverse telescoping during which the early and shallower distal skarn ores were overprinted by higher temperature ore minerals typical of proximal skarn systems.

  19. Selenium, Folate, and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Connelly-Frost, Alexandra; Poole, Charles; Satia, Jessie A.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element which has been implicated in cancer risk; however, study results have been inconsistent with regard to colon cancer. Our objectives were to 1) investigate the association between selenium and colon cancer 2) evaluate possible effect measure modifiers and 3) evaluate potential biases associated with the use of post-diagnostic serum selenium measures Methods The North Carolina Colon Cancer Study is a large population-based, case-control study of colon cancer in North Carolina between 1996 and 2000 (n=1,691). Nurses interviewed patients about diet and lifestyle and drew blood specimens which were used to measure serum selenium. Results Individuals who had both high serum selenium (>140 mcg/L) and high reported folate (>354 mcg/day), had a reduced relative risk of colon cancer (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.4,0.8). The risk of colon cancer for those with high selenium and low folate was approximately equal to the risk among those with low selenium and low folate (OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.7,1.5) as was the risk for those with low selenium and high folate (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.7–1.2). We did not find evidence of bias due to weight loss, stage at diagnosis, or time from diagnosis to selenium measurement. Conclusion High levels of serum selenium and reported folate jointly were associated with a substantially reduced risk of colon cancer. Folate status should be taken into account when evaluating the relation between selenium and colon cancer in future studies. Importantly, weight loss, stage at diagnosis, or time from diagnosis to blood draw did not appear to produce strong bias in our study. PMID:19235033

  20. Dome-shaped osteotomy for distal radius fracture malunions.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Giorgio A

    2003-06-01

    After having hinted to the various component of the malformity caused by malunions of the distal radius fracture, the various possibilities of correcting this deformity are described. The difficulty to correct all the components of the deformity are considered. Then a Dome-shaped osteotomy of the distal radius is described that allows to correct all the deformities in all the directions as the gliding plane of the osteotomy is spherical. The ulnar plus and the DRUJ alterations are corrected by means of an added Sauvé-Kapandji procedure that guarantees against any painful movement of the DRUJ preserving effective prono-supination. PMID:16518246

  1. Management of distal femoral periprosthetic fractures by distal femoral locking plate: A retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Thukral, Rajiv; Marya, SKS; Singh, Chandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Management of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures is difficult. Osteoporosis, comminution and bone loss, compromise stability with delayed mobility and poor functional outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with anatomic distal femoral (DF) locking plate permits early mobilization. However, this usually necessitates bone grafting (BG). Biological fixation using minimally invasive techniques minimizes periosteal stripping and morbidity. Materials and Methods: 31 patients with comminuted periprosthetic DF fractures were reviewed retrospectively from October 2006 to September 2012. All patients underwent fixation using a DF locking compression plate (Synthes). 17 patients underwent ORIF with primary BG, whereas 14 were treated by closed reduction (CR) and internal fixation using biological minimally invasive techniques. Clinical and radiological followup were recorded for an average 36 months. Results: Mean time to union for the entire group was 5.6 months (range 3-9 months). Patients of ORIF group took longer (Mean 6.4 months, range 4.5-9 months) than the CR group (mean 4.6 months, range 3-7 months). Three patients of ORIF and one in CR group had poor results. Mean knee society scores were higher for CR group at 6 months, but nearly identical at 12 months, with similar eventual range of motion. Discussion: Locked plating of comminuted periprosthetic DF fractures permits stable rigid fixation and early mobilization. Fixation using minimally invasive biological techniques minimizes morbidity and may obviate the need for primary BG. PMID:26015610

  2. Magnolol inhibits colonic motility through down-regulation of voltage-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels of colonic smooth muscle cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zang, Kai-Hong; Luo, Jia-Lie; Leung, Fung-Ping; Huang, Yu; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph Jao-yiu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnolol (5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-biphenyldiol) on contraction in distal colonic segments of rats and the underlying mechanisms. Colonic segments were mounted in organ baths for isometric force measurement. Whole-cell voltage-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) currents were recorded on isolated single colonic smooth muscle cells using patch-clamp technique. The spontaneous contractions and acetylcholine (ACh)- and Bay K 8644-induced contractions were inhibited by magnolol (3-100 ?M). In the presence of Bay K8644 (100 nM), magnolol (10-100 ?M) inhibited the contraction induced by 10 ?M ACh. By contrast, tetrodotoxin (100 nM) and N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 100 ?M) did not change the inhibitory effect of magnolol (10 ?M). In addition, magnolol (3-100 ?M) inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) currents. The present results suggest that magnolol inhibits colonic smooth muscle contraction through downregulating L-type Ca(2+) channel activity. PMID:23972358

  3. Optimal Positioning for Volar Plate Fixation of a Distal Radius Fracture: Determining the Distal Dorsal Cortical Distance.

    PubMed

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Ketonis, Constantinos; Huang, Ronald; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are currently among the most common fractures of the musculoskeletal system. With a population that is living longer, being more active, and the increasing incidence of osteoporosis, these injuries will continue to become increasingly prevalent. When operative fixation is indicated, the volar locking plate has recently become the treatment of choice. However, despite its success, suboptimal position of the volar locking plate can still result in radiographic loss of reduction. The distal dorsal cortical distance is being introduced as an intraoperative radiographic tool to help optimize plate position and minimize late loss of fracture reduction. PMID:26614937

  4. [Melanoma of female distal urethra: apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Sanz Velez, J I; Esclarin Duny, M A; Abad Roger, J; Abascal Agorreta, M; Vera Alvarez, J

    1989-01-01

    A case is presented of melanoma located at the distal urethra in a 74-year-old patient who underwent local surgery. At present the survival rate is 5 years and local relapse and metastases of one inguinal ganglion has been observed. The different clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this neoplasia are discussed. PMID:2711910

  5. Hemiarthroplasty for Complex Distal Radius Fractures in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Vergnenègre, Guillaume; Hardy, Jérémy; Mabit, Christian; Charissoux, Jean-Louis; Marcheix, Pierre-Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    Background?In elderly patients, distal radius fractures frequently occur in osteoporotic bone and may be nonreconstructable. It is our hypothesis that a hemiarthroplasty replacment of the articular surface can provide satisfactory results in terms of range of motion, pain, and function for immediate salvage of a fracture that is not amenable to internal fixation. Methods?Between July 2009 and January 2012, eight elderly patients were treated with insertion of a Sophia distal radius implant (Biotech, Paris, France). Inclusion criteria consisted of an isolated AO type C2 distal radius fracture in patients over 70 years old. All patients were reviewed by an independent surgeon. Results?The mean follow-up was 25 months (range, 17-36 months). Mean wrist range of motion (ROM) was 45° (40-50°) of flexion, 44° (40-50°) of extension, and a mean pronation-supination arc of 160°. Mean grip force was 18 kgf. The mean QuickDASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) was 18.2/100 (6.82-29.55), and the mean visual analog scale (VAS) was 2.33 (0-4). X-ray images did not demonstrate implant loosening or ulnar translation of the carpus. Conclusions?The Sophia hemiarthroplasty provided rapid recovery of independence in elderly patients with a nonreconstructable comminuted distal radius fracture. PMID:26261741

  6. Non-reducible palmar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint

    PubMed Central

    Zannou, Rupestre S.; Rezzouk, Joel

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of an isolated traumatic palmar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint is presented. Clinically, there is a loss of pronation and supination. The dislocation was treated using an open reduction, reinsertion of the capsule-ligamentous complex and temporary stabilization using K-wires. PMID:26158121

  7. Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

  8. C6-Modifications on chitosan to develop chitosan-based glycopolymers and their lectin-affinities with sigmoidal binding profiles.

    PubMed

    Koshiji, Kazuhiro; Nonaka, Yuki; Iwamura, Maho; Dai, Fumiko; Matsuoka, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Teruaki

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan-based glycopolymers having multiple ?-lactosides exclusively at their C6-positions were successfully synthesized from partially deacetylated chitin through perfect N-deacetylation/phthaloylation and C6-selective bromination/azidation to afford 6-azide-6-deoxy-N-phthaloyl-chitosan and the subsequent Cu(+)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloadditions using alkyne-terminated ?-lactoside and/or quaternary ammonium modules followed by dephthaloylations. Lectin-affinities of the resultant chitosan-based glycopolymers were assessed through fluorescence titration assays to show their unique sigmoidal binding profiles with amplified binding constants. PMID:26686131

  9. Concurrent caecal and transverse colonic tuberculosis masquerating synchronous colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, George A; Nair, Manojkumar S; Navaratnam, Romi

    2013-01-01

    We present a 46-year-old Somalian woman, who attended our hospital, with 1 week history of worsening epigastric pain and vomiting, worse after eating on a background of 3 months history of four stones loss of weight, malaise and decreased appetite. CT scan of the abdomen revealed an annular 10 cm long mass of the right transverse colon with a second mass of the caecum raising concerns of a synchronous colonic cancer. She underwent an extended right hemi-colectomy due to the development of obstruction from the transverse colon lesion. The histology revealed caseating, transmural granulomatous inflammation consistent with tuberculosis. She had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day on antituberculosis (anti-TB) medications. She reports complete resolution of her symptoms 4 months after discharge. PMID:23661658

  10. Colon bypass with a colon-flap augmentation pharyngoesophagoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tettey, Mark; Edwin, Frank; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Entsua-Mensah, Ekow; Offosu-Appiah, Ernest; Adzamli, Innocent

    2015-01-01

    Extensive caustic stricture of the upper aero-digestive system (oro- and hypo-pharynx) is a severe injury with limited surgical options. We adopted augmentation of the cicatrized upper aero-digestive tract with colon as our preferred management option. The aim of this report is to describe our initial experience with the technique of colon-flap augmentation pharyngo-esophagoplasty (CFAP) for selected patients with severe pharyngo-esophageal stricture. Between October 2011 and June 2013, three male patients (aged 16, 4 and 18 years respectively) underwent CFAP following extensive pharyngo-esophageal stricture. Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all three cases and all started swallowing within 7 - 10 days after surgery without significant dysphagia. Colon-flap augmentation pharyngo-esophagoplasty is an effective procedure for reconstruction of the pharynx and the hypopharynx after extensive caustic pharyngoesophageal structure in selected cases. PMID:26587125

  11. The distal glutamic acid as an acid-base catalyst in the distal site of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Ishimori, K; Morishima, I

    1996-10-14

    The distal His is an essential amino acid residue as a general acid-base catalyst for peroxidase reaction cycle. However, the x-ray structure of chloroperoxidase revealed that Glu is located near the heme, suggesting that the carboxyl group also assists cleavage of O-O bond in peroxides. In this paper, we examined functional and structural properties of a horseradish peroxidase mutant having Glu instead of the distal His. Although this amino acid replacement depressed reaction rate with H2O2 and oxidation activity for guaiacol, the mutant still exhibited much higher activity than mutants in which the distal His was replaced by hydrophobic amino acid. Kinetic measurements suggest that the proton abstraction is decelerated in the mutant due to large fluctuation of the carboxyl group of the distal Glu. Therefore, we can conclude that Glu can be a potent acid-base catalyst for peroxidase reaction cycle, if the carboxyl group can be fixed at the optimum position. PMID:8878526

  12. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17–34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5–6, with P < 0.01 for both ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon. PMID:22293095

  13. MEMS-based multiphoton endomicroscope for repetitive imaging of mouse colon

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiyu; Li, Haijun; Qiu, Zhen; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Pant, Asha; Smith, Arlene; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a handheld multiphoton endomicroscope with 3.4 mm distal diameter that can repetitively image mouse colon in vivo. A 2D resonant MEMS mirror was developed to perform beam scanning in a Lissajous pattern. The instrument has an effective numerical aperture of 0.63, lateral and axial resolution of 2.03 and 9.02 ?m, respectively, working distance of 60 ?m, and image field-of-view of 300 × 300 ?m2. Hoechst was injected intravenously in mice to stain cell nuclei. We were able to collect histology-like images in vivo at 5 frames/sec, and distinguish between normal and pre-malignant colonic epithelium. PMID:26309768

  14. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  15. The Plasma Structure of a Long-lasting Sigmoid as Revealed by Hinode and Magnetic Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova Savcheva, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    We present multi-thermal observations from Hinode/XRT and EIS plasma diagnostics over a large part of the lifetime of a long-lasting sigmoid observed between Dec 05 and Dec 07, 2007. This region is the best observationally covered sigmoidal region by XRT and EIS simultaneously. We analyze EIS/XRT thermal maps as well EIS Doppler velocity, density and non-thermal width (NTW) maps in conjunction with non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models constrained by the XRT data. We show that material accumulates in the dips oftwisted flux rope field lines, the temperature is enhanced at the locations of strong current concentrations in the model, and NTWs are enhanced at the outskirts of the region coinciding with large-scale QSLs that envelope the region. We follow the evolution of these plasma parameters and the filed lines from the best-fit NLFFF models in time and space leading to the flare on Dec 07, 2007.

  16. THE CONTRACTION OF OVERLYING CORONAL LOOP AND THE ROTATING MOTION OF A SIGMOID FILAMENT DURING ITS ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Xue, Z. K.; Deng, L. H.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, J. H.

    2013-06-15

    We present an observation of overlying coronal loop contraction and rotating motion of the sigmoid filament during its eruption on 2012 May 22 observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our results show that the twist can be transported into the filament from the lower atmosphere to the higher atmosphere. The successive contraction of the coronal loops was due to a suddenly reduced magnetic pressure underneath the filament, which was caused by the rising of the filament. Before the sigmoid filament eruption, there was a counterclockwise flow in the photosphere at the right feet of the filament and the contraction loops and a convergence flow at the left foot of the filament. The hot and cool materials have inverse motion along the filament before the filament eruption. Moreover, two coronal loops overlying the filament first experienced brightening, expansion, and contraction successively. At the beginning of the rising and rotation of the left part of the filament, the second coronal loop exhibited rapid contraction. The top of the second coronal loop also showed counterclockwise rotation during the contraction process. After the contraction of the second loop, the left part of the filament rotated counterclockwise and expanded toward the right of NOAA AR 11485. During the filament expansion, the right part of the filament also exhibited counterclockwise rotation like a tornado.

  17. A cross sectional study of colonic diverticulosis in the London Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Rajiv P; Abeles, Aliza; Burnand, Katherine M; Alazawi, William; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Foster, Graham R

    2013-01-01

    Background Diverticular disease is the most common morphological abnormality of the colon and the fifth most important gastrointestinal disease in terms of cost in the Western world. Tower Hamlets is the poorest borough in London containing a large Bangladeshi community. We observed that emergency admissions with complications of colonic diverticulosis were minimal in the Bangladeshi community. The objective was to compare the background prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in Bangladeshis with other ethnicities in patients undergoing colonoscopy at a single centre in Tower Hamlets. Methods Four thousand four hundred and fifty-four consecutive colonoscopy reports over a 2-year period were retrospectively analysed. Patients under 40 years of age and repeat colonoscopies were excluded, leaving 3151 patients (mean age: 63 years; 48% male). Demographics including ethnicity and medical background were retrieved from the electronic patient record system and findings correlated with the prevalence of other ‘Western’ diseases in the cohort. Results Six hundred and thirty out of 3151 (20%) colonoscopies were performed on Bangladeshis. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis was significantly lower in Bangladeshis (17/630: 2.7%) than Caucasians (673/1869: 36%), Indians/Pakistanis (16/161: 9.9%), Oriental (15/44: 34%) and Black (90/369: 24.4%) patient groups (?2 p?sigmoid diverticulosis in the Bangladeshi cohort was only 1.0%, despite significantly more Bangladeshi patients undergoing colonoscopy for abdominal pain (p?colonic diverticulosis in the Bangladeshi population of London who undergo colonoscopy. This is in spite of a high incidence of type 2 diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. The effect of diet and genetics on the prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in Bangladeshis is not known and merits further investigation. PMID:24917959

  18. Neonatal small left colon syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D R; Nixon, G W; Johnson, D G; Condon, V R

    1977-01-01

    Neonatal small left colon syndrome is a functional disease of the lower colon which produces typical signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction. It is manifest in the first 24-48 hours of life, particularly in infants of diabetic mothers and, if detected early, it can be fully cured by radiographic contrast enemas, not unlike meconium plug syndrome. Intestinal perforation and death may occur, however. The etiology of the disease is unknown but it may relate to neurohumoral imbalances between the autonomic nervous system and glucagon. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:603277

  19. Physical activity and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: an Italian case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tavani, A; Braga, C; Vecchia, C La; Conti, E; Filiberti, R; Montella, M; Amadori, D; Russo, A; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between risk of colon and rectal cancers and physical activity in both sexes at different ages by a case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1996 in six Italian centres. Cases were 1225 patients (688 men, 537 women) below the age of 75 with colon cancer and the controls included 4154 patients (2073 men, 2081 women) admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. We also analysed 722 cases of rectal cancer. Compared with the lowest level of occupational physical activity at 30–39 years old the odds ratios (OR) for the highest level were 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.44–0.93) in men and 0.49 (95% CI 0.33–0.72) in women. The inverse association in both sexes was similar at 15–19 and 50–59 years old. No association was found in either sex for leisure-time physical activity. For both sexes the inverse relationship between occupational physical activity at 30–39 years old and colon cancer risk was not significantly heterogeneous across strata of selected covariates, and for ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon. Rectal cancer risk was not associated with any measure of physical activity (OR = 1.32 for men and 0.88 for women for the highest level of occupational physical activity at 30–39 years old compared with the lowest). This study confirms that occupational physical activity is protective against colon, but not against rectal cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206313

  20. Alteration of colonic stem cell gene signatures during the regenerative response to injury.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Laurie A; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Callaway, Evelyn S; Shah, Manasvi S; Barker, Nick; Chapkin, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    Since aberrant wound healing and chronic inflammation can promote malignant transformation, we determined whether dietary bioactive fish oil (FO)-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) modulate stem cell kinetics in a colitis-wounding model. Lgr5-LacZ and Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creER(T2) mice were fed diets enriched with n-3 PUFA vs n-6 PUFA (control) and exposed to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 5days in order to induce crypt damage and colitis throughout the colon. Stem cell number, cell proliferation, apoptosis, expression of stem cell (Lgr5, Sox9, Bmi1, Hopx, mTert, Ascl2, and DCAMKL-1) and inflammation (STAT3) markers were quantified. DSS treatment resulted in the ablation of Lgr5(+) stem cells in the distal colon, concurrent with the loss of distal crypt structure and proliferating cells. Lgr5, Ascl2 and Hopx mRNA expression levels were decreased in damaged colonic mucosa. Lgr5(+) stem cells reappeared at day 5 of DSS recovery, with normal levels attained by day 6 of recovery. There was no effect of diet on the recovery of stem cells. FO fed animals exhibited higher levels of phospho-STAT3 at all time points, consistent with a higher wounding by DSS in FO feeding. n-3 PUFA-fed mice exhibited a reduction in stem cell associated factors, Ascl2, Axin2 and EphB3. These results indicate that rapidly cycling Lgr5(+) stem cells residing at position 1 in the colon epithelium are highly susceptible to DSS-induced damage and that dietary cues can impact stem cell regulatory networks. PMID:22750333

  1. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  2. STUDIES OF DBP-INDUCED COLON CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of colon carcinomas by trihalomethanes in rats may be relevant to epidemiological findings of increased incidences of colon-rectal cancer associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts. These studies have demonstrated that the brominated THMs in drinking water ind...

  3. Estrogen's Impact on Colon Tumor Formation 

    E-print Network

    Tinsley, Kirby

    2010-07-14

    One hundred thirty six men and women die every day from colon cancer in the United States (2008 statistics). Estrogen has been shown to reduce colonic tumor inflammation; however, it is unclear in the tumor development and growth process what...

  4. The World at the Time of Messel Morphology and evolution of the distal phalanges in primates

    E-print Network

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    The World at the Time of Messel 91 Morphology and evolution of the distal phalanges in primates, Ann Arbor, USA, gingerich@umich.edu. Flat nails and scutiform distal phalanges charac- terize), Williams et al. (2010), and Gingerich et al. (2010). However, the distal phalanges in primates are quite

  5. Role of distal reabsorption and peritubular environment in glomerulotubular balance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Total kidney glomerulotubular balance was examined during aortic constriction and release in saline-loaded dogs and in dogs undergoing water diuresis. Aortic constriction lowered the glomerular filtration rate by 45% in both groups, and glomerulotubular balance, as judged by changes in absolute sodium reabsorption, was also comparable. During water diuresis, a linear relationship was observed between free water clearance and urine flow during all maneuvers, suggesting that distal sodium reabsorption is related primarily to distal delivery. The results suggest that if alterations in the peritubular environment are responsible for the changes in tubular sodium reabsorption during aortic constriction in the saline- or water-loaded dog, then a change in renal plasma flow, and presumably delivery rate of oncotic force, may be the most likely mediator.

  6. Scintisplenoportography in assessing patency of distal splenorenal shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Teres, J.; Herranz, R.; Visa, J.; Lomena, F.; Pera, C.; Rodes, J.

    1983-06-01

    Scintisplenoportography was performed on 33 occasions in 28 cirrhotic patients who had bled from esophagogastric varices. In 17 cases scintisplenoportography was carried out after a retroperitoneal distal splenorenal shunt procedure and in the remaining 16 instances in patients without any surgical shunt. In four patients scintisplenoportography was performed before and after a surgical shunt procedure, and in one case, before and after the shunt thrombosed. Gammagraphic patterns and spleen-heart times helped determine which patients did not have a surgical shunt, which had a patent shunt, and which patients had a thrombosed shunt. A patent shunt pattern and a thrombosed shunt pattern have been defined. It is concluded that scintisplenoportography is a useful, reproducible, and safe method to assess the patency of distal splenorenal shunts.

  7. [The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].

    PubMed

    Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. PMID:25158749

  8. [A case of metastatic carcinoma of the colon after curative resection for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Megumi; Narusaka, Toru; Hayashi, Dofu; Matsumura, Toshihisa; Nonaka, Yasuyuki; Kurose, Michihiro; Tokuda, Naohiko; Miyake, Takayoshi

    2013-11-01

    We report a rare case of metastatic colon cancer that occurred after gastric cancer surgery. The patient was a 63-year- old man who had received distal gastrectomy for type 2 advanced gastric cancer, which was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pT4a (SE),pN0, P0, CY0, M0, and Stage IIB. He was treated with S-1 for 1 year after the operation. However, levels of CA19-9 gradually increased postoperatively. Subsequently, 2 years and 10 months after the operation, computed tomography indicated a mass in the transverse colon. Colonoscopy showed half-circumferential stenosis in the transverse colon. The histopathological diagnosis was metastasis of gastric cancer. We performed right-hemicolectomy. Histopathology showed a moderately or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was colonic metastasis of the gastric cancer. After the operation, he was treated with paclitaxel weekly. Our findings suggest that after surgery for gastric cancer, it is worthwhile to monitor for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:24394053

  9. Journal of Machine Learning Research 11 (2010) 3541-3570 Submitted 4/10; Revised 10/10; Published 12/10 Incremental Sigmoid Belief Networks for Grammar Learning

    E-print Network

    Titov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    12/10 Incremental Sigmoid Belief Networks for Grammar Learning James Henderson JAMES structure. These incremen- tal sigmoid belief networks (ISBNs) make decoding possible because inference a sentence), biology (e.g., protein structure prediction), chemistry, or image processing. We will focus

  10. Dorsal Capsuloplasty for Dorsal Instability of the Distal Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Kouwenhoven, S.T.P.; de Jong, T.; Koch, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background?Dorsal instability of the distal ulna can lead to chronic wrist pain and loss of function. Structural changes to the dorsal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL) of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and the dorsal capsule around the ulnar head with or without foveal detachment can lead to volar subluxation of the distal radius e.g., dorsal instability of the distal ulna. Purpose?Is to evaluate the post-operative results of reinstituting distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability through reefing of the dorsal capsule and dorsal radioulnar ligaments, with and without a foveal reattachment of the TFCC. Methods?A total of 37 patients were included in this retrospective study. Diagnosis and treatment was based strictly on dry wrist arthroscopy. In 17 patients isolated reefing of the DRUL and their collateral tissue extension was performed. In 20 patients an additional foveal reinsertion was performed. Postoperative results were evaluated with the DASH questionnaire, VAS scores, grip strength and range of motion. These findings were extrapolated in the Mayo wrist score. The two subgroups were compared. Results?Mayo wrist scores of the whole population had a mean of 73. There was no difference between the group that was treated with reefing of the DRUL only and the group that was treated with a combined foveal reinsertion. Conclusion?This relatively simple 'dorsal reefing' procedure, with foveal reinsertion when indicated, is a reliable method to restore volar-dorsal DRUJ stability with a significant decrease in pain sensation, good DASH scores and restoration of functional grip strength and ROM. Type of Study/Level of Evidence?Therapeutic, Level IV. PMID:24436811

  11. Sural Versus Perforator Flaps for Distal Medial Leg Wounds.

    PubMed

    Schannen, Andrew P; Truchan, Lisa; Goshima, Kaoru; Bentley, Roger; DeSilva, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue coverage of distal medial ankle wounds is a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery because of the limited local tissues and prominent instrumentation. Traditionally, these wounds required free tissue transfer to achieve suitable coverage and subsequent bony union. To better respect the reconstructive ladder and to avoid the inherent difficulty of free flap coverage, rotational flaps have been used to cover these wounds. Both sural fasciocutaneous flaps and rotational fasciocutaneous perforator (propeller) flaps have been described for distal medial soft tissue coverage. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent distal medial leg coverage with the use of either sural flaps or rotational fasciocutaneous perforator flaps. The authors identified 14 patients by Current Procedural Terminology code who met the study criteria. The average age and degree of medical comorbidities were comparable in the 2 groups. The authors reviewed their medical records to evaluate fracture healing, flap size, complications, and return to normal shoe wear. All 7 sural flaps healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. Of the 7 perforator flaps, 6 healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. One perforator-based flap was complicated by superficial tip necrosis and went on to heal with local wound care. All patients returned to normal shoe wear. Both sural artery rotational flaps and posterior tibial artery-based rotational flaps are viable options for coverage of the distal medial leg. Coverage can be achieved reliably without microsurgery, anticoagulation, or monitoring in the intensive care unit. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1059-e1064.]. PMID:26652325

  12. Distal humerus cortical strains following total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Craik, Johnathan D; Laffer, Caroline H L; Richards, Simon W; Walsh, Sean P; Evans, Sam L

    2013-02-01

    The aseptic loosening of total elbow replacements is a serious complication resulting in significant patient morbidity. It is thought to occur secondary to stress shielding of the distal humeral cortex by the stiff stem of the implant. Some total elbow prostheses incorporate an anterior flange intended to improve implant stability and peri-articular load transfer in an attempt to reduce this effect However, few studies have directly assessed the changes in cortical strains following total elbow arthroplasty or the biomechanical advantage of the anterior flange design. A regular and a long flange Coonrad-Morrey total elbow prosthesis were implanted into six Sawbone synthetic humeri. The constructs were subjected to physiological loads in axial compression (500 N), antero-posterior bending (50 N) and antero-posterior compression with condylar supports (300 N). Digital image correlation was used to measure the distal antero-lateral cortical strains and the results compared with those of whole Sawbones that had been tested in the same way. Significant stress shielding was demonstrated over the distal humeral cortex following prosthesis implantation during axial compression. In contrast, cortical strains increased following prosthesis implantation during antero-posterior compression with condylar supports. The increase in cortical strains following total elbow arthroplasty may help to maintain the integrity of the anterior cortex offering additional stability for implants with an anterior flange. These results are important for the development of future total elbow prosthesis designs and indicate that simulating the action of the forearm muscles is essential when evaluating changes in strain about the distal humerus in vitro. PMID:23513983

  13. Medical management of fragility fractures of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Emily N; Crawford, David A; Scully, William F; Noce, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    Fragility fractures of the distal radius represent an opportunity to diagnose and treat osteoporosis before further fractures occur. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of prescriptions for calcium/vitamin D supplementation and the prevalence of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans in patients who sustained fragility fractures of the distal radius. A further goal was to determine the prevalence of patients who received prescriptions for the treatment of osteoporosis after DEXA scans. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients 50 years and older who sustained a fragility fracture of the distal radius and were treated by the orthopedic surgery service at the authors' institution from 2004 to 2010. After a fragility fracture of the distal radius, fewer than 25% of previously unidentified at-risk patients received a prescription for vitamin supplementation and underwent a DEXA scan. Women were 7 times more likely than men to receive calcium/vitamin D supplementation, 14 times more likely to undergo a DEXA scan for the evaluation of osteoporosis, and 25 times more likely to receive a prescription for bisphosphonates. Patients who underwent a DEXA scan were 9 times more likely to receive pharmacologic treatment than those who did not undergo this scan. More than half of patients did not receive a prescription for calcium/vitamin D supplementation and did not undergo DEXA scanning as recommended by current National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines. Most patients who received prescriptions or underwent DEXA scans did so before rather than after fracture, indicating poor compliance with National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines. PMID:25437080

  14. Colon Answers - MP/H Rules

    Cancer.gov

    Answers and Rationale Colon Case # Primary Data Item Name Preferred Answer Rationale Colon 1 Is this a multiple primary? Yes/No No Single tumor – right colon Primary 1 Histologic Type 8140/3 Adenocarcinoma Code 8140 when the pathology report describes

  15. Early Distal Axonopathy of the Visual Pathway in Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Diego C.; Pasquini, Laura A.; Dorfman, Damián; Aldana Marcos, Hernán J.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of acquired blindness. Visual function disorders have been observed in diabetic patients with very early retinopathy or even before the onset of retinopathy. The aim of the present work was to analyze the visual pathway in an early stage of experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by an i.p. injection of streptozotocin. A deficit in anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus was observed 6 weeks after streptozotocin injection. At this time point, morphologic studies did not reveal retinal ganglion cell loss or substantial alterations in the superior colliculus. The optic nerve was morphometrically evaluated at intraorbital (unmyelinated and myelinated) and intracranial sections. In animals that had been diabetic for 6 weeks, a large increase in astrocyte reactivity occurred in the distal (but not the intraorbital) portion, which coincided with significant axon loss. Moreover, profound myelin alterations and altered morphologic features of oligodendrocyte lineage were observed at the distal (but not the proximal) optic nerve portion. The present results suggest that axoglial alterations at the distal portion of the optic nerve could be the first structural change in the diabetic visual pathway. PMID:22079928

  16. A novel, new robotic platform for natural orifice distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Shyam; Awad, Michael; Gurram, Krishna C; Tully, Steven; Wright, Cornell; Sanan, Siddharth; Choset, Howie

    2015-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic technology has revolutionized the practice of surgery; however, surgeons have not widely accepted laparoscopic techniques for pancreatic surgeries due to the complexity of the operation. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) offers a great new potential for pancreatic procedures, with early data showing benefits of reduced visible scarring and the potential for decreased wound infections, hernias, pain, and postoperative complications. However, there are significant limitations to the currently used flexible endoscopy tools, including a diminished visual field, spatial orientation and tissue manipulation issues, and 2-dimensional visual feedback. We have adopted a novel snake-like robot, the minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) robot, which addresses these issues. In the current pilot study, the MICS robot was evaluated for transrectal distal pancreas exploration and resection in 2 nonsurvival porcine models. Abdominal navigation and accessing the pancreas was investigated in the first pig, and based on its success, pancreas resection was studied in pig 2. The MICS robot was successful in accessing and visualizing the right upper, left upper, and left lower quadrants of the abdomen in pig 1 and was able to perform a successful complex NOTES procedure with distal pancreas resection in pig 2, with only minimal laparoscopic retraction assistance. In conclusion, preliminary results showing the MICS robot in natural orifice distal pancreatectomy are positive. Enhancements to optics and instrumentation will help further increase the usability in pancreatic interventions. Future indications may include transgastric NOTES approaches, endoluminal procedures, and single-port applications. PMID:25320108

  17. Neural pattern in the human pollical distal phalanx.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard K; Shrewsbury, Marvin M

    2005-09-01

    A morphological study of the neural pattern in the human ungual region of the pollical distal phalanx was carried out on eight male cadavers. The dissections showed a palmar neural arrangement consisting of four designated ungual nerves, two proximal and two distal, for each of the ulnar and radial palmar digital nerves at the lateral sides of the thumb. This neural configuration was associated with the compartmentalization of its ungual pulp, the difference between the type of sensory receptors within the ungual pulp, the overlapping of the tactile composition at the thumb tip, seen clinically after laceration of one of the palmar digital nerves, and the sensory supply to the nail bed in the dorsal portion of the thumb. The proximal ungual pulp compartment had a single proximal medial ungual nerve, which did not appear, as far as visually possible, to overlap at the midline of the proximal ungual pulp. In contrast, the distal ungual pulp compartment was supplied by a medial and a lateral ungual nerve, both of which did appear to overlap to their contralateral sides in the thumb tip. A single proximal dorsal sensory nerve branched dorsally from each of ulnar and radial palmar digital nerves at the level of the proximal ungual pulp to supply the nail bed on the dorsum of the thumb. PMID:16015615

  18. Laparoendoscopic single-site distal pancreatectomy in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Ji, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jing-Min; Tan, Yu-Yan; Wang, Yan; Wen, Ya-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the technique for laparoendoscopic single-site distal pancreatectomy. METHODS: Laparoendoscopic single-site spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in pigs using a novel flexible multichannel port, a curved laparoscopic multifunctional operative device and a fish hook retractor, which provided a favorable operative field. RESULTS: Six pigs were involved in this study, and five survived the procedure. The first animal died following injury to the superior mesenteric vein and uncontrolled intraoperative bleeding. Except for this failure, the mean operative time was 155 min (range: 102-236 min). A steep learning curve was observed in the study, with a mean operative time of 177 min in the first two operations vs 134 min in the last three operations. The mean blood loss was 50 mL, and the postoperative course was uneventful. The animals were sacrificed three weeks after the procedures, and no pancreatic leakage or abdominal infection was found macroscopically. CONCLUSION: Laparoendoscopic single-site distal pancreatectomy is a safe and feasible procedure and can be implemented in humans in selected cases at qualified surgical centers. PMID:24944478

  19. Varus distal femoral osteotomy in young adults with valgus knee

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ibrahim G; Mazlumi, Mahdi; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad H

    2009-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders specially knee osteoarthritis are the most common causes of morbidity in old patients. Disturbance of the mechanical axis of the lower extremity is one of the most important causes in progression of knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the surgical results of distal femoral varus osteotomy in patients with genu valgum. Methods In this study, after recording history and physical examination, appropriate radiographs were taken. We did varus distal femoral osteotomy by standard medial subvastus approach and 90-angle blade plate fixation then followed the patients clinically and radiographically. Results This study was done on 23 knees (16 patients) age 23.3 years (range, 17 to 41 years). The mean duration of following up was 16.3 months (range, 8 to 25 months). Based on paired T test, there were statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative tibiofemoral and congruence angles (p < 0.001, t = 21.3 and p < 0.001, t = 10.1 respectively). Pearson correlation between the amount of tibiofemoral and congruence angle correction was also statistically significant (p = 0.02 and r = 0.46). Conclusion Distal femoral varus osteotomy with blade plate fixation can be a reliable procedure for the treatment of valgus knee deformity. In this procedure, with more tibiofemoral angle correction, more congruence angle correction can be achieved. Therefore, along with genu valgum correction, the patella should be stabilized simultaneously. PMID:19435527

  20. Distal histidine conformational flexibility in dehaloperoxidase from Amphitrite ornata

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuxu; de Serrano, Vesna; Betts, Laurie; Franzen, Stefan

    2009-01-28

    The enzyme dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is a heme protein which has a globin fold but can function as both a hemoglobin and a peroxidase. As a peroxidase, DHP is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. As a hemoglobin, DHP cycles between the oxy and deoxy states as it reversibly binds oxygen for storage. Here, it is reported that the distal histidine, His55, exhibits conformational flexibility in the deoxy form and is consequently observed in two solvent-exposed conformations more than 9.5 {angstrom} away from the heme. These conformations are analogous to the open conformation of sperm whale myoglobin. The heme iron in deoxy ferrous DHP is five-coordinate and has an out-of-plane displacement of 0.25 {angstrom} from the heme plane. The observation of five-coordinate heme iron with His55 in a remote solvent-exposed conformation is consistent with the hypothesis that His55 interacts with heme iron ligands through hydrogen bonding in the closed conformation. Since His55 is also displaced by the binding of 4-iodophenol in an internal pocket, these results provide new insight into the correlation between heme iron ligation, molecular binding in the distal pocket and the conformation of the distal histidine in DHP.

  1. Colon Histology Coding Rules Flowchart

    Cancer.gov

    Ne xt Page NO Rule Action Notes and Examples Colon Histology Coding Rules - Flowchart Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action (Exc ludes lym phom a and leukem ia M9590-9989 and Kapos i sarcoma M9140) (C180-C189) M ULT IPLE TUM ORS ABSTRACTED AS A SINGLE PRIM ARY H20 Are there multiple invasive tumors?

  2. Chemopreventive effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, S S; Vaiphei, K; Nehru, B; Sanyal, S N

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT The anticancer efficacy of two different classes of NSAIDs, the nonspecific cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor aspirin and the specific COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, was examined at their therapeutic anti-inflammatory doses during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in a rat model. Eight to 10-week-old male rats of Sprague strain were divided into four groups. While group 1 served as control and received the vehicle of the drugs, groups 2, 3, and 4 were administered freshly prepared DMH in 1 mM EDTA saline (pH 7.0) (30 mg/kg body weight/week, subcutaneously). Groups 3 and 4 were also given a daily treatment of aspirin (60 mg/kg body weight, orally) and celecoxib (6 mg/kg body weight, orally), respectively, both prepared in carboxy-methyl cellulose. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and colons from different groups were subjected to macroscopic and histopathological studies, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and determination of lipid peroxide level. The maximum number of raised mucosal lesions in proximal, middle, and distal regions of the colon was found in the DMH group alone, and the lowest number was found in the celecoxib-treated DMH group. Histological studies also showed the highest occurrence of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) associated with enlarged lymphoid follicles in all the three portions of colon (i.e., proximal, middle, and distal). The aspirin-administered DMH group had lesser ACF in the proximal and middle portions and no ACF in the distal region. The celecoxib-administered DMH group showed no ACF in the middle region of the rat colon. DMH treatment induced lipid peroxidation and inhibited the activities of SOD and CAT. Both the aspirin- and celecoxib-treated DMH groups showed a marked lowering of the lipid peroxide level along with a significant enhancement of CAT activity when compared with the DMH-treated group. The results show that celecoxib was found to be more effective in reducing the ACF occurrence and aggregates of lymphoid tissue than the nonselective COX inhibitor aspirin, and suggests a possible chemoprevention modality in colon cancer. This may have important implications as COX-2 selective drugs at anti-inflammatory doses are better tolerated clinically than standard NSAIDs, thus making them potentially better chemopreventive agents in colon cancer. PMID:20020969

  3. High implantation technique during CoreValve replacement in a high-risk aortic stenosis patient with a sigmoid left ventricular hypertrophy and a large aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    K?l?ç, Teoman; Ural, Ertan; Yavuz, ?adan; Ho?ten, Tülay; ?nce, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    The appropriate size, accurate alignment and correct positioning of transcatheter aortic valves (TAVIs) at the point of deployment are emphasized as key factors in placement and fixation of the devices. Presence of a sigmoid left ventricular septum in the patient is one of the important limitations of TAVIs, especially with the Edwards-Sapien Valve (ESV), due to the risk of aortic embolization of the prosthesis. In cases of a pronounced sigmoid septum, transapical implantation of the ESV or the usage of a Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) is generally recommended. However, severe left ventricular hypertrophy and sigmoid septum are also risk factors for the development of conduction disturbances with the usage of MCV. The depth of implantation of MCV within the left ventricular outflow tract and larger or significantly oversized prostheses have also been reported as important predictors of permanent pacemaker (PPM) requirement after MCV implantation. Thus, recent reports indicate that there may be less need for a PPM if a high implantation technique is used to place the MCV at a short implantation depth. In this report, we present the high implantation technique under rapid pacing during transcatheter aortic MCV implantation in a surgically high-risk aortic stenosis patient with sigmoid left ventricular hypertrophy and a large aortic annulus. PMID:25906000

  4. Early Spontaneous Recanalization of Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis Following a Closed Head Injury in a Pediatric Patient : A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jung-Ho; Ko, Jung Ho; Lee, Mee Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) following a closed head injury in pediatric patients is a rare condition, and an early spontaneous recanalization of this condition is extremely rare. A 10-year-old boy was admitted with a mild, intermittent headache and nausea five days after a bicycle accident. The brain computed tomography showed an epidural hematoma at the right occipital area with pneumocephalus due to a fracture of the occipital skull bone. The brain magnetic resonance imaging and the magnetic resonance venography demonstrated a flow signal loss from the right sigmoid sinus to the right jugular vein. The diagnosis was sigmoid sinus thrombosis, so close observations were selected as a treatment for the patient because of his gradually improving symptoms; however, he complained of vomiting 14 days the after conservative treatment. The patient was readmitted for a further examination of his symptoms. The laboratory and the gastroenterological examinations were normal. Due to concern regarding the worsening of the sigmoid sinus thrombosis, the brain magnetic resonance venography was rechecked and it revealed the recanalization of the venous flow in the sigmoid sinus and in the jugular vein. PMID:26361534

  5. Early Spontaneous Recanalization of Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis Following a Closed Head Injury in a Pediatric Patient : A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Ho; Lee, Mee Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) following a closed head injury in pediatric patients is a rare condition, and an early spontaneous recanalization of this condition is extremely rare. A 10-year-old boy was admitted with a mild, intermittent headache and nausea five days after a bicycle accident. The brain computed tomography showed an epidural hematoma at the right occipital area with pneumocephalus due to a fracture of the occipital skull bone. The brain magnetic resonance imaging and the magnetic resonance venography demonstrated a flow signal loss from the right sigmoid sinus to the right jugular vein. The diagnosis was sigmoid sinus thrombosis, so close observations were selected as a treatment for the patient because of his gradually improving symptoms; however, he complained of vomiting 14 days the after conservative treatment. The patient was readmitted for a further examination of his symptoms. The laboratory and the gastroenterological examinations were normal. Due to concern regarding the worsening of the sigmoid sinus thrombosis, the brain magnetic resonance venography was rechecked and it revealed the recanalization of the venous flow in the sigmoid sinus and in the jugular vein. PMID:26361534

  6. Sigmoid adenocarcinoma with metastases to the kidney: Report of a rare case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    DULSKAS, AUDRIUS; BAGURSKAS, PAULIUS; SINKEVICIUS, ZALVYRAS; SAMALAVICIUS, NARIMANTAS E.

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) most frequently spread to the liver and lungs. CRC metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare and may be generally associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Thus, patients with metastatic CRC and kidney metastasis are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The present study reported the case of a 42-year-old male with a local recurrence of CRC following sigmoid resection with partial mesorectal excision, which had infiltrated the urinary bladder, requiring partial resection of the urinary bladder wall. After 4 years, the patient developed a recurrent tumor localized in the upper pole of the left kidney and underwent left nephrectomy. The patient remained disease-free 6 months after the surgery. PMID:26622650

  7. Recurrent syncope in two patients with a sigmoid-shaped interventricular septum and no left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mizumaki, Koichi; Iwamoto, Jotaro; Nishida, Kunihiro; Sakamoto, Tamotsu; Nakatani, Yosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sigmoid-shaped interventricular septum (SIS) is not uncommon in elderly patients and is considered a normal part of the aging process. However, several patients have been reported to have clinical symptoms due to the narrowing of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). Two patients with SIS presented with recurrent episodes of syncope after drinking or taking sublingual nitroglycerin (NG). In both patients, a head-up tilt test involving provocation with alcohol, NG, or isoproterenol induced the vasovagal reflex along with an increase in the pressure gradient between the apex and LVOT. The patients experienced no further episodes of syncope after initiating bisoprolol treatment. In patients with SIS, induction of the vasovagal reflex via an increase in left ventricular (LV) pressure due to LVOT obstruction concomitant with increased LV construction is a potentially important cause of syncope, which may be effectively prevented by beta-blockers. PMID:26702321

  8. Thromboxane A2, released by the anti-tumour drug irinotecan, is a novel stimulator of Cl- secretion in isolated rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, H; Sato, T; Hamada, N; Yasue, M; Ikari, A; Kakinoki, B; Takeguchi, N

    1997-01-01

    1. A camptothecin derivative, irinotecan (Cpt-11), is a topoisomerase I inhibitor and has a strong activity against a broad range of human cancer. One of the side-effects of this drug is diarrhoea. Here, we tried to determine the mediator of the irinotecan-induced Cl- secretion which may underlie this diarrhoea, using isolated mucosae of rat distal colon. 2. Irinotecan increased Cl- secretory current in a concentration-dependent manner across the mucosa, set between Ussing chambers. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) has not been reported to date as a physiological stimulant of Cl- secretion in the distal colon. However, the major part of the present irinotecan-induced current was inhibited by selective thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists (KW-3635 and ONO-3708), and a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor (Y-20811). In fact, we found that irinotecan stimulated the release of TXA2 in a concentration-dependent manner from the isolated mucosa into the bathing solutions. 3. Furthermore, 9,11-epithio-11,12-methano-thromboxane A2 (STA2), a stable analogue of TXA2, induced Cl- secretion, which was almost completely inhibited by the TXA2 receptor antagonists. 4. In single cells of isolated crypts, STA2 depolarized the cell and increased the membrane conductance, indicating that STA2 opened the apical Cl- channel of the crypt cells. 5. We conclude, therefore, that the irinotecan-induced endogenous TXA2 is a novel stimulant of the Cl- secretion from the crypt cells of distal colon. PMID:9409477

  9. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  10. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. RESULTS We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. CONCLUSIONS Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  11. Expression analysis of BMP2, BMP5, BMP10 in human colon tissues from Hirschsprung disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mei; Chen, Wenwen; Mi, Jie; Chen, Dong; Wang, Weilin; Gao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF ?) superfamily. BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 exert their biological functions by interacting with membrane bound receptors belonging to the serine/threonine kinase family. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the nerve plexuses of the distal gut. However, putative Notch function in enteric nervous system (ENS) development and the etiology of HSCR is unknown. Methods: Aganglionic and ganglionic colon segment tissues of 50 HSCR patients were investigated for the expression pattern of BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 using real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mRNA levels of BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 in the stenotic colon segment from HSCR patients were significantly higher than those in the normal ones. Similar increased expressions of them in the stenotic colon segments were detected by Western blotting coupled with densitometry analysis. Lastly, immunohistologicl stain showed significant BMP2, 5 and 10 increases in mucous and muscular layers from stenotic colon segments compared to normal segments. Conclusions: BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 are elevated in the stenotic colon segment of HSCR, and BMPs signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of HSCR. PMID:24551273

  12. Colonic perforation in Behcet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Catherine-M; Hill, Arnold-Dk; Malone, Carmel; Sheehan, John-J; Tormey, Shona; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall-J

    2008-11-14

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behcet's syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases. PMID:19030217

  13. Colon Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Colon Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C180-C189 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p

  14. Colonic Chicken Skin Mucosa is an Independent Endoscopic Predictor of Advanced Colorectal Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji Young; Choe, Jaewon; Chang, Hye-Sook; Kim, Jongcheol; Yang, Dong Hoon; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Chicken skin mucosa (CSM), surrounding colorectal adenoma, is an endoscopic finding with pale yellow-speckled mucosa; however, its clinical significance is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of CSM, and the association between colorectal carcinogenesis and CSM. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in 733 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic polypectomy for colorectal adenoma after the screening of colonoscopy at the Asan Health Promotion Center between June 2009 and December 2011. The colonoscopic and pathological findings of colorectal adenoma including number, size, location, dysplasia, morphology, and clinical parameters were reviewed. Results The prevalence of CSM was 30.7% (225 of 733 patients), and most CSM-related adenomas were located in the distal colon (93.3%). Histological analysis revealed lipid-laden macrophages in the lamina propria of the mucosa. Multivariate analyses showed that CSM was significantly associated with advanced pathology, including villous adenoma and high-grade dysplasia (odds ratio [OR], 2.078; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.191-3.627; P=0.010), multiple adenomas (i.e., ?2 adenomas; OR, 1.692; 95% CI, 1.143-2.507; P=0.009), and a protruding morphology (OR, 1.493; 95% CI, 1.027-2.170; P=0.036). There were no significant differences in polyp size or clinical parameters between patients with and without CSM. Conclusions CSM-related adenoma was mainly found in the distal colon, and was associated with advanced pathology and multiple adenomas. CSM could be a potential predictive marker of the carcinogenetic progression of distally located colorectal adenomas. PMID:26576137

  15. Primary lymphoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Leo F; Furtado, Harold W; Aithala, Panambur S; D'Souza, Clement S; George, Celine; Vishnumoorthy, Santhrupth H

    2009-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the colon is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and comprises only 0.2-1.2% of all colonic malignancies. The most common variety of colonic lymphoma is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The GI tract is the most frequently involved site, accounting for 30-40% of all extra nodal lymphomas, approximately 4-20% of which are NHL. The stomach is the most common location of GI lymphomas, followed by the small intestine. Early diagnosis may prevent intestinal perforation; however, the diagnosis is often delayed in most cases. Therapeutic approaches described in two subsets include: Radical tumor resection (hemicolectomy) plus multi-agent chemotherapy (polychemotherapy) in early stage patients, biopsy plus multidrug chemotherapy in advanced stage patients. Radiotherapy is reserved for specific cases; surgery alone can be considered as an adequate treatment for patients with low-grade NHL disease that does not infiltrate beyond the sub mucosa. Although resection plays an important role in the local control of the disease and in preventing bleeding and/or perforation, it rarely eradicates the lymphoma by itself. Those with limited stage disease may enjoy prolonged survival when treated with aggressive chemotherapy. PMID:19794280

  16. [Carpal injuries associated with distal radius fractures. Diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Rappold, G; Leixnering, M; Pezzei, C

    2001-07-01

    The frequency of carpal injuries associated with distal radius fractures is often underestimated. Diagnosis of such lesions can be difficult. Important diagnostic steps include conventional X-rays, cinematography of the wrist, MRI, and arthroscopy. Different procedures such as wrist arthrography and CT are of secondary value. An early diagnosis of ligament injuries and instabilities can be obtained through cinematographic examination, whereas injuries to the TFCC are mainly diagnosed by MRI. Arthroscopy provides exact diagnosis as well as therapy, including arthroscopically controlled reposition of centrally depressed fragments of the articular surface of the radius and even treatment of TFCC lesions. PMID:11518981

  17. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P < 0.05). Therefore, for in vitro studies, fecal microbiota can be used as an inoculum source but may slightly overestimate in vivo fermentation. Experiment 2 evaluated the gas production, fermentation kinetics, and end product profiles at 8 and 72 h of incubation for citrus pectin, 3 fructans, gum arabic, 3 guar gums, pea fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05), whereas peanut hulls and wheat fiber were poorly fermentable, indicated by the least amount of gas produced (P < 0.05). Sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pulp, soy fiber, and wheat middlings were moderately fermentable with a low R(max). Citrus pectin and pea fiber showed a similar low R(max), but time at which this occurred was later compared with sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pulp, soy fiber, and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Results of this study can be used to formulate canine diets that stimulate dietary fiber fermentation along the distal GIT that may optimize GIT health and stimulate the level of satiety in dogs. PMID:18599660

  18. Molecular and Cellular Characteristics of the Colonic Pseudo-obstruction in Patients With Intractable Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Do, Yoon Suh; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kwak, Sun-Young; Cho, Soohan; Lee, Enoch; Song, Min Jeong; Yu, Chang Sik; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lee, Hye Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms suggestive of obstruction such as abdominal pain, proximal distension with extremely suppressed motility in the absence of lumen-occluding lesion, whose etiology/pathophysiology is poorly understood. In this study we investigated a functionally obstructive lesion that could underlie symptoms of CIPO. Methods We studied colons surgically removed from 13 patients exhibiting clinical/pathological features of pseudo-obstruction but were unresponsive to standard medical treatments. The colons were characterized morphologically, functionally and molecularly, which were compared between regions and to 28 region-matched controls obtained from colon cancer patients. Results The colons with pseudo-obstruction exhibited persistent luminal distension proximally, where the smooth muscle was hypertrophied with changes in the cell phenotypes. Distinct luminal narrowing was observed near the distal end of the dilated region, close to the splenic flexure, previously referred to as the “transition zone (TZ)” between the dilated and non-dilated loops. Circular muscles from the TZ responded less to depolarization and cholinergic stimulation, which was associated with down-regulation of L-type calcium channel expression. Smooth muscle contractile protein was also downregulated. Myenteric ganglia and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) positive cells were deficient, more severely in the TZ region. Interstitial cells of Cajal was relatively less affected. Conclusions The TZ may be the principal site of functional obstruction, leading to proximal distension and smooth muscle hypertrophy, in which partial nNOS depletion could play a key role. The neuromuscular abnormalities probably synergistically contributed to the extremely suppressed motility observed in the colonic pseudo-obstruction. PMID:26424041

  19. Excretion of ciprofloxacin into the large bowel of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, J; Dautrey, S; Farinoti, R; Carbon, C; Rubinstein, E

    1996-01-01

    The intestinal elimination of ciprofloxacin in the large bowel was studied in a rabbit model. Segments from the cecum, colon, and sigmoid colon along with their intact blood vessels were isolated and perfused, and their contents were collected over a 90-min period following the administration of a single parenteral dose of 27 mg of ciprofloxacin per kg of body weight. The elimination rates of ciprofloxacin were 0.126 +/- 0.084 micrograms.min-1.cm-2 in the cecum and 0.264 +/- 0.126, 0.11 +/- 0.07, and 0.21 +/- 0.141 micrograms.min-1.cm-2 in the proximal colon, distal colon, and sigmoid colon, respectively. The calculated fraction of ciprofloxacin eliminated in the large bowel was 3% of the parenteral dose administered. The elimination pattern of ciprofloxacin in the large bowel may explain the unusual activity of this fluoroquinolone in modifying the colonic flora. PMID:8787870

  20. Comparison of Short-Term Postoperative Outcomes in Totally Laparoscopic Distal Gastrectomy Versus Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gru; Kim, Yong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The advantages of totally laparoscopic surgery in early gastric cancer (EGC) are unproven, and some concerns remain regarding the oncologic safety and technical difficulty. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical benefits of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) for the treatment of gastric cancer compared with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG). Materials and Methods A retrospective review of 211 patients who underwent either TLDG (n=134; 63.5%) or LADG (n=77; 36.5%) for EGC between April 2005 and October 2013 was performed. Clinicopathologic features and surgical outcomes were analyzed and compared between the groups. Results The operative time in the TLDG group was significantly shorter than that in the LADG group (193 [range, 160~230] vs. 215 minutes [range, 170~255]) (P=0.021). The amount of blood loss during TLDG was estimated at 200 ml (range, 100~350 ml), which was significantly less than that during LADG, which was estimated at 400 ml (range, 400~700 ml) (P<0.001). The hospital stay in the TLDG group was shorter than that in the LADG group (7 vs. 8 days, P<0.001). One patient from each group underwent laparotomic conversion. Two patients in the TLDG group required reoperation: one for hemostasis after intraabdominal bleeding and 1 for repair of wound dehiscence at the umbilical port site. Conclusions TLDG for distal EGC is a technically feasible and safe procedure when performed by a surgeon with sufficient experience in laparoscopic gastrectomy and might provide the benefits of reduced operating time and intraoperative blood lossand shorter convalescence compared with LADG. PMID:25061537

  1. Effects of acid-base variables on ion transport in rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, D S; Egnor, R W; Charney, A N

    1988-01-01

    Alterations in arterial acid-base variables have important effects on colonic electrolyte transport in vivo. To confirm the relative effects of these variables and to characterize the transport processes involved, we measured unidirectional 22Na and 36Cl fluxes across short-circuited, distal colonic mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Stripped tissues were studied in Hepes buffer and in Ringer's solutions at HCO3 concentrations of 11, 21, and 39 mM, and CO2 tensions between 0 and 69.6 mmHg. Increases in PCO2, but not in either pH or HCO3 concentration, caused similar increases in JNanet and JClnet (net flux of sodium and chloride, respectively) from -0.2 +/- 0.3 and -1.5 +/- 0.4 mu eq/cm2 per h at PCO2 = 0 to 6.8 +/- 0.6 and 7.6 +/- 0.7 mu eq/cm2 per h, respectively, at PCO2 = 69.6 mmHg. These increases were accounted for by changes in Jms and were accompanied by small decreases in Isc. 1 mM acetazolamide decreased both JNanet and JClnet and their responses to increases in CO2. 0.75 mM luminal amiloride prevented the increase in sodium absorption, but did not affect the CO2-induced increase in chloride absorption. In the presence of amiloride, CO2 increased JR (residual flux). 0.1 mM luminal furosemide did not affect the CO2-induced increases in JNanet in the absence or presence of amiloride. Changes in HCO3 concentration did not alter JR. We conclude that ambient CO2 effects active, electroneutral sodium absorption in the rat distal colon. The process stimulated by CO2 is dependent on mucosal carbonic anhydrase activity and most likely represents Na/H and Cl/HCO3 ion exchange. PMID:3133396

  2. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues. PMID:25794478

  3. Regulation of the Drosophila distal antennal determinant spineless.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Richard B; Duncan, Dianne; Duncan, Ian

    2007-02-15

    The transformation of antenna to leg is a classical model for understanding segmental fate decisions in Drosophila. The spineless (ss) gene encodes a bHLH-PAS transcription factor that plays a key role in specifying the identity of distal antennal segments. In this report, we identify the antennal disc enhancer of ss and then use enhancer-lacZ reporters to work out how ss antennal expression is regulated. The antennal determinants Distal-less (Dll) and homothorax (hth) are key activators of the antennal enhancer. Dll is required continuously and, when present at elevated levels, can activate the enhancer in regions devoid of hth expression. In contrast, homothorax (hth) is required only transiently both for activation of the enhancer and for specification of the aristal portion of the antenna. The antennal enhancer is repressed by cut, which determines its proximal limit of expression, and by ectopic Antennapedia (Antp). Repression by Antp is not mediated by hth, suggesting that ss may be a direct target of Antp. Finally, we show that ss+ is not a purely passive target of its regulators: ss+ partially represses hth in the third antennal segment and lies upstream of Dll in the development of the maxillary palp primordia. PMID:17084833

  4. Free fibula reconstruction of distal tibial defects after sarcoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Mario Francesco Carlo; Arzi, Ravit Yanko; Gur, Eyal; Ben Amotz, Oded; Barnea, Yoav; Kollender, Yheuda; Meller, Isaak; Bickels, Jacob; Dadia, Shlomo; Zaretski, Arik

    2015-06-01

    Distal tibial tumor ablation results in combined soft tissue and bone defect that involves the ankle joint. This area is unique and problematic because it combines low caliber limb size, relatively soft tissue deficiency, suboptimal bone and soft tissue healing ability, and the need to sustain increased mechanical loads. The management is difficult, controversial, and traditionally was treated by primary amputation. We present our experience with a limb sparing surgery using biological reconstruction.Between 2004 and 2007, 5 patients with malignant bone tumors of the distal tibia underwent tumor resection and reconstruction with free vascularized osteoseptocutaneous fibula flap. The average age was 33.2 years (range, 11-62 years). In all cases, a skin island was harvested and used for wound closure. Arthrodesis of the ankle joint was preformed in all patients. Double fixation system was used to provide stability and avoid flap rotation.All flaps survived. There were no major complications. One patient had partial loss of the skin paddle that was treated conservatively. Callous formation was documented after an average time of 4 months, partial weight bearing after an average time of 4 months, and full weight bearing after an average time of 11.5 months. All patients regained almost normal ambulation within a year. PMID:25969971

  5. Repair of the torn distal biceps tendon by endobutton fixation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi K; Bither, Nitin; Singh, Harpreet; Kapoor, Saurabh; Chhabra, Ashish; Garg, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of techniques have been described to reattach the torn distal biceps tendon to the bicipital tuberosity. We report a retrospective analysis of single incision technique using an endobutton fixation in sports persons. Materials and Methods: The present series include nine torn distal biceps tendons in eight patients, fixed anatomically to the radial tuberosity with an endobutton by using a single incision surgical technique; seven patients had suffered the injuries during contact sports. The passage of the endobutton was facilitated by using a blunt tipped pin in order to avoid injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. The patients were evaluated by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Mayo elbow score. Results: The average age of the patients was 27.35 years (range 21–42 years). Average follow-up was 41.5 months (range 24–102 months). The final average flexion extension arc was 0°–143°, while the average pronation and supination angles were 77° (range 70°–82°) and 81° (range 78°–85°), respectively at the last followup. All the patients had a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score of 0 and a Mayo elbow score of 100 each. All the seven active sports persons were able to get back to their respective game. There was no nerve injury or any other complication. Conclusions: The surgical procedure used by us is a simple, safe and reproducible technique giving minimal morbidity and better cosmetic results. PMID:22345810

  6. Normal Age-Related Alterations on Distal Radius Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamid; Khaje, Rohallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to ascertain serial changes on distal radius radiographic parameters attributable to aging. Methods: In this prospective study, the sample consisted of 120 healthy individuals who were divided into four age groups each containing 15 males and 15 females. In the two below-20-year-old groups, only ulnar variance could be investigated. Wrist radiography was taken and then parameters of the distal radius were measured and compared based on age and sex. Results: Average UV was -2.48 mm and -1.6 mm in the 2-9 and 10-19-year-old age groups, respectively. Also, in the two above-20-year-old groups, the average radial inclination (RI), palmar tilt (PT), radial length (RL), and UV was 23.7º, 12.4º, 10.5 and +1.1 mm, respectively. Considering ulnar variance, no significant difference was found between the 2-9- and 10-19-year-old groups, as well as among the two above-20-year-old groups. However, a significant difference was observed between the below 20 and above 20 groups. The study results showed no significant differences between males and females in any of the study groups. Discussion: There is significant ulnar variance change toward less negative ulnar variance with aging until maturity. PMID:26550588

  7. Distal 10q monosomy: new evidence for a neurobehavioral condition?

    PubMed

    Plaisancié, Julie; Bouneau, Laurence; Cances, Claude; Garnier, Christelle; Benesteau, Jacques; Leonard, Samantha; Bourrouillou, Georges; Calvas, Patrick; Vigouroux, Adeline; Julia, Sophie; Bieth, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pure distal monosomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 is a rare cytogenetic abnormality. The location and size of the deletions described in this region are variable. Nevertheless, the patients share characteristic facial appearance, variable cognitive impairment and neurobehavioral manifestations. A Minimal Critical Region corresponding to a 600 kb Smallest Region of deletion Overlap (SRO) has been proposed. In this report, we describe four patients with a distal 10q26 deletion, who displayed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). One of them had a marked behavioral profile and relatively preserved cognitive functions. Interestingly, the SRO was not included in the deleted segment of this patient suggesting that this deletion could contain candidate genes involved in the control of neurobehavioral functions. One of these candidates was the CALY gene, known for its association with ADHD patients and whose expression level was shown to be correlated with neurobehavioral disturbances in varying animal models. This report emphasizes the importance of the behavioral problems as a cardinal feature of the 10q microdeletion syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of CALY could play a crucial role in the development of the behavioral troubles within these patients. PMID:24275544

  8. Premalignant alterations in the lipid composition and fluidity of colonic brush border membranes of rats administered 1,2 dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed Central

    Brasitus, T A; Dudeja, P K; Dahiya, R

    1986-01-01

    Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a potent procarcinogen with selectivity for the colon. To determine whether alterations in the lipid composition and fluidity of rat colonic brush border membranes existed before the development of DMH-induced colon cancer, rats were injected s.c. with this agent (20 mg/kg body weight per wk) or diluent for 5, 10, and 15 wk. Animals were killed at these time periods and brush border membranes were prepared from proximal and distal colonocytes of each group. The "static" and "dynamic" components of fluidity of each membrane were then assessed, by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using limiting hindered fluorescence anisotropy and order parameter values of the fluorophore 1,6 diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and fluorescence anisotropy values of DL-2-(9-anthroyl) stearic acid and DL-12-(9-anthroyl) stearic acid, respectively. Membrane lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. Phospholipid methylation activity in these membranes was also measured using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor. The results of these studies demonstrate that: the lipid composition and both components of fluidity of proximal DMH-treated and control membranes and their liposomes were similar at all time periods examined; at 5, 10, and 15 wk the "dynamic component of fluidity" of distal DMH-treated membranes and their liposomes was found to be higher, similar, and lower, respectively, than their control counterparts; the "static component of fluidity" of distal DMH-treated membranes and their liposomes, however, was similar to control preparations at all three time periods; and alterations in the lipid composition and phospholipid methylation activities appeared to be responsible for these differences in the "dynamic component of fluidity" at these various time periods. Images PMID:3949981

  9. Polysaccharides for colon targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, M K; Jain, S K

    2004-01-01

    Colon targeted drug delivery has the potential to deliver bioactive agents for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. Various strategies, currently available to target the release of drugs to colon, include formation of prodrug, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon-specific biodegradable polymers, timed released systems, osmotic systems, and pressure controlled drug delivery systems. Among the different approaches to achieve targeted drug release to the colon, the use of polymers especially biodegradable by colonic bacteria holds great promise. Polysaccharidases are bacterial enzymes that are available in sufficient quantity to be exploited in colon targeting of drugs. Based on this approach, various polysaccharides have been investigated for colon-specific drug release. These polysaccharides include pectin, guar gum, amylose, inulin, dextran, chitosan, and chondroitin sulphate. This family of natural polymers has an appeal to drug delivery as it is comprised of polymers with a large number of derivatizable groups, a wide range of molecular weights, varying chemical compositions, and, for the most part, low toxicity and biodegradability yet high stability. The most favorable property of these materials is their approval as pharmaceutical excipients. PMID:15200012

  10. Treatment of Colonic Injury During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Colonic injury during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) persists despite the advances in technical equipment and interventional radiology techniques. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications, colonic injury is regarded as a stage IVa complication. Currently, the rate of colonic injury ranges between 0.3% and 0.5%, with an unremarkable difference in incidence between supine and prone PCNL procedures. Colon injury is the most significant complication of PCNL. Colonic injury can result in more complicated open exploration of the abdomen, involving colostomy construction. The necessity of a second operation for the closure of the colostomy causes financial and emotional burden on the patients, patients’ relatives, and surgeons. Currently, the majority of colonic injuries occurring during PCNL are retroperitoneal. The primary treatment option is a conservative approach. It must be kept in mind that the time of diagnosis is as important as the diagnosis itself in colonic injury. Surgeons performing PCNL are advised to be conservative when considering exploratory laparotomy and colostomy construction during treatment of colonic injury. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who underwent left prone PCNL that resulted in retroperitoneal colonic injury, along with a review of the current literature. PMID:26543436

  11. Effect of longterm placebo controlled calcium supplementation on sigmoidal cell proliferation in patients with sporadic adenomatous polyps.

    PubMed Central

    Weisgerber, U M; Boeing, H; Owen, R W; Waldherr, R; Raedsch, R; Wahrendorf, J

    1996-01-01

    A longterm, double blind intervention trial was undertaken in patients with sporadic adenoma treated by polypectomy to investigate the putative role of calcium as a protective factor in colon carcinogenesis. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a daily dietary supplementation of 2 g calcium over nine months on cell proliferation measured as proliferation index in colonic mucosa. A total of 48 patients were entered into the study of which 30 were fully compliant. After intervention proliferation index % (mean (SEM) in colonic epithelium was decreased in both the calcium (13.5 (1.5) to 11.4 (1.2)) and the placebo group (13.7 (0.9) to 10.8 (1.1)). The difference in the change between the two groups was not significant (p = 0.7). Changes in proliferation index % of crypt compartments were also not significantly different between the two groups. A significantly positive correlation between soluble calcium in faeces and the total proliferation index % in colonic epithelium at baseline and after intervention (r = 0.54, p < 0.01, r = 0.50, p < 0.01 respectively) suggests that an increase of free luminal calcium alone is insufficient for inhibition of cellular proliferation. PMID:8675093

  12. Endovascular Intervention for Repositioning the Distal Catheter of Ventriculo-Atrial Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Botao; Chotai, Silky; Yang, Kaijun; Feng, Wenfeng; Zhang, Guozhong; Li, Mingzhou

    2012-01-01

    Displacement of distal ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunt is not uncommon. However, misplacement of the distal catheter of VA shunt in the internal jugular vein is a possibility, especially when conducted without intraoperative monitoring. We describe a patient in whom a VA shunt was performed due to failure of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt and the distal catheter of the shunt was found to be misplaced in the left internal jugular vein. Endovascular intervention via femoral vein was used to retrieve the distal catheter. PMID:22970420

  13. Regulation of Potassium Channel Trafficking in the Distal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Potassium channels in the distal nephron are precisely controlled to regulate potassium secretion in accord with physiological demands. In recent years, it has become evident that membrane trafficking processes play a fundamental role. This short review highlights recent developments in elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Recent findings Novel sorting signals in the renal potassium channels, and the elusive intracellular trafficking machinery that read and act of these signals have recently been identified. These new discoveries reveal independent signals sequentially interact with different intracellular sorting, retention, internalization machineries to appropriately ferry the channels to and from the apical and basolateral membrane domains in sufficient numbers to regulate potassium balance. Summary A new understanding of the basic mechanisms that control potassium channel density at polarized membrane domains has emerged, providing new insights into how potassium balance is achieved and how it goes awry in disease. PMID:23892700

  14. Worry and perceived threat of proximal and distal undesirable outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bredemeier, Keith; Berenbaum, Howard; Spielberg, Jeffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who are prone to worry tend to overestimate the likelihoods and costs of future undesirable outcomes. However, it is unclear whether these relations vary as a function of the timeframe of the event in question. In the present study, 342 undergraduate students completed a self-report measure of worry and rated the perceived probabilities and costs of 40 undesirable outcomes. Specifically, each participant estimated the probability that each of these outcomes would occur within three different timeframes: the next month, the next year, and the next 10 years. We found that the strength of the association between worry and probability estimates was strongest for the most proximal timeframe. Probability estimates were more strongly associated with worry for participants with elevated cost estimates, and this interactive effect was strongest for the most distal timeframe. Implications of these findings for understanding the etiology and treatment of excessive worry are discussed. PMID:22310102

  15. Traumatic recurrent distal radioulnar joint dislocation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lisowski, Lukas A.; Schutte, Bernard G.

    2009-01-01

    Isolated acute distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dislocation is a rare injury (Garrigues and Aldridge III in J Bone Joint Surg Am 89:1594–1597, 2007]. Reports of isolated DRUJ luxations, volair or dorsal, are often case reports and rarely a series of cases [Dameron Jr in Clin Orthop Relat Res 83:55–63, 1972]. We present a case of an acute traumatic dorsal DRUJ dislocation treated with cast immobilization with recurrence of the dislocation after a new trauma some months later. At follow-up, 17 months after the first dislocation and 9 months after the second, he experienced no pain and had no restrictions in work or sports-related activities. PMID:19937146

  16. [Sialic Acid Replacement Therapy for Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles].

    PubMed

    Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Nishino, Ichizo

    2015-09-01

    Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles or GNE myopathy, is an early adult-onset myopathy with slow progression that preferentially affects the tibialis anterior muscle. Severely affected patients show marked limb muscle atrophy together with respiratory dysfunction. The disease is caused by a mutation in the GNE gene that catalyzes two rate-limiting reactions in cytosolic sialic acid synthesis. Oral treatment with sialic acid metabolite prevents muscle atrophy and weakness in a mouse GNE myopathy model and a global Phase III study is currently underway. In addition, a global patient registry of neuromuscular cases is widely accepted as a useful tool to obtain epidemiological data and bolster patient recruitment for further development of this treatment strategy. PMID:26329152

  17. Laing distal myopathy pathologically resembling inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Roda, Ricardo H; Schindler, Alice B; Blackstone, Craig; Mammen, Andrew L; Corse, Andrea M; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in MYH7 cause autosomal dominant Laing distal myopathy. We present a family with a previously reported deletion (c.5186_5188delAGA, p.K1729del). Muscle pathology in one family member was characterized by an inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, increased MHC Class I expression, and perivascular and endomysial muscle inflammation comprising CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD68(+) inflammatory cells. Interestingly, this biopsy specimen contained TDP-43, p62, and SMI-31-positive protein aggregates typical of inclusion body myositis. These findings should alert physicians to the possibility that patients with MYH7 mutations may have muscle biopsies showing pathologic findings similar to inclusion body myositis. PMID:25574480

  18. Laing distal myopathy pathologically resembling inclusion body myositis

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Ricardo H; Schindler, Alice B; Blackstone, Craig; Mammen, Andrew L; Corse, Andrea M; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in MYH7 cause autosomal dominant Laing distal myopathy. We present a family with a previously reported deletion (c.5186_5188delAGA, p.K1729del). Muscle pathology in one family member was characterized by an inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, increased MHC Class I expression, and perivascular and endomysial muscle inflammation comprising CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD68+ inflammatory cells. Interestingly, this biopsy specimen contained TDP-43, p62, and SMI-31-positive protein aggregates typical of inclusion body myositis. These findings should alert physicians to the possibility that patients with MYH7 mutations may have muscle biopsies showing pathologic findings similar to inclusion body myositis. PMID:25574480

  19. Atypical distal renal tubular acidosis confirmed by mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Soergel, M; Jeck, N; Konrad, M

    2000-12-01

    In autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis type I (dRTA) impaired hydrogen ion secretion is associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremic hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and/or nephrolithiasis. A retardation of growth is commonly observed. In this report we present a family with autosomal dominant dRTA with an atypical and discordant clinical picture. The father presented with severe nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and isosthenuria but metabolic acidosis was absent. His 6-year-old daughter, however, suffered from metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypercalciuria. In addition, sonography revealed multiple bilateral renal cysts but no nephrocalcinosis. Mutation analysis of the AE1 gene coding for the renal Cl-/HCO3(-)-exchanger AE1 displayed a heterozygous Arg589Cys exchange in both patients but not in the healthy family members. This point mutation is frequently associated with autosomal dominant dRTA. Diagnosis of autosomal dominant dRTA is supported in this family by results of AE1 mutation analysis. PMID:11149111

  20. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth. PMID:26342981

  1. Genetic causes and mechanisms of distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Daniel; Haque, Syed K

    2012-10-01

    The primary or hereditary forms of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) have received increased attention because of advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanism, whereby mutations in the main proteins involved in acid-base transport result in impaired acid excretion. Dysfunction of intercalated cells in the collecting tubules accounts for all the known genetic causes of dRTA. These cells secrete protons into the tubular lumen through H(+)-ATPases functionally coupled to the basolateral anion exchanger 1 (AE1). The substrate for both transporters is provided by the catalytic activity of the cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), an enzyme which is also present in the proximal tubular cells and osteoclasts. Mutations in ATP6V1B1, encoding the B-subtype unit of the apical H(+) ATPase, and ATP6V0A4, encoding the a-subtype unit, lead to the loss of function of the apical H(+) ATPase and are usually responsible for patients with autosomal recessive dRTA often associated with early or late sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding the cytosolic CA II are associated with the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis, mixed distal and proximal RTA and cerebral calcification. Mutations in the AE1, the gene that encodes the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger, usually present as dominant dRTA, but a recessive pattern has been recently described. Several studies have shown trafficking defects in the mutant protein rather than the lack of function as the major mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of dRTA from AE1 mutations. PMID:23114896

  2. Activation of kininogen expression during distal nephron differentiation.

    PubMed

    El-Dahr, S S; Dipp, S; Yosipiv, I V; Carbini, L A

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the epithelial precursors of the connecting tubule and collecting duct express tissue kallikrein and bradykinin B2 receptors, respectively, suggesting the presence of a local kinin-producing/responsive system in the maturing distal nephron. However, evidence for the existence of kininogen in the developing nephron is still lacking. This study examined the spatiotemporal relationships between segmental nephron differentiation and the ontogeny of kininogen and kinins in the rat. Kininogen immunoreactivity is detectable in the metanephros as early as embryonic day 15. In the nephrogenic zone, the terminal ureteric bud branches are the main kinin-expressing segments. Kininogen is also observed in the stromal mesenchyme. In contrast, proximal ureteric bud branches, metanephrogenic mesenchyme, and pretubular aggregates express little or no kininogen. After completion of nephrogenesis, kininogen distribution assumes its classic "adult" pattern in the collecting ducts. Peak kininogen mRNA and protein expression occur perinatally, corresponding to the period of active nephrogenesis in the rat, and declines gradually thereafter. Estimations made by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and radioimmunoassays indicate that renal kininogen mRNA and protein levels are at least 20-fold higher in newborn than adult rats. Likewise, immunoreactive tissue kinin levels are 2.3-fold higher in newborn than adult kidneys (P < 0.05). In summary, the present study demonstrates the activation of kininogen gene expression and kinin production in the developing kidney. The terminal ureteric bud branches and their epithelial derivatives are the principal kinin-producing segments in the maturing nephron. The results suggest an autocrine/paracrine role for the kallikrein-kinin system in distal nephron maturation. PMID:9689019

  3. Distal Tibiofibular Bone-Bridging in Transtibial Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Pinzur, Michael S.; Beck, Jennifer; Himes, Ryan; Callaci, John

    2011-01-01

    Background The creation of a bone bridge between the residual tibia and fibula is a controversial surgical technique used in the performance of transtibial amputation. Methods Twenty consecutive patients who underwent a unilateral transtibial amputation, as a consequence of traumatic injury, had distal tibiofibular bone-bridging performed by a single surgeon. Eight completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ), a validated outcomes instrument designed to measure patient self-reported health-related quality of life after a lower-extremity amputation. Their responses were compared with those of a previously reported control group of nondiabetic patients who had undergone transtibial amputation with the use of a traditional technique and with those of a previously reported consecutive group of Brazilian patients, including twelve who were diabetic, who had undergone a similar bone-bridge procedure. Results The scores in the American bone-bridge group were similar to those in the control group and not as good as those in the Brazilian bone-bridge group. The American bone-bridge and control groups scored lower in the Social Burden, Ambulation, Frustration, Sounds, Utility, and Well-Being domains of the PEQ. Conclusions While many experts in the care of amputees believe that the distal tibiofibular bone-bridge technique improves patient functional outcomes, our small group of patients treated with this procedure did not appear to have better outcomes than a group of patients treated successfully with a standard surgical technique. More information is needed before the bone-bridge technique can be recommended as an important component of standard transtibial amputation surgery. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19047714

  4. Contact mechanics of reverse engineered distal humeral hemiarthroplasty implants.

    PubMed

    Willing, Ryan; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2015-11-26

    Erosion of articular cartilage is a concern following distal humeral hemiarthroplasty, because native cartilage surfaces are placed in contact with stiff metallic implant components, which causes decreases in contact area and increases in contact stresses. Recently, reverse engineered implants have been proposed which are intended to promote more natural contact mechanics by reproducing the native bone or cartilage shape. In this study, finite element modeling is used in order to calculate changes in cartilage contact areas and stresses following distal humeral hemiarthroplasty with commercially available and reverse engineered implant designs. At the ulna, decreases in contact area were -34±3% (p=0.002), -27±1% (p<0.001) and -14±2% (p=0.008) using commercially available, bone reverse engineered and cartilage reverse engineered designs, respectively. Peak contact stresses increased by 461±57% (p=0.008), 387±127% (p=0.229) and 165±16% (p=0.003). At the radius, decreases in contact area were -21±3% (p=0.013), -13±2% (p<0.006) and -6±1% (p=0.020), and peak contact stresses increased by 75±52% (p>0.999), 241±32% (p=0.010) and 61±10% (p=0.021). Between the three different implant designs, the cartilage reverse engineered design yielded the largest contact areas and lowest contact stresses, but was still unable to reproduce the contact mechanics of the native joint. These findings align with a growing body of evidence indicating that although reverse engineered hemiarthroplasty implants can provide small improvements in contact mechanics when compared with commercially available designs, further optimization of shape and material properties is required in order reproduce native joint contact mechanics. PMID:26493347

  5. Modeling Colon Adenocarcinomas in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dolznig, Helmut; Rupp, Christian; Puri, Christina; Haslinger, Christian; Schweifer, Norbert; Wieser, Elisabeth; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Garin-Chesa, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Activated tumor stroma participates in tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Normal fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been shown to display distinct gene expression signatures. This molecular heterogeneity may influence the way tumor cells migrate, proliferate, and survive during tumor progression. To test this hypothesis and to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control these interactions, we established a three-dimensional (3D) human cell culture system that recapitulates the tumor heterogeneity observed in vivo. Human colon tumor cells were grown as multicellular spheroids and subsequently co-cultured with normal fibroblasts or CAFs in collagen I gels. This in vitro model system closely mirrors the architecture of human epithelial cancers and allows the characterization of the tumor cell–stroma interactions phenotypically and at the molecular level. Using GeneChip analysis, antibody arrays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we demonstrate that the interaction of colon cancer cells with stromal fibroblasts induced different highly relevant cancer expression profiles. Genes involved in invasion, extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation, and angiogenesis were differentially regulated in our 3D carcinoma model. The modular setup, reproducibility, and robustness of the model make it a powerful tool to identify target molecules involved in signaling pathways that mediate paracrine interactions in the tumor microenvironment and to validate the influence of these molecular targets during tumor growth and invasion in the supporting stroma. PMID:21703426

  6. Periluminal Distribution of HIV-Binding Target Cells and Gp340 in the Oral, Cervical and Sigmoid/Rectal Mucosae: A Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Patyka, Mariia; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew; Abrams, William R.; Kurago, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the transmission of HIV is most likely to occur via rectal or vaginal routes, and rarely through oral exposure. However, the mechanisms of virus entry at mucosal surfaces remain incompletely understood. Prophylactic strategies against HIV infection may be attainable once gaps in current knowledge are filled. To address these gaps, we evaluated essentially normal epithelial surfaces and mapped the periluminal distribution of CD4+ HIV target cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and an HIV-binding molecule gp340 that can be expressed by epithelial cells in secreted and cell-associated forms. Immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD16, CD3, CD1a and gp340 in human oral, rectal/sigmoid and cervical mucosal samples from HIV-negative subjects demonstrated that periluminal HIV target cells were more prevalent at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces lined by simple columnar epithelium, than at oral and ectocervical surfaces covered by multilayered stratified squamous epithelium (p<0.001). gp340 expression patterns at these sites were also distinct and strong in oral minor salivary gland acini and ducts, including ductal saliva, in individual rectum/sigmoid and endocervix periluminar columnar cells, and in ectocervix squamous cells. Only weak expression was noted in the oral non-ductal squamous epithelium. We conclude that periluminal HIV target cells, together with periluminal epithelial cell-associated gp340 appear to be most accessible for HIV transmission at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces. Our data help define vulnerable structural features of mucosal sites exposed to HIV. PMID:26172445

  7. Sustained Improvement in a Metastatic Colon Cancer Patient with FOLFIRI-Aflibercept after FOLFOX Failure

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    The present report illustrates a case of a 37-year-old Indian male patient diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon who underwent an anterior resection with total mesorectal excision surgery. He was administered adjuvant chemotherapy with 10 cycles of a FOLFOX-4 (folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) regimen but developed relapse. He was then put on a FOLFIRI (folinic acid, fluorouracil and irinotecan)-aflibercept (Zaltrap) regimen and received 12 cycles during the next 6 months. During the treatment period, a reduction in ascites along with a decline in serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was observed, though the tumor size was unchanged. After completion of 12 cycles, the patient was asymptomatic but showed signs of progression in the form of increased CEA level. The FOLFIRI-aflibercept therapy was discontinued, and the patient was given supportive treatment, but he eventually died after another 6 months. The FOLFIRI-aflibercept treatment provided a progression-free survival of 6 months and an overall survival of 1 year to this patient, which corroborates the findings of the VELOUR trial. PMID:26668569

  8. Colon Cases - MP/H Rules

    Cancer.gov

    Colon Case 1 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT #1 Surgical Pathology Report November 16, 2007 Gross: The specim en is received in formalin. The container is labeled "colon mass biopsy." It consists of three gray-tan, 0.2 cm mucosal fragments which are

  9. Colosplenic contained perforation secondary to colonic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Andrei; Arrese, David; Bach, John A

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of patient with colosplenic perforation from a colonic lymphoma. He initially was diagnosed with a splenic abscess subsequently developed a contained colonic perforation, underwent surgical treatment and intraoperatively was diagnosed with lymphoma. This is a rare entity in a non-immunocompromised host and has been scarcely reported. PMID:26557492

  10. Successful sinus restoration for transverse-sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistula complicated by multiple venous sinus occlusions: The usefulness of preoperative computed tomography venography

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Koichiro; Higashi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Seisaburo; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although sinus restoration for transverse-sigmoid sinus (TSS) dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) has rarely been reported over the past decade, its advantage and indication still remain unclear. Herein, we discuss the indications and technical aspects of this therapy with a review of the literature. Case Description: A 79-year-old female was referred to our department with generalized convulsion. An angiogram revealed a DAVF at the junction of the right TSS. The right sigmoid and left transverse sinuses were occluded, which resulted in remarkable leptomeningeal venous reflux and cerebral venous congestion. A preoperative computed tomography (CT) venogram precisely revealed the occluded segment of the right sigmoid sinus, which facilitated the sinus restoration with balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting. Conclusion: Sinus restoration is preferable in patients with severe cerebral venous congestion due to multiple sinus occlusions and/or a restricted collateral venous outlet. CT venography is useful for precise evaluation of the length and configuration of the occluded segment, which thus make it possible to evaluate the feasibility of stenting. PMID:26392914

  11. B cell Mediated Priming Following Pneumococcal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Rabquer, Bradley; Shriner, Anne K.; Smithson, S. Louise; Julie Westerink, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The primary reservoir for Streptococcus pneumoniae is the human nasopharynx, and colonization is often the initial step in pathogenesis. Recently we have demonstrated that pneumococcal colonization primes the immune response to subsequent vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (CPV). In this study we wished to determine if colonization stimulates the production of B cell memory that is activated following vaccination with CPV. To test this hypothesis, we colonized mice with S. pneumoniae serotype 14, adoptively transferred their B cells and CD4+ T cells into naïve recipients, and vaccinated the recipients with CPV. Our results indicate that pneumococcal colonization stimulates the production of memory B cells which are responsible for enhancing the immune response to CPV vaccination. PMID:17240006

  12. Colon Targeted Liposomal Systems (CTLS): Theranostic Potential.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Jain, S K

    2015-01-01

    Colon targeted liposomal systems (CTLS) for the delivery of bioactives have been well addressed in therapeutic manifestations of colonic ailments. Number of approaches using various drug delivery systems for colon targeting has been worked out but CTLS are first time being lime lighted in this review. Although liposomes are not supposed to be suitable for colon targeting via oral route this review explicitly provides advances of CTLS using exploitable ligands such as peptides or proteins (e.g. RGD, NGR, fibronectin mimetic peptide, and transferrin), Sialyl Lewis X (SLX), low molecular weight ligand like folate, monoclonal antibodies, endostatin gene and sulfatide etc. Moreover, it is bringing forth the diagnostic (or imaging) potential of CTLS using (188)Re, (99)mTc, and (111)In, etc. This review presents nanotechnology based advances for liposome researchers engaged in design and development of colon targeted liposomes for theranostic exploration. PMID:26321756

  13. Extracellular pH regulation in microdomains of colonic crypts: effects of short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; the major anions in the colonic lumen) generate pH gradients across the colonic epithelium. Quantitative confocal microscopy was used to study extracellular pH in mouse distal colon with intact epithelial architecture, by superfusing tissue with carboxy SNARF-1 (a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye). Results demonstrate extracellular pH regulation in two separate microdomains surrounding colonic crypts: the crypt lumen and the subepithelial tissue adjacent to crypt colonocytes. Apical superfusion with (i) a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate), (ii) an avidly metabolized SCFA (n-butyrate), or (iii) a physiologic mixture of acetate/propionate/n-butyrate produced similar results: alkalinization of the crypt lumen and acidification of subepithelial tissue. Effects were (i) dependent on the presence and orientation of a transepithelial SCFA gradient, (ii) not observed with gluconate substitution, and (iii) required activation of sustained vectorial acid/base transport by SCFAs. Results suggest that the crypt lumen functions as a pH microdomain due to slow mixing with bulk superfusates and that crypts contribute significant buffering capacity to the lumen. In conclusion, physiologic SCFA gradients cause polarized extracellular pH regulation because epithelial architecture and vectorial transport synergize to establish regulated microenvironments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7724557

  14. Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes: A Flexible Model-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Tan, Xianming; Bray, Bethany C.

    2013-01-01

    Although prediction of class membership from observed variables in latent class analysis is well understood, predicting an observed distal outcome from latent class membership is more complicated. A flexible model-based approach is proposed to empirically derive and summarize the class-dependent density functions of distal outcomes with…

  15. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13173 Reconstructing lineage hierarchies of the distal lung

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13173 Reconstructing lineage hierarchies of the distal lung epithelium The mammalian lung is a highly branched network in which the distal regions of the bronchial tree transform-mapping, the mechanisms that control the progression of lung progenitors along distinct lineages into mature alveolar cell

  16. Distal patellar tendon avulsion fracture in a football player with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Joris A; Haddad, Fares S

    2012-02-01

    Proximal patellar tendon ruptures have been described in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta, but distal avulsions from the tibial tubercle have not. This is the first case reporting a distal patellar tendon avulsion fracture in a football player with osteogenesis imperfecta and the technique of surgical repair. PMID:21717214

  17. Primary carcinoma of the distal male urethra: a case treated with lymphadenectomy and interstitial radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ticho, B.H.; Perez-Tamayo, C.; Konnak, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the distal male urethra with a single inguinal node metastasis. Treatment consisted of unilateral pelvic and inguinal lymphadenectomy, and a combined course of external beam and interstitial radiation therapy to the distal urethra and penis by the Henschke modification of the Paris technique.

  18. Distal and Proximal Vision: A Multi-Perspective Research in Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancola, Orazio; Viteritti, Assunta

    2014-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from the research conducted in Italian schools involved in the reform process, the article proposes to investigate two visions in the research on Sociology of Education: one distal and the other proximal. The distal vision is offered by quantitative research nowadays supported by extensive public funding and framed as…

  19. Unintended Rotational Changes of the Distal Tibia After Biplane Medial Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jeong Lae; Han, Seung-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 35 knees undergoing biplane medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) to assess the axial rotation of the distal tibia. The distal tibiae were internally rotated by 3.0° ± 7.1° after OWHTO. The opening width showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.743 (P < .001), and the tuberosity osteotomy angle showed that of -0.678 (P < .001) with distal tibial rotation. However, changes in hip-knee-ankle angle, medial proximal tibial angle, and posterior tibial slope were not significantly correlated with the change in distal tibial rotation. In conclusion, there was an unintended tendency of increasing internal rotation of the distal tibia after biplane medial OWHTO, and this tendency was positively related to the opening width and tuberosity osteotomy angle. PMID:26387921

  20. Microbes, Microbiota and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Cynthia L.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a considerable disease burden worldwide. The human colon is also an anatomical location with the largest number of microbes. It is natural therefore to anticipate a role for microbes, particularly bacteria, in colorectal carcinogenesis. The increasing accessibility of microbial meta’omics is fueling a surge in our understanding of the role that microbes and the microbiota play in CRC. In this review, we will discuss recent insights into contributions of the microbiota to CRC and explore conceptual frameworks for evaluating the role of microbes in cancer causation. We also highlight new findings on candidate CRC-potentiating species and current knowledge gaps. Finally, we explore the roles of microbial metabolism as it relates to bile acids, xenobiotics, and diet in the etiology and therapeutics of CRC. PMID:24629338

  1. Development of HIV-1 Rectal-Specific Microbicides and Colonic Tissue Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Russo, Julie; Wang, Lin; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Li, Jie; Friend, David R.; McGowan, Ian M.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is structurally and functionally different from the vagina. Thus, the paradigm of topical microbicide development and evaluation has evolved to include rectal microbicides (RMs). Our interest was to create unique RM formulations to safely and effectively deliver antiretroviral drugs to mucosal tissue. RMs were designed to include those that spread and coat all surfaces of the rectum and distal colon rapidly (liquid) and those that create a deformable, erodible barrier and remain localized at the administration site (gel). Tenofovir (TFV) (1%) was formulated as an aqueous thermoreversible fluid and a carbopol-based aqueous hydrogel. Lipid-based liquid and gel formulations were prepared for UC781 (0.1%) using isopropyl myristate and GTCC (Caprylic/Capric Triglycerides), respectively. Formulations were characterized for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and drug content. Pre-clinical testing incorporated ex vivo colonic tissue obtained through surgical resections and flexible sigmoidoscopy (flex sig). As this was the first time using tissue from both sources side-by-side, the ability to replicate HIV-1 was compared. Efficacy of the RM formulations was tested by applying the products with HIV-1 directly to polarized colonic tissue and following viral replication. Safety of the formulations was determined by MTT assay and histology. All products had a neutral pH and were isoosmolar. While HIV-1BaL and HIV-1JR-CSF alone and in the presence of semen had similar replication trends between surgically resected and flex sig tissues, the magnitude of viral replication was significantly better in flex sig tissues. Both TFV and UC781 formulations protected the colonic tissue, regardless of tissue source, from HIV-1 and retained tissue viability and architecture. Our in vitro and ex vivo results show successful formulation of unique RMs. Moreover, the results of flex sig and surgically resected tissues were comparable suggesting the incorporation of both in pre-clinical testing algorithms. PMID:25025306

  2. Total esophagogastrectomy plus extended lymphadenectomy with transverse colon interposition: A treatment for extensive esophagogastric junction cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ceroni, Marco; Norero, Enrique; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Viñuela, Eduardo; Briceño, Eduardo; Martínez, Cristian; Aguayo, Gloria; Araos, Fernando; González, Paulina; Díaz, Alfonso; Caracci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the post-operative morbidity and mortality of total esophagogastrectomy (TEG) with second barrier lymphadenectomy (D2) with interposition of a transverse colon and to determine the oncological outcomes of TEG D2 with interposition of a transverse colon. METHODS: This study consisted of a retrospective review of patients with a cancer diagnosis who underwent TEG between 1997 and 2013. Demographic data, surgery protocols, complications according to Clavien-Dindo classifications, final pathological reports, oncological follow-ups and causes of death were recorded. We used the TNM 2010 and Japanese classifications for nodal dissection of gastric cancer. We used descriptive statistical analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The series consisted of 21 patients (80.9% men). The median age was 60 years. The 2 main surgical indications were extensive esophagogastric junction cancers (85.7%) and double cancers (14.2%). The mean total surgery time was 405 min (352-465 min). Interposition of a transverse colon through the posterior mediastinum was used for replacement in all cases. Splenectomy was required in 13 patients (61.9%), distal pancreatectomy was required in 2 patients (9.5%) and resection of the left adrenal gland was required in 1 patient (4.7%). No residual cancer surgery was achieved in 75.1% of patients. A total of 71.4% of patients had a postoperative complication. Respiratory complications were the most frequently observed complication. Postoperative mortality was 5.8%. Median follow-up was 13.4 mo. Surgery specific survival at 5 years of follow-up was 32.8%; for patients with curative surgery, it was 39.5% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: TEG for cancer with interposition of a transverse colon is a very complex surgery, and it presents high post-operative morbidity and adequate oncological outcomes. PMID:26464757

  3. Chronic intestinal inflammation: inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Deborah C.; Shaker, Anisa; Levin, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine. The prevalence in the United States is greater than 200 cases per 100,000, with the total number of IBD patients between 1 and 1.5 million. CD may affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, but most commonly involves the distal part of the small intestine or ileum, and colon. UC results in colonic inflammation that can affect the rectum only, or can progress proximally to involve part of or the entire colon. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and weight loss. A serious long-term complication of chronic inflammation is the development of colorectal cancer. A genetic basis for IBD had long been recognized based on the increased familial risk. However, significant discordance for CD in twins, and a much less robust phenotypic concordance for UC, suggested additional factors play a role in disease pathogenesis, including environmental factors. In the past several years, progress in understanding the molecular basis of IBD has accelerated, beginning with the generation of animal models of colitis and progressing to the identification of specific genetic markers from candidate gene, gene linkage, and genome-wide association analyses. Genetic studies have also resulted in the recognition of the importance of environmental factors, particularly the crucial role of the gut microbiota in CD and UC. Altered immune responses to the normal intestinal flora are key factors in IBD pathogenesis. In this research topic, the genetic basis of IBD, the genetic and cellular alterations associated with colitis-associated colon cancer, and the emerging role of the intestinal microbiota and other environmental factors will be reviewed. PMID:22586430

  4. Fully automated colon segmentation for the computation of complete colon centerline in virtual colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Zhang, Danfeng; Li, Lei; Zhao, Jun

    2012-04-01

    Virtual colonoscopy detects polyps by navigating along a colon centerline. Complete colon segmentation based on computed tomography (CT) data is a prerequisite to the computation of complete colon centerline. There are two main problems impeding complete segmentation: overdistention/underdistention of colon and the use of oral contrast agents. Overdistention produces loops in the segmented colon, while underdistention may cause the segmented colon collapse into a series of disconnected segments. Use of oral contrast agents, which have high attenuation on CT, may add redundant structures (bones and small bowels) to the segmented colon. A fully automated colon segmentation method is proposed in this paper to address the two problems. We tested the proposed method in 170 cases, including 37 "moderate" and 133 "challenging" cases. Computer-generated centerlines were compared with human-generated centerlines (plotted by three radiologists). The proposed method achieved a 90.56% correct coverage rate with respect to the human-generated centerlines. We also compared the proposed method with two existing colon segmentation methods: Uitert's method and Nappi's method. The results of these two methods were 75.16% and 72.59% correct coverage rates, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method could yield more complete colon centerlines than the existing methods. PMID:22207637

  5. Colon flattening using heat diffusion Riemannian metric.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, Krishna Chaitanya; Shi, Rui; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Kaufman, Arie

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new colon flattening algorithm that is efficient, shape-preserving, and robust to topological noise. Unlike previous approaches, which require a mandatory topological denoising to remove fake handles, our algorithm directly flattens the colon surface without any denoising. In our method, we replace the original Euclidean metric of the colon surface with a heat diffusion metric that is insensitive to topological noise. Using this heat diffusion metric, we then solve a Laplacian equation followed by an integration step to compute the final flattening. We demonstrate that our method is shape-preserving and the shape of the polyps are well preserved. The flattened colon also provides an efficient way to enhance the navigation and inspection in virtual colonoscopy. We further show how the existing colon registration pipeline is made more robust by using our colon flattening. We have tested our method on several colon wall surfaces and the experimental results demonstrate the robustness and the efficiency of our method. PMID:24051852

  6. Polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sinha, V R; Kumria, R

    2001-08-14

    Natural polysaccharides are now extensively used for the development of solid dosage forms for delivery of drug to the colon. The rationale for the development of a polysaccharide based delivery system for colon is the presence of large amounts of polysaccharidases in the human colon as the colon is inhabited by a large number and variety of bacteria which secrete many enzymes e.g. beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, beta-D-xylosidase, dextranase, etc. Various major approaches utilizing polysaccharides for colon-specific delivery are fermentable coating of the drug core, embedding of the drug in biodegradable matrix, formulation of drug-saccharide conjugate (prodrugs). A large number of polysaccharides have already been studied for their potential as colon-specific drug carrier systems, such as chitosan, pectin, chondroitin sulphate, cyclodextrin, dextrans, guar gum, inulin, amylose and locust bean gum. Recent efforts and approaches exploiting these polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery are discussed. PMID:11472812

  7. Bacterial Colonization of Particles: Growth and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Tang, Kam; Ploug, Helle

    2003-01-01

    Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present study, we have investigated how this colonization process was further affected by growth and interspecific interactions among the bacteria. Long-term incubation experiments showed that growth dominated over attachment and detachment after a few hours in controlling the bacterial population density on agar particles. In the absence of grazing mortality, this growth led to an equilibrium population density consistent with the theoretical limit due to oxygen diffusion. Interspecific interaction experiments showed that the presence of some bacterial strains (“residents”) on the agar particles either increased or decreased the colonization rate of other strains (“newcomers”). Comparison between an antibiotic-producing strain and its antibiotic-free mutant showed no inhibitory effect on the newcomers due to antibiotic production. On the contrary, hydrolytic activity of the antibiotic-producing strain appeared to benefit the newcomers and enhance their colonization rate. These results show that growth- and species-specific interactions have to be taken into account to adequately describe bacterial colonization of marine particles. Changes in colonization pattern due to such small-scale processes may have profound effects on the transformation and fluxes of particulate matter in the ocean. PMID:12788756

  8. Internal fixators: a safe option for managing distal femur fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Bruno Bellaguarda; Salim, Rodrigo; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety and reliability of internal fixator for the treatment of intra-articular and periarticular distal femur fractures. METHODS: Retrospective data evaluation of 28 patients with 29 fractures fixed with internal fixator was performed. There was a predominance of male patients (53.5%), with 52% of open wound fractures, 76% of AO33C type fractures, and a mean follow up of 21.3 months. Time of fracture healing, mechanical axis deviation, rate of infection and postoperative complications were registered. RESULTS: Healing rate was 93% in this sample, with an average time of 5.5 months. Twenty-seven percent of patients ended up with mechanical axis deviation, mostly resulting from poor primary intra-operative reduction. There were two cases of implant loosening; two implant breakage, and three patients presented stiff knee. No case of infection was observed. Healing rate in this study was comparable with current literature; there was a high degree of angular deviation, especially in the coronal plane. CONCLUSION: Internal fixators are a breakthrough in the treatment of knee fractures, but its use does not preclude application of principles of anatomical articular reduction and mechanical axis restoration. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:25061424

  9. Biomechanical study of different plate configurations for distal humerus osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bogataj, M; Kosel, F; Norris, R; Krkovic, M; Brojan, M

    2015-05-01

    Fractures of the distal humerus are most commonly fixed by open reduction and internal fixation, using plates and screws, either in a locking or in a non-locking construct. Three different plating systems are commonly used in practice. The most important differences between them are in plate orientation, which affects both the rigidity of the osteosynthesis and invasiveness of the surgical procedure. Unfortunately, there is no common agreement between surgeons about which plate configuration brings the best clinical outcome. In this study, we investigate the theoretical rigidity of plate osteosyntheses considering two types of AO/ASIF configurations (90° angle between plates), Mayo clinic (Acumed) configuration (180° between plates) and dorsal fixation of both plates. We also compared the results for cases with and without contact between the bone fragments. In the case of no bone contact, the Mayo clinic plate configuration is found to be the most rigid, followed by both AO/ASIF plate configurations, and the least rigid system is the Korosec plate configuration. On the other hand, no significant differences between all types of fixation configurations are found in cases with contact in-between the bone fragments. Our findings show that this contact is very important and can compensate for the lack of load carrying capacity of the implants. This could therefore incite other implant fixation solutions, leading to less invasive surgical procedures and consequently improved clinical outcome. PMID:25663513

  10. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Mikata, Rintaro; Yasui, Shin; Watanabe, Yuto; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Senoo, Jun-ichi; Kusakabe, Yuko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed using the keywords “PBD”, “pancreaticoduodenectomy”, and “obstructive jaundice”. Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention. PMID:26328029

  11. Coronal shear fractures of distal humerus: Diagnostic and treatment protocols

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay Pal; Singh, Arun Pal

    2015-01-01

    Coronal shear fractures of distal humerus involving the capitellum and the trochlea are rare injuries with articular complexity, and are technically challenging for management. With better understanding of the anatomy and imaging advancements, the complex nature of these fractures is well appreciated now. These fractures involve metaphysealcomminution of lateral column and associated intraarticular injuries are common. Previously, closed reduction and excision were the accepted treatment but now preference is for open reduction and internal fixation with an aim to provide stable and congruent joint with early range of motion of joint. Various approaches including extensile lateral, anterolateral and posterior approaches have been described depending on the fracture pattern and complexity. Good to excellent outcome have been reported with internal fixations and poor results are noted in articular comminution with associated articular injuries. Various implants including headleass compression screws, minifragment screws, bioabsorbable implants and column plating are advocated for reconstruction of these complex fractures. Inspite of articular fragments being free of soft tissue attachments the rate of osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis is reported very less after internal fixation. This article summarizes the diagnostic and treatment strategies for these rare fractures and recommendations for management. PMID:26716083

  12. Distal renal tubular acidosis with multiorgan autoimmunity: a case report.

    PubMed

    van den Wildenberg, Maria J; Hoorn, Ewout J; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Wagner, Carsten A; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; de Vries, Peter A M; Laverman, Gozewijn D

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman with a history of pernicious anemia presented with progressive muscle weakness and dysarthria. Hypokalemic paralysis (serum potassium, 1.4 mEq/L) due to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was diagnosed. After excluding several possible causes, dRTA was considered autoimmune. However, the patient did not meet criteria for any of the autoimmune disorders classically associated with dRTA. She had very high antibody titers against parietal cells, intrinsic factor, and thyroid peroxidase (despite normal thyroid function). The patient consented to a kidney biopsy, and acid-base transporters, anion exchanger type 1 (AE1), and pendrin were undetectable by immunofluorescence. Indirect immunofluorescence detected diminished abundance of AE1- and pendrin-expressing intercalated cells in the kidney, as well as staining by the patient's serum of normal human intercalated cells and parietal cells expressing the adenosine triphosphatase hydrogen/potassium pump (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase) in normal human gastric mucosa. The dRTA likely is caused by circulating autoantibodies against intercalated cells, with possible cross-reactivity against structures containing gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. This case demonstrates that in patients with dRTA without a classic autoimmune disorder, autoimmunity may still be the underlying cause. The mechanisms involved in autoantibody development and how dRTA can be caused by highly specific autoantibodies against intercalated cells have yet to be determined. PMID:25533600

  13. Management of distal tibial medial malleolus type-6 physeal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, F. Stig

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Type 6 is an open fracture in which part of the physis is missing. It is the least common physeal fracture, but has the highest rate of complications, particularly the formation of a physeal bar. Without preemptive treatment, a physeal bar always forms, producing growth retardation and angular deformity, and excision of these physeal bars has been uniformly unsuccessful. The distal medial malleolus is a common site for the fracture. Methods Strategies for the treatment of two varieties of acute medial malleolar type-6 fractures and two types of late deformities following type-6 fracture are given. The acute fractures were treated with either fat or cartilage applied to the exposed physis. The late deformities were treated with corrective iliac bone grafting. Results The acute fractures were prevented from forming physeal bars and the two late deformities were fully corrected with good outcomes. Conclusion Fat applied to an acute type-6 physeal fracture has a good chance of preventing bar formation. Ankle deformities due to bars can be corrected by means of iliac bone grafting. PMID:19308594

  14. Myocardial Perfusion: Characteristics of Distal Intramyocardial Arteriolar Trees.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Mair; Vercnocke, Andrew J; Edwards, Phillip K; Anderson, Jill L; Jorgensen, Steven M; Ritman, Erik L

    2015-11-01

    A combination of experimental, theoretical, and imaging methodologies is used to examine the hierarchical structure and function of intramyocardial arteriolar trees in porcine hearts to provide a window onto a region of myocardial microvasculature which has been difficult to fully explore so far. A total of 66 microvascular trees from 6 isolated myocardial specimens were analyzed, with a cumulative number of 2438 arteriolar branches greater than or equal to 40 ?m lumen diameter. The distribution of flow rates within each tree was derived from an assumed power law relationship for that tree between the diameter of vessel segments and flow rates that are consistent with that power law and subject to conservation of mass along hierarchical structure of the tree. The results indicate that the power law index increases at levels of arteriolar vasculature closer to the capillary level, consistent with a concomitant decrease in shear stress acting on endothelial tissue. These results resolve a long standing predicament which could not be resolved previously because of lack of data about the 3D, interconnected, arterioles. In the context of myocardial perfusion, the results indicate that the coefficient of variation of flow rate in pre-capillary distal arterioles is high, suggesting that heterogeneity of flow rate in these arterioles is not entirely random but may be due at least in part to active control. PMID:25952363

  15. Colon transit time according to physical activity and characteristics in South Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Jo, Yun Ju; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Jung Woo; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate factors contributing to the colon transit time (CTT), physical activity and characteristics were examined. METHODS: Forty-seven Korean adults (males, n = 23; females, n = 24) took a capsule containing 20 radio-opaque markers to measure the CTT. The subjects used an accelerometer to measure the physical activity and underwent a bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine the physical characteristics. Macro-nutrient was also surveyed. RESULTS: The mean total CTTs (TCTT) in the males and females were 8.8 and 24.7 h (P = 0.002), respectively. In the male subjects, the right CTT (3.5 ± 4.9 h vs 10.0 ± 11.6 h, P = 0.023) and recto-sigmoid CTT (4.4 ± 4.7 vs 13.6 ± 12.5 h, P = 0.004) were significantly shorter and the total energy expenditure (637.6 ± 44.3 kcal vs 464.3 ± 64.9 kcal, P = 0.003), total activity count (247?017 ± 75?022 count vs 178?014 ± 75?998 count, P = 0.003), energy expenditure of light intensity (148.5 ± 6.9 kcal vs 120.0 ± 16.8 kcal, P = 0.006), energy expenditure of moderate intensity (472.0 ± 36.2 kcal vs 281.4 ± 22.2 kcal, P < 0.001), fat intake (65.5 ± 23.3 g vs 51.2 ± 17.4 g, P = 0.010), and water consumption (1714.3 ± 329.4 g vs 1164.7 ± 263.6 g, P = 0.009) were significantly higher than in the female subjects. Regarding correlations, when adjusted for gender, fiber (r = -0.545, P < 0.001) and water intake (r = -0.257, P < 0.05) correlated significantly with the TCTT in all subjects. In addition, the body mass index (r = -0.424, P < 0.05) and fiber intake (r = -0.417, P < 0.05) in the males as well as the fiber intake (r = -0.655, P < 0.001) in the females showed significant correlations with the TCTT. CONCLUSION: The subjects showed significant gender differences in the TCTT, right CTT, and recto-sigmoid CTT. Furthermore, the intake of the fiber and water contributed to the CTT. PMID:23382635

  16. Hyperspectral Colon Biopsy Classification into Normal and Malignant Categories

    E-print Network

    Rajpoot, Nasir

    for colon and rectal cancer) is the most common cause of death for cancers in the Western world and cure of colon cancer can be improved by efficiently clas- sifying the colon tissue cells from biopsy slides into normal and malignant classes. This report presents the classification of hyperspectral colon

  17. Clinical utility of colonic manometry in slow transit constipation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Heady, Sarah; Coss-Adame, Enrique; Rao, Satish S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The clinical significance of colorectal sensori-motor evaluation in patients with slow transit constipation (STC) is unclear. We investigated whether colonic manometric evaluation is useful for characterizing colonic sensorimotor dysfunction and for guiding therapy in STC. Methods 24-hour ambulatory colonic manometry was performed in 80 patients (70 females) with STC by placing a 6 sensor solid state probe, along with assessment of colonic sensation with barostat. Anorectal manometry was also performed. Manometrically, patients were categorized as having colonic neuropathy or myopathy based on gastrocolonic response, waking response and high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC); and based on colonic sensation, as colonic hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity. Clinical response to pharmacological, biofeedback and surgical treatment was assessed at 1yr and correlated with manometric findings. Results 59% of patients had abnormal colonic manometry with features suggestive of neuropathy (26%), and myopathy (33%); 41% had normal colonic manometry. 74% patients had abnormal colonic sensation and 61% had overlapping dyssynergic defecation. Patients with neuropathy were more likely to have colonic hyposensitivity. 64% of patients with colonic myopathy or normal manometry improved with medical/biofeedback therapy when compared to 15% with colonic neuropathy (p<0.01). Selected patients with colonic neuropathy had excellent response to surgery, but many developed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusions Colonic manometry demonstrates significant colonic sensori-motor dysfunction in STC patients and reveals considerable pathophysiological heterogeneity. It can be useful for characterizing the underlying pathophysiology and for guiding clinical management in STC, especially surgery. PMID:23384415

  18. Dynamics and function of distal regulatory elements during neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Garding, Angela; Tiwari, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulation in mammals involves a complex interplay between promoters and distal regulatory elements that function in concert to drive precise spatiotemporal gene expression programs. However, the dynamics of the distal gene regulatory landscape and its function in the transcriptional reprogramming that underlies neurogenesis and neuronal activity remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a combinatorial analysis of genome-wide data sets for chromatin accessibility (FAIRE-seq) and the enhancer mark H3K27ac, revealing the highly dynamic nature of distal gene regulation during neurogenesis, which gets progressively restricted to distinct genomic regions as neurons acquire a post-mitotic, terminally differentiated state. We further find that the distal accessible and active regions serve as target sites for distinct transcription factors that function in a stage-specific manner to contribute to the transcriptional program underlying neuronal commitment and maturation. Mature neurons respond to a sustained activity of NMDA receptors by epigenetic reprogramming at a large number of distal regulatory regions as well as dramatic reorganization of super-enhancers. Such massive remodeling of the distal regulatory landscape in turn results in a transcriptome that confers a transient loss of neuronal identity and gain of cellular plasticity. Furthermore, NMDA receptor activity also induces many novel prosurvival genes that function in neuroprotective pathways. Taken together, these findings reveal the dynamics of the distal regulatory landscape during neurogenesis and uncover novel regulatory elements that function in concert with epigenetic mechanisms and transcription factors to generate the transcriptome underlying neuronal development and activity. PMID:26170447

  19. CT virtual reality in the preoperative workup of malunited distal radius fractures: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Michael; Gabl, Markus; Gruber, Hannes; Jaschke, Werner R; Mallouhi, Ammar

    2005-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of CT virtual preoperative planning in the surgical repositioning of malunited distal radius fracture. Eleven patients with malunited distal radius fracture underwent multislice CT of both wrists. A preoperative workup was performed in a virtual reality environment created from the CT data sets. Virtual planning comprised three main procedures, carrying out the virtual osteotomy of the radius, prediction of the final position of the distal radius after osteotomy and computer-assisted manufacturing of a repositioning device, which was later placed at the surgical osteotomy site to reposition objectively the distal radius fragment before fixation with the osteosynthesis. All patients tolerated the surgical procedure well. During surgery, the orthopedic surgeons were not required in any of the cases to alter the position of the distal radius that was determined by the repositioning device. At postoperative follow-up, the anatomic relationship of the distal radius was restored (radial inclination, 21.4 degrees ; volar tilt, 10.3 degrees ; ulnar variance, 0.5 mm). Clinically, a significant improvement of pronation (P=0.012), supination (P=0.01), flexion (P=0.001) and extension (P=0.006) was achieved. Pain decreased from 54 to 7 points. CT virtual reality is a valuable adjunct for the preoperative workup and surgical reposition of malunited distal radius fractures. PMID:15146292

  20. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  1. Colon PillCam: why not just take a pill?

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Rami; Adler, Samuel N

    2015-03-01

    This review article deals with the clinical value of capsule endoscopy for visualization of the colon. Since its introduction in 2006, the colon capsule endoscopy underwent major technological improvements. The improved performance of colon capsule endoscopy is reviewed based on three multicenter prospective studies. Screening patients for colonic adenomatous polyps is reasonable in patients who are unwilling to undergo conventional colonoscopy. Another prospective study proved that colon capsule endoscopy is effective in incomplete colonoscopy. Colon capsule endoscopy was shown to be superior to virtual colonography in the evaluation of patients with incomplete colonoscopy. Further improvements are expected in colon capsule endoscopy. PMID:25586090

  2. Empty colon: a pitfall in the assessment of colonic transit time.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Kneepkens, C M Frank

    2011-12-01

    We report a misleading outcome of colonic transit time (CTT) assessment in an adolescent girl with functional constipation. We found prolonged total and right segmental CTT despite high doses of oral polyethylene glycol 4000 and repeated treatment with polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (Klean-Prep®) by nasogastric tube. A colonoscopy aiming at disimpaction of a possible faecal mass revealed an empty colon with dozens of radio-opaque markers adhered to the colonic wall. This report shows that the result of a CTT cannot be accepted blindly. Especially the clustering of many markers within narrow margins might point at entrapment of markers in mucus against the colonic wall. PMID:21968909

  3. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  4. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  5. Polyps of the Colon and Rectum

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lining directly (colonoscopy) or by x-ray study (barium enema). There are three types of colorectal endoscopy: ( ... colon can also be indirectly examined using the barium enema x-ray technique. This examination uses a ...

  6. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  7. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  8. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  9. MP/H Rules Presentation - Colon

    Cancer.gov

    1 Colon 2 Equivalent Terms, Definitions, and Illustrations • 98% adenocarcinoma – 10-15% produce enough mucin to be mucinous 3 Equivalent Terms, Definitions, and Illustrations • Mixed histologies – Mucinous/colloid – Signet ring – Others are rare 4 Equivalent

  10. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  11. Giant colonic diverticulum: radiographic and MDCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Mahamid, Ahmad; Nachtigal, Alicia; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Shapira-Rootman, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare entity that is generally a manifestation of colonic diverticular disease. Because of its rarity and its variable and non-specific presentation, the diagnosis of GCD depends mainly on imaging findings. Knowledge of the spectrum of radiographic and CT features of the GCD is important in making the correct diagnosis and potentially preventing complications. This review focuses on imaging findings characteristic of GCD as well as its complications and radiographic mimics. Teaching points • Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare complication of diverticulosis.• The most common symptom is abdominal pain presenting in approximately 70 % of patients.• Diagnosis is based on imaging findings with plain abdominal radiographs and MDCT.• Treatment consists of en bloc resection of the diverticulum and affected adjacent colon. PMID:26385691

  12. UTILIZATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY COLONIC BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain oligosaccharides have been used as prebiotic dietary supplements to selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial colonic bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. In this study, 13 bacterial species were screened for growth on 3 oligosaccharide preparations synthesized from altern...

  13. Electronic Colon Cleansing by Colonic Material Tagging and Image Segmentation for Polyp Detection: Detection Model and Method Evaluation1

    E-print Network

    Electronic Colon Cleansing by Colonic Material Tagging and Image Segmentation for Polyp Detection first. A critical step to obtain a cleansed colonic lumen relies on bowel preparation. We have been developing an electronic colon-cleansing technology which minimizes the difficulties associated

  14. Lunar Colonization and NASA's Exploration Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2006-01-01

    Space colonization is not part of NASA's mission planning. NASA's exploration vision, mission goals and program implementations, however, can have an important affect on private lunar programs leading towards colonization. NASA's exploration program has been described as a journey not a race. It is not like the Apollo mission having tight schedules and relatively unchanging direction. NASA of this era has competing demands from the areas of aeronautics, space science, earth science, space operations and, there are competing demands within the exploration program itself. Under the journey not a race conditions, an entrepreneur thinking about building a hotel on the Moon, with a road to an exploration site, might have difficulty determining where and when NASA might be at a particular place on the Moon. Lunar colonization advocates cannot depend on NASA or other nations with space programs to lead the way to colonization. They must set their own visions, mission goals and schedules. In implementing their colonization programs they will be resource limited. They would be like ``hitchhikers'' following the programs of spacefaring nations identifying programs that might have a fit with their vision and be ready to switch to other programs that may take them in the colonization direction. At times they will have to muster their own limited resources and do things themselves where necessary. The purpose of this paper is to examine current changes within NASA, as a lunar colonization advocate might do, in order to see where there might be areas for fitting into a lunar colonization strategy. The approach will help understand how the ``hitchhiking'' technique might be better utilized.

  15. Use of High-Speed X ray and Video to Analyze Distal Radius Fracture Pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina; Darvish, Kurosh; Liss, Frederic E; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the failure sequence of the distal radius during a simulated fall onto an outstretched hand using cadaver forearms and high-speed X ray and video systems. This apparatus records the beginning and propagation of bony failure, ultimately resulting in distal radius or forearm fracture. The effects of 3 different wrist guard designs are investigated using this system. Serving as a proof-of-concept analysis, this study supports this imaging technique to be used in larger studies of orthopedic trauma and protective devices and specifically for distal radius fractures. PMID:26410645

  16. Upper molar distalization on palatal miniscrews: an easy to manage palatal appliance.

    PubMed

    Huanca Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas; Piepoli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    Upper molar distalization supported by miniscrews has become increasingly popular in the last years. A detailed clinical and lab procedure for the realization of a distalization appliance (fast back or distal jet) connected to miniscrews inserted in the anterior region of the palate is presented. A case report illustrates the use of a fast back appliance supported by miniscrews to correct the mesial shift of the molars and of the premolars as a consequence of an early loss of the maxillary deciduous canines. PMID:22583590

  17. On the Relationship Between Proximal and Distal Stimuli and an Example of Its Significance to Physics

    E-print Network

    D. M. Snyder

    2001-10-12

    The difference between proximal and distal stimuli is discussed and an example of the significance of this difference to physics is pointed out in the area of quantum teleportation. In particular, experimental evidence concerning the relative status of the distal stimulus to the observer points toward the relative nature of spatial orientation of objects. In quantum teleportation, this result indicates that the amount of classical information that needs to be transmitted to support the quantum transfer of information may be greater than is expected when the distal stimulus is assumed, as it ordinarily is, to have an absolute orientation in relation to the observer.

  18. National trends in resection of the distal pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Bowers, Steven P; Goldberg, Ross F; Clarke, Tatyan M; Buchanan, Mauricia A; Stauffer, John A; Asbun, Horacio J

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate national trends in distal pancreatectomy (DP) through query of three national patient care databases. METHODS: From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2003-2009), the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP, 2005-2010), and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER, 2003-2009) databases using appropriate diagnostic and procedural codes we identified all patients with a diagnosis of a benign or malignant lesion of the body and/or tail of the pancreas that had undergone a partial or distal pancreatectomy. Utilization of laparoscopy was defined in NIS by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision correspondent procedure code; and in NSQIP by the exploratory laparoscopy or unlisted procedure current procedural terminology codes. In SEER, patients were identified by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition diagnosis codes and the SEER Program Code Manual, third edition procedure codes. We analyzed the databases with respect to trends of inpatient outcome metrics, oncologic outcomes, and hospital volumes in patients with lesions of the neck and body of the pancreas that underwent operative resection. RESULTS: NIS, NSQIP and SEER identified 4242, 2681 and 11??082 DP resections, respectively. Overall, laparoscopy was utilized in 15% (NIS) and 27% (NSQIP). No significant increase was seen over the course of the study. Resection was performed for malignancy in 59% (NIS) and 66% (NSQIP). Neither patient Body mass index nor comorbidities were associated with operative approach (P = 0.95 and P = 0.96, respectively). Mortality (3% vs 2%, P = 0.05) and reoperation (4% vs 4%, P = 1.0) was not different between laparoscopy and open groups. Overall complications (10% vs 15%, P < 0.001), hospital costs [44??741 dollars, interquartile range (IQR) 28 347-74 114 dollars vs 49 792 dollars, IQR 13 299-73 463, P = 0.02] and hospital length of stay (7 d, IQR 4-11 d vs 7 d, IQR 6-10, P < 0.001) were less when laparoscopy was utilized. One and two year survival after resection for malignancy were unchanged over the course of the study (ductal adenocarinoma 1-year 63.6% and 2-year 35.1%, P = 0.53; intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and nueroendocrine 1-year 90% and 2-year 84%, P = 0.25). The majority of resections were performed in teaching hospitals (77% NIS and 85% NSQIP), but minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was not more likely to be used in teaching hospitals (15% vs 14%, P = 0.26). Hospitals in the top decile for volume were more likely to be teaching hospitals than lower volume deciles (88% vs 43%, P < 0.001), but were no more likely to utilize MIS at resection. Complication rate in teaching and the top decile hospitals was not significantly decreased when compared to non-teaching (15% vs 14%, P = 0.72) and lower volume hospitals (14% vs 15%, P = 0.99). No difference was seen in the median number of lymph nodes and lymph node ratio in N1 disease when compared by year (P = 0.17 and P = 0.96, respectively). CONCLUSION: There appears to be an overall underutilization of laparoscopy for DP. Centralization does not appear to be occurring. Survival and lymph node harvest have not changed. PMID:22969197

  19. Beyond Race and Place: Distal Sociological Determinants of HIV Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Buot, Max-Louis G.; Bittner, Matthew J.; Burlew, Jacob T.; Nuritdinov, Aziz R.; Robbins, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM)). Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws). HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration). Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma) have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond. PMID:24743728

  20. Locking versus nonlocking palmar plate fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Mittler, Christoph; Zinnecker, Richard; Westreicher, Christoph; Allhoff, Clemens; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2012-11-01

    This study compared functional and radiological outcomes after treatment of extension-type distal radius fractures with conventional titanium nonlocking T-plates or titanium 1.5-mm locking plates. A total of 60 patients were included and followed for 4 to 7 years after receiving nonlocking T-plates (group A; n=30) or locking plates (group B; n=30) with and without dorsal bone grafting. Bone grafting was significantly more often performed in the nonlocking group to increase dorsal fracture fixation and stability (P<.003). Pre- and postoperative and follow-up values for palmar tilt, radial inclination, radial shortening, and ulnar variance were recorded. Age, sex, and fracture type were similarly distributed between the 2 groups. Postoperative and follow-up evaluation revealed equal allocation of intra-articular step formation and osteoarthritic changes to both groups. The overall complication rate was 25%. Compared with the nonlocking system, patients undergoing locking plate fixation presented with statistically significantly better values for postoperative palmar tilt (5.53° vs 8.15°; P<.02) and radial inclination (22.13° vs 25.03°; P<.02). However, forearm pronation was significantly better in group A (P<.005). At follow-up, radial inclination tended to approach a statistically significant difference in favor of group B. All clinical assessment, including Mayo wrist score, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, Green and O'Brien score, Gartland and Werley score, visual analog scale score, and grip strength, yielded no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Locking plates seem to provide benefits regarding surgical technique and comfort, improvement in implant anchorage (especially in osteoporotic bone), and reduce the necessity of additional bone grafting. PMID:23127452

  1. Beyond race and place: distal sociological determinants of HIV disparities.

    PubMed

    Buot, Max-Louis G; Docena, Jeffrey P; Ratemo, Brenda K; Bittner, Matthew J; Burlew, Jacob T; Nuritdinov, Aziz R; Robbins, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM)). Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws). HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration). Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma) have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond. PMID:24743728

  2. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  3. A Noble, Easy and Conceptual Radiographic Analysis to Assess the Type of Tooth Movement (Molar Distalization)

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anaveri Thimmappa; Deepthi; Naik, Atri

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim Bodily tooth movement is desirable in the field of Orthodontics and so is with molar distalization. Till date there is no such analysis available which could gauge and quantify the molar distalization and the type of tooth movement achieved, therefore one was required. Materials and Methods An OPG and Lateral cephalogram was used taking Inter orbitale plane and FH plane respectively as reference lines and the analysis was devised to measure the amount and type of tooth movement achieved in distalization of molar. Conclusion This analysis is a noble, easy and conceptual analysis to assess the type of tooth movement achieved during molar distalization and other molar movements using Lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram. PMID:26436040

  4. An in vivo study of the effect of distal femoral resection on passive knee extension.

    PubMed

    Smith, Conrad K; Chen, Justin A; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2010-10-01

    A previous study showed that 1 mm of distal femoral resection restored knee extension 4.5°. We determined the relationship with a more accurate measurement technique. Twenty-six subjects treated with total knee arthroplasty were studied. Digital photographs of the extended knee with and without 1.5 and 3.0 mm thick augments placed between the femoral component and distal femur were analyzed, and knee extension was measured. One millimeter of distal femoral resection restored 1.8° of extension that is less correction than the previous study reported. Because an attempt to correct a 10° extension deficit by resecting the distal femur could require 5 mm or more of bone removal that moves the joint line too proximal, we recommend exploring other techniques before resecting the femur. PMID:19643566

  5. Characterization of a pre-curved needle for use in distal tip manipulation mechanism

    E-print Network

    Franklin, Jeremy Contini

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge and technical expertise required for the development of telerobotic systems capable of needle distal tip manipulation is the focus of this thesis. An extensive prior literature review was conducted to examine ...

  6. Distal ureteral atresia with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a female child: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuiqing; Xu, Ran; Zhu, Xuan; Zhao, Xiaokun

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a distal ureteral atresia along with ureteropelvic junction obstruction which occurred in a 19-month-old female child. It is easily to be misdiagnosed as mere ureteropelvic junction obstruction and omitted the combined diagnosis of distal ureteral atresia. Dismembered pyeloplasty was done in local hospital after admission, however with the result of recurrent fever when clamp the left nephrostomy tube and Antegrade urography demonstrated distal ureteral atresia. After two months, boari flap reconstruction was performed for the patient in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, and the child had good rehabilitation in the end. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on distal ureteral atresia associated with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. PMID:25785157

  7. Acute Multiple Flexor Tendon Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome After Open Distal Radius Fracture.

    PubMed

    Erickson, John; Culp, Brian; Kayiaros, Stephen; Monica, James

    2015-11-01

    Although the rupture of extensor tendons after distal radius fractures is well described, acute flexor tendon ruptures are much less common. We report a case of acute rupture of the flexor pollicis longus and flexor carpi radialis tendons with acute carpal tunnel syndrome after a Gustilo-Anderson type II open distal radius fracture. We reviewed the literature to identify risk factors for tendon rupture and the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:26566562

  8. [Pathomorphology of the wrist joint in malunion of the distal radius after osseous fracture healing].

    PubMed

    Bade, H

    1991-01-01

    Morphological changes subsequent to malunion of distal radius fractures involve altered bone density along articular surfaces and wrist ligaments. The inclination of articular surfaces of the scaphoid and lunate in frontal and sagittal planes frequently leads to a dorsal dislocation of the distal fracture fragment. X-ray densitometry of subchondral mineralization shows zones of higher density along the palmar articular border, resulting from excentric load transmission. Typical morphological changes involving wrist ligaments are demonstrated and analyzed. PMID:2032632

  9. Duplication of distal 17q from a maternal translocation: an additional case with some unique features.

    PubMed

    Caine, A; Knapton, D M; Mueller, R F; Congdon, P J; Haigh, D

    1989-09-01

    A female with multiple dysmorphic features was found to have an unbalanced karyotype with duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 17 and deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 12. This was derived from a reciprocal translocation in the mother, 46,XX,t(12;17)(p13.3;q23). Clinical findings are presented and comparison with other reported cases of distal 17q duplication shows several unique features in our case. PMID:2810342

  10. Insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia misdiagnosed as cellulitis in three patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Straaton, K.V.; Lopez-Mendez, A.; Alarcon, G.S. )

    1991-07-01

    We describe 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with diffuse pain, swelling, and erythema of the distal aspect of the lower extremity, suggestive of either cellulitis or thrombophlebitis, but were found to have insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia. The value of technetium-99m diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in the early recognition of these fractures and a possible explanation for the associated inflammatory symptoms are discussed.

  11. The composition of the gut microbiota shapes the colon mucus barrier

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M; Schütte, André; Ermund, Anna; Boysen, Preben; Bemark, Mats; Sommer, Felix; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Hansson, Gunnar C; Johansson, Malin EV

    2015-01-01

    Two C57BL/6 mice colonies maintained in two rooms of the same specific pathogen-free (SPF) facility were found to have different gut microbiota and a mucus phenotype that was specific for each colony. The thickness and growth of the colon mucus were similar in the two colonies. However, one colony had mucus that was impenetrable to bacteria or beads the size of bacteria—which is comparable to what we observed in free-living wild mice—whereas the other colony had an inner mucus layer penetrable to bacteria and beads. The different properties of the mucus depended on the microbiota, as they were transmissible by transfer of caecal microbiota to germ-free mice. Mice with an impenetrable mucus layer had increased amounts of Erysipelotrichi, whereas mice with a penetrable mucus layer had higher levels of Proteobacteria and TM7 bacteria in the distal colon mucus. Thus, our study shows that bacteria and their community structure affect mucus barrier properties in ways that can have implications for health and disease. It also highlights that genetically identical animals housed in the same facility can have rather distinct microbiotas and barrier structures. PMID:25525071

  12. ( sup 3 H)QNB binding and contraction of rabbit colonic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, M.J.; Hyman, P.E.; Kao, H.W.; Hsu, C.T.; Tomomasa, T.; Snape, W.J. Jr. )

    1987-11-01

    The authors used radioligand binding and studies of cell contraction to characterize muscarinic receptors on dispersed smooth muscle cells from rabbit proximal and distal colon. Cells obtained after serial incubations in collagenase were used to measure binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB). At 37{degree}C, specific ({sup 3}H)QNB binding was saturable and linearly related to cell number. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the affinity of ({sup 3}H)QNB for its receptor. The IC{sub 50} for the muscarinic agonists bethanechol and oxotremorine were 80 and 0.57 {mu}M, respectively. Hill coefficients were 0.67 for both, suggesting more complex interaction involving receptors of different affinities. In studies of cell contraction, bethanechol stimulated a dose-dependent decrease in cell length with half the maximal contraction occurring at 100 pM. These results suggest that (1) contraction is mediated by binding of bethanechol to M{sub 2}-muscarinic receptors and that (2) there are a large number of spare receptors in colonic smooth muscle.

  13. A Pitfall in Fixation of Distal Humeral Fractures with Pre-Contoured Locking Compression Plate

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Anatomically precontoured locking plates are intended to facilitate the fixation of articular fractures and particularly those associated with osteoporosis. Fractures of the distal humerus are relatively uncommon injuries where operative intervention can be exceptionally challenging. The distal humeral trochlea provides a very narrow anatomical window through which to pass a fixed-angle locking screw, which must also avoid the olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae. We describe 3 patients (ages 27, 49, and 73 years) with a bicolumnar fracture of the distal humerus where very short distal locking screws were used. Intra-articular screw placement was avoided but loss of fixation occurred in two patients and a third was treated with a prolonged period of immobilization. We postulate that fixed-angle screw trajectories may make it difficult for the surgeon to place screws of adequate length in this anatomically confined region, and may lead to insufficient distal fixation. Surgical tactics should include placement of as many screws as possible into the distal fragment, as long as possible and that each screw passes through a plate without necessarily locking in. PMID:26110181

  14. A Pitfall in Fixation of Distal Humeral Fractures with Pre-Contoured Locking Compression Plate.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Ring, David

    2015-04-01

    Anatomically precontoured locking plates are intended to facilitate the fixation of articular fractures and particularly those associated with osteoporosis. Fractures of the distal humerus are relatively uncommon injuries where operative intervention can be exceptionally challenging. The distal humeral trochlea provides a very narrow anatomical window through which to pass a fixed-angle locking screw, which must also avoid the olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae. We describe 3 patients (ages 27, 49, and 73 years) with a bicolumnar fracture of the distal humerus where very short distal locking screws were used. Intra-articular screw placement was avoided but loss of fixation occurred in two patients and a third was treated with a prolonged period of immobilization. We postulate that fixed-angle screw trajectories may make it difficult for the surgeon to place screws of adequate length in this anatomically confined region, and may lead to insufficient distal fixation. Surgical tactics should include placement of as many screws as possible into the distal fragment, as long as possible and that each screw passes through a plate without necessarily locking in. PMID:26110181

  15. Specification of neuroblast identity in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system by gooseberry-distal.

    PubMed

    Skeath, J B; Zhang, Y; Holmgren, R; Carroll, S B; Doe, C Q

    1995-08-01

    The Drosophila central nervous system develops from a segmentally reiterated array of 30 unique neural precursors, called neuroblasts. Each neuroblast goes through a stereotyped cell lineage to produce an invariant clone of neural progeny. It is critical to identify the genes that specify neuroblast identity as these genes control the time of formation, gene expression profile, and cell lineage characteristics of each neuroblast. Here we show that the Pax-type gooseberry-distal gene specifies row 5 neuroblast identity. Initially, four rows of neuroblasts form per segment (1, 3, 5, 7) and gooseberry-distal is expressed in row 5 neuroblasts. By using 10 molecular markers, and by following the number and orientation of neuroblast divisions, we show that lack of gooseberry-distal transforms row 5 neuroblasts into row 3 neuroblasts, whereas ubiquitous gooseberry-distal generates the reciprocal transformation. Thus, gooseberry-distal is necessary and sufficient to specify row 5 neuroblast identity autonomously. The 10 genes coordinately regulated by gooseberry-distal are prime candidates for controlling specific aspects of neuroblast identity. PMID:7630418

  16. Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures with the volar locking plate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Open reduction and internal fixation using an interlocking plate system has gained popularity for the treatment of dorsally displaced distal radius fractures. Purpose To evaluate the functional and radiological results of treating unstable distal radius fractures with the volar locking plate. Patients and methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients from one institution using the volar locking plate to treat intra-articular and extra-articular distal radius fractures. Unstable distal radius fractures in 15 patients, comprising 3 men and 12 women with a mean age of 64.4 years (34–76 years), were treated with a volar locking compression plate (Acu-Loc distal radius plate system; Acumed, Oregon, USA) and followed up for a minimum of 1 year. Fractures were classified using the AO classification. Radiographic parameters of preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up radiographs were compared. The time to initiation of active range of motion was determined. Final follow-up range of motion and complications were reported. Results At final functional assessment, the scores of 5 patients were excellent, 7 patients good, and 3 patients fair according to Cooney's Clinical Scoring Chart. No non-union or infection occurred. Rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon occurred in 1 patient. Conclusion Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures with a volar locking plate leads to satisfactory results, provided the operative technique is carefully performed to prevent complications. PMID:21702730

  17. Contribution of the distal nerve sheath to nerve and muscle preservation following denervation and sensory protection.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Karen; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Minet, Wyatt; Fahnestock, Margaret; Bain, James R

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the contribution of the distal nerve sheath to sensory protection. Following tibial nerve transection, rats were assigned to one of the following groups: (1) saphenous-to-tibial nerve neurorrhaphy; (2) saphenous-to-gastrocnemius neurotization; (3) unprotected controls (tibial nerve transection); or (4) immediate common peroneal-to-tibial nerve neurorrhaphy. After a 6-month denervation period and motor reinnervation, ultrastructural, histologic, and morphometric analyses were performed on the distal tibial nerve and gastrocnemius muscle cross-sections. Sensory axons neurotized to muscle maintain existing muscle integrity, as demonstrated by less fibrosis, collagenization, and fat deposition, more than unprotected muscle, and preserve the distribution pattern of fast twitch fibers. However, neurorrhaphy of the sensory nerve to the distal tibial nerve (involving the distal nerve sheath) improves existing endoneurial sheath structure, demonstrated by reduced collagen, and enhances regeneration, shown by improved axon-to-Schwann cell coupling and increased axon area. The authors conclude that sensory protection of muscle does not require the distal nerve sheath, but that preservation of the distal sheath may contribute to enhanced nerve regeneration. PMID:15672322

  18. Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche. PMID:22808103

  19. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  20. Hospital strain colonization by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Blum-Menezes, D; Bratfich, O J; Padoveze, M C; Moretti, M L

    2009-03-01

    The skin and mucous membranes of healthy subjects are colonized by strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis showing a high diversity of genomic DNA polymorphisms. Prolonged hospitalization and the use of invasive procedures promote changes in the microbiota with subsequent colonization by hospital strains. We report here a patient with prolonged hospitalization due to chronic pancreatitis who was treated with multiple antibiotics, invasive procedures and abdominal surgery. We studied the dynamics of skin colonization by S. epidermidis leading to the development of catheter-related infections and compared the genotypic profile of clinical and microbiota strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. During hospitalization, the normal S. epidermidis skin microbiota exhibiting a polymorphic genomic DNA profile was replaced with a hospital-acquired biofilm-producer S. epidermidis strain that subsequently caused repetitive catheter-related infections. PMID:19287909

  1. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  2. Incidence of distal bone metastases in patients treated for palliative radiotherapy and associations with primary tumour types

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Mark; Tiwana, Manpreet S.; Kiraly, Andrew; Hutchison, Mitch; Olson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assesses the incidence of distal bone metastases in palliative radiotherapy (RT) patients. Material and methods All courses of RT for bone metastases from 2007–2011 for patient living in British Columbia (BC) were identified in a provincial RT programme. Treated bone metastases (BoM) were categorized as distal if the BoM was located within or distal to the elbow or knee. Patients were grouped by primary tumour site as breast, lung, prostate gastrointestinal, haematological, melanoma, and other. The incidence of distal bone metastases and associations with primary tumour types were determined. Results From 2007 to 2011, 8008 patients were treated with 16,277 courses of RT, of which 425 (3%) were courses of RT for distal BoM. The incidence of distal BoM in decreasing order by primary tumour type was melanoma (5%), haematological (3%), lung (2%), other (2%), prostate (2%), breast (1%) and gastrointestinal (1%). Distal BoM where more commonly identified in the lower extremity (87%, p<0.001). Single fraction RT was used more commonly for distal vs non-distal BoM (66% vs. 49%; p<0.001). Conclusion The incidence of distal BoM among patients treated with palliative RT was 3% and most commonly identified in patients with melanoma and haematological malignancies.

  3. A systematic review of prognostic factors for distal upper limb pain

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Daniel; Martin, Kathryn R; Lovell, Karina; Jones, Gareth T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain in the distal upper limb is relatively common, can be a cause of disability, presents a high cost to society and is clinically important. Previous reviews of prognostic factors have focused on pain in the proximal upper limb, whole upper extremity or isolated regions of the distal upper limb. Aim: To identify factors that predict outcome of distal upper limb pain. Study design: Systematic review Method: Eight bibliographic databases were searched from inception to March 2014. Eligible articles included adults with pain anywhere in the distal upper limb at baseline from randomised controlled trials with a waiting list, expectant policy or usual care group, or observational studies where no treatment or usual care was provided. Data describing the association between a putative prognostic factor and pain or functional outcome at follow-up were required. Quality was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. Results: Seven articles reporting on six studies were identified. Heterogeneity of study populations and outcome measures prevented a meta-analysis so a narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. Three factors (being female, a longer duration of the complaint at initial presentation and having musculoskeletal pain in multiple locations) were significantly associated with poor pain outcome in more than one study. Being female was the only factor significantly associated with poor functional outcome in more than one study. Conclusions: A range of sociodemographic, pain-related, occupational and psychosocial prognostic factors for distal upper limb pain outcomes were investigated in studies included in the review. However, due to the lack of commonality of factors investigated and lack of consistency of results across studies, there is limited evidence for predictors of distal upper limb pain outcomes. Further research is required to identify prognostic factors of distal upper limb pain, particularly modifiable factors that may influence management. PMID:26526466

  4. Wnt signaling orients the proximal-distal axis of chick kidney nephrons.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jenny; Arraf, Alaa A; Grinstein, Mor; Yelin, Ronit; Schultheiss, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    The nephron is the fundamental structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each mature nephron is patterned along a proximal-distal axis, with blood filtered at the proximal end and urine emerging from the distal end. In order to filter the blood and produce urine, specialized structures are formed at specific proximal-distal locations along the nephron, including the glomerulus at the proximal end, the tubule in the middle and the collecting duct at the distal end. The developmental processes that specify these different nephron segments are not fully understood. Wnt ligands, which are expressed in the nephric duct and later in the nascent nephron itself, are well-characterized inducers of nephrons, and are both required and sufficient for initiation of nephron formation from nephrogenic mesenchyme. Here, we present evidence that Wnt signaling also patterns the proximal-distal nephron axis. Using the chick mesonephros as a model system, a Wnt ligand was ectopically expressed in the coelomic lining, thereby introducing a source of Wnt signaling that is at right angles to the endogenous Wnt signal of the nephric duct. Under these conditions, the nephron axis was re-oriented, such that the glomerulus was always located at a position farthest from the Wnt sources. This re-orientation occurred within hours of exposure to ectopic Wnt signaling, and was accompanied initially by a repression of the early glomerular podocyte markers Wt1 and Pod1, followed by their re-emergence at a position distant from the Wnt signals. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in mesonephric explant cultures resulted in strong and specific repression of early and late glomerular markers. Finally, cytoplasmic ?-catenin, indicative of active canonical Wnt signaling, was found to be enriched in the distal as compared with the proximal region of the forming nephron. Together, these data indicate that Wnt signaling patterns the proximal-distal axis of the nephron, with glomeruli differentiating in regions of lowest Wnt signaling. PMID:26116665

  5. Effect of gingerol on colonic motility via inhibition of calcium channel currents in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Tang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Feng-Yun; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Yu-Chun; Qiu, Juan-Juan; Guo, Hui-Shu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of gingerol on colonic motility and the action of L-type calcium channel currents in this process. METHODS: The distal colon was cut along the mesenteric border and cleaned with Ca2+-free physiological saline solution. Muscle strips were removed and placed in Ca2+-free physiological saline solution, which was oxygenated continuously. Longitudinal smooth muscle samples were prepared by cutting along the muscle strips and were then placed in a chamber. Mechanical contractile activities of isolated colonic segments in rats were recorded by a 4-channel physiograph. Colon smooth muscle cells were dissociated by enzymatic digestion. L-type calcium currents were recorded using the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Gingerol inhibited the spontaneous contraction of colonic longitudinal smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner with inhibition percentages of 13.3% ± 4.1%, 43.4% ± 3.9%, 78.2% ± 3.6% and 80.5% ± 4.5% at 25 ?mol/L, 50 ?mol/L, 75 ?mol/L and 100 ?mol/L, respectively (P < 0.01). Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, diminished the inhibition of colonic motility by gingerol. Gingerol inhibited L-type calcium channel currents in colonic longitudinal myocytes of rats. At a 75 ?mol/L concentration of gingerol, the percentage of gingerol-induced inhibition was diminished by nifedipine from 77.1% ± 4.2% to 42.6% ± 3.6% (P < 0.01). Gingerol suppressed IBa in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibition rates were 22.7% ± 2.38%, 35.77% ± 3.14%, 49.78% ± 3.48% and 53.78% ± 4.16% of control at 0 mV, respectively, at concentrations of 25 ?mol/L, 50 ?mol/L, 75 ?mol/L and 100 ?mol/L (P < 0.01). The steady-state activation curve was shifted to the right by treatment with gingerol. The value of half activation was -14.23 ± 1.12 mV in the control group and -10.56 ± 1.04 mV in the 75 ?mol/L group (P < 0.05) with slope factors, Ks, of 7.16 ± 0.84 and 7.02 ± 0.93 (P < 0.05) in the control and 75 ?mol/L groups, respectively. However, the steady-state inactivation curve was not changed, with a half-inactivation voltage, 0.5 V, of -27.43 ± 1.26 mV in the control group and -26.56 ± 1.53 mV in the 75 ?mol/L gingerol group (P > 0.05), and a slope factor, K, of 13.24 ± 1.62 in the control group and 13.45 ± 1.68 (P > 0.05) in the 75 ?mol/L gingerol group. CONCLUSION: Gingerol inhibits colonic motility by preventing Ca2+ influx through L-type calcium channels.

  6. Ischemic Effects of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate-Lipiodol on the Colon in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ikoma, Akira; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki; Takasaka, Isao; Nakata, Kouhei; Sahara, Shinya; Sawa, Naohisa; Shirai, Shintaro; Mori, Ichiro

    2010-10-15

    This study was designed to assess the safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate-lipiodol (NBCA-Lp) for the large bowel and to investigate the vital response to NBCA-Lp in a swine model. In nine swine, nine arteries nourishing the colon were embolized with NBCA-Lp (1 ml of NBCA mixed with 4 ml of lipiodol): sigmoid-rectal branch artery in six swine, right colic branch artery in two, and middle colic branch artery in one. The amount of NBCA-Lp was 0.1-0.4 ml. Sacrifice was conducted 3 days after TAE to identify histological infarction. Classification was conducted retrospectively: group A, vasa recta without NBCA-Lp embolization despite TAE; group B, three or fewer vasa recta with NBCA-Lp embolization; and group C, five or more vasa recta with NBCA-Lp embolization. In one swine in group A, no necrotic focus was observed. In group B, three of four swine experienced no ischemic damage. The remaining one swine experienced necrosis of mucosal and submucosal layers in one-fourth of the circumference. In group C, all four swine with marginal artery and five vasa recta or more embolized experienced total necrosis of mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle layers of the whole colonic circumference. Significant difference on the extent of ischemic damage was observed between groups B and C (P < 0.05). Microscopically, NBCA-Lp induced acute vasculitis. Embolization of three or fewer vasa recta with NBCA-Lp induced no ischemic damage or limited necrosis, whereas embolization of five or more vasa recta with NBCA-Lp induced extensive necrosis.

  7. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Coelho, Debora Lucciola; De Lima, David Correa Alves; Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates. PMID:26688708

  8. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  9. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it to be expelled as stool. This prolonged transit time is an important aspect of colonic function ... occur in adults. Nerves and muscles regulate the transit time of the colon. Derangements in either element ...

  10. Vitamin D, Calcium May Not Prevent Colon Cancer After All

    MedlinePLUS

    ... D, Calcium May Not Prevent Colon Cancer After All Large study finds supplements no better than placebo ... take both together or to take a placebo. All participants had recently had precancerous colon polyps, also ...

  11. Colon Cancer Biomarkers To Identify Patients Suitable For Therapeutic Intervention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI investigators have identified an inflammatory gene and microRNA biomarker portfolio that can predict aggressive colon cancer, colon cancer patient survival, and patients that are candidates for adjuvant therapy.

  12. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...performance standards) when the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or...when the device is intended for other uses, including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...performance standards) when the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or...when the device is intended for other uses, including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...performance standards) when the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or...when the device is intended for other uses, including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...performance standards) when the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or...when the device is intended for other uses, including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...performance standards) when the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or...when the device is intended for other uses, including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or...

  17. Targeting the tight junction : immunotherapy of colon cancer

    E-print Network

    Ackerman, Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    A33 is a cell surface glycoprotein of colon epithelium with a long clinical history as a target in antibody-based cancer therapy. Despite being present in normal colon, radio-labeled antibodies against A33 are selectively ...

  18. Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anil R; Prasad, Shilpa; Nguyen, Huy; Facista, Alexander; Lewis, Cristy; Zaitlin, Beryl; Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the close parallels between our novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer and human colon cancer. METHODS: Twenty-two wild-type female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the standard control diet (AIN-93G) and an additional 22 female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the control diet supplemented with 0.2% deoxycholic acid [diet + deoxycholic acid (DOC)] for 10 mo. Tumors occurred in the colons of mice fed diet + DOC and showed progression to colon cancer [adenocarcinoma (AC)]. This progression is through the stages of tubular adenoma (TA), TA with high grade dysplasia or adenoma with sessile serrated morphology, intramucosal AC, AC stage T1, and AC stage T2. The mouse tumors were compared to human tumors at the same stages by histopathological analysis. Sections of the small and large intestines of mice and humans were evaluated for glandular architecture, cellular and nuclear morphology including cellular orientation, cellular and nuclear atypia, pleomorphism, mitotic activity, frequency of goblet cells, crypt architecture, ulceration, penetration of crypts through the muscularis mucosa and presence of malignant crypts in the muscularis propria. In addition, preserved colonic tissues from genetically similar male mice, obtained from a prior experiment, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The male mice had been fed the control diet or diet + DOC. Four molecular markers were evaluated: 8-OH-dG, DNA repair protein ERCC1, autophagy protein beclin-1 and the nuclear location of beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts. Also, male mice fed diet + DOC plus 0.007% chlorogenic acid (diet + DOC + CGA) were evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1 and nuclear location of beta-catenin. RESULTS: Humans with high levels of diet-related DOC in their colons are at a substantially increased risk of developing colon cancer. The mice fed diet + DOC had levels of DOC in their colons comparable to that of humans on a high fat diet. The 22 mice without added DOC in their diet had no colonic tumors while 20 of the 22 mice (91%) fed diet + DOC developed colonic tumors. Furthermore, the tumors in 10 of these mice (45% of mice) included an adenocarcinoma. All mice were free of cancers of the small intestine. Histopathologically, the colonic tumor types in the mice were virtually identical to those in humans. In humans, characteristic aberrant changes in molecular markers can be detected both in field defects surrounding cancers (from which cancers arise) and within cancers. In the colonic tissues of mice fed diet + DOC similar changes in biomarkers appeared to occur. Thus, 8-OH-dG was increased, DNA repair protein ERCC1 was decreased, autophagy protein beclin-1 was increased and, in the stem cell region at the base of crypts there was substantial nuclear localization of beta-catenin as well as increased cytoplasmic beta-catenin. However, in mice fed diet + DOC + CGA (with reduced frequency of cancer) and evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1, and beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts, mouse tissue showed amelioration of the aberrancies, suggesting that chlorogenic acid is protective at the molecular level against colon cancer. This is the first diet-related model of colon cancer that closely parallels human progression to colon cancer, both at the histomorphological level as well as in its molecular profile. CONCLUSION: The diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels progression to colon cancer in humans, and should be uniquely useful in model studies of prevention and therapeutics. PMID:25024814

  19. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and the Ganga valley. The location of the Mahabharata epic, which is set in the beginning of the first millennium B.C., is the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab (land between two rivers). Iron technology enabled pioneering farmers to clear the dense and tangled forests of the middle and lower Ganga plains. The focus of development now shifted further eastward to eastern Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar which witnessed the events of the Ramayana epic and rise of the first political entities known as Mahajanapadas as also of Buddhism and Jainism. The second phase of urbanization of India, marked by trade, coinage, script and birth of the first Indian empire, namely Magadha, with its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna) also took place in this region in the sixth century B.C. The imposition by Brahmin priests of the concepts of racial and ritual purity, pollution, restrictions on sharing of food, endogamy, anuloma (male of upper caste eligible to marry a female of lower caste) and pratiloma (female of upper caste ineligible to marry a male of lower caste) forms of marriage, karma (reaping the fruits of the actions of previous life in the present life), rebirth, varnashrama dharma (four stages of the expected hundred-year life span) and the sixteen sanskaras (ceremonies) on traditional occupational groups led to the birth of the caste system - a unique Indian phenomenon. As a consequence of the expansion of agriculture and loss of forests and wildlife, stone age hunter-gatherers were forced to assimilate themselves into larger agriculture-based rural and urban societies. However, some of them resisted this new economic mode. To this day they have persisted with their atavistic lifestyle, but have had to supplement their resources by producing craft items or providing entertainment to the rural population. PMID:11779962

  20. Comparison of Distal and Proximal Splenorenal Shunts: A Randomized Prospective Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Josef E.; Bower, Robert H.; Atamian, Susan; Welling, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds the place of portalsystemic shunting in the therapy of bleeding esophageal varices. Recently, a selective shunt, the distal splenorenal shunt, has achieved some degree of popularity and, apparently, is associated with less chronic encephalopathy. Because of this, a trial was initiated at the Massachusetts General Hospital and continued at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, prospectively randomizing central and distal splenorenal shunts in consecutive elective cases of patients with established variceal bleeding. Preoperative evaluation included endoscopic examination at the time of hemorrhage, angiography and upper gastrointestinal series, emphasis on mental function including EEG, amino acids, neurologic examination, as well as standard liver chemistries. Nineteen patients underwent central splenorenal shunts and 23 distal splenorenal shunt. There was one operative death from hemorrhagic pancreatitis in a Child's Class A patient with distal splenorenal shunt. Four late deaths, from gunshot wound, auto accident, overwhelming pneumonitis similar to postsplenectomy syndrome, and metastatic carcinoma (2.5 years after operation), have been recorded in the distal splenorenal shunt group, and none in the central splenorenal shunt group. On follow-up angiographic examination, six shunts have clotted, with three patients requiring reoperation, generally mesocaval shunt. There has been no chronic encephalopathy, three individual episodes of encephalopathy, two in the central splenorenal shunt group and one in the distal splenorenal shunt group, two associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and one with intercurrent infection and overdiuresis. Follow-up liver chemistries and amino acids which may be useful as an indicator of hepatic function suggest that although the distal shunt group had a better amino acid pattern before operation, branched-chain amino acids tend to become lower in the distal group while remaining the same in the central group. Aromatic amino acids increase post shunt, equally in the two groups. The results do not support the contention that distal splenorenal shunt is associated either with greater survival or freedom from encephalopathy than central splenorenal shunt, a small side-to-side shunt. Ascites seems better controlled by the central splenorenal shunt. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:6974543

  1. Distal tears of the hamstring muscles: review of the literature and our results of surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Mattila, Kimmo; Heikkilä, Jouni; Orava, Sakari

    2007-01-01

    Background Hamstring strains are among the most frequent injuries in sports, especially in events requiring sprinting and running. Distal tears of the hamstring muscles requiring surgical treatment are scarcely reported in the literature. Objective To evaluate the results of surgical treatment for distal hamstring tears. Design A case series of 18 operatively treated distal hamstring muscle tears combined with a review of previously published cases in the English literature. Retrospective study; level of evidence 4. Setting Mehiläinen Sports Trauma Research Center, Mehiläinen Hospital and Sports Clinic, Turku, Finland. Patients Between 1992 and 2005, a total of 18 athletes with a distal hamstring tear were operated at our centre. Main outcome measurements At follow?up, the patients were asked about possible symptoms (pain, weakness, stiffness) and their return to the pre?injury level of sport. Results The final results were rated excellent in 13 cases, good in 1 case, fair in 3 cases and poor in 1 case. 14 of the 18 patients were able to return to their former level of sport after an average of 4?months (range 2–6?months). Conclusions Surgical treatment seems to be beneficial in distal hamstring tears in selected cases. PMID:17138628

  2. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Johnathan; Abel, Mark F; Fox, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery. PMID:26138340

  3. RSV-encoded NS2 promotes epithelial cell shedding and distal airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liesman, Rachael M.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Luongo, Cindy L.; Yang, Lijuan; Proia, Alan D.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Collins, Peter L.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. Together, these data indicate that RSV infection of the airway epithelium, via the action of NS2, promotes epithelial cell shedding, which not only accelerates viral clearance but also contributes to acute obstruction of the distal airways. Our results identify RSV NS2 as a contributing factor for the enhanced propensity of RSV to cause severe airway disease in young children and suggest NS2 as a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of distal airway disease. PMID:24713657

  4. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-?B, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-?B positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  5. Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy for Benign and Malignant Disease: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, T.; Sitarz, R.; Busch, O. R.; Besselink, M. G.; Abu Hilal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy is the standard curative treatment for symptomatic benign, premalignant, and malignant disease of the pancreatic body and tail. The most obvious benefits of a laparoscopic approach to distal pancreatectomy include earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be attempted in case of benign disease. Spleen preservation can be achieved preferably by preserving the splenic vessels (Kimura technique), but also by resecting the splenic vessels and maintaining vascularity through the short gastric vessels and left gastroepiploic artery (Warshaw technique). Several studies have suggested a higher rate of spleen preservation with laparoscopy. The radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy has become mainstay for treating pancreatic cancer and can be performed laparoscopically as well. Evidence on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for cancer is scarce. Despite the obvious advantages of laparoscopic surgery, postoperative morbidity remains relatively high, mainly because of the high incidence of pancreatic fistula. For decades, surgeons have tried to prevent these fistulas but to date no strategy has been confirmed to be effective in 2 consecutive randomized studies. Pragmatic multicenter studies focusing on technical aspects of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy are lacking and should be encouraged. PMID:26240565

  6. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... through a nozzle inserted into the rectum to cleanse (evacuate) the contents of the lower colon. The... the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or..., including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... through a nozzle inserted into the rectum to cleanse (evacuate) the contents of the lower colon. The... the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or..., including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... through a nozzle inserted into the rectum to cleanse (evacuate) the contents of the lower colon. The... the device is intended for colon cleansing when medically indicated, such as before radiological or..., including colon cleansing routinely for general well being. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the...

  11. Colonic perianastomotic carcinogenesis in an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Rodrigo, Luis; Pinyol-Felis, Carme; Vinyas-Salas, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine the effect of anastomosis on experimental carcinogenesis in the colon of rats. Methods Forty-three 10-week-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were operated on by performing an end-to-side ileorectostomy. Group A:16 rats received no treatment. Group B: 27 rats received 18 subcutaneous injections weekly at a dose of 21 mg/kg wt of 1–2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), from the eighth day after the intervention. Animals were sacrificed between 25–27 weeks. The number of tumours, their localization, size and microscopic characteristics were recorded. A paired chi-squared analysis was performed comparing tumoral induction in the perianastomotic zone with the rest of colon with faeces. Results No tumours appeared in the dimethylhydrazine-free group. The percentage tumoral area was greater in the perianastomotic zone compared to tumours which had developed in the rest of colon with faeces (p = 0.014). Conclusion We found a cocarcinogenic effect due to the creation of an anastomosis, when using an experimental model of colonic carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats. PMID:18667092

  12. Cancer of the Colon and Rectum

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2015 132,700 % of All New Cancer Cases 8.0% Estimated Deaths in 2015 49,700 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2012, there were an estimated 1,168,929 people living with colon and ...

  13. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  14. Stability of peptide drugs in the colon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yadav, Vipul; Smart, Alice L; Tajiri, Shinichiro; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-10-12

    This study was the first to investigate the colonic stability of 17 peptide molecules (insulin, calcitonin, glucagon, secretin, somatostatin, desmopressin, oxytocin, Arg-vasopressin, octreotide, ciclosporin, leuprolide, nafarelin, buserelin, histrelin, [D-Ser(4)]-gonadorelin, deslorelin, and goserelin) in a model of the large intestine using mixed human faecal bacteria. Of these, the larger peptides - insulin, calcitonin, somatostatin, glucagon and secretin - were metabolized rapidly, with complete degradation observed within 5 min. In contrast, a number of the smaller peptides - Arg-vasopressin, desmopressin, oxytocin, gonadorelin, goserelin, buserelin, leuprolide, nafarelin and deslorelin - degraded more slowly, while octreotide, histrelin and ciclosporin were seen to be more stable as compared to the other small peptides under the same conditions. Peptide degradation rate was directly correlated to peptide lipophilicity (logP); those peptides with a higher logP were more stable in the colonic model (R(2)=0.94). In the absence of human faecal bacteria, all peptides were stable. This study highlights the impact of the colonic environment - in particular, the gut microbiota - on the metabolism of peptide drugs, and identifies potential peptide candidates for drug delivery to the colon. PMID:26111980

  15. CRN - Cancer Care & Treatment: Colon Cancer Survivors

    Cancer.gov

    Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in over 100,000 Americans in 2001. To combat this disease, new avenues to decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, such as chemoprevention, are being explored by CRN researchers at two sites. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been shown to decrease incident colon cancer.

  16. Laparoscopic colon resection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cooperman, A M; Katz, V; Zimmon, D; Botero, G

    1991-08-01

    The first case of a villous lesion of the colon removed by laparoscopic-guided surgery is reported. Injection of methylene blue into the lesion facilitated its access and exposure via the laparoscope. A very small skin incision allowed delivery onto the abdominal wall for resection and anastomoses. PMID:1834273

  17. Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The adjuvant treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer is an area of controversy in medical oncology. Adjuvant chemotherapy aims to eradicate micrometastatic disease present at the time of surgery, preventing the development of distant metastatic disease and thereby curing those patients of their cancer. National and international guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of stage II colon cancer recommend a range of treatment options from observation to chemotherapy with single-agent or combination regimens, depending on the presence or absence of high-risk features (poorly differentiated histology, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of perineural invasion, report of?colon cancer, a small but statistically significant benefit in overall survival was seen for those patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy; however, multiple meta-analyses and retrospective subgroup analyses have called these findings into question. Though there may be a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer, its incremental benefit is small, at best, and comes with the risks of real and rarely fatal complications of chemotherapy. PMID:26648796

  18. colon cancer Can genetics help tackle

    E-print Network

    Rasdeaconu, Rares

    Predicting colon cancer Can genetics help tackle the second leading cancer killer? momentum without cancer. #12;EDITOR Melissa Marino CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Stephanie Crowe Leigh MacMillan Cynthia, TN 37232-2390 (615) 322-4747 Momentum is published twice a year by Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center

  19. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the colon with air or with an x-ray blocking liquid and taking a special x-ray or performing a CT or cat scan that ... to undergo the flexible instrument examinations or x-ray tests. Now the tests that can prevent cancer ...

  20. Effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition on basal- and serotonin-induced ion transport in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor as compared to non-selective COX and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors in rat colon. Basal- and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced electrogenic ion transport (short circuit current, SCC), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and histological characteristics were measured. Muscle-stripped mucosal sheets of the proximal and distal segment of rat colon were investigated by employing the Ussing chamber technique, radioimmunoassays for PGE2 and light microscopy examinations for control of tissue integrity. 5-HT and PGE2 both induced a concentration-dependent increase in SCC by activation of multiple receptors. The response to 5-HT was bumetanide-sensitive. Neither the non-selective COX inhibitor piroxicam, nor the selective COX-2 inhibitor SC-'236, altered basal- SCC or 5-HT-induced SCC. Indomethacin reduced both basal- and 5-HT-induced SCC in both segments. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid reduced the 5-HT-induced increase in SCC, but did not change basal SCC. 5-HT-induced a concentration-dependent release of PGE2. Only high concentrations of piroxicam and indomethacin reduced basal PGE2 release and 5-HT-induced PGE2 release. Histological examination of the specimens demonstrated only minor changes following mounting in chambers. There were no apparent differences in the morphology following treatment with COX or LOX inhibitors. These results suggest that in rat colon only the COX-1 enzyme is expressed under basal conditions. Furthermore, data suggest neither the COX-1 nor the COX-2 enzyme to be of major importance for 5-HT-induced ion transport in rat colon in vitro. In conclusion, this study supports 5-HT as a mediator of chloride secretion by activating several receptor subtypes and the LOX enzyme, releasing mediators such as leucotrienes. PMID:12039683

  1. The Effect of Distal Femoral Resection on Fixed Flexion Deformity in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Liu, David W; Reidy, James F; Beller, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the relationship between distal femoral bone resection and correction of fixed flexion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Two previous studies have reported conflicting results. Spacers attached to the trial femoral component simulated additional distal femoral resection and the degree of knee flexion was recorded using computer navigation. The 2-mm augment produced an average of 3.37° of flexion deformity, 4-mm augment 6.68°, and 6-mm augment 11.38°. The amount of pre-resection flexion contracture significantly impacted on the effect of each augment. From our results, an additional 3.55 mm of distal femoral bone resection is required to correct 10° fixed flexion and produced less correction of flexion deformity as traditionally believed in TKA. PMID:26321077

  2. Esophagojejunal Anastomosis Fistula, Distal Esophageal Stenosis, and Metalic Stent Migration after Total Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al Hajjar, Nadim; Popa, Calin; Al-Momani, Tareg; Margarit, Simona; Graur, Florin; Tantau, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Esophagojejunal anastomosis fistula is the main complication after a total gastrectomy. To avoid a complex procedure on friable inflamed perianastomotic tissues, a coated self-expandable stent is mounted at the site of the anastomotic leak. A complication of stenting procedure is that it might lead to distal esophageal stenosis. However, another frequently encountered complication of stenting is stent migration, which is treated nonsurgically. When the migrated stent creates life threatening complications, surgical removal is indicated. We present a case of a 67-year-old male patient who was treated at our facility for a gastric adenocarcinoma which developed, postoperatively, an esophagojejunostomy fistula, a distal esophageal stenosis, and a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an esophagojejunostomy fistula combined with a distal esophageal stenosis as well as with a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. PMID:25945277

  3. Pathology of the distal phalanx in equine laminitis: more than just skin deep.

    PubMed

    Engiles, Julie B

    2010-04-01

    The etiopathogenesis of laminitis is complex and involves multiple tissue types. It may be initiated by biomechanical, traumatic, inflammatory, vascular, toxic, and metabolic factors. Although histopathologic changes occurring within the lamellae of experimental models of laminitis are well described and reported, histopathologic changes occurring in the distal phalanx are not, even though gross and radiographic evidence of disease are often apparent and bony lesions could be considered a significant source of pain. Recent scientific evidence indicates that the microenvironment of bone is an important modulator of inflammatory processes that can both influence, and be influenced by components of other organ systems, including the immune, nervous, gastrointestinal, and integumentary systems. This article describes various laminitis-associated histopathological changes in the distal phalanx, introduces concepts of osteoimmunology with regards to equine laminitis, and provides a rationale for histopathological examination of the distal phalanx, as well as the soft tissue structures of the lamellae and corium in laminitis cases. PMID:20381744

  4. Endovascular treatment of distal thoracic aortic transection associated with severe thoracolumbar spinal fracture.

    PubMed

    Chock, Megan M; Aho, Johnathon; Naik, Nimesh; Clarke, Michelle; Heller, Stephanie; Oderich, Gustavo S

    2015-10-01

    Endovascular repair has become the first line of treatment in most patients with blunt aortic injury. The most common mechanism is deceleration injury affecting the aortic isthmus distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. Injuries of the distal thoracic aorta are uncommon. We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with paraplegia and distal thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm associated with severe thoracolumbar vertebral fracture and displacement after a motocross accident. Endovascular repair was performed using total percutaneous technique and conformable C-TAG thoracic stent-graft (WL Gore, Flagstaff, AZ). Following stent-graft placement and angiographic confirmation of absence of endoleak, thoracolumbar spinal fixation was performed in the same operative procedure. This case illustrates a multispecialty approach to complex aortic and vertebral injury and the high conformability of newer thoracic stent-grafts to adapt to tortuous anatomy. PMID:25406266

  5. A New Anterolateral Approach for Type C Fractures of the Distal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Zhang; Song, Luo; Binghua, Wu; Ping, Qiu; Min, Dai

    2014-01-01

    To provide an anatomic basis for treating type C distal femoral fractures by a new anterolateral approach. Twenty surgical procedures were performed in 10 adult cadaveric specimens using a new anterolateral approach followed by dissection of all lower limbs. The main anterolateral muscles and ligaments were observed. Vessels and nerves related to the new anterolateral approach were also evaluated. Full exposure of the distal femur was achieved. The iliotibial band was protected, and damage to the quadriceps femoris was reduced. The distance between the common peroneal nerve and the new incision line at the level of the lateral epicondyle of the femur was (?? ± s) 8.19 ± 0.79 cm (range, 7.48–9.57 cm). This new anterolateral approach to the distal femur is safe. Although it induces slight soft tissue damage, its exposure is excellent. Knee rehabilitation can be performed in the early postoperative period. PMID:25437603

  6. Distally based posterior interosseous flap: primary role in soft-tissue reconstruction of the hand.

    PubMed

    Agir, Hakan; Sen, Cenk; Alagöz, Sahin; Onyedi, Murat; Isil, Eda

    2007-09-01

    A series of 15 consecutive patients with various hand defects requiring flap coverage was reviewed in this study. The defects were all covered with the distally based posterior interosseous flap. Its main indications were in complex hand trauma, severe burn injury, or skin cancer ablation, either acute or postprimary. In 12 of the patients, flaps survived completely. In 3 patients, there was partial necrosis of the distal part of the flap, which did not require additional surgical procedure. Radial nerve palsy was noted in one of the cases, with a complete recovery after 3 months. Donor site was closed directly in up to 4-cm-wide flaps, while larger flaps required skin grafting. No major anatomic variation was observed. Distally based posterior interosseous flap is a reliable choice for various types and areas of hand defects, with very low donor-site morbidity, and should be more commonly considered in clinical practice. PMID:17721217

  7. Corrective osteotomy after damage of the distal radial physis in children: surgical technique and results.

    PubMed

    Kaempf de Oliveira, Ricardo; Serrano, Pedro J Delgado; Badia, Alejandro; Ferreira, Marco Tonding

    2011-12-01

    Distal radial physis closure in children can develop severe wrist deformity (radial shortening). These patients can be treated using a single-step surgery. It was carried out in the form of a corrective osteotomy adopting the volar approach, with fixed-angle volar plate fixation and bone grafting from the iliac crest. There have been few descriptions of the use of this technique in the management of deformities related to early epiphysiodesis in distal radius. The use of fixation systems for the radius, using fixed-angle locking plates, allows radius lengthening adjusted to demand after osteotomy, using the combination of the plate and distal locking pins as spacer-with custom-sized tricortical iliac crest grafting within the defect. The freeing of soft parts such as the dorsal periosteum and brachioradialis muscle tendon allows adequate bone lengthening in a single-surgical step. PMID:22105636

  8. Effect of the distal histidine on the peroxidatic activity of monomeric cytoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Beckerson, Penny; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Reeder, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric human cytoglobin and a number of distal histidine variants were studied. The peroxidase activity of the monomeric wildtype protein with an internal disulfide bond, likely to be the form of the protein in vivo, exhibits a high peroxidase-like activity above that of other globins such as myoglobin. Furthermore, the peroxidatic activity of wildtype cytoglobin shows increased resistance to radical-based degradation compared to myoglobin. The ferryl form of wildtype cytoglobin is unstable, but is able to readily oxidize substrates such as guaiacol. In contrast distal histidine mutants of cytoglobin (H81Y and H81V) show very low peroxidase activity but enhanced radical-induced degradation. Therefore, the weakly bound distal histidine appears to modulate ferryl stability and limit haem degradation. These data are consistent with a role of a peroxidase activity of cytoglobin in cell stress response mechanisms. PMID:26069730

  9. Proximal, Distal, and the Politics of Causation: What’s Level Got to Do With It?

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Causal thinking in public health, and especially in the growing literature on social determinants of health, routinely employs the terminology of proximal (or downstream) and distal (or upstream). I argue that the use of these terms is problematic and adversely affects public health research, practice, and causal accountability. At issue are distortions created by conflating measures of space, time, level, and causal strength. To make this case, I draw on an ecosocial perspective to show how public health got caught in the middle of the problematic proximal–distal divide—surprisingly embraced by both biomedical and social determinist frameworks—and propose replacing the terms proximal and distal with explicit language about levels, pathways, and power. PMID:18172144

  10. Standing placement of transphyseal screw in the distal radius in 8 Thoroughbred yearlings

    PubMed Central

    Modesto, Rolf B.; Rodgerson, Dwayne H.; Masciarelli, Amanda E.; Spirito, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study describes placement of distal radial transphyseal screws in Thoroughbred yearlings with carpal varus deformities while standing, and identifes short- and long-term complications following the procedure. Data gathered from 2009 to 2013 identified 8 yearlings that met the inclusion criteria. Horses were sedated intravenously and a single 4.5-mm cortical screw was placed in the distal lateral radial physis following application of local anesthetic and surgical preparation of a pre-placed hole. All horses were evaluated weekly after surgery and screw removal was performed standing and under sedation when correction of the angular limb deformity was achieved. The mean time for screw removal was 46 days. No short- or long-term complications were identified. Findings indicate that placing a single transphyseal screw in the lateral aspect of the distal radial physis with the horse standing is a viable option to treat varus angular limb deformity of the carpus in horses. PMID:26028683

  11. An image segmentation approach to extract colon lumen through colonic material tagging and hidden Markov random field model for

    E-print Network

    and fluid are problematic for optimal viewing of the colonic mucosa. Electronic cleansing techniques electronic colon cleansing technology, which employs a hidden Markov random filed (MRF) model to integrate, electronic colon cleansing, massive polyp screening 1. INTRODUCTION Colorectal carcinoma currently ranks

  12. Sigmoidal diagnostics with SOHO/CDS G. Del Zanna 1 , S. E. Gibson 1;2 , H. E. Mason 1 , C.D. Pike 3 , and C. H. Mandrini 4

    E-print Network

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    Sigmoidal diagnostics with SOHO/CDS G. Del Zanna 1 , S. E. Gibson 1;2 , H. E. Mason 1 , C.D. Pike 3 to determine plasma characteristics such as temperature, density and plasma motions (see e.g. Mason et al, 1997

  13. Construal level and free will beliefs shape perceptions of actors' proximal and distal intent

    PubMed Central

    Plaks, Jason E.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Two components of lay observers' calculus of moral judgment are proximal intent (the actor's mind is focused on performing the action) and distal intent (the actor's mind is focused on the broader goal). What causes observers to prioritize one form of intent over the other? The authors observed whether construal level (Studies 1–2) and beliefs about free will (Studies 3–4) would influence participants' sensitivity to the actor's proximal vs. distal intent. In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's proximal and distal intent were independently manipulated. In Study 1, when only distal intent was present in the actor's mind, participants rated the psychologically distant actor more responsible than the psychologically near actor. In Study 2, when only distal intent was in the actor's mind, participants with a chronic high level of action identification rated the actor more responsible than did those with a low level of action identification. In both studies, when only proximal intent was in the actor's mind, construal level did not predict judgments of responsibility. In Study 3, when only proximal intent was present in the actor's mind, the more participants believed in free will, the more they rated the actor responsible. When only distal intent was in the actor's mind, free will belief did not influence ratings of responsibility. In Study 4, the same pattern emerged when free will/determinism beliefs were manipulated and the actor performed a positive (life-saving) act. The authors discuss how these results shed new light on the literatures on moral reasoning and psycho-legal theory. PMID:26106352

  14. Cell colonization in degradable 3D porous matrices

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    Cell colonization is an important in a wide variety of biological processes and applications including vascularization, wound healing, tissue engineering, stem cell differentiation and biosensors. During colonization porous 3D structures are used to support and guide the ingrowth of cells into the matrix. In this review, we summarize our understanding of various factors affecting cell colonization in three-dimensional environment. The structural, biological and degradation properties of the matrix all play key roles during colonization. Further, specific scaffold properties such as porosity, pore size, fiber thickness, topography and scaffold stiffness as well as important cell material interactions such as cell adhesion and mechanotransduction also influence colonization. PMID:19262124

  15. Innovative technique for gastric retraction during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: the marionette.

    PubMed

    Surjan, Rodrigo C; Basseres, Tiago; Makdissi, Fabio F; Machado, Marcel A C

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies became more common in the past few years as a safe and effective treatment option for benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas. Adequate exposure and wide operative field are crucial to perform this procedure, and this is achieved by retraction of the stomach with an angled liver retractor or a grasper through a subxiphoid trocar, that is usually used only to this purpose. We developed an innovative technique to retract the stomach during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies that provides excellent operative field and frees the subxiphoid trocar to be used in other tasks during the surgery. PMID:26690568

  16. Innovative technique for gastric retraction during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: the marionette

    PubMed Central

    Surjan, Rodrigo C.; Basseres, Tiago; Makdissi, Fabio F.; Machado, Marcel A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies became more common in the past few years as a safe and effective treatment option for benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas. Adequate exposure and wide operative field are crucial to perform this procedure, and this is achieved by retraction of the stomach with an angled liver retractor or a grasper through a subxiphoid trocar, that is usually used only to this purpose. We developed an innovative technique to retract the stomach during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies that provides excellent operative field and frees the subxiphoid trocar to be used in other tasks during the surgery. PMID:26690568

  17. Challenging management of a complex distal aortic arch pseudoaneurysm following previous aortic dissection repair.

    PubMed

    Moore, Krista; Kakani, Nirmal; Chu, Michael W A

    2012-07-01

    The primary goals of surgery for acute aortic dissection are to resect or control the intimal flap, prevent distal malperfusion, protect the brain and have a viable patient. However, several technical measures are important to prevent early and late sequalae, including adequate aortic resection, creating a stable anastamotic suture line, appropriate graft measurement and tailoring and completely resecting inciting aortic aneurysms. Utilizing simultaneous sternotomy and thoracotomy incisions, we report the re-operative management of a patient with an expanding distal aortic arch pseudoaneurysm, extending into the left pleural space, superimposed upon severely kinked proximal ascending aortic grafts and an aneurysmal aortic root only 6 months after initial repair. PMID:22508892

  18. Korean Type Distal Radius Anatomical Volar Plate System: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jihyeung; Kim, Min Bom; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Distal radius fracture is the most common fracture of the upper extremity, and approximately 60,000 distal radius fractures occur annually in Korea. Internal fixation with an anatomical volar locking plate is widely used in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. However, most of the currently used distal radius anatomical plate systems were designed based on the anatomical characteristics of Western populations. Recently, the Korean-type distal radius anatomical volar plate (K-DRAVP) system was designed and developed based on the anatomical characteristics of the distal radius of Koreans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of the new K-DRAVP system, and to compare its radiologic and functional results with those of the other systems. Methods From March 2012 to October 2012, 46 patients with acute distal radius fractures who were treated with the K-DRAVP system at three hospitals were enrolled in this study. Standard posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were obtained to assess fracture healing, and three radiographic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination, and radial length) were assessed to evaluate radiographic outcomes. The range of motion and grip strength, the Gartland and Werley scoring system, and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes. Results All radiologic parameters were restored to normal values, and maintained without any loosening or collapse until the time of final follow-up. Grip strength was restored to 84% of the value for the unaffected side. The mean range of motion of the wrist at final follow-up was restored to 77%-95% of the value for the unaffected side. According to the Gartland and Werley scoring system, there were 16 excellent, 26 good, and 4 fair results. The mean DASH score was 8.4 points. There were no complications after surgery. Conclusions The newly developed K-DRAVP system could be used to restore and maintain good anatomical parameters, and provide good clinical outcomes with low complication rates. This system is a promising surgical option for the treatment of distal radius fractures in the Korean population. PMID:25177449

  19. Duplication of distal 17q from a maternal translocation: an additional case with some unique features.

    PubMed Central

    Caine, A; Knapton, D M; Mueller, R F; Congdon, P J; Haigh, D

    1989-01-01

    A female with multiple dysmorphic features was found to have an unbalanced karyotype with duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 17 and deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 12. This was derived from a reciprocal translocation in the mother, 46,XX,t(12;17)(p13.3;q23). Clinical findings are presented and comparison with other reported cases of distal 17q duplication shows several unique features in our case. Images PMID:2810342

  20. Functional anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is critical to the function of the forearm as a mechanical unit. This paper is concerned with the concepts and observations that have changed understanding of the function of the DRUJ, notably with respect to the biomechanics of this joint. The DRUJ has been shown to be important in acting to distribute load and removal of the ulna head leads to the biomechanical equivalent of a one-bone forearm. The soft tissues with topographical relations to the distal forearm and DRUJ have also been investigated in our experimental series with findings including the description of a clinical disorder termed subluxation-related ulna neuropathy syndrome. PMID:23827285