Science.gov

Sample records for distance transport mail

  1. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may...

  2. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may...

  3. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may...

  4. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may...

  5. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may...

  6. Electronic Mail in Distance Education: A Canadian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burpee, Peter; And Others

    Electronic mail is the sending of messages from one person to another using electronic technology. This paper discusses communication through a personal computer and the commercial electronic mail service. Basic information about the technology of electronic mail is provided, such as hardware and software, subscription and options of electronic…

  7. 62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO POST OFFICE BUILDING, VIEW TO WEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. E-Mail Alerts and RSS Feeds for Distance Learning Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Allyson; Howell, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how E-Mail Alerts and RSS feeds can be helpful tools for busy distance education administrators by helping them to efficiently sort through the research and news information that is now available. These tools and their respective filters and aggregators make it possible for busy distance education administrators to stay

  9. E-Mail Alerts and RSS Feeds for Distance Learning Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Allyson; Howell, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how E-Mail Alerts and RSS feeds can be helpful tools for busy distance education administrators by helping them to efficiently sort through the research and news information that is now available. These tools and their respective filters and aggregators make it possible for busy distance education administrators to stay…

  10. Faculty and Student Expectations and Perceptions of E-mail Communication in a Campus and Distance Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul D.; Monaghan, Michael S.; Walters, Ryan W.; Merkel, Jennifer J.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Lenz, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Methods Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Results Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. Conclusion E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students. PMID:21436932

  11. Asynchronous Distance Learning: E-mail Attachments Used as the Medium for Assigned Coursework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrells, D. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Postsecondary students were sent case studies to analyze and submit via electronic mail attachments. Results of an evaluation indicate that the benefits of using electronic mail for course work far outweigh the disadvantages. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  12. Voice Mail and the Telephone: A New Student Support Strategy in the Teaching of Law by Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an innovative use of voice mail to support students studying law through distance education. Advantages include cost effectiveness, minimal isolation, and means for spontaneity. Possible uses include covering developments in dynamic disciplines after cut-off time, extending "shelf-life" of printed materials, and providing students with…

  13. Exploring Culture from a Distance: A U.S./Israeli E-Mail Exchange Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutta, Joyce W.; Spector-Cohen, Elana

    2002-01-01

    Explores the use of electronic mail to link native-English-speaking teachers and teacher candidates in one country with English-as-a-Foreign-Language students in the other. An average of 10 participants per semester have spent approximately 2 months leaning about each other's cultures through an e-mail exchange of ideas and views. (Author/VWL)

  14. Telecommunications and Distance Education: Using Electronic Mail To Teach University Courses in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, Scott

    The University of Alaska Southeast (UAS) has been given the responsibility for providing distance education in Alaska, a vast state geographically with a disperse population. With the vastness of the area for which UAS is responsible for providing educational opportunities, the only cost effective method to meet those responsibilities is distance…

  15. Long Distance Transport in Macrocystis integrifolia

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Klaus; Srivastava, Lalit M.

    1979-01-01

    Long distance transport of 14C-labeled photoassimilate was studied in Macrocystis integrifolia Bory. Movement of label followed the source-sink relationship; mature blades closer to the holdfast with young 2° and 3° fronds transported mostly to the base, those closer to the frond apex transported mostly to the apex, and those in intermediate positions transported both acropetally and basipetally. The velocity of movement of 14C as computed both from study of intact fronds and exudate was in the range of 35 to 72 centimeters per hour and these estimates are on the low side. The composition of the translocate as determined from intact fronds was the same as that determined from exudate analysis; furthermore, this composition was nearly identical with that of the photosynthate (40 to 50% mannitol and 40 to 50% amino acids). From these data we conclude that the exudate represents the sieve tube sap and that there is little if any selectivity exercised in the loading and translocation of photoassimilate. An analysis of translocated label in the growing apex is presented and indicates that the synthesis of polymeric compounds such as laminaran, alginate, cellulose, lipids, and “protein” occurs in situ from the transported mannitol and amino acids. Detailed data on chemical composition of sieve tube sap from M. integrifolia and M. pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh are given and compared with the sieve tube sap from higher plants. Finally, we show that stipe segments, 60 to 100 centimeters long with three to six attached blades, are useful for translocation studies in Macrocystis. PMID:16660892

  16. Effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were sp...

  17. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Besenbacher, Flemming; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Schreiber, Lars; Gorby, Yuri A; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Leung, Kar Man; Schramm, Andreas; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2012-11-01

    Oxygen consumption in marine sediments is often coupled to the oxidation of sulphide generated by degradation of organic matter in deeper, oxygen-free layers. Geochemical observations have shown that this coupling can be mediated by electric currents carried by unidentified electron transporters across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living, electrical cables add a new dimension to the understanding of interactions in nature and may find use in technology development. PMID:23103872

  18. Change of Collision Efficiency with Distance in Bacterial Transport Experiements

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailiang; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, William P.; Monkman, Crystal; Fuller, Mark E.

    2006-05-01

    Previous bacterial transport studies have shown decreased bacterial adhesion with transport distance, largely based on laboratory core experiments. An inferred effect of microbial population variability is invoked to interpret experimental data, but there lacks direct measurement at field-scale, especially in correlation of transport distance with change of bacterial surface properties. This study was undertaken to determine change of collision efficiency with transport distance, taking advantage of the bacterial transport experiment in Oyster, VA in the summer of 2001. Upon injection of an adhesion deficient strain, Comamonas sp. DA001 into a up-gradient well, bacterial samples were taken from multi-level samplers along the flow path, and were injected into cores of 40 cm in length and 7.5 cm in diameter packed with homogenized sediment from the same site, South Oyster focus area (SOFA). Bacterial suspension samples were also measured for bacterial electrophoretic mobility distribution. Using filtration theory, collision efficiency, the probability of bacterial attachment to the grain surfaces upon collision and a quantitative measure of bacterial adhesion, was determined using CXTFIT model fitted attachment rate, measured grain size (10th percentile), porosity, flow velocity, and collector efficiency. Collision efficiency was also determined based on the fraction of retention in the cores. Contrary to previous results and interpretation of field-scale breakthrough curves, our experimentally determined collision efficiency increases with transport distance in the core experiments, which correlates with increasingly negative surface charge of the injected bacteria. Therefore we conclude that the apparent decrease in adhesion with transport distance in the field is strongly controlled by field-scale heterogeneity in physical and chemical aquifer properties and not by microbial population heterogeneity.

  19. Long-distance transport of endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Regnault, Thomas; Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones controlling major aspects of plant growth and development. Although previous studies suggested the existence of a transport of GAs in plants, the nature and properties associated with this transport were unknown. We recently showed through micrografting and biochemical approaches that the GA12 precursor is the chemical form of GA undergoing long-distance transport across plant organs in Arabidopsis. Endogenous GA12 moves through the plant vascular system from production sites to recipient tissues, in which GA12 can be converted to bioactive forms to support growth via the activation of GA-dependent processes. GAs are also essential to promote seed germination; hence GA biosynthesis mutants do not germinate without exogenous GA treatment. Our results suggest that endogenous GAs are not (or not sufficiently) transmitted to the offspring to successfully complete the germination under permissive conditions. PMID:26515330

  20. Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadía, Anunciación; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Abadía, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms plants use to transport metals from roots to shoots are not completely understood. It has long been proposed that organic molecules participate in metal translocation within the plant. However, until recently the identity of the complexes involved in the long-distance transport of metals could only be inferred by using indirect methods, such as analyzing separately the concentrations of metals and putative ligands and then using in silico chemical speciation software to predict metal species. Molecular biology approaches also have provided a breadth of information about putative metal ligands and metal complexes occurring in plant fluids. The new advances in analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry and the increased use of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy have allowed for the identification of some metal-ligand species in plant fluids such as the xylem and phloem saps. Also, some proteins present in plant fluids can bind metals and a few studies have explored this possibility. This study reviews the analytical challenges researchers have to face to understand long-distance metal transport in plants as well as the recent advances in the identification of the ligand and metal-ligand complexes in plant fluids. PMID:24723928

  1. Engineering the quantum transport of atomic wavefunctions over macroscopic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Tino, G. M.; Ferrari, G.

    2009-08-01

    The manipulation of matter waves had an important role in the history of quantum mechanics. The first experimental validation of matter-wave behaviour was the observation of diffraction of matter by crystals, followed by interference experiments with electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules using gratings and Young's double slit. More recently, matter-wave manipulation has become a building block for quantum devices such as quantum sensors and it has an essential role in a number of proposals for implementing quantum computers. Here, we demonstrate the coherent control of the spatial extent of an atomic wavefunction by reversibly stretching and shrinking the wavefunction over a distance of more than one millimetre. The quantum-coherent process is fully deterministic, reversible and in quantitative agreement with an analytical model. The simplicity of its experimental implementation could ease applications in the field of quantum transport and quantum processing.

  2. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  3. Electronic mail.

    PubMed Central

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electronic mail (email) has many advantages over other forms of communication: it is easy to use, free of charge, fast, and delivers information in a digital format. As a text only medium, email is usually less formal in style than conventional correspondence and may contain acronyms and other features, such as smileys, that are peculiar to the Internet. Email client programs that run on your own microcomputer render email powerful and easy to use. With suitable encoding methods, email can be used to send any kind of computer file, including pictures, sounds, programs, and movies. Numerous biomedical electronic mailing lists and other Internet services are accessible by email. PMID:8520343

  4. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  5. Smooth Mailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the

  6. Smooth Mailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the…

  7. An Analysis of the Market Potential for Distance Learning Opportunities in Transportation Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkop, Brooke R.; Jasek, Debbie; Kuhn, Beverly T.

    The feasibility and sustainability of a distance learning program at the Texas Transportation Institute, which is part of the Texas A&M University system, was investigated. A literature review and online survey of current transportation professionals were conducted to examine the market potential for a distance learning program and to identify…

  8. Polar auxin transport in relation to long-distance transport of nutrients in the Charales.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of the recent demonstration of polar auxin transport (PAT) in the green macroalga Chara (Charophyceae: Charales) and, especially, options for explaining some features of PAT in the Charales. The occurrence of PAT in the Charales shows that PAT originated in the algal ancestors of the embryophytes (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, and vascular plants), although it is not yet known if PAT occurs elsewhere in the Charophyceae or in other algae. While in the embryophytes PAT occurs in parenchymatously constructed structures which commonly also have xylem and phloem (or their bryophyte analogues) as long-distance transport processes in parallel to PAT, in Chara corallina PAT shares the pathway for long-distance transport of nutrients though the parenchymatously constructed nodal complexes and the single giant cells of the internode. The speed of auxin movement of PAT is much more rapid than that attributable to diffusion and of the same order as the rate of cytoplasmic streaming in the giant internodal cells, yet complete inhibition of streaming by the inhibitor cytochalasin H does not slow down auxin transport. Explanations for this phenomenon are sought in the operation of other mechanochemical motors, dynein-tubulin and kinesin-tubulin, as alternatives to the myosin-actin system which powers cytoplasmic streaming. Experiments in which microtubules are disrupted, for example by colchicine, could show if one of the tubulin-based motors is involved. If these motors are involved, some mechanism is needed to amplify the speeds known for the motors to explain the order of magnitude higher speeds seen for auxin transport. PMID:23264638

  9. Transport Distance Effects in Regional Predictions of Nitrate Discharge: Implications for Nitrogen Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. E.; Weller, D. E.; Jordan, T. E.

    2005-05-01

    Recent publications suggest that lotic uptake plays a significant role in basin-scale nitrogen transformation. If transport through terrestrial or aquatic systems has significant, generalizable impacts on nitrogen discharge at the scale of whole watersheds, then predictions of nitrogen losses should depend on both amounts of source area and transport distances from source areas to watershed outlets. We calculated terrestrial and stream transport distances from croplands along surface flow pathways to explore effects of transport and stream size on nitrate concentrations in streams draining 420 rural watersheds in 4 physiographic provinces of the Chesapeake Basin. Transport-distance distributions were statistically related to average nitrate concentrations using non-linear regression models with fitted coefficients representing transport-distance effects. Results were compared to models predicting nitrate solely from percent cropland. In three of four provinces, accounting for transport distance improved nitrate predictions and coefficients representing transport terms were statistically significant. In Coastal Plain watersheds, predictive improvements were solely attributable to terrestrial transport, whereas channel transport in larger order streams accounted for predictive improvements within the Piedmont and Appalachian Plateau. Our results provide broad-scale support for the general significance of both aquatic and terrestrial transformations, yet suggest the relative importance of these processes varies among physiographic settings.

  10. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  11. Analytical solution for one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent coefficients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical models describing contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media are often formulated as an advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent transport coefficients. In this work, a general analytical solution is presented for the linear, one-dimensional advection-di...

  12. The Development of the Zeppelin Dirigible for Long Distance Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrle, A.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the design and construction of German airships for regular transoceanic passenger transportation during the 1916 to 1938 period are described. Technical problems related to structural weight, fuel reduction, and passenger comfort are considered.

  13. Impact of a Pharmacy Benefit Change on New Use of Mail Order Pharmacy among Diabetes Patients: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Andrew J; Parker, Melissa M; Duru, O Kenrik; Schillinger, Dean; Adler, Nancy E; Moffet, Howard H; Adams, Alyce S; Chan, James; Herman, Willam H; Schmittdiel, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a pharmacy benefit change on mail order pharmacy (MOP) uptake. Data Sources/Study Setting Race-stratified, random sample of diabetes patients in an integrated health care delivery system. Study Design In this natural experiment, we studied the impact of a pharmacy benefit change that conditionally discounted medications if patients used MOP and prepaid two copayments. We compared MOP uptake among those exposed to the benefit change (n = 2,442) and the reference group with no benefit change (n = 8,148), and estimated differential MOP uptake across social strata using a difference-in-differences framework. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Ascertained MOP uptake (initiation among previous nonusers). Principal Findings Thirty percent of patients started using MOP after receiving the benefit change versus 9 percent uptake among the reference group (p < .0001). After adjustment, there was a 26 percentage point greater MOP uptake (benefit change effect). This benefit change effect was significantly smaller among patients with inadequate health literacy (15 percent less), limited English proficiency (14 percent less), and among Latinos and Asians (24 and 16 percent less compared to Caucasians). Conclusions Conditionally discounting medications delivered by MOP effectively stimulated MOP uptake overall, but it unintentionally widened previously existing social gaps in MOP use because it stimulated less MOP uptake in vulnerable populations. PMID:25131156

  14. Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Bed load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

  15. Interplay between Velocity and Travel Distance of Kinesin-based Transport in the Presence of Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; King, Stephen; Lapierre-Landry, Maryse; Nemec, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Although the disease-relevant microtubule-associated protein tau is known to severely inhibit kinesin-based transport in vitro, potential mechanisms for reversing this detrimental effect to maintain healthy transport in cells remain unknown. Here we report the unambiguous up-regulation of multiple-kinesin travel distance despite the presence of tau, via decreased single-kinesin velocity. Intriguingly, the presence of tau also modestly reduced velocity in multiple-kinesin transport. Our stochastic simulations indicate that the tau-mediated reduction in single-kinesin travel is sufficient for the observed reduction in multiple-kinesin velocity. Taken together, our observations suggest that single-kinesin velocity is a promising experimental handle for tuning the effect of tau on multiple-kinesin travel distance, and uncover a previously unexplored role of tau for inhibiting multiple-kinesin velocity via reducing single-kinesin travel distance. This work was supported in part by NIH grant NS048501 to SJK.

  16. Effects of haul distance and stocking density on young suckling calves transported in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio; Sato, Shusuke

    2011-08-01

    We conducted applicability evaluation of recommendations of the European Union (EU) and the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) for suckling calves. Nineteen calves (14 Holstein aged 11-26 days and five cross-bred aged 13-45 days) were divided into six groups. Three groups were allocated into the stocking densities of 0.25, 0.35, 0.45 m² /head and were weekly transported 50, 100, 150 km in this order. Another three groups were allocated and transported in reverse order. Observation was conducted during and after transportation. Blood sampling was performed before and after transportation. The occurrences of lying and turning round on the truck were significantly associated with stocking density (P < 0.05), but not with haul distance. Scratching was observed only in one calf. Incidence of watery feces was not associated with both factors. There were significant effects of haul distance on the concentrations of plasma cortisol and noradrenaline, and serum aspartate aminotranserase (AST) and IgM (P < 0.05). These concentrations, except cortisol, were higher after transportation at 150 km compared to the pre-transportation value (AST and IgM P < 0.05; noradrenaline P < 0.10). Results suggest that haul distances greater than 100 km should not be recommended even for suckling calves transported in Japan. PMID:21794019

  17. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.; Sierra, F.; Prassinos, P.

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  18. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattner, Meera; Sierra, Francisco; Prassinos, Peter

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other.

  19. Measuring the misfit between seismograms using an optimal transport distance: application to full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Mérigot, Q.; Oudet, E.; Virieux, J.

    2016-04-01

    Full waveform inversion using the conventional L2 distance to measure the misfit between seismograms is known to suffer from cycle skipping. An alternative strategy is proposed in this study, based on a measure of the misfit computed with an optimal transport distance. This measure allows to account for the lateral coherency of events within the seismograms, instead of considering each seismic trace independently, as is done generally in full waveform inversion. The computation of this optimal transport distance relies on a particular mathematical formulation allowing for the non-conservation of the total energy between seismograms. The numerical solution of the optimal transport problem is performed using proximal splitting techniques. Three synthetic case studies are investigated using this strategy: the Marmousi 2 model, the BP 2004 salt model, and the Chevron 2014 benchmark data. The results emphasize interesting properties of the optimal transport distance. The associated misfit function is less prone to cycle skipping. A workflow is designed to reconstruct accurately the salt structures in the BP 2004 model, starting from an initial model containing no information about these structures. A high-resolution P-wave velocity estimation is built from the Chevron 2014 benchmark data, following a frequency continuation strategy. This estimation explains accurately the data. Using the same workflow, full waveform inversion based on the L2 distance converges towards a local minimum. These results yield encouraging perspectives regarding the use of the optimal transport distance for full waveform inversion: the sensitivity to the accuracy of the initial model is reduced, the reconstruction of complex salt structure is made possible, the method is robust to noise, and the interpretation of seismic data dominated by reflections is enhanced.

  20. Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, L. J.; Liu, J.; Duine, R. A.; Youssef, J. Ben; van Wees, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of spin information has been studied in various materials, such as metals, semiconductors and graphene. In these materials, spin is transported by the diffusion of conduction electrons. Here we study the diffusion and relaxation of spin in a magnetic insulator, where the large bandgap prohibits the motion of electrons. Spin can still be transported, however, through the diffusion of non-equilibrium magnons, the quanta of spin-wave excitations in magnetically ordered materials. Here we show experimentally that these magnons can be excited and detected fully electrically in a linear response, and can transport spin angular momentum through the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) over distances as large as 40 μm. We identify two transport regimes: the diffusion-limited regime for distances shorter than the magnon spin diffusion length, and the relaxation-limited regime for larger distances. With a model similar to the diffusion-relaxation model for electron spin transport in (semi)conducting materials, we extract the magnon spin diffusion length λ = 9.4 +/- 0.6 μm in a thin 200 nm YIG film at room temperature.

  1. A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

  2. Optimal transportation in for a distance cost with a convex constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Jiang, Feida; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We prove existence of an optimal transportation map for the Monge-Kantorovich's problem associated with a cost function c( x, y) with a convex constraint in . The cost function coincides with the Euclidean distance | x - y| if the displacement y - x belongs to a given closed convex set C with at most countable flat parts and it is infinite otherwise.

  3. Multimedia electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Brian

    1990-08-01

    Electronic mail is a facility, analogous to postal mail, in which computers are used to compose, deliver, and receive messages. Traditional electronic mail systems rely solely on text as the medium of communication. A multi-media electronic mall application, Mail, combines the media of Rich Text, voice, images, and electronic documents to facilitate interpersonal communication. With Mail, these various media can be integrated into a single message. The variety of available media and the complexity of the messages that result from their combination make it important for Mail to have a simple user interface. It was possible to develop a simple, graphically-based interface that would accommodate Mail's message complexity. The integration of these diverse media is made practical by the rich operating environment in which Mail runs. Modern advances in hardware, operating systems, libraries, and servers make possible this powerful multi-media electronic mail application.

  4. Evaluation of Mail Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    The San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) implemented mail registration for all continuing students in spring 1986. In fall 1986, a comprehensive evaluation of the registration system was conducted to assess the impact of mail registration on student enrollment, to determine the impact of mailing class schedules to students' homes, to…

  5. Aggregation-induced reversal of transport distances of soil organic matter: are our balances correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaxian; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink of green-house gases (GHGs), is the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) as it moves from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. This requires improved understanding the transport distances of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocities of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than the mineral grain size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by soil organic matter. This study aims at identifying the effect of aggregation on the transport distances of eroded SOC and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and deposition. A rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam soil. The eroded sediments were fractionated by a settling tube apparatus into six different size classes according to their settling velocities and likely transport distances. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates of the fractions of the six classes were measured. Our results show that: 1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-distributed across landscapes; 2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded organic carbon immediately after erosion, compared to undisturbed aggregates; 3) erosion might make a higher contribution to atmospheric CO2 than the estimation made without considering the effects of aggregation and extra SOC mineralization during transport.

  6. Transportation statistics annual report 1998: Long-distance travel and freight

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.

    1998-12-01

    This is the fifth annual report prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). As in prior years, the report brings together under one cover information about how the transportation system is used, how well it works, its economic contributions and costs, and its unintended consequences for safety, energy import dependency, and the environment. This year`s report also contains a detailed analysis of long-distance passenger travel and freight activity, drawing on the American Travel Survey and the Commodity Flow Survey conducted by BTS in cooperation with the US Census Bureau.

  7. Active Morphology Control for Concomitant Long Distance Spin Transport and Photoresponse in a Single Organic Device.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Mao, Zupan; Gobbi, Marco; Yan, Wenjing; Guo, Yunlong; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Chuvilin, Andrey; Casanova, Felix; Hueso, Luis E

    2016-04-01

    Long distance spin transport and photoresponse are demonstrated in a single F16 CuPc spin valve. By introducing a low-temperature strategy for controlling the morphology of the organic layer during the fabrication of a molecular spin valve, a large spin-diffusion length up to 180 nm is achieved at room temperature. Magnetoresistive and photoresponsive signals are simultaneously observed even in an air atmosphere. PMID:26823157

  8. Effect of Transport Distance and Season on Some Defects of Fresh Hams Destined for DPO Production

    PubMed Central

    Arduini, Agnese; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Dall’Olio, Stefania; Pace, Vincenzo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport to the slaughterhouse is a stressful event for pigs. Travel duration and conditions can negatively affect animal welfare and carcass quality. Some defects in fresh hams are strictly connected to pre-slaughter transportation. Journeys with short (<37 km) and long (>170 km) distances may increase damage in fresh hams and decrease Denomination Protected of Origin (DPO) Parma dry-cured ham production. Abstract Pre-slaughter handling is related to defects in fresh hams that result in exclusion from the DPO Parma chain, including hematomas, lacerations, microhaemorrhages and veining. To determine the effects of transport conditions on hams, we collected data on defects in 901,990 trimmed fresh hams from heavy pigs provided by 3,650 batches from slaughterhouse during 2012 and 2013. For all batches, transport distance (1–276 km) season and year of delivery were considered. A decrease of all defect occurrences was observed for increasing distance up to 170 km (P < 0.05). Above 170 km, however, all defects frequencies increased (P < 0.05). Season showed an effect on the incidence of defects, with an increasing of hematomas and lacerations in winter and autumn respectively (P < 0.05) and the highest percentage of veining and hemorrhages in spring (P < 0.05). Summer had the lowest incidence of defects on fresh hams. We concluded that the incidence of the examined defects and the subsequent rejection for DPO Parma ham production is lower in fresh hams transported 38–170 km during the summer. PMID:26480322

  9. Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification of transporters that sequester cadmium and arsenic in vacuoles and the mechanisms mediating the partitioning of these metal(loid)s between roots and shoots. We further discuss recent models of phloem-mediated long-distance transport, seed accumulation of Cd and As and recent data demonstrating that plants posses a defined transcriptional response that allow plants to preserve metal homeostasis. This research is instrumental for future engineering of reduced toxic metal(loid) accumulation in edible crop tissues as well as for improved phytoremediation technologies. PMID:21820943

  10. Assessment of the influence of energy density and feedstock transport distance on the environmental performance of methane from maize silages.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In Europe, thanks to public subsidy, the production of electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural feedstock has considerably grown and several AD plants were built. When AD plants are concentrated in specific areas (e.g., Northern Italy), increases of feedstock' prices and transport distances can be observed. In this context, as regards low-energy density feedstock, the present research was designed to estimate the influence of the related long-distance transport on the environmental performances of the biogas-to-electricity process. For this purpose the following transport systems were considered: farm trailers and trucks. For small distances (<5 km), the whole plant silage shows the lowest impact; however, when distances increase, silages with higher energy density (even though characterised by lower methane production per hectare) become more environmentally sustainable. The transport by trucks achieves better environmental performances especially for distances greater than 25 km. PMID:26141286

  11. Long Distance Pollen Transport to the Arctic: a Useful Proxy to Calibrate Atmospheric Circulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D.; Schevin, P.; Duzer, D.; Jolly, D.; Cambon, G.

    2004-12-01

    Tracing modern atmosphere dynamics is important to constrain models used for past climate reconstruction. The main types of tracers of arctic air masses are chemical and show different patterns. Dust in the ice at the summit of the Greenland ice cap has been shown, through isotope analyses, to have originated from Chinese deserts, mostly the Takla Makan and Gobi. Conversely, the chemical composition of the aerosols reaching the summit of the ice cap associated with backward air masses trajectories points to source areas in North America, Europe and Asia. A total of four pollen traps have been displayed on both western and eastern coasts of Greenland during the last four years in order to assess long distance transport in the Arctic domain and to identify potential vegetation source areas associated with air mass pathways. We are demonstrating the long distance transport of pollen originating from North America, Great Lakes area to southern Greenland at least during two consecutives years, 2002 and 2003. Thus a regular pattern of air masses responsible for the transport of pollen grains from North America to Greenland should be constant, as already described for anthropogenic pollutants. Another pollen trap was installed on the sea ice during the ice-sea drift expedition from North Pole of French explorer Dr. Jean-Louis Etienne in 2002. In that case we demonstrate two long distance transport to the North Pole from two different Eurasian regions during 2002: western Europe and eastern Siberia. Until now the use of pollen as an air mass tracer had not yet been investigated. Here we show that first evidence pollen represents a biological alternative to understand both present and past air mass dynamics in the Arctic and its associated relationship with biosphere changes.

  12. Analytical model for long-distance tracer-transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Jonas; Huber, Gregor; Schmid, Friederike; Blümler, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Recent investigations of long-distance transport in plants using non-invasive tracer techniques such as (11)C radiolabeling monitored by positron emission tomography (PET) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the need of dedicated methods to allow a quantitative data analysis and comparison of such experiments. A mechanistic compartmental tracer transport model is presented, defined by a linear system of partial differential equations (PDEs). This model simplifies the complexity of axial transport and lateral exchanges in the transport pathways of plants (e.g. the phloem) by simulating transport and reversible exchange within three compartments using just a few parameters which are considered to be constant in space and time. For this system of PDEs an analytical solution in Fourier-space was found allowing a fast and numerically precise evaluation. From the steady-state behavior of the model, the system loss (steadily fixed tracer along the transport conduits) was derived as an additional parameter that can be readily interpreted in a physiological way. The presented framework allows the model to be fitted to spatio-temporal tracer profiles including error and sensitivity analysis of the estimated parameters. This is demonstrated for PET data sets obtained from radish, sugar beet and maize plants. PMID:21056579

  13. Band transport across a chain of dopant sites in silicon over micron distances and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Prati, Enrico; Kumagai, Kuninori; Hori, Masahiro; Shinada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic manifestations of quantum mechanics are among the most spectacular effects of physics. In most of them, novel collective properties emerge from the quantum mechanical behaviour of their microscopic constituents. Others, like superconductivity, extend a property typical of the atomic scale to macroscopic length scale. Similarly, features of quantum transport in Hubbard systems which are only observed at nanometric distances in natural and artificial atoms embedded in quantum devices, could be in principle extended to macroscopic distances in microelectronic devices. By employing an atomic chain consists of an array of 20 atoms implanted along the channel of a silicon transistor with length of 1 μm, we extend to such unprecedented distance both the single electron quantum transport via sequential tunneling, and to room temperature the features of the Hubbard bands. Their observation provides a new example of scaling of quantum mechanical properties, previously observed only at the nanoscale, up to lengths typical of microelectronics, by opening new perspectives towards passage of quantum states and band engineering in silicon devices. PMID:26791793

  14. Band transport across a chain of dopant sites in silicon over micron distances and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prati, Enrico; Kumagai, Kuninori; Hori, Masahiro; Shinada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic manifestations of quantum mechanics are among the most spectacular effects of physics. In most of them, novel collective properties emerge from the quantum mechanical behaviour of their microscopic constituents. Others, like superconductivity, extend a property typical of the atomic scale to macroscopic length scale. Similarly, features of quantum transport in Hubbard systems which are only observed at nanometric distances in natural and artificial atoms embedded in quantum devices, could be in principle extended to macroscopic distances in microelectronic devices. By employing an atomic chain consists of an array of 20 atoms implanted along the channel of a silicon transistor with length of 1 μm, we extend to such unprecedented distance both the single electron quantum transport via sequential tunneling, and to room temperature the features of the Hubbard bands. Their observation provides a new example of scaling of quantum mechanical properties, previously observed only at the nanoscale, up to lengths typical of microelectronics, by opening new perspectives towards passage of quantum states and band engineering in silicon devices.

  15. Band transport across a chain of dopant sites in silicon over micron distances and high temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Enrico; Kumagai, Kuninori; Hori, Masahiro; Shinada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic manifestations of quantum mechanics are among the most spectacular effects of physics. In most of them, novel collective properties emerge from the quantum mechanical behaviour of their microscopic constituents. Others, like superconductivity, extend a property typical of the atomic scale to macroscopic length scale. Similarly, features of quantum transport in Hubbard systems which are only observed at nanometric distances in natural and artificial atoms embedded in quantum devices, could be in principle extended to macroscopic distances in microelectronic devices. By employing an atomic chain consists of an array of 20 atoms implanted along the channel of a silicon transistor with length of 1 μm, we extend to such unprecedented distance both the single electron quantum transport via sequential tunneling, and to room temperature the features of the Hubbard bands. Their observation provides a new example of scaling of quantum mechanical properties, previously observed only at the nanoscale, up to lengths typical of microelectronics, by opening new perspectives towards passage of quantum states and band engineering in silicon devices. PMID:26791793

  16. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

  17. The geochemical fingerprint of microbial long-distance electron transport in the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysman, Filip J. R.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a novel “electrogenic” type of sulfur oxidation has been documented in marine sediments, whereby long filamentous cable bacteria are generating electrical currents over centimeter-scale distances. Here we propose a numerical model description that is capable of quantitatively simulating the solute depth profiles and biogeochemical transformations in such electro-active marine sediments. The model is based on a conventional reactive transport description of marine sediments, which is extended with a new model formulation for the long-distance electron transport induced by the cable bacteria. The mechanism of electron hopping is implemented to describe the electron transport along the longitudinal axis of the microbial filaments. We demonstrate that this model is capable of reproducing the observed geochemical fingerprint of electrogenic sulfur oxidation, which consists of a characteristic set of O2, pH and H2S depth profiles. Our simulation results suggest that the cable bacteria must have a high affinity for both oxygen and sulfide, and that intensive cryptic sulfur cycling takes place within the suboxic zone. A sensitivity analysis shows how electrogenic sulfur oxidation strongly impacts the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, iron, carbon and calcium in marine sediments.

  18. Possibility of long-distance heat transport in weightlessness using supercritical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Chatain, D.; Nikolayev, V. S.; Ouazzani, J.; Garrabos, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Heat transport over large distances is classically performed with gravity or capillarity driven heat pipes. We investigate here whether the “piston effect,” a thermalization process that is very efficient in weightlessness in compressible fluids, could also be used to perform long-distance heat transfer. Experiments are performed in a modeling heat pipe (16.5 mm long, 3 mm inner diameter closed cylinder), with nearly adiabatic polymethylmethacrylate walls and two copper base plates. The cell is filled with H2 near its gas-liquid critical point (critical temperature: 33 K). Weightlessness is achieved by submitting the fluid to a magnetic force that compensates gravity. Initially the fluid is isothermal. Then heat is sent to one of the bases with an electrical resistance. The instantaneous amount of heat transported by the fluid is measured at the other end. The data are analyzed and compared with a two-dimensional numerical simulation that allows an extrapolation to be made to other fluids (e.g., CO2 , with critical temperature of 300 K). The major result is concerned with the existence of a very fast response at early times that is only limited by the thermal properties of the cell materials. The yield in terms of ratio, injected or transported heat power, does not exceed 10-30% and is limited by the heat capacity of the pipe. These results are valid in a large temperature domain around the critical temperature.

  19. Possibility of long-distance heat transport in weightlessness using supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Beysens, D; Chatain, D; Nikolayev, V S; Ouazzani, J; Garrabos, Y

    2010-12-01

    Heat transport over large distances is classically performed with gravity or capillarity driven heat pipes. We investigate here whether the "piston effect," a thermalization process that is very efficient in weightlessness in compressible fluids, could also be used to perform long-distance heat transfer. Experiments are performed in a modeling heat pipe (16.5 mm long, 3 mm inner diameter closed cylinder), with nearly adiabatic polymethylmethacrylate walls and two copper base plates. The cell is filled with H2 near its gas-liquid critical point (critical temperature: 33 K). Weightlessness is achieved by submitting the fluid to a magnetic force that compensates gravity. Initially the fluid is isothermal. Then heat is sent to one of the bases with an electrical resistance. The instantaneous amount of heat transported by the fluid is measured at the other end. The data are analyzed and compared with a two-dimensional numerical simulation that allows an extrapolation to be made to other fluids (e.g., CO2, with critical temperature of 300 K). The major result is concerned with the existence of a very fast response at early times that is only limited by the thermal properties of the cell materials. The yield in terms of ratio, injected or transported heat power, does not exceed 10-30% and is limited by the heat capacity of the pipe. These results are valid in a large temperature domain around the critical temperature. PMID:21230663

  20. Influence of water chemistry and travel distance on bacteriophage PRD-1 transport in a sandy aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanford, W.J.; Brusseau, M.L.; Yeh, T.-C.J.; Gerba, C.P.; Harvey, R.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of groundwater chemistry and travel distance on the transport and fate behavior of PRD-1, a bacteriophage employed as a surrogate tracer for pathogenic enteric viruses. The experiments were conducted in the unconfined aquifer at the United States Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic-Substances Hydrology Research Site in Falmouth, Massachusetts. The transport behavior of bromide (Br-) and PRD-1 were evaluated in a sewage-effluent contaminated zone and a shallower uncontaminated zone at this site. Several multilevel sampling devices located along a 13-m transect were used to collect vertically discrete samples to examine longitudinal and vertical variability of PRD-1 retardation and attenuation. The concentration of viable bacteriophage in the aqueous phase decreased greatly during the first few meters of transport. This decrease is attributed to a combination of colloid filtration (attachment) and inactivation. The removal was greater (10 -12 relative recovery) and occurred within the first meter for the uncontaminated zone, whereas it was lesser (10-9 relative recovery) and occurred over 4 m in the contaminated zone. The lesser removal observed for the contaminated zone is attributed to the influence of sorbed and dissolved organic matter, phosphate, and other anions, which are present in higher concentrations in the contaminated zone, on PRD-1 attachment. After the initial decrease, the aqueous PRD-1 concentrations remained essentially constant in both zones for the remainder of the tests (total travel distances of 13 m), irrespective of variations in geochemical properties within and between the two zones. The viable, mobile PRD-1 particles traveled at nearly the rate of bromide, which was used as a non-reactive tracer. The results of this study indicate that a small fraction of viable virus particles may persist in the aqueous phase and travel significant distances in the subsurface environment. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moving from U.S. Mail to E-Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruberg, Laurie F.; Miller, Mary G.

    The increasing use of computer technology for sending and receiving electronic mail messages not only signifies changes in how we communicate, but also signals changes in the skills, knowledge, and practices associated with communication by mail. Some of the characteristics of electronic mail (e-mail) are considered. E-mail refers to the capacity…

  2. Long-Distance Transport of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Is Concomitant with That of Polyamines.

    PubMed

    Martinis, Jacopo; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Szydlowski, Nicolas; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Gisler, Alexandra; Bürkle, Lukas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-05-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is ubiquitous and essential for cell energy supply in all organisms as a vital metabolic cofactor, known for over a century. In plants, it is established that biosynthesis de novo is taking place predominantly in green tissues and is furthermore limited to plastids. Therefore, transport mechanisms are required to mediate the movement of this polar metabolite from source to sink tissue to activate key enzymes in cellular energy generating pathways but are currently unknown. Similar to thiamine, polyamines are an essential set of charged molecules required for diverse aspects of growth and development, the homeostasis of which necessitates long-distance transport processes that have remained elusive. Here, a yeast-based screen allowed us to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PUT3 as a thiamine transporter. A combination of biochemical, physiological, and genetic approaches permitted us to show that PUT3 mediates phloem transport of both thiamine and polyamines. Loss of function of PUT3 demonstrated that the tissue distribution of these metabolites is altered with growth and developmental consequences. The pivotal role of PUT3 mediated thiamine and polyamine homeostasis in plants, and its importance for plant fitness is revealed through these findings. PMID:27006489

  3. Electron transport in asymmetric biphenyl molecular junctions: effects of conformation and molecule-electrode distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Sweta; Srivastava, Pankaj; Pattanaik, Manisha; Jain, Sandeep Kumar

    2014-09-01

    On the basis of ab-initio calculations, we predict the effect of conformation and molecule-electrode distance on transport properties of asymmetric molecular junctions for different electrode materials M (M = Au, Ag, Cu, and Pt). The asymmetry in these junctions is created by connecting one end of the biphenyl molecule to conjugated double thiol (model A) and single thiol (model B) groups, while the other end to Cu atom. A variety of phenomena viz. rectification, negative differential resistance (NDR), switching has been observed that can be controlled by tailoring the interface state properties through molecular conformation and molecule-electrode distance for various M. These properties are further analyzed by calculating transmission spectra, molecular orbitals, and orbital energy. It is found that Cu electrode shows significantly enhanced rectifying performance with change in torsion angles, as well as with increase in molecule-electrode distances than Au and Ag electrodes. Moreover, Pt electrode manifests distinctive multifunctional behavior combining switch, diode, and NDR. Thus, the Pt electrode is suggested to be a good potential candidate for a novel multifunctional electronic device. Our findings are compared with available experimental and theoretical results. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://http//dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2014-50133-2

  4. Going the Distance? NRC's Response to the National Academy of Science's Transportation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, E.P.; Bajwa, C.S.

    2008-07-01

    In February 2006, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the results of a 3 1/2-year study, titled Going the Distance, that examined the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) in the United States. NAS initiated this study to address what it perceived to be a national need for an independent, objective, and authoritative analysis of SNF and HLW transport in the United States. The study was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. This paper addresses some of the recommendations made in the NAS study related to the performance of SNF transportation casks in long duration fires, the use of full-scale package testing, and the need for an independent review of transportation security prior to the commencement of large scale shipping campaigns to an interim storage site or geologic repository. In conclusion: The NRC believes that the current regulations in 10 CFR Part 71 for the design of SNF and HLW transportation packages provide a very high level of protection to the public for very severe accidents and credible threat scenarios. As recommended by the NAS study, additional studies of accidents involving severe fires have been completed. These studies have confirmed that spent fuel casks would be expected to withstand very severe fires without the release of any fission products from the spent fuel. Additionally, changes in rail operating procedures such as the use of dedicated trains and prohibition on the co-location of SNF and flammable liquids in rail tunnels can further reduce the already low probability of severe rail accident fires involving SNF and HLW. (authors)

  5. Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals commonly found in most terrestrial sedimentary deposits, basaltic sediments are composed of varying amounts of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, and vitric and lithic fragments. One of the few locations on Earth containing such material is the Ka'u Desert of Hawaii. This area is unique in that both eolian and fluvial sediment pathways occur in the same area, thus allowing a direct comparison of particles transported by different processes over identical distances (~20 km). We are currently documenting the physical and chemical changes that take place in basaltic sediments as they are transported by wind and water over increasing distances. This will result in an improvement in our understanding of traditional sedimentological concepts when applying them to Martian surface materials. Process: The Ka'u Desert is ~350 km2 and contains the largest basaltic dune fields on Earth. We have identified several different dune types located in various parts of the desert, including climbing and falling dunes, sand sheets, parabolic dunes (that were initially barchans), and crescentic dunes. Fluvial sediments occur as floodout deposits where ephemeral streams go from confined to unconfined flow outside the continuous Keanakako'i Formation [7]. There are also a number of sand bottom streams and playas that occur along a series of channels that extend from the Keanakako'i Formation ~20 km to the sea. We have collected samples from dunes and fluvial deposits at various locations in the Ka'u Desert, at varying distances from sources and subject to different environmental processes. In the lab, we have begun to use optical and scanning electron microscopic images to assess how grain size, shape, and angularity of individual particles change with increasing transport distances. We are also conducting point counts of particles contained within each sample to better understand how olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and lithic and vitric fragments weather with increasing transport distances. Selected samples are being analyzed for changes in chemistry. The results from this study will help us to understand how basaltic sediments may weather physically and chemically on Mars, and it may provide additional insights into the formation of Martian soils and dust. In addition, we are conducting statistical analyses of our samples using photographs from an optical microscope; analyses that could be easily performed in situ by a rover. By spreading the loose material on a blank background and photographing from above, we are obtaining 2-D projections of grain sizes and shapes. Using simple morphological operations to separate touching grains, we are obtaining grain size distribution weighted by number fraction, area fraction, or estimated volume fraction—giving much better grain size resolution and requiring much less labor than sieving. Further, we are using the resulting 2-D images to perform Fourier grain shape analyses, similar to those proposed by Ehrlich and Weinberg [1970], where the perimeter of each grain is broken down into its fourier components and the weights of each harmonic are averaged over a large number of grains. This averaged spectrum gives a quantitative measure of the roughness and angularity of the grain shape and has been used to determine the sources of mixed populations of quartz particles. The results from our study will provide information needed to determine provenance and transport distances of sedimentary material imaged by MER, MSL and the 2018 lander. Observations: To date, our results have been mostly qualitative. From exposed cross sections and test augers, we know that the stratigraphy within the dunes is complicated, and generally reflects the stratigraphy of the Keanakako'i Formation itself (e.g., more vitric-rich sands are generally in the lower part of the sections). It is not immediately clear if layers within the dunes are the result of local reworking of the tephra, or if the material was transported several to tens of kilometers. There is also the basic question of when and how the dunes actually formed. This requires a better understanding of both the lithology and timing of events, which will come with further analysis. Our preliminary grain size studies have also shown expected results. We found stratification of the sand in a climbing dune, with the material composing the lower part of the dune being bimodal, made up of a fine dust and coarse, dark lithic grains, while the material from the upper part of the dune is better sorted, consisting of relatively fine grained dark sand.

  6. Long-distance transport of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive mRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gibberellic Acid (GA) signal is governed by the GAI (Gibberellic Acid Insensitive) repressor, which is characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal DELLA domain. Deletion of the DELLA domain results in constitutive suppression of GA signaling. As the GAI transcript is transportable in phloem elements, a Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) transgenic stock plant can reduce the stature of a scion through transport of gai mRNA from the stock. However, little is known about the characteristics of a scion on a gai stock. Results Arabidopsis Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) was fused with a T7 epitope tag and expressed under the control of a companion cell-specific expression promoter, Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter (CoYMVp), to enhance transport in the phloem. The CoYMVp:Atgai-T7 (CgT) transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana exhibited a dwarf phenotype and lower sensitivity to GA enhancement of shoot stature. A wild-type (WT) scion on a CgT stock contained both Atgai-T7 mRNA and the translated product. Microarray analysis to clarify the effect of the CgT stock on the gene expression pattern in the scion clearly revealed that the WT scions on CgT stocks had fewer genes whose expression was altered in response to GA treatment. An apple rootstock variety, Malus prunifolia, integrating CoYMVp:Atgai moderately reduced the tree height of the apple cultivar scion. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Atgai mRNA can move from companion cells to sieve tubes and that the translated product remains at the sites to which it is transported, resulting in attenuation of GA responses by reducing the expression of many genes. The induction of semi-dwarfism in an apple cultivar on root stock harbouring Atgai suggests that long-distance transport of mRNA from grafts would be applicable to horticulture crops. PMID:24144190

  7. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  8. 49 CFR 551.62 - Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the... foreign manufacturer mail the designation? Foreign manufacturers must mail their designations to the... documents. To avoid delays, the agency suggests using express mail services....

  9. 49 CFR 551.62 - Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the... foreign manufacturer mail the designation? Foreign manufacturers must mail their designations to the... documents. To avoid delays, the agency suggests using express mail services....

  10. 49 CFR 551.62 - Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the... foreign manufacturer mail the designation? Foreign manufacturers must mail their designations to the... documents. To avoid delays, the agency suggests using express mail services....

  11. 49 CFR 551.62 - Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the... foreign manufacturer mail the designation? Foreign manufacturers must mail their designations to the... documents. To avoid delays, the agency suggests using express mail services....

  12. 49 CFR 551.62 - Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the... foreign manufacturer mail the designation? Foreign manufacturers must mail their designations to the... documents. To avoid delays, the agency suggests using express mail services....

  13. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lapworth, John W

    2008-01-01

    The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia. PMID:20405427

  14. Cable bacteria associated with long-distance electron transport in New England salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae have been proposed as 'cable bacteria', which electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction in marine sediment and thereby create a centimetre-deep suboxic zone. We incubated New England salt marsh sediment and found long-distance electron transport across 6 mm and 16S rRNA genes identical to those of previously observed cable bacteria in Aarhus Bay sediment incubations. Cable bacteria density in sediment cores was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to the coastal, subtidal sediments with short-termed blooms of cable bacteria based on rapidly depleted iron sulfide pools, the salt marsh cable community was based on ongoing sulfate reduction and therefore probably more persistent. Previously observed seasonal correlation between Desulfobulbaceae dominance and extensive reduced sulfur oxidation in salt marshes suggest that cable bacteria at times may have an important role in situ. PMID:25224178

  15. Aggregates reduce transport distance of soil organic carbon: are our balances correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Kuhn, N. J.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink for greenhouse gases, has been the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) whilst in-transit from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. Solving this controversy requires an improved understanding of the transport distance of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocity of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. Although settling velocity has already been included in some erosion models, it is often based on mineral particle size distribution. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than by mineral particle size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by SOC. In order to identify the effect of aggregation of source soil on the transport distance of eroded SOC, and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and temporary deposition, a rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam. Both the eroded sediments and undisturbed soils were fractionated into six different size classes using a settling tube apparatus according to their settling velocities: > 250, 125 to 250, 63 to 125, 32 to 63, 20 to 32 and < 20 μm. Weight, SOC content and instantaneous respiration rates were measured for each of the six class fractions. Our results indicate that (1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-deposited down eroding hillslopes, rather than with fine particles likely transferred to water courses; (2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded SOC, and thus might contribute more CO2 to the atmosphere than current estimates which often ignore potential effects of aggregation; (3) preferential deposition of SOC-rich coarse aggregates potentially causes an increase of SOC remaining in the colluvial system and a reduction of SOC flux to the alluvial or aquatic system. These findings identify a potential error of overestimating net erosion-induced carbon sink effects, and thus add an additional factor to consider when improving our current understanding of SOC erosion and deposition on hillslopes.

  16. Aggregates reduce transport distance of soil organic carbon: are our balances correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Kuhn, N. J.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink for greenhouse gases, has been the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) whilst in-transit from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. Solving this controversy requires an improved understanding of the transport distance of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocity of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. Although settling velocity has already been included in some erosion models, it is often based on mineral particle size distribution. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than by mineral particle size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by SOC. In order to identify the effect of aggregation of source soil on the transport distance of eroded SOC, and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and temporary deposition, a rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam. Both the eroded sediments and undisturbed soil were fractionated into six different size classes using a settling tube apparatus according to their settling velocities. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates were measured for each of the six class fractions. Our results indicate that: (1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-deposited down eroding hillslopes, rather than with fine particles likely transferred to water courses; (2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded SOC, and thus might contribute more CO2 to the atmosphere than current estimates which often ignore potential effects of aggregation; (3) preferential deposition of SOC-rich coarse aggregates potentially causes an increase of SOC remaining in the colluvial system and a reduction of SOC flux to the alluvial or aquatic system. These findings identify a potential error of overestimating net erosion-induced carbon sink effects, and thus add an additional factor to consider when improving our current understanding of SOC erosion and deposition on hillslopes.

  17. 76 FR 4820 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...The Postal Service will revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) to revise pricing and eligibility standards for commercial First-Class Mail[supreg] parcels associated with the January 2011 Postal Service filing with the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC) for Mailing Services. We also will implement changes previously proposed to......

  18. Role of Clay Minerals in Long-Distance Transport of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-runout (> 50 km) subaerial landslides are rare on Earth, but are common features episodically shaping Mars' Valles Marineris (VM) trough system over the past 3.5 billion years. They display two end-member morphologies: a thick-skinned inner zone, characterized by fault-bounded, rotated blocks near their source region, and a thin-skinned, exceptionally long-runout outer zone, characterized by thin sheets spreading over 10s of km across the trough floor. Four decades of studies on the latter have resulted in two main competing hypotheses to explain their long-distance transport: (1) movement of landslides over layers of trapped air or soft materials containing ice or snow, enabling basal lubrication, and (2) fluidization of landslide materials with or without the presence of water and volatiles. To address this issue, we examine the mineralogic composition of landslides across VM using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) near-infrared spectral data analysis coupled with detailed geologic mapping and morphometric analysis of satellite images. Our survey reveals a general correlation between transport distance, significant lateral spreading, and the presence of hydrated silicates among VM landslides. Given that smectite clay absorbs water into its layered crystal structure and can reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of three v. that of dry rocks, these results suggest that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating long-runout landslide transport in VM. We propose that, concurrent with downslope failure and sliding of broken trough-wall rock, frontal landslide masses overrode and entrained hydrated-silicate-bearing trough-floor deposits, lubricating the basal sliding zones and permitting the landslide outer zones to spread laterally while moving forward over the low-friction surface. The key participation of hydrated silicates in episodic, sustained landslide activity throughout the canyon implies that clay minerals, generated by water-rock interactions in the Noachian and Hesperian (4.1- 3.3 Ga), exert a long-lasting influence on geomorphic processes that shape the surface of the planet.

  19. 76 FR 16460 - Mail Classification Change for Priority Mail Flat Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... postage on Priority Mail Flat Rate packaging . This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this... changes to enable Forever postage on Priority Mail Flat Rate packaging within the Priority Mail product...' Decision No. 11-4, March 15, 2011 (Notice). The Forever postage on Priority Mail Flat Rate...

  20. Long-distance transport of cadmium from roots to leaves of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Li, Xuemei; Zhuang, Jie; Weng, Liping; Liu, Wan; Tai, Peidong

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake by roots and translocation from roots to leaves of two eggplant species (Solanum melongena and Solanum torvum) under relatively low Cd concentrations were investigated using stable (108)Cd isotope through a number of hydroponic experiments. The uptake and translocation of (108)Cd was compared with those of (70)Zn and (15)N. The results showed more (108)Cd was loaded to the vascular channels and translocated upward to the leaves in S. melongena than in S. torvum, while the (108)Cd concentrations were significantly lower in the roots of S. melongena than in S. torvum. When the phloem and xylem were wounded by grafting treatments, the foliar (108)Cd concentrations were decreased by more than 66% regardless of the rootstock species, whereas the uptake of (108)Cd in the root was not inhibited by grafting. Similar grafting effects were observed for (70)Zn. Hence, wounding phloem and xylem by grafting disturbed the upward transport of (108)Cd and (70)Zn to the eggplant leaves. Similarly, interruption of the phloem by the girdling treatment reduced the concentrations of (108)Cd in the leaves of S. melongena by approximately 51%, though the uptake of (108)Cd by roots was not reduced by the interruption of phloem. In contrast, neither (70)Zn concentrations nor stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values in the roots and leaves of S. melongena were significantly influenced by the interruption of phloem. In conclusion, the phloem played a dominant role in the long-distance transport of Cd from the root to the leaf of S. melongena, whereas the xylem was the main channel for the translocation of Zn and N. PMID:26407708

  1. Reactive transport of uranium in fractured crystalline rock: Upscaling in time and distance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2015-09-29

    In this study, batch adsorption and breakthrough column experiments were conducted to evaluate uranium transport through altered material that fills fractures in a granite rock system at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland at pH 6.9 and 7.9. The role of adsorption and desorption kinetics was evaluated with reactive transport modeling by comparing one-, two-, and three-site models. Emphasis was placed on describing long desorption tails that are important for upscaling in time and distance. The effect of increasing pH in injection solutions was also evaluated. For pH 6.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.07 and 0.8more » ml g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.06 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.104, and 0.026 μmol g–1 for ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. For pH 7.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.05 and 0.8 mL g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.6 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.039, and 0.013 μmol g–1 for a ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. Column retardation coefficients (Rd) were 80 for pH 6.9 and 10.3 for pH 7.9. Model parameters determined from the batch and column experiments were used in 50 year large-scale simulations for continuous and pulse injections and indicated that a three-site model is necessary at pH 6.9, although a Kd-type equilibrium partition model with one-site was adequate for large scale predictions at pH 7.9. Batch experiments were useful for predicting early breakthrough times in the columns while column experiments helped differentiate the relative importance of sorption sites and desorption rate constants on transport.« less

  2. Reactive transport of uranium in fractured crystalline rock: Upscaling in time and distance.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Timothy M; Reimus, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Batch adsorption and breakthrough column experiments were conducted to evaluate uranium transport through altered material that fills fractures in a granite rock system at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland at pH 6.9 and 7.9. The role of adsorption and desorption kinetics was evaluated with reactive transport modeling by comparing one-, two-, and three-site models. Emphasis was placed on describing long desorption tails that are important for upscaling in time and distance. The effect of increasing pH in injection solutions was also evaluated. For pH 6.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.07 and 0.8 ml g(-1) h(-1), reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.06 h(-1), and site densities of 1.3, 0.104, and 0.026 μmol g(-1) for 'weak/fast', 'strong/slow', and 'very strong/very slow' sites provided the best fits. For pH 7.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.05 and 0.8 mL g(-1) h(-1), reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.6 h(-1), and site densities of 1.3, 0.039, and 0.013 μmol g(-1) for a 'weak/fast', 'strong/slow', and 'very strong/very slow' sites provided the best fits. Column retardation coefficients (Rd) were 80 for pH 6.9 and 10.3 for pH 7.9. Model parameters determined from the batch and column experiments were used in 50 year large-scale simulations for continuous and pulse injections and indicated that a three-site model is necessary at pH 6.9, although a Kd-type equilibrium partition model with one-site was adequate for large scale predictions at pH 7.9. Batch experiments were useful for predicting early breakthrough times in the columns while column experiments helped differentiate the relative importance of sorption sites and desorption rate constants on transport. PMID:26431639

  3. Reactive transport of uranium in fractured crystalline rock: Upscaling in time and distance

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2015-09-29

    In this study, batch adsorption and breakthrough column experiments were conducted to evaluate uranium transport through altered material that fills fractures in a granite rock system at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland at pH 6.9 and 7.9. The role of adsorption and desorption kinetics was evaluated with reactive transport modeling by comparing one-, two-, and three-site models. Emphasis was placed on describing long desorption tails that are important for upscaling in time and distance. The effect of increasing pH in injection solutions was also evaluated. For pH 6.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.07 and 0.8 ml g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.06 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.104, and 0.026 μmol g–1 for ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. For pH 7.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.05 and 0.8 mL g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.6 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.039, and 0.013 μmol g–1 for a ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. Column retardation coefficients (Rd) were 80 for pH 6.9 and 10.3 for pH 7.9. Model parameters determined from the batch and column experiments were used in 50 year large-scale simulations for continuous and pulse injections and indicated that a three-site model is necessary at pH 6.9, although a Kd-type equilibrium partition model with one-site was adequate for large scale predictions at pH 7.9. Batch experiments were useful for predicting early breakthrough times in the columns while column experiments helped differentiate the relative importance of sorption sites and desorption rate constants on transport.

  4. Ice transport directions and distances as a tool for ore exploration in glaciated regions - a compilation in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohlenius, G. S.; Ladenberger, A.:L.; Lax, K. L.

    2009-04-01

    The complex information from SGU database has been used to evaluate ice transport directions and distances in Sweden. Till geochemistry, boulder counting and glacial striae have been applied to detect source rocks and mineralization in various regions of the country. The preliminary ice transport distances have been estimated in one region in middle Sweden (Bergslagen) and in two regions in northern Sweden (Västerbotten and Norbotten). Boulder dispersal trains have been recognized, classified based on lithology and morphology after which the maximum ice transport distance has been evaluated. In most areas the transport is short, up to 2-3 km. In Bergslagen, Cu-Zn and W mineralization can be traced in boulders from c. 300 m to c. 7 km. In Västerbotten, the transport distances range from 400 m to 3 km for sulphide mineralization. In Norbotten, a majority of known Ni mineralization can be detected in boulders located between 0.5 and 3 km. The source bedrock can be found based on outcrop record, ice direction indicators, presence of geophysical anomalies and glacial morphological landforms. The morphological information may, however, provide contradicting information when compared with independent ice direction indicators such as striae on the bedrock. During the latest glaciation an ice divide existed in northern Sweden which complicates the detection of source rocks. Till geochemistry provides information about local and regional anomalies, however quality of information depends on the methodology (e.g. sampling density) and the grid used, which sometimes is larger then the largest boulder train observed in the studied area. On the other hand, application of boulder trains can be difficult in areas with long transport distances. While boulder trains provide exact information about the mineralization, the till geochemistry carries uncertainty about exact ore type. Geochemical anomalies can be both very local or widely spread out, e.g. in southwestern Sweden (Falbygden) large Ni and As anomalies can be correlated with distribution of Cambro-Silurian gravel over the distance of 60 km, while in Västerbotten, geochemical anomalies for Cu and Zn are very small (up tp 3 km) and they often do not correlate with boulder trains. Knowledge of transport distances gained from this project provides additional complementary information mainly for mineral exploration.

  5. Electronic Computer Originated Mail Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Takao

    Electronic mail originated by computer is exactly a new communication media which is a product of combining traditional mailing with electrical communication. Experimental service of this type of mailing started in June 10, 1985 at Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Its location in various communication media, its comparison with facsimile type electronic mailing, and status quo of electronic mailing in foreign countries are described. Then, this mailing is briefed centering around the system organization and the services. Additional services to be executed in near future are also mentioned.

  6. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL... Mail® pieces properly accepted before the day-zero Critical Entry Time at origin, the service standard... exists , and if operational and transportation feasibility permit. (b) A 2-day service standard...

  7. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL... Mail® pieces properly accepted before the day-zero Critical Entry Time at origin, the service standard... exists , and if operational and transportation feasibility permit. (b) A 2-day service standard...

  8. A model of hunter-gatherer skeletal element transport: the effect of prey body size, carriers, and distance.

    PubMed

    Schoville, Benjamin J; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2014-08-01

    Zooarchaeologists frequently use the relative abundance of skeletal elements in faunal assemblages in conjunction with foraging theory models to infer subsistence decisions made by prehistoric hunter-gatherers. However, foraging models applied to ethnoarchaeological cases have had variable success linking skeletal transport decisions with foraging predictions. Here, we approach this issue with the well-known Hadza data to statistically model the skeletal element transport decisions in response to distance from the residential hub and the number of carriers available for carcass transport. We compare our modeling approach to the traditional skeletal element utility curves from Binford's work with the Nunamiut, and to the more recently proposed Shannon evenness measure. Our approach, based on standard yet powerful statistical modeling techniques, can help researchers gain increased insight into the prey part transport responses of hunter-gatherers. Our analyses treat individual prey skeletal elements by body size as the response variable. The results of this analysis suggest that utility curves, and the Shannon evenness approach as a proxy for utility curves, are problematic for making statements about prehistoric foraging from zooarchaeological data. Transport distance does not explain a significant portion of small prey (size class 2) skeletal element transport variation. However, distance explains a great deal of transport variation in large prey (size classes 4 and 5). Inferences from skeletal element profiles should be made relative to prey body size and the discard probability of individual elements. Understanding the influence of these variables allows construction of a framework for testing archaeological element profiles against ethnographically derived transport models. PMID:25059517

  9. Effects of low-dose G-CSF formulation on hematology in healthy horses after long-distance transportation

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Yoshiro; HOBO, Seiji; KOROSUE, Kenji; OOTSUKA, Kenji; KITAUCHI, Akira; KIKKAWA, Risa; HIDAKA, Yuichi; HAGIO, Mitsuyoshi; TSUZUKI, Nao

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose filgrastim on hematology in 16 healthy horses after long-distance transportation. Horses were assigned to receive filgrastim (0.23 µg/kg, SC, once; G-CSF group; n=8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.3 ml, SC, once; control group; n=8) ≤ 1 hr before transportation. Horses were transported 2,530 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 44 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses before and after transportation. Because the post-transportation white blood cell counts and bacillary neutrophil to segmented neutrophil ratio were significantly higher in the G-CSF group, filgrastim may have promoted the mobilization of neutrophils from marrow. Filgrastim deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse shipping fever. PMID:25648988

  10. Bioinspired tilt-angle fabricated structure gradient fibers: micro-drops fast transport in a long-distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Wang, Lin; Xue, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2013-10-01

    Issues of surfaces, e.g., inspired from beetle's back, spider silk, cactus stem, etc., become the active area of research on designing novel materials in need of human beings to acquire fresh water resource from air. However, the design of materials on surface structure is little achieved on controlling of micro-scale drop transport in a long distance. Here, we report the ability of micro-drop transport in a long distance on a bioinspired Fibers with Gradient Spindle-knots (BFGS), which are fabricated by tilt angle dip-coating method. The micro-drop of ~0.25 μL transports in distance of ~5.00 mm, with velocity of 0.10-0.22 m s-1 on BFGS. It is attributed to the multi-level cooperation of the release energy of drop coalescence along the gradient spindle-knots, in addition to capillary adhesion force and continuous difference of Laplace pressure, accordingly, water drops are driven to move fast directionally in a long distance on BFGS.

  11. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  12. Integration of Biosynthesis and Long-Distance Transport Establish Organ-Specific Glucosinolate Profiles in Vegetative Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Tonni Grube; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Fuller, Victoria Louise; Olsen, Carl Erik; Burow, Meike; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2013-01-01

    Although it is essential for plant survival to synthesize and transport defense compounds, little is known about the coordination of these processes. Here, we investigate the above- and belowground source-sink relationship of the defense compounds glucosinolates in vegetative Arabidopsis thaliana. In vivo feeding experiments demonstrate that the glucosinolate transporters1 and 2 (GTR1 and GTR2), which are essential for accumulation of glucosinolates in seeds, are likely to also be involved in bidirectional distribution of glucosinolates between the roots and rosettes, indicating phloem and xylem as their transport pathways. Grafting of wild-type, biosynthetic, and transport mutants show that both the rosette and roots are able to synthesize aliphatic and indole glucosinolates. While rosettes constitute the major source and storage site for short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates, long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates are synthesized both in roots and rosettes with roots as the major storage site. Our grafting experiments thus indicate that in vegetative Arabidopsis, GTR1 and GTR2 are involved in bidirectional long-distance transport of aliphatic but not indole glucosinolates. Our data further suggest that the distinct rosette and root glucosinolate profiles in Arabidopsis are shaped by long-distance transport and spatially separated biosynthesis, suggesting that integration of these processes is critical for plant fitness in complex natural environments. PMID:23995084

  13. Evaluating Your Campus Mail Center Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Mitchell D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes five strategies to consider when evaluating the security of a campus mail center: mail center efficiency, electronic tracking, identifying dangerous mail, training, and continuity planning. (EV)

  14. AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.

  15. Simulated environmental transport distances of Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Loch Linnhe, Scotland, for informing aquaculture area management structures.

    PubMed

    Salama, N K G; Murray, A G; Rabe, B

    2016-04-01

    In the majority of salmon farming countries, production occurs in zones where practices are coordinated to manage disease agents such as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To inform the structure of zones in specific systems, models have been developed accounting for parasite biology and system hydrodynamics. These models provide individual system farm relationships, and as such, it may be beneficial to produce more generalized principles for informing structures. Here, we use six different forcing scenarios to provide simulations from a previously described model of the Loch Linnhe system, Scotland, to assess the maximum dispersal distance of lice particles released from 12 sites transported over 19 day. Results indicate that the median distance travelled is 6.1 km from release site with <2.5% transported beyond 15 km, which occurs from particles originating from half of the release sites, with an absolute simulated distance of 36 km observed. This provides information suggesting that the disease management areas developed for infectious salmon anaemia control may also have properties appropriate for salmon lice management in Scottish coastal waters. Additionally, general numerical descriptors of the simulated relative lice abundance reduction with increased distance from release location are proposed. PMID:25929159

  16. Why electronic mail is inherently private

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, S.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic Mail originated in Large-Area Networks and computer Bulletin Board Systems. On LAN`s in offices, it served the purpose of replacing office memos to make work more efficient. On BBS`s, it became a personal way of sending notes back and forth between acquaintances and frields. From the beginning e-mail was private. The Arpanet formed as a way for researchers to discuss their work over long-distances. The Arpanet, solely in existence as a government venture to assist in furthering of research, enjoyed a certain secrecy for a while. Once the Internt formed, the system allowed others inside as it no longer existed merely for the government. Much of the work on the Arpanet/Internet was necessarily private due to its nature. This made it even more important for e-mail to be private. Today the Internet includes not only what was the Arpanet (NSFNet), but companies and several BBS`s as well. Privacy is mor eimportant today than ever and should not even be an option on e-mail systems. It should be considered inherent in all systems.

  17. Transport Equation Based Wall Distance Computations Aimed at Flows With Time-Dependent Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson equations can be used for economical nearest wall distance computation and modification. Economical computations may be especially useful for aeroelastic and adaptive grid problems for which the grid deforms, and the nearest wall distance needs to be repeatedly computed. Modifications are directed at remedying turbulence model defects. For complex grid structures, implementation of the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches is not straightforward. This prohibits their use in industrial CFD solvers. However, both the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be written in advection and advection-diffusion forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson's Laplacian, are commonly occurring industrial CFD solver elements. Use of the NASA CFL3D code to solve the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations in advective-based forms is explored. The advection-based distance equations are found to have robust convergence. Geometries studied include single and two element airfoils, wing body and double delta configurations along with a complex electronics system. It is shown that for Eikonal accuracy, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is found effective and, since it does not require offset metric evaluations, easiest to implement. The sensitivity of flow solutions to wall distance assumptions is explored. Generally, results are not greatly affected by wall distance traits.

  18. Transport Equation Based Wall Distance Computations Aimed at Flows With Time-Dependent Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson equations can be used for economical nearest wall distance computation and modification. Economical computations may be especially useful for aeroelastic and adaptive grid problems for which the grid deforms, and the nearest wall distance needs to be repeatedly computed. Modifications are directed at remedying turbulence model defects. For complex grid structures, implementation of the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches is not straightforward. This prohibits their use in industrial CFD solvers. However, both the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be written in advection and advection-diffusion forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson s Laplacian, are commonly occurring industrial CFD solver elements. Use of the NASA CFL3D code to solve the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations in advective-based forms is explored. The advection-based distance equations are found to have robust convergence. Geometries studied include single and two element airfoils, wing body and double delta configurations along with a complex electronics system. It is shown that for Eikonal accuracy, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is found effective and, since it does not require offset metric evaluations, easiest to implement. The sensitivity of flow solutions to wall distance assumptions is explored. Generally, results are not greatly affected by wall distance traits.

  19. 49 CFR 831.12 - Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail... to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. (a) Only the Board's accident investigation... investigation, examination or testing shall be permitted access to wreckage, records, mail, or cargo in...

  20. 49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo... INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records § 830.10 Preservation of aircraft wreckage,...

  1. 49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo... INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records § 830.10 Preservation of aircraft wreckage,...

  2. 49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo... INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records § 830.10 Preservation of aircraft wreckage,...

  3. 49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo... INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records § 830.10 Preservation of aircraft wreckage,...

  4. 49 CFR 831.12 - Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail... to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. (a) Only the Board's accident investigation... investigation, examination or testing shall be permitted access to wreckage, records, mail, or cargo in...

  5. 49 CFR 831.12 - Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail... to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. (a) Only the Board's accident investigation... investigation, examination or testing shall be permitted access to wreckage, records, mail, or cargo in...

  6. 49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo... INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records § 830.10 Preservation of aircraft wreckage,...

  7. 49 CFR 831.12 - Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail... to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. (a) Only the Board's accident investigation... investigation, examination or testing shall be permitted access to wreckage, records, mail, or cargo in...

  8. 49 CFR 831.12 - Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail... to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. (a) Only the Board's accident investigation... investigation, examination or testing shall be permitted access to wreckage, records, mail, or cargo in...

  9. 46 CFR 201.52 - Additional time after service by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional time after service by mail. 201.52 Section 201.52 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.52 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever service of a document has been made by mail...

  10. Distance Education: When Distance Is an Issue. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Margarete

    Distance education occurs when distance and/or time prevents the learner and instructor from meeting face to face. Ways of providing distance learning opportunities include traditional materials by mail (print materials, audio and video support materials, audio and video lectures) and electronic materials (faxed information, telephone, electronic

  11. Long-distance transport of pertechnetate in the moonflower (Ipomoea alba).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Currie, Geoffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The first research on the transport of metastable-technetium-99 ((99m)Tc) in the form of pertechnetate ((99m)TcO₄⁻) within plants suggested that (99m)TcO₄⁻ may be mobile in the phloem. In contrast, more recent evidence indicates the anion is transported in the xylem. Here we demonstrate that observations of (99m)Tc transport in the test subject of these initial investigations, the moonflower (Ipomoea alba L.), are incompatible with phloem flow. Rather, the presence of only minute amounts of (99m)Tc in typical sinks for phloem solutes and (99m)Tc transport out of labeled leaves when shaded but not when illuminated strongly suggest that the radionuclide is transported in the xylem. The study increases confidence in the identification of (99m)TcO₄⁻ as a xylem mobile compound whose distribution in plants can be visualized using nuclear medicine scintigraphic imaging techniques. PMID:22036159

  12. Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…

  13. Mass transport problems for the Euclidean distance obtained as limits of p-Laplacian type problems with obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazón, J. M.; Rossi, J. D.; Toledo, J.

    In this paper we analyze a mass transportation problem that consists in moving optimally (paying a transport cost given by the Euclidean distance) an amount of a commodity larger than or equal to a fixed one to fulfil a demand also larger than or equal to a fixed one, with the obligation of paying an extra cost of -g1(x) for extra production of one unit at location x and an extra cost of g2(y) for creating one unit of demand at y. The extra amounts of mass (commodity/demand) are unknowns of the problem. Our approach to this problem is by taking the limit as p→∞ to a double obstacle problem (with obstacles g1, g2) for the p-Laplacian. In fact, under a certain natural constraint on the extra costs (that is equivalent to impose that the total optimal cost is bounded) we prove that this limit gives the extra material and extra demand needed for optimality and a Kantorovich potential for the mass transport problem involved. We also show that this problem can be interpreted as an optimal mass transport problem in which one can make the transport directly (paying a cost given by the Euclidean distance) or may hire a courier that cost g2(y)-g1(x) to pick up a unit of mass at y and deliver it to x. For this different interpretation we provide examples and a decomposition of the optimal transport plan that shows when we have to use the courier.

  14. How scientific evidence is used in Australia to inform public policy on the long distance transportation of animals.

    PubMed

    Thornber, Peter M; Adams, David B

    2008-01-01

    Most Australian livestock are transported at some stage in their lives and the attendant risks must be managed. Like other countries, Australia has location-specific challenges for the land transport of animals that derive from general geography and history, quality of the road and rail systems, design of vehicles and handling facilities, competency and experience of drivers and livestock handlers, and pre- and post-journey management of animals. Australia is a large and sparsely populated country and requires a risk-based approach which builds on equivalent outcomes and performance criteria to ensure good welfare for animals during long distance transport. There are shared responsibilities by owners and service providers along the transport chain. Governments work closely with livestock industries, transporters, stock agents, sale yard operators, abattoir owners, feedlot owners and animal welfare organisations to develop and then apply sustainable animal welfare standards and appropriate regulations. The Australian Animal Welfare Strategy sets out a broad and inclusive forum for this to occur in a consultative and cooperative manner and with the necessary input from science. Animal welfare is protected through a combination of codes of practice, appropriate transport standards, industry quality assurance programmes and the enforcement of laws and regulations. PMID:20405417

  15. Live-cell imaging of Marburg virus-infected cells uncovers actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids over long distances

    PubMed Central

    Schudt, Gordian; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Dolnik, Olga; Sodeik, Beate; Becker, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Transport of large viral nucleocapsids from replication centers to assembly sites requires contributions from the host cytoskeleton via cellular adaptor and motor proteins. For the Marburg and Ebola viruses, related viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers, the mechanism of nucleocapsid transport remains poorly understood. Here we developed and used live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled viral and host proteins to characterize the dynamics and molecular requirements of nucleocapsid transport in Marburg virus-infected cells under biosafety level 4 conditions. The study showed a complex actin-based transport of nucleocapsids over long distances from the viral replication centers to the budding sites. Only after the nucleocapsids had associated with the matrix viral protein VP40 at the plasma membrane were they recruited into filopodia and cotransported with host motor myosin 10 toward the budding sites at the tip or side of the long cellular protrusions. Three different transport modes and velocities were identified: (i) Along actin filaments in the cytosol, nucleocapsids were transported at ?200 nm/s; (ii) nucleocapsids migrated from one actin filament to another at ?400 nm/s; and (iii) VP40-associated nucleocapsids moved inside filopodia at 100 nm/s. Unique insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of nucleocapsids and their interaction with the cytoskeleton and motor proteins can lead to novel classes of antivirals that interfere with the trafficking and subsequent release of the Marburg virus from infected cells. PMID:23940347

  16. Duke Electronic Mail Post Office A Practical Mail Linking System*

    PubMed Central

    Dryfoos, James D.; Hammond, William E.; Spero, Laurence A.; Rabold, Jean S.; Straube, Mark J.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a system designed to integrate the many different electronic mail systems in use throughout Duke University. The Duke Electronic Mail Post Office project is part of Duke University Medical Center's model for Achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS). Main features of the systems, problems encountered during implementation, and future directions are presented and discussed.

  17. Welfare of Pigs Being Transported over Long Distances Using a Pot-Belly Trailer during Winter and Summer

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Jorge A.; Gonyou, Harold; Torrey, Stephanie; Widowski, Tina; Bergeron, Renée; Crowe, Trever; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Faucitano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The pot-belly trailer, which can transport large loads in a single journey, is commonly used for swine transportation in Canada. However, it is generally acknowledged that pot-belly trailers and some specific compartments within this vehicle are worse than others in terms of animal losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pot-belly design on animal welfare and meat quality in pigs being transported long distance in two different seasons of the year. Abstract A total of 2,145 pigs were transported for 8 h in summer (six trips) and winter (five trips) using a pot-belly trailer accommodating pigs in four locations (upper deck or UD, bottom-nose or BN, middle deck or MD and bottom deck or BD). Heart rate of pigs during loading and transportation and lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations in exsanguination blood were measured. Meat quality was evaluated in the Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semimembranosus (SM) and Adductor (AD) muscles. During summer, pigs loaded in the UD and MD had higher (P < 0.05) heart rate at loading compared to those located in the BD and BN. Blood lactate and CK concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) in winter than in summer. Lactate concentration was higher (P = 0.01) in the blood of pigs transported in the BN. Pigs transported in the BN had higher pHu values in the LT, SM and AD muscles (P = 0.02, P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and lower (P = 0.002) drip loss values in the SM muscle. This study confirms that some locations within the PB trailer have a negative impact on the welfare of pigs at loading and during transport with more pronounced effects in the winter due to the additive effect of cold stress. PMID:26480037

  18. Trace-metal concentrations in African dust: effects of long-distance transport and implications for human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia; Lamothe, Paul; Morman, Suzette; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel lose billions of tons of eroded mineral soils annually to the Americas and Caribbean, Europe and Asia via atmospheric transport. African dust was collected from a dust source region (Mali, West Africa) and from downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad-Tobago (TT) and U.S. Virgin Islands (VI)] and analysed for 32 trace-elements. Elemental composition of African dust samples was similar to that of average upper continental crust (UCC), with some enrichment or depletion of specific trace-elements. Pb enrichment was observed only in dust and dry deposition samples from the source region and was most likely from local use of leaded gasoline. Dust particles transported long-distances (VI and TT) exhibited increased enrichment of Mo and minor depletion of other elements relative to source region samples. This suggests that processes occurring during long-distance transport of dust produce enrichment/depletion of specific elements. Bioaccessibility of trace-metals in samples was tested in simulated human fluids (gastric and lung) and was found to be greater in downwind than source region samples, for some metals (e.g., As). The large surface to volume ratio of the dust particles (<2.5 µm) at downwind sites may be a factor.

  19. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Hannah E.; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S.; Bateman, Ken G.; Haley, Derek B.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary This study was designed to benchmark the characteristics of loads of cattle stopping for feed, water and rest during long distance transport in Canada. Another objective of this study was to determine how well these loads were following current Canadian regulations for the length of time animals can spend in transit, and how long they must be rested for. The majority of loads stopping for feed water and rest were transporting cattle to feedlots rather than processing plants. All loads were under the 48 hour maximum allowable time in transit defined under the Canadian transport regulations and all loads exceeded the minimum duration of 5 hours required for feed, water and rest. Abstract This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94%) while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices. PMID:26479884

  20. Knockdown of a Rice Stelar Nitrate Transporter Alters Long-Distance Translocation But Not Root Influx1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhong; Fan, Xiaorong; Li, Qing; Feng, Huimin; Miller, Anthony J.; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Root nitrate uptake is well known to adjust to the plants nitrogen demand for growth. Long-distance transport and/or root storage pools are thought to provide negative feedback signals regulating root uptake. We have characterized a vascular specific nitrate transporter belonging to the high-affinity Nitrate Transporter2 (NRT2) family, OsNRT2.3a, in rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica Nipponbare). Localization analyses using protoplast expression, in planta promoter-?-glucuronidase assay, and in situ hybridization showed that OsNRT2.3a was located in the plasma membrane and mainly expressed in xylem parenchyma cells of the stele of nitrate-supplied roots. Knockdown expression of OsNRT2.3a by RNA interference (RNAi) had impaired xylem loading of nitrate and decreased plant growth at low (0.5 mm) nitrate supply. In comparison with the wild type, the RNAi lines contained both nitrate and total nitrogen significantly higher in the roots and lower in the shoots. The short-term [15N]NO3? influx (5 min) in entire roots and NO3? fluxes in root surfaces showed that the knockdown of OsNRT2.3a in comparison with the wild type did not affect nitrate uptake by roots. The RNAi plants showed no significant changes in the expression of some root nitrate transporters (OsNRT2.3b, OsNRT2.4, and OsNAR2.1), but transcripts for nia1 (nitrate reductase) had increased and OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2 had decreased when the plants were supplied with nitrate. Taken together, the data demonstrate that OsNRT2.3a plays a key role in long-distance nitrate transport from root to shoot at low nitrate supply level in rice. PMID:23093362

  1. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-04-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  2. Field-scale sulfur hexafluoride tracer experiment to understand long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian; Green, Christopher T.; Stonestrom, David A.; Striegl, Rob

    2014-01-01

    A natural gradient SF6 tracer experiment provided an unprecedented evaluation of long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone (UZ) under controlled (known) conditions. The field-scale gas tracer test in the 110-m-thick UZ was conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. A history of anomalous (theoretically unexpected) contaminant gas transport observed at the ADRS, next to the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States, provided motivation for the SF6 tracer study. Tracer was injected into a deep UZ borehole at depths of 15 and 48 m, and plume migration was observed in a monitoring borehole 9 m away at various depths (0.5–109 m) over the course of 1 yr. Tracer results yielded useful information about gas transport as applicable to the spatial scales of interest for off-site contaminant transport in arid unsaturated zones. Modeling gas diffusion with standard empirical expressions reasonably explained SF6 plume migration, but tended to underpredict peak concentrations for the field-scale experiment given previously determined porosity information. Despite some discrepancies between observations and model results, rapid SF6 gas transport commensurate with previous contaminant migration was not observed. The results provide ancillary support for the concept that apparent anomalies in historic transport behavior at the ADRS are the result of factors other than nonreactive gas transport properties or processes currently in effect in the undisturbed UZ.

  3. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock (ruminants, pigs and poultry).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Malcolm A; Kettlewell, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    During road transportation, livestock are subjected to a number of concurrent potential stressors that can increase mortality and morbidity and compromise welfare status and production efficiency. A major concern is the thermal micro-environment within the vehicle with both heat stress and cold stress constituting major problems. It is possible to mitigate the effects of external climatic conditions by improving vehicle design and operation using engineering solutions that match 'on-board' environmental conditions with the biological requirements of the animals. This review describes an investigative approach that targets four elements. These are the thermal conditions on commercial transport vehicles under a range of climatic conditions, the 'thermal comfort zones' or target conditions for different livestock species, the heat and moisture loads upon vehicles that must be dissipated and the thermodynamic characteristics of animal transport vehicles that affect the design of mechanical or active ventilation systems able to function at maximum efficiency under everyday commercial conditions. Results of research around these four elements can provide the sound scientific basis for improved vehicle design and operation and for legislation and codes of practice aimed at optimising animal welfare and productivity in relation to transportation of livestock on journeys of both long and short duration. PMID:20405426

  4. Effects of long distance transportation and CO2 stunning on critical blood values in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rojas, D; Becerril-Herrera, M; Roldan-Santiago, P; Alonso-Spilsbury, M; Flores-Peinado, S; Ramírez-Necoechea, R; Ramírez-Telles, J A; Mora-Medina, P; Pérez, M; Molina, E; Soní, E; Trujillo-Ortega, M E

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two stressful stimuli, long transportation and 80% CO(2) stunning on metabolic-physiological variables, hemodynamic and gas exchange in slaughter pigs imported from the U.S. to Mexico City with a journey time of 27 h, with 8 h of lairage at the abattoir. A total of 589 pigs from three genders were monitored. Overall results show that both stimuli caused metabolic and physiological disturbance. Gilts were more efficient in controlling glycemia after a long transport journey (24h), than castrated males (P<0.05), whose glucose was increased above the 30 mg/dL basal level. Females on arrival had 23mg/dL more lactate compared to basal levels (P<0.05). Stunning caused more physiological effects compared to transportation. Regarding the gender factor, females and entire males were more susceptible to transport stress and stunning compared to the castrated pigs, and entire males showed more complications restoring the gas exchange compared to females and barrows. PMID:22155113

  5. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    SciTech Connect

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  6. Perceived health status associated with transport choice for short distance trips

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, C.E.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; van Wesemael, P.J.V.; den Hertog, F.R.J.; Stipdonk, H.L.; Int Panis, L.L.R.; van Kempen, E.E.M.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines the association between active transport and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and a healthy body weight in the Netherlands. Methods Data were collected by an online questionnaire (N = 3663) in the Netherlands. Data collection was conducted over a period of one calendar year starting July 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between choice of transport mode (bicycling vs car use and walking vs car use) and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and having a healthy weight respectively. The presented OR's may be interpreted as the likelihood of an average person in our dataset to have a better perceived health or body weight when choosing active transport (either bicycling or walking) over using the car for trips up to 7.5 km. Results Cycling was found to be significantly associated with a better perceived general health (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.07–1.70) and having a healthy body weight (OR = 1.52, 95%CI:1.28–1.79), but not with a better perceived psychological wellbeing (OR = 1.12, 95%CI:0.93–1.34). Walking was found to be significantly associated with having a healthy body weight (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.09–1.69), but not with a better perceived general (OR = 1.12, 95%CI:0.84–1.51) or psychological wellbeing (OR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.67–1.08). Conclusion Our results suggest that active transport use has been associated with a better perceived general health and a healthy body weight. However, more research is needed to be able to elucidate which factors cause this better health. No associations were observed between transport choice and perceived psychological wellbeing. PMID:26844158

  7. Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Sixty years ago, distance education probably involved a pen, paper, and secretarial classes conducted via snail mail. Today, students in ever-increasing numbers are more likely to link to the Internet to learn how to conjugate French verbs or dissect frogs in Advanced Placement courses, according to a new landmark study from the U. S. Department…

  8. Long-Distance Transport of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Is Concomitant with That of Polyamines1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Martinis, Jacopo; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Szydlowski, Nicolas; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Gisler, Alexandra; Bürkle, Lukas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2016-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is ubiquitous and essential for cell energy supply in all organisms as a vital metabolic cofactor, known for over a century. In plants, it is established that biosynthesis de novo is taking place predominantly in green tissues and is furthermore limited to plastids. Therefore, transport mechanisms are required to mediate the movement of this polar metabolite from source to sink tissue to activate key enzymes in cellular energy generating pathways but are currently unknown. Similar to thiamine, polyamines are an essential set of charged molecules required for diverse aspects of growth and development, the homeostasis of which necessitates long-distance transport processes that have remained elusive. Here, a yeast-based screen allowed us to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PUT3 as a thiamine transporter. A combination of biochemical, physiological, and genetic approaches permitted us to show that PUT3 mediates phloem transport of both thiamine and polyamines. Loss of function of PUT3 demonstrated that the tissue distribution of these metabolites is altered with growth and developmental consequences. The pivotal role of PUT3 mediated thiamine and polyamine homeostasis in plants, and its importance for plant fitness is revealed through these findings. PMID:27006489

  9. Long distance transport of lambs and the time needed for subsequent recovery.

    PubMed

    Knowles, T G; Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Kestin, S C; Rhind, S M; Edwards, J E; Anil, M H; Dolan, S K

    1993-09-18

    The effects of nine and 14 hours of road transport and the subsequent recovery in lairage of 392 hill lambs were studied in August and November. The gathering and the handling of the lambs were stressful, both physically and psychologically, and the journey imposed further psychological and metabolic stress. The levels of noise in the trailer were high (90db[A]). There were no measurable differences between the responses of the lambs transported for nine or 14 hours and there appeared to be three stages in their recovery after transport. After the first 24 hours of lairage changes in the blood components usually associated with short term stress and dehydration had recovered; after 96 hours there had been a well defined recovery of liveweight and the levels of most of the metabolites measured appeared to have stabilised and after 144 hours the lambs had recovered almost completely, most of the creatine phosphokinase had been cleared from the plasma and their plasma protein levels had stabilised. PMID:8236656

  10. Does size and buoyancy affect the long-distance transport of floating debris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Peter G.

    2015-08-01

    Floating persistent debris, primarily made from plastic, disperses long distances from source areas and accumulates in oceanic gyres. However, biofouling can increase the density of debris items to the point where they sink. Buoyancy is related to item volume, whereas fouling is related to surface area, so small items (which have high surface area to volume ratios) should start to sink sooner than large items. Empirical observations off South Africa support this prediction: moving offshore from coastal source areas there is an increase in the size of floating debris, an increase in the proportion of highly buoyant items (e.g. sealed bottles, floats and foamed plastics), and a decrease in the proportion of thin items such as plastic bags and flexible packaging which have high surface area to volume ratios. Size-specific sedimentation rates may be one reason for the apparent paucity of small plastic items floating in the world’s oceans.

  11. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  12. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    PubMed Central

    Mulville, Jacqueline A.; Bruford, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human–wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  13. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  14. Douglas M-3 mail plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    The predecessor of this Douglas M-3 mail plane was first manufactured in about 1926 as a replacement for the ancient DH-4 which was widely used at that time for carrying the mail. The aircraft was powered by the World War I Liberty engine of about 400 HP. This Douglas M-3 mail plane was used by the NACA in evaluations of flying qualities. The M-3 also took part in a study on the influence of tip shape on wing load distribution.

  15. Privacy-enhanced electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-06-01

    The security of electronic mail sent through the Internet may be described in exactly three words: there is none. The Privacy and Security Research Group has recommended implementing mechanisms designed to provide security enhancements. The first set of mechanisms provides a protocol to provide privacy, integrity, and authentication for electronic mail; the second provides a certificate-based key management infrastructure to support key distribution throughout the internet, to support the first set of mechanisms. These mechanisms are described, as well as the reasons behind their selection and how these mechanisms can be used to provide some measure of security in the exchange of electronic mail.

  16. The long distance transport (LDT) of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain to Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šikoparija, B..; Skjøth, C. A.; Alm Kübler, K.; Dahl, A.; Radišić, P.; Sommer, J.; Grewling, Ł.; Smith, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) pollen grains are important aeroallergens that cause seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma to sensitive individuals. This study describes the conditions required for the LDT of ragweed pollen from the Pannonian Plain (PP) to Sweden on the 27- 28 August 2011, using a combination of daily and bi-hourly pollen count data, the overall synoptic weather situation, 3D analysis of the regional scale orography using Digital Elevation Models, surface meteorological data, satellite observations, and air mas trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. During the episode, high pressure (1024-1028 hPa) situated over European Russia and the Black Sea to the east and deep low pressure (~990 hPa) over the British Isles in the northwest resulted in a general southeast-northwest movement of air, and the occurrence of the jet-effect Kosava wind in the PP. This dry and gusty wind caused ragweed pollen release on the PP and pollen to be transported to the northwest. A foehn wind that governs air movement down leeward slopes into the PP was also active. The 24 and 25 August 2011 were very hot and caused large amounts of ragweed pollen to be released and taken high up in the atmosphere through convection. Such conditions also resulted in high Planetary Boundary Layers over the entire area, conditions that facilitated the transport of pollen over areas of low elevation on the Western Carpathians (i.e. the Moravian Gate or Low Baskid passes) northward into Poland and beyond.

  17. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source. Dispersal kernels for field observations were compared to results predicted by a Gaussian dispersal-based spore transport model. In 2011 and 2012, dispersal kernel shape coefficients were similar for both results observed in the field and predicted by the model, with both being dictated by a power law function, indicating that turbulence was the dominant transport factor on the scale we studied (˜ 1 km). Model predictions had a stronger correlation with the number of spores being released when using a time varying q0 emission rate (r= 0.92 in 2011 and r= 0.84 in 2012) than an identical daily pattern q0 emission rate (r= 0.35 in 2011 and r= 0.32 in 2012). The actual numbers of spores deposited were 3 and 2000 times lower than predicted if Qpot were equal to the actual number of spores released in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Future work should address estimating the actual number of spore released from an inoculated field during any given season, to improve prediction accuracy of the model. This work should assist in improving current risk assessment tools for FHB and contribute to the development of early warning systems for the spread of F. graminearum.

  18. JPEG 2000 over mail protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, Takatoshi; Meessen, Jerome; Verschueren, Yannick; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2003-11-01

    JPEG2000 offers a new coding of images with a hierarchical data structure from which a user can pick up the only necessary codestream for the generation of representation matched to his needs. Therefore, a unitary and multipurpose image exchange system can be made from combining the new JPEG2000 technology and classical mailer tools. This paper proposes such a flexible access method. The proposed server consists of two POP3 servers, a SMTP server, the image list database and the image database. The POP3 server performs user authentication and provides the image list. The SMTP server receives the client's request and transmits the appropriate image. First the user connects to the 1st POP3 server with ID and password, then receives the available image list as e-mails. One mail is sent for each available representation of an image, i.e. each JPEG2000 progression order and image format. The hash value of the codestream and the JPEG2000 progression order values are included in the Message-ID of each mail header. Information, such as the name of the image, size, quality of image, is written in the text. Then, the user orders an image by replying to the corresponding mail of the list. When the SMTP server receives the client's e-mail, it prepares the desired image, and provides a mail with that image to the client via the second POP3 server. The proposed system is validated with different platform mailer tools.

  19. Current Trends in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Richard F.; Thompson, Theron D.

    1995-01-01

    Defines distance education; provides a historical background; discusses emerging modes of instruction, including interactive television, computer-mediated communication, electronic mail, and national and international networks; and considers the future of distance education, including the use of the Internet, multimedia, and a new paradigm for…

  20. Long-distance longitudinal transport of gravel across the Cordilleran thrust belt of Montana and Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecke, Susanne U.; Vandenburg, Colby J.; Blankenau, James J.; M'gonigle, John W.

    2000-05-01

    Two newly identified middle Eocene paleovalleys (≥ 100 km long) preserved on top of the southwest Montana reentrant of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt indicate long-lived longitudinal flow across the thrust belt and resolve a long-standing debate about the source of the voluminous quartzite debris in the Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary Divide, Harebell, and Pinyon conglomerates of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Geologic mapping, stratigraphic, provenance, and geochronologic studies revealed that Eocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks in the paleovalleys are as thick as 2 km, onlap preexisting bedrock, and interfinger with well-rounded conglomerate derived from formations exposed only to the west. The middle Eocene paleovalleys are the youngest expression of a major paleoriver system that transported sediment toward the foreland during the Sevier orogeny. An Eocene subcrop map shows that the headwaters of the Eocene paleovalleys coincided with structural culminations in the thrust belt that supplied sediment to the Divide conglomerate of the Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary Beaverhead Group. Ultimately, the Lemhi Pass and Hawley Creek paleovalleys provided several thousand cubic kilometers of quartzite debris to the Pinyon and Harebell conglomerates of northwest Wyoming 200 350 km away, and formed the northwest half of a giant longitudinal drainage system. Sevier contraction, not the rising Idaho batholith, first uplifted vast culminations beneath the headwaters of this river system.

  1. Using E-Mail in Computer Assisted Freshman Composition and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowden, Rebecca; Humphries, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Describes teaching freshman composition and rhetoric via e-mail as a distance education course at Tomball Community College (Texas). Discusses student and instructor responsibilities, e-mail procedures, problems encountered (lack of time, and managing disk and mailbox space), and benefits (reduced paper use, typed corrections, accurate records,…

  2. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Mireille D.; Fall, Assane Gueye; Diouf, Thérèse A. R.; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Takac, Peter; Sidibé, Issa; Parker, Andrew G.; Mutika, Gratian N.; Bouyer, Jérémy; Gimonneau, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. Conclusions/Significance The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:26562521

  3. Securing electronic mail: The risks and future of electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeber, S. A.

    1993-03-01

    The network explosion of the past decade has significantly affected how many of us conduct our day to day work. We increasingly rely on network services such as electronic mail, file transfer, and network newsgroups to collect and distribute information. Unfortunately, few of the network services in use today were designed with the security issues of large heterogeneous networks in mind. In particular, electronic mail, although heavily relied upon, is notoriously insecure. Messages can be forged, snooped, and even altered by users with only a moderate level of system proficiency. The level of trust that can be assigned at present to these services needs to be carefully considered. In the past few years, standards and tools have begun to appear addressing the security concerns of electronic mail. Principal among these are RFC's 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424, which propose Internet standards in the areas of message encipherment, key management, and algorithms for privacy enhanced mail (PEM). Additionally, three PEM systems, offering varying levels of compliance with the PEM RFC's, have also recently emerged: PGP, RIPEM, and TIS/PEM. This paper addresses the motivations and requirements for more secure electronic mail, and evaluates the suitability of the currently available PEM systems.

  4. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada.

    PubMed

    Flint, Hannah E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Bateman, Ken G; Haley, Derek B

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94%) while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices. PMID:26479884

  5. The Shortlist Method for Fast Computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and Finding Optimal Solutions to Transportation Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  6. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  7. The magmatic plumbing of the submarine Hachijo NW volcanic chain, Hachijojima, Japan: long distance lateral magma transport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Geshi, N.; Itoh, J.; Kawanabe, Y.; Tsujino, T.

    2005-12-01

    Recent geophysical observations on basaltic composite volcanoes in Izu-Bonin arc reveal the process of long distance lateral magma transport within the shallow middle crust. Such intrusion events sometimes caused flank fissure eruption and also triggered a formation of collapsed caldera (Miyakejima 2000). To clarify a long-distance magma transport system of the basaltic composite volcano in volcanic arc from geological and petrological aspects, we investigated a submarine volcanic chain (Hachijo NW chain) nested Hachijo Nishiyama volcano, a frontal composite volcano in the northern Izu arc. The volcanic chain extends 15 km from Hachijo-Nishiyama volcano and is composed of ridges and many small cones with basal diameters generally less than 2km. Dredge sampling recovered basaltic lavas and spatters. A diving survey using a ROV (Hyper Dolphin) revealed pillow lava flows on steep slopes and accumulation of spatters and agglutinates near the eruption center. Basalts from the Hachijo NW chain generally have more primitive composition (up to nearly 7% of MgO) compared to the basaltic rocks from the Nishiyama. The bulk magma composition of Hachijo NW chain is controlled by fractionation of clinopyroxene, olivine and plagioclase while plagioclase accumulation was indicated by aluminum-rich character of the Nishiyama volcano and its subaerial satellite cones. Trace element ratios unaffected by melting or crystal fractionation (e.g., Nb/Zr) are not significantly different between the Nishiyama and the Hachijo NW chain. This implies that the sources of magma for these volcanic systems are basically identical. However, ratios affected by melting process are significantly different between the two. Hachijo NW chain shows lower LREE/HREE and Zr/Y, implying difference in degree of partial melting of the source. Other possible processes for producing these differences in trace element characteristics include crustal assimilation. These results obtained so far appear to indicate that the feeding system of the Hachijo NW chain is independent from that of the Nishiyama volcano, even though there are some transitional lavas implying interaction between the two systems. Magma erupted from the Nishiyama volcano seems to have plagioclase accumulation after crystal fractionation of plagioclase and mafic minerals possibly in a shallow crustal magma chamber. Magmas erupted in the Hachijo NW chain, however, experienced much less crystal fractionation in the crust during ascent. They erupted without plagioclase accumulation. The observed difference in their magmas precludes the possibility that the Hachijo NW chain magma was separated and transported from the magma system of Nishiyama volcano before the Nishiyama magma was affected by crystal fractionation and plagioclase accumulation.

  8. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mail. 352.11 Section 352.11 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.11 Mail. (a) Transit mail. (1) Plants, plant products... international mail or international parcel post and which are in transit through the United States to...

  9. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mail. 352.11 Section 352.11 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.11 Mail. (a) Transit mail. (1) Plants, plant products... international mail or international parcel post and which are in transit through the United States to...

  10. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mail. 352.11 Section 352.11 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.11 Mail. (a) Transit mail. (1) Plants, plant products... international mail or international parcel post and which are in transit through the United States to...

  11. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mail. 352.11 Section 352.11 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.11 Mail. (a) Transit mail. (1) Plants, plant products... international mail or international parcel post and which are in transit through the United States to...

  12. Business E-mail: Guidelines for Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Mary; Rogers, Priscilla S.; Rymer, Jone

    2003-01-01

    Presents guidelines to help businesspeople and business students become more effective and efficient in the use of e-mail. Includes the authors' experiences as instructors in diverse business schools and corporate settings. Notes that the guidelines cover: recognizing the nature of e-mail; composing e-mail; and processing and managing e-mail. (SG)

  13. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mail. 352.11 Section 352.11 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.11 Mail. (a) Transit mail. (1) Plants, plant products, plant pests, and soil which arrive in the United States in closed dispatches by international mail...

  14. Electronic Mail for Personal Computers: Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomer, Christinger

    1994-01-01

    Examines competing, commercially developed electronic mail programs and how these technologies will affect the functionality and quality of electronic mail. How new standards for client-server mail systems are likely to enhance messaging capabilities and the use of electronic mail for information retrieval are considered. (Contains eight…

  15. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Parra, Diana C.; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in urban mobility play a major role in transforming metropolitan areas into healthier places. This study quantified the impact of changes in travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation of working age adult population of São Paulo. Methods and findings Through different scenarios, we estimated the daily time spent in transportation per inhabitant (divided in active and non-active transportation time) and the proportion of inhabitants accumulating 30 min or more of daily active transportation. The replacement of individual for collective motorized modes in long distance trips (> 1000 m) in combination with the substitution of long for short trips positively impacted all outcomes. Compared to the current situation, there was an increase in the active transportation time (from 19.4 to 26.7 min/inhabitant), which also increased the proportion of adults active for transportation (from 27.6% to 35.4%). Additionally, the non-active transportation time decreased (from 67.0 to 26.2 min/inhabitant), which helped to reduce the total time spent in transportation (from 86.4 to 52.9 min/inhabitant). Conclusion Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips. PMID:26844071

  16. You've Got Mail!: Understanding How E-Mail Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptually, e-mail is not a whole lot different from regular postal mail ("snail mail"), except that it is much faster. E-mail requires three things: (1) a personal computer; (2) a telephone or communication line; and (3) an Internet provider (e-mail service account). This article provides details on how it works--plus some research activities…

  17. 43 CFR 1810.2 - Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications by mail; when mailing... GENERAL GUIDANCE General Rules § 1810.2 Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met. (a) Where the regulations in this chapter provide for communication by mail by the authorized officer,...

  18. 14 CFR 1206.601 - Mail, fax and e-mail requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601... AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Procedures § 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of... Aeronautics and Space Administration.” NASA cannot be responsible for cash sent by mail; stamps will not...

  19. 77 FR 64150 - Product Change-Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Change--Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: October 18, 2012. FOR... Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 11 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  20. 14 CFR 1206.601 - Mail, fax and e-mail requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601... AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Procedures § 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of... Aeronautics and Space Administration.” NASA cannot be responsible for cash sent by mail; stamps will not...

  1. 77 FR 60730 - Product Change-Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Change--Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: October 4, 2012. FOR... Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 10 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  2. 43 CFR 1810.2 - Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications by mail; when mailing... GENERAL GUIDANCE General Rules § 1810.2 Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met. (a) Where the regulations in this chapter provide for communication by mail by the authorized officer,...

  3. 14 CFR 1206.601 - Mail, fax and e-mail requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601... AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Procedures § 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of... Aeronautics and Space Administration.” NASA cannot be responsible for cash sent by mail; stamps will not...

  4. 43 CFR 1810.2 - Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications by mail; when mailing... GENERAL GUIDANCE General Rules § 1810.2 Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met. (a) Where the regulations in this chapter provide for communication by mail by the authorized officer,...

  5. 78 FR 6361 - Product Change-Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Change--Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: January 30, 2013. FOR... Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 13 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  6. 43 CFR 1810.2 - Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications by mail; when mailing... GENERAL GUIDANCE General Rules § 1810.2 Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met. (a) Where the regulations in this chapter provide for communication by mail by the authorized officer,...

  7. 14 CFR 1206.601 - Mail, fax and e-mail requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601... AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Procedures § 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of... Aeronautics and Space Administration.” NASA cannot be responsible for cash sent by mail; stamps will not...

  8. 14 CFR 1206.601 - Mail, fax and e-mail requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mail, fax and e-mail requests. 1206.601... AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Procedures § 1206.601 Mail, fax and e-mail requests. In view of... Aeronautics and Space Administration.” NASA cannot be responsible for cash sent by mail; stamps will not...

  9. Comparing Two Survey Research Approaches: E-Mail and Web-Based Technology versus Traditional Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Colleen M.; Mailloux, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Contrasted two survey methodologies: e-mail-Web and traditional mail. Found that: (1) e-mail-Web respondents were proportionately more likely to be male and enrolled in school full-time; (2) more individual question non-response was present for the e-mail-Web sample; and (3) e-mail-Web respondents value different aspects of graduate school. (EV)

  10. 78 FR 12234 - Promotions and Incentive Programs for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... will be offered at various time periods during calendar year 2013 for Presorted and automation First... metered mailings will be as follows: First-Class Mail postcards $0.20 First-Class Mail automation and... automation and Presorted flats 0.35 STD Mail Regular letters 0.12 STD Mail Regular flats 0.13 STD...

  11. 76 FR 16534 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... revision to reflect that Standard Mail service standards apply to all Periodicals flats pieces entered in... mailings will be assigned the service standards applicable to Standard Mail pieces. Stanley F. Mires, Chief... 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats AGENCY: Postal Service. TM...

  12. Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects over long distances in air using a bending vibrator and a reflector.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-05-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation of small particles, including liquid droplets, over long distances is discussed. It is well known that particles can be trapped at the nodal points of an acoustic standing wave if the particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the standing wave. We used an experimental setup consisting of a 3-mm-thick, 605-mm-long duralumin bending vibrating plate and a reflector. A bolt-clamped Langevin transducer with horn was attached to each end of the vibrating plate to generate flexural vibrations along the plate. A plane reflector with the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the plate at a distance of approximately 17 mm to generate an ultrasonic standing wave between them and to trap the small particles at the nodal lines. The acoustic field and acoustic radiation force between the vibrator and reflector were calculated by finite element analysis to predict the positions of the trapped particles. The sound pressure distribution was measured experimentally using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. By controlling the driving phase difference between the two transducers, a flexural traveling wave can be generated along the vibrating plate, and the vertical nodal lines of the standing wave and the trapped particles can be moved. The flexural wave was excited along the vibrator at 22.5 kHz. A lattice standing wave with a wavelength of 35 mm in the length direction could be excited between the vibrator and the reflector, and polystyrene spheres with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at the nodal lines of the standing wave. The experimental and calculated results showed good agreement for the relationship between the driving phase difference and the positions of the trapped particles. Noncontact transportation of the trapped particles over long distances could be achieved by changing the driving phase difference. The position of the trapped particles could be controlled to an accuracy of 0.046 mm/deg. An ethanol droplet could also be trapped and moved. PMID:20442026

  13. Hooked on E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Information overload, and an expectation that e-mails, tweets, and text messages will be answered immediately, impact productivity. The younger, information-addicted workers have a greater capacity to process this open floodgate of information, as well as a better ability to multitask. Research suggests that there is a marked drop in worker…

  14. LLNL E-Mail Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamaggiore, N. J.; Hamel, B. B.

    2005-10-31

    The LLNL E-mail Utilities software library is a Java API that simplifies the creation and delivery of email in Java business applications. It consists of a database-driven template engine, various strategies for composing, queuing, dispatching email and a Java Swing GUI for creating and editing email templates.

  15. 76 FR 76619 - International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes-Mailing Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...The Postal Service will revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) throughout various Individual Country Listings (ICLs) to reflect price adjustments for First-Class Mail International[supreg] and extra...

  16. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative

  17. The History of Distance Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

  18. 48 CFR 242.1404 - Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail. 242.1404 Section 242.1404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404 Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail....

  19. PbWoxT1 mRNA from pear (Pyrus betulaefolia) undergoes long-distance transport assisted by a polypyrimidine tract binding protein.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xuwei; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Jing; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengnan; Wang, Aide; Meng, Dong; Zhang, Qiulei; Chen, Qiuju; Li, Tianzhong

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which mRNAs are transported over long distances in the phloem between the rootstock and the scion in grafted woody plants. We identified an mRNA in the pear variety 'Du Li' (Pyrus betulaefolia) that was shown to be transportable in the phloem. It contains a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) domain and was therefore named Wox Transport 1 (PbWoxT1). A 548-bp fragment of PbWoxT1 is critical in long-distance transport. PbWoxT1 is rich in CUCU polypyrimidine domains and its mRNAs interact with a polypyrimidine tract binding protein, PbPTB3. Furthermore, the expression of PbWoxT1 significantly increased in the stems of wild-type (WT) tobacco grafted onto the rootstocks of PbWoxT1 or PbPTB3 co-overexpressing lines, but this was not the case in WT plants grafted onto PbWoxT1 overexpressing rootstocks, suggesting that PbPTB3 mediates PbWoxT1 mRNA long-distance transport. We provide novel information that adds a new mechanism with which to explain the noncell-autonomous manner of WOX gene function, which enriches our understanding of how WOX genes work in fruit trees and other species. PMID:26661583

  20. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  1. Keeping E-Mail in Top Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that e-mail has been firmly entrenched in offices and homes for some time, debate still rages online about e-mail usage and style. How should and e-mail message begin and end? If replying to a message, should the message be quoted before or after? What tone should be taken with a business e-mail? The author talked with some heavy…

  2. 77 FR 65912 - Priority Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Priority Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 19. This notice... existing Priority Mail Contract 19 subject to this docket.\\1\\ The Postal Service includes one attachment...

  3. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  4. 28 CFR 540.18 - Special mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special mail. 540.18 Section 540.18... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.18 Special mail. (a) The Warden shall open incoming special mail only in the presence of the inmate for inspection for physical contraband and the qualification...

  5. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End. (1) The service standard for Sectional Center Facility...

  6. 28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mail depositories. 540.11 Section 540.11... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.11 Mail depositories. The Warden shall establish at least one mail depository within the institution for an inmate to place outgoing correspondence. The...

  7. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  8. 28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mail depositories. 540.11 Section 540.11... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.11 Mail depositories. The Warden shall establish at least one mail depository within the institution for an inmate to place outgoing correspondence. The...

  9. 28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mail depositories. 540.11 Section 540.11... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.11 Mail depositories. The Warden shall establish at least one mail depository within the institution for an inmate to place outgoing correspondence. The...

  10. 28 CFR 540.18 - Special mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special mail. 540.18 Section 540.18... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.18 Special mail. (a) The Warden shall open incoming special mail only in the presence of the inmate for inspection for physical contraband and the qualification...

  11. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  12. 28 CFR 540.18 - Special mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special mail. 540.18 Section 540.18... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.18 Special mail. (a) The Warden shall open incoming special mail only in the presence of the inmate for inspection for physical contraband and the qualification...

  13. 28 CFR 540.18 - Special mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special mail. 540.18 Section 540.18... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.18 Special mail. (a) The Warden shall open incoming special mail only in the presence of the inmate for inspection for physical contraband and the qualification...

  14. 28 CFR 540.18 - Special mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special mail. 540.18 Section 540.18... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.18 Special mail. (a) The Warden shall open incoming special mail only in the presence of the inmate for inspection for physical contraband and the qualification...

  15. 28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mail depositories. 540.11 Section 540.11... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.11 Mail depositories. The Warden shall establish at least one mail depository within the institution for an inmate to place outgoing correspondence. The...

  16. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  17. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  18. 28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mail depositories. 540.11 Section 540.11... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.11 Mail depositories. The Warden shall establish at least one mail depository within the institution for an inmate to place outgoing correspondence. The...

  19. Electronic Mail in the Library: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Becki

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of electronic mail in libraries. Topics discussed include general business applications; interlibrary loan; acquisition and claims systems; document delivery; complete text journal databases; reference requests and answers; obstacles to electronic mail usage; telecommunications; cost factors; and the impact of voice mail and…

  20. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available....

  1. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available....

  2. Senior Citizens Who Use E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Edelbaum, Jessica K.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in the aging population and use of computer-related technology have spawned research regarding older adults' use of the Internet. This study examined characteristics differentiating rural Midwestern senior citizens (N = 298) who use e-mail from those who do not. Compared to those who did not use e-mail, e-mail-using seniors were younger…

  3. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available....

  4. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available....

  5. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  6. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End. (1) The service standard for Sectional Center Facility...

  7. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End. (1) The service standard for Sectional Center Facility...

  8. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  9. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  10. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  11. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  12. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is...

  13. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... ) 601.10.20, to incorporate standards that prohibit the outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of...

  14. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  15. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  16. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  17. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  18. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available....

  19. The U.S. Mail vs. E-mail: Understanding Interpersonal Communication through Traditional Pedagogical Pathways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarts, Valerie R.; Walters, Timothy L.

    This paper investigates a number of questions concerning the relative advantages of the U.S. Mail versus electronic mail. Specifically, the paper asks: (1) what is the impact that E-mail has on the ways in which people communicate interpersonally in a visual presentation; (2) will E-mail replace such traditional forms of communication as greeting…

  20. 77 FR 38684 - Product Change-Express Mail & Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Change--Express Mail & Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION... Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products List. DATES: June 28, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Express Mail &...

  1. 77 FR 40527 - New Express Mail Price Category-Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... 111 New Express Mail Price Category--Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope AGENCY: Postal Service TM... a new price category under Express Mail, Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope, established by the Governors of the United States Postal Service . The new price category is available under Docket...

  2. 76 FR 10757 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... authorized or have a pending authorization to mail at Periodicals prices. The current processes that identify... standards for full- service automation mailings. Intelligent Mail barcodes placed on mailpieces prepared... describes the combined mailing process and the potential for pieces to receive deferred USPS handling....

  3. Response Rates for Mixed-Mode Surveys Using Mail and E-Mail/Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converse, Patrick D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Huang, Xiaoting; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines response rates for mixed-mode survey implementation involving mail and e-mail/Web components. Using Dillman's Tailored Design Method, 1,500 participants were sent a survey either (a) via mail with a follow-up contact via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based questionnaire or (b) via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based…

  4. Mitigating E-Mail Requests in Teenagers' First and Second Language Academic Cyber-Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcón Soler, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The study analyses teenagers' e-mail requests during academic cyber-consultation, exploring how the performance of request modifiers is influenced by participants' perceptions of the degree of imposition of the speech act and social distance with the recipient. A total of 295 e-mail requests, 145 produced by British English speakers…

  5. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate variability in sport horses during long-distance road transport.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Biau, S; Möstl, E; Becker-Birck, M; Morillon, B; Aurich, J; Faure, J-M; Aurich, C

    2010-04-01

    It is widely accepted that transport is stressful for horses, but only a few studies are available involving horses that are transported regularly and are accustomed to transport. We determined salivary cortisol immunoreactivity (IR), fecal cortisol metabolites, beat-to-beat (RR) interval, and heart rate variability (HRV) in transport-experienced horses (N=7) in response to a 2-d outbound road transport over 1370 km and 2-d return transport 8 d later. Salivary cortisol IR was low until 60 min before transport but had increased (P<0.05) 30 min before loading. Transport caused a further marked increase (P<0.001), but the response tended to decrease with each day of transport. Concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites increased on the second day of both outbound and return transports and reached a maximum the following day (P<0.001). During the first 90 min on Day 1 of outbound transport, mean RR interval decreased (P<0.001). Standard deviations of RR interval (SDRR) decreased transiently (P<0.01). The root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) decreased at the beginning of the outbound and return transports (P<0.01), reflecting reduced parasympathetic tone. On the first day of both outbound and return transports, a transient rise in geometric HRV variable standard deviation 2 (SD2) occurred (P<0.01), indicating increased sympathetic activity. In conclusion, transport of experienced horses leads to increased cortisol release and changes in heart rate and HRV, which is indicative of stress. The degree of these changes tended to be most pronounced on the first day of both outbound and return transport. PMID:19962266

  6. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  7. Characterization of submarine canyon bathymetries in northern Ionian Sea, Italy, using sediment geochemical variation induced by transportation distance and basin depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesco, Perri; Tohru, Ohta; Salvatore, Critelli

    2015-07-01

    Geochemical data of marine mud sediments collected from the Esaro, Neto and Corigliano canyons in the northern Ionian Sea (southern Italy) were investigated in order to characterize canyon bathymetry types. Mud sample compositions analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA) provided useful information for the morphology of the depositional area of the northern Ionian Sea. The use of sediment geochemical data as well as transportation distance and depth as input variables for PCA enabled the extraction of following latent variables: basin depth (PC1), sedimentation rate (PC2) and transportation distance (PC3). Based on these results, we further developed geochemical indices that can estimate basin depth (F1), sedimentation rate (F2) and transportation distance (F3); these functions can be solely calculated from the elemental concentration data of the mud samples. Since these F1, F2 and F3 functions are mathematically independent variables, they facilitate more precise characterization of individual canyon types. That is, the Esaro Canyon is regarded as a sediment-starved deep canyon characterized by a single source area; the Neto Canyon can be seen as a deeply sloped submarine apron system and sediments are mainly supplied by the sediment gravity flows; the Corigliano Canyon is characterized by multiple sources and moderately sloped system, whose sediments disperse mainly by traction currents. These interpretations are concordant with the basin bathymetry of the studied area. Therefore, F1, F2 and F3 functions might be applicable to any oceanic basins.

  8. Discrimination of membrane transporter protein types using K-nearest neighbor method derived from the similarity distance of total diversity measure.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Su, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Shi-Hua; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Cheng-Yan; Yang, Lei; Li, Guang-Peng

    2015-03-01

    Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the fundamental cellular processes of living organisms. Computational techniques are very necessary to annotate the transporter functions. In this study, a multi-class K nearest neighbor classifier based on the increment of diversity (KNN-ID) was developed to discriminate the membrane transporter types when the increment of diversity (ID) was introduced as one of the novel similarity distances. Comparisons with multiple recently published methods showed that the proposed KNN-ID method outperformed the other methods, obtaining more than 20% improvement for overall accuracy. The overall prediction accuracy reached was 83.1%, when the K was selected as 2. The prediction sensitivity achieved 76.7%, 89.1%, 80.1% for channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters, primary active transporters, respectively. Discrimination and comparison between any two different classes of transporters further demonstrated that the proposed method is a potential classifier and will play a complementary role for facilitating the functional assignment of transporters. PMID:25607774

  9. Does transportation mode modify associations between distance to food store, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI in low-income neighborhoods?1234

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Matthews, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Background: A consistent body of research has shown that the neighborhood food environment is associated with fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and obesity in deprived neighborhoods in the United States. However, these studies have often neglected to consider how transportation can moderate associations between food accessibility and diet-related outcomes. Objective: This study examined associations between distance to primary food store, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI and whether mode of transportation to the primary food store moderates this relation. Design: Cross-sectional data from the baseline wave of the Philadelphia Neighborhood Food Environment Study were used. A telephone survey of adult (≥18 y of age) household primary food shoppers residing in 2 Philadelphia neighborhoods was conducted (n = 1440). Results: In a bivariate linear regression analysis, distance to primary food store did not predict F&V consumption (β = 0.04; 95% CI: −0.00, 0.09). Linear regression analysis stratified by transportation mode to the main F&V store showed no difference in F&V consumption between car, public, and multimodal transportation users. Compared with respondents using multimodal transportation, those using public transit had a significantly lower BMI (β = −1.31; 95% CI: −2.50, −0.10), whereas those using an automobile did not (β = −0.41; 95% CI: −1.36, 0.54). Conclusions: The assumption that using an automobile to access food stores results in increased F&V consumption was not confirmed. Significant associations were found for the relation between transportation mode and BMI. Theory-based mechanisms explaining relationships between the primary transportation mode used to access food stores and BMI should be further explored. PMID:23193006

  10. Recyclability of bottom ash mixed with dredged soils according to the transportation distance and mixing ratio through the estimation of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sookack; Son, Younghwan; Yoon, Taegang; Bong, Taeho

    2015-06-01

    Bottom ash and dredged soils can be used as construction materials because they are similar in physical characteristics to natural aggregates. However, whenever such byproducts as bottom ash and dredged soils are used, the energy efficiency of recycling is offset to a certain degree by emissions from transportation. The objective of this study is to analyze the environmental efficiency of recycling bottom ash and dredged soils through the estimation of CO2 emissions, considering both transportation distance and the mixing ratio. Agricultural reservoirs were selected as the final destinations of these recycled materials. This analysis demonstrated that using 100% bottom ash emits less CO2 than using natural aggregates when the ash is transported less than 35.15 km. This breakeven distance increases exponentially with the mass fraction of admixed dredged soil. However, admixture with natural soils does not affect the breakeven distance. Using the breakeven distances, the effective area with which it is efficient to recycle bottom ash was delineated. When dredged soil is admixed to a mass fraction of 70%, the effective area covers most of South Korea. In addition, 100% bottom ash was efficient in 1622 reservoirs (9.45%) in terms of CO2 emissions, and the mixture with 30% bottom ash and 70% dredged soils is efficient in 98.83% of all of the reservoirs in Korea. Bottom ash is most useful for reducing CO2 emissions when it is mixed with dredged soils, which are a byproduct of construction found on-site. This result is meaningful because bottom ash and dredged soils are complementary in their physical characteristics, and they need to be mixed before use as construction materials. The recycling of bottom ash becomes even more attractive with anticipated improvements in fuel efficiency. PMID:25867102

  11. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail... in this part, the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual,...

  12. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail... in this part, the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual,...

  13. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail... in this part, the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual,...

  14. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail... in this part, the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual,...

  15. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail... in this part, the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual,...

  16. 76 FR 17787 - Market Dominant Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... 111 Market Dominant Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First- Class Mail and Standard Mail AGENCY... Service Agreement (NSA) Market Dominant product for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail combined letter... NSA for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail is based on the combined total revenue of First-Class...

  17. Properties of evolving e-mail networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; De Wilde, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    Computer viruses spread by attaching to an e-mail message and sending themselves to users whose addresses are in the e-mail address book of the recipients. Here we investigate a simple model of an evolving e-mail network, with nodes as e-mail address books of users and links as the records of e-mail addresses in the address books. Within specific periods, some new links are generated and some old links are deleted. We study the statistical properties of this e-mail network and observe the effect of the evolution on the structure of the network. We also find that the balance between the generation procedure and deletion procedure is dependent on different parameters of the model. PMID:15697448

  18. 75 FR 56920 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service proposes to revise Mailing Standards of the...

  19. Did You Get My E-Mail? Moving E-Mails beyond the Inbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…

  20. 76 FR 16588 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... current processes that identify and isolate Periodicals origin mixed area distribution center (OMX... flats will be required to meet the standards for a full-service automation mailing. Intelligent Mail... describes the combined mailing process and the potential for pieces to receive deferred USPS handling....

  1. Expression of Sucrose Transporter cDNAs Specifically in Companion Cells Enhances Phloem Loading and Long-Distance Transport of Sucrose but Leads to an Inhibition of Growth and the Perception of a Phosphate Limitation1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Kasturi; Khadilkar, Aswad S.; Sulpice, Ronan; Pant, Bikram; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Fisahn, Joachim; Stitt, Mark; Ayre, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) is the predominant form of carbon transported through the phloem from source to sink organs and is also a prominent sugar for short-distance transport. In all streptophytes analyzed, Suc transporter genes (SUTs or SUCs) form small families, with different subgroups evolving distinct functions. To gain insight into their capacity for moving Suc in planta, representative members of each clade were first expressed specifically in companion cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested for their ability to rescue the phloem-loading defect caused by the Suc transporter mutation, Atsuc2-4. Sequence similarity was a poor indicator of ability: Several genes with high homology to AtSUC2, some of which have phloem-loading functions in other eudicot species, did not rescue the Atsuc2-4 mutation, whereas a more distantly related gene, ZmSUT1 from the monocot Zea mays, did restore phloem loading. Transporter complementary DNAs were also expressed in the companion cells of wild-type Arabidopsis, with the aim of increasing productivity by enhancing Suc transport to growing sink organs and reducing Suc-mediated feedback inhibition on photosynthesis. Although enhanced Suc loading and long-distance transport was achieved, growth was diminished. This growth inhibition was accompanied by increased expression of phosphate (P) starvation-induced genes and was reversed by providing a higher supply of external P. These experiments suggest that efforts to increase productivity by enhancing sugar transport may disrupt the carbon-to-P homeostasis. A model for how the plant perceives and responds to changes in the carbon-to-P balance is presented. PMID:24777345

  2. 32 CFR 536.67 - Mailing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Note to 536.67: See also AR 27-20, paragraph 13-5, and DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-77. ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing procedures. 536.67 Section 536.67... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims 536.67 Mailing procedures. Thirty...

  3. 32 CFR 536.67 - Mailing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mailing procedures. 536.67 Section 536.67 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims 536.67 Mailing procedures. Thirty or sixty day letters seeking information...

  4. 32 CFR 536.67 - Mailing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Note to 536.67: See also AR 27-20, paragraph 13-5, and DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-77. ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mailing procedures. 536.67 Section 536.67... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims 536.67 Mailing procedures. Thirty...

  5. 32 CFR 536.67 - Mailing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Note to 536.67: See also AR 27-20, paragraph 13-5, and DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-77. ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mailing procedures. 536.67 Section 536.67... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims 536.67 Mailing procedures. Thirty...

  6. 32 CFR 536.67 - Mailing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Note to 536.67: See also AR 27-20, paragraph 13-5, and DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-77. ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing procedures. 536.67 Section 536.67... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims 536.67 Mailing procedures. Thirty...

  7. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  8. 76 FR 46856 - Mail Classification Schedule Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Mail packaging. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... classification changes pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning Priority Mail packaging.\\1\\ \\1\\ Notice... with variances in customized packaging provided to commercial customers and the standardized...

  9. Encouraging Student Teachers via Electronic Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Linda H.

    This study examined whether sending frequent encouraging electronic mail (e-mail) messages to elementary and special education student teachers would improve their teaching skills and performance on the Praxis II Principles of Learning and Teaching examination. In 2001, 43 elementary and special education student teachers enrolled in a…

  10. The Perils of E-Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Describes several legal issues involving school board member use of electronic mail, especially violation of state open-meeting laws. Offers several tips to avoid legal pitfalls. Briefly describes Freedom on Information Act issues related to electronic communication. Provides sample policies on e-mail use. (PKP)

  11. 78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... banner at the top of the Commission's Web site ( http://www.prc.gov ) or by directly accessing the... Priority Mail pieces that bear an Intelligent Mail package barcode (IMpb) and for which the mailer pays... in this docket will be posted to the Commission's Web site at http://www.prc.gov . Public...

  12. 39 CFR 3055.50 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.50 Section 3055.50 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.50 Standard Mail. (a) For each product...

  13. 39 CFR 3055.21 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.21 Section 3055.21 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.21 Standard Mail. For each product within...

  14. 39 CFR 3055.21 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.21 Section 3055.21 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.21 Standard Mail. For each product within...

  15. 39 CFR 3055.21 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.21 Section 3055.21 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.21 Standard Mail. For each product within...

  16. 39 CFR 3055.50 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.50 Section 3055.50 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.50 Standard Mail. (a) For each product...

  17. 39 CFR 3055.50 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.50 Section 3055.50 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.50 Standard Mail. (a) For each product...

  18. 39 CFR 3055.50 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.50 Section 3055.50 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.50 Standard Mail. (a) For each product...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.21 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.21 Section 3055.21 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.21 Standard Mail. For each product within...

  20. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029) revising the standards. Since that time... 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal....3, to update present ``content requirements'' on materials eligible for mailing at...

  1. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Periodicals Mail'' published by the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 41989-41991) is revised to... March 27, 1995, the Postal Service published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029... Part 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION: Final rule; revised....

  2. 76 FR 47614 - Mail Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Mail Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request for a change in classification to the ``Reply Rides Free'' program. The change increases the qualifying First-Class mail letter weight. This...

  3. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing. 3500.11 Section 3500.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  4. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mailing. 3500.11 Section 3500.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  5. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing. 3500.11 Section 3500.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  6. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mailing. 3500.11 Section 3500.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  7. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing. 3500.11 Section 3500.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  9. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  10. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  11. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  12. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  13. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

  14. Using E-Mail across Computer Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of telecommunications technology to exchange electronic mail, files, and messages across different computer networks. Networks highlighted include ARPA Internet; BITNET; USENET; FidoNet; MCI Mail; and CompuServe. Examples of the successful use of networks in higher education are given. (Six references) (LRW)

  15. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors

  16. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS NOTICE AND HEARING ON SECTION 103(d) REGULATIONS § 228.8 Mailing address. Unless otherwise specified in...

  17. 22 CFR 1507.11 - Mailing list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing list. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.11 Mailing list. An individual's name and address may not be sold or rented by the Foundation unless such action is...

  18. 22 CFR 1003.9 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing lists. 1003.9 Section 1003.9 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION IN IAF RECORDS § 1003.9 Mailing lists. An individual's name and address may not be sold or rented by the Inter-American...

  19. Characterisation and distribution of deposited trace elements transported over long and intermediate distances in north-eastern France using Sphagnum peatlands as a sentinel ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Caroline; Diaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Monna, Fabrice; Franchi, Marielle; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements in the form of particulate matter can be transported downwind from their emission sources and may have negative effects on human health and ecosystems. The transport of trace elements is often studied by monitoring their accumulation in mosses. The aim of this study was to characterise and describe the distribution of deposited trace elements transported over long and intermediate distances in north-eastern France, a location far from the main emission sources. We analysed the trace element accumulation in Sphagnum capillifolium in 54 ombrotrophic peatlands distributed in six regions of France (Alps, Jura, Massif Central, Morvan, Rhône corridor and Vosges). The concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in the surface were determined in three replicate samples of Sphagnum within each peatland. The enrichment factors calculated using Ti as the element of reference clearly exhibited a predominant anthropogenic origin for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, although the concentrations were relatively low compared to those found in other studies. The isolation of the peatlands from any fixed and traffic emission source suggests an intermediate and/or long-distance transport of the pollutants from their emission sources. The structure of the compositional dataset was explored using a covariance biplot. The first score was used as a synthetic indicator of the origin of the deposits and the degree of contamination of each peatland. This new index showed that the Vosges and the Alps were the regions most affected by high enrichment of trace elements, particularly Pb and Cd. The erosion of soils highly contaminated by former mining and smelting activities in the Vosges and the polluted cities and busy highways in the Alps may account for these distributions. The Jura was the least affected region sampled, and the other regions presented intermediate anthropogenic deposits. This study provides valuable information concerning the management and protection of these ecosystems.

  20. Employee Attitudes Regarding Electronic Mail Policies: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Kenneth L.; Goss, Blaine; Townley, Charles; Horton, Valerie J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates attitudes toward e-mail and e-mail policies through a case study of e-mail users at a university library. Indicates those who use e-mail frequently have more favorable attitudes to it than less frequent users and are more opposed to policies regulating e-mail communication. Notes that employees prefer guidelines to restrictive…

  1. Cognitive distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  2. Optical refractive synchronization: bidirectional information transport over a single wavelength/single laser for distances > 100 Km: analysis and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, James R.

    1999-11-01

    The direction of this paper is to describe the experiments and analytical techniques used by SilkRoad, Inc. for sending 40 GHz of bandwidth, incorporating an eclectic body of data, over a single laser - single fiber over > 100Km of optical fiber using the same wavelength in both directions. The paper will outline the various basic tenets of Optical Refractive Synchronization and the subsequent use of Ellipsometric Phase, based on these tenets, that allows a compilation of CATV, voice, video and SONET data to be transported in both directions without interference between the otpical signals going in both directions over the single fiber. The second portion of the paper will describe the test setup and measurement techniques that were used to validate the analytical models. Pictures of the Spectrum Analyzer data and the subsequent recovery of the eclectic information is then provided for all of the signals that have been transported.

  3. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Copies of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual, both current and previous issues,...

  4. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Copies of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual, both current and previous issues,...

  5. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Copies of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual, both current and previous issues,...

  6. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Copies of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual, both current and previous issues,...

  7. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Copies of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual, both current and previous issues,...

  8. Communication Problems in a Distance-Education Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Bruce C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes distance education in an elementary science methods course using newsgroups and electronic mail discussion groups via computer. Compares the newsgroup to the discussion group and points out the importance of interaction in cooperative learning. (YDS)

  9. Successful Electronic Distance Collaboration: The Importance of Social Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Phil

    1995-01-01

    Describes an electronic distance collaboration ("collaborative effort done over distance, using computer networks such as the Internet") via electronic mail between students at three universities. Topics include how success in electronic distance collaboration should be defined, what factors are related to success, and the importance of social…

  10. A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Sending Binary Vector Plasmid DNA by Mail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a simple cost-effective technique for the transport of plasmid DNA by mail. Our results demonstrate that common multipurpose printing paper is a satisfactory substrate and superior to the more absorbent 3MM chromatography paper for the transport of plasmid DNA through the U.S. first clas...

  11. Provenancing of silcrete raw materials indicates long-distance transport to Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, during the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Nash, David J; Coulson, Sheila; Staurset, Sigrid; Ullyott, J Stewart; Babutsi, Mosarwa; Hopkinson, Laurence; Smith, Martin P

    2013-04-01

    Lithic artifacts from the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) offer an avenue to explore a range of human behaviors, including mobility, raw material acquisition, trade and exchange. However, to date, in southern Africa it has not been possible to provenance the locations from which commonly used stone materials were acquired prior to transport to archaeological sites. Here we present results of the first investigation to geochemically fingerprint silcrete, a material widely used for tool manufacture across the subcontinent. The study focuses on the provenancing of silcrete artifacts from the MSA of White Paintings Shelter (WPS), Tsodilo Hills, in the Kalahari Desert of northwest Botswana. Our results suggest that: (i) despite having access to local quartz and quartzite at Tsodilo Hills, MSA peoples chose to transport silcrete over 220 km to WPS from sites south of the Okavango Delta; (ii) these sites were preferred to silcrete sources much closer to Tsodilo Hills; (iii) the same source areas were repeatedly used for silcrete supply throughout the 3 m MSA sequence; (iv) during periods of colder, wetter climate, silcrete may have been sourced from unknown, more distant, sites. Our results offer a new provenancing approach for exploring prehistoric behavior at other sites where silcrete is present in the archaeological record. PMID:23453438

  12. Transport aérien longue distance des brûlés graves: revue de la littérature et application pratique

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, T.; Hoffmann, C.; Forsans, E.; Cirodde, A.; Boutonnet, M.; Jault, P.; Tourtier, J.-P.; Bargues, L.; Donat, N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les brûlés graves nécessitent une prise en charge multidisciplinaire dans des centres hautement spécialisés. La rareté de ces centres impose souvent le transport aérien médicalisé longue distance. Cependant, il y a peu de données publiées sur ces transferts. Dans cette mise au point, pour optimiser la prise en charge des brûlés dès qu’un transport aérien est décidé ou même seulement envisagé, nous proposons d’extraire de cette littérature limitée des principes simples s’appuyant aussi sur l’expérience pratique du Service de Santé des Armées françaises. Nous décrivons d’abord comment les contraintes aéronautiques peuvent affecter le transport de brûlés graves à bord d’aéronefs. Nous abordons ensuite la régulation de ces missions, en analysant les risques associés au transport aérien des brûlés graves et leurs implications sur les indications, la chronologie et les modalités du transport. Enfin, nous développons la conduite de la mission, comprenant la préparation du matériel et des consommables avant le vol, l’évaluation et la mise en condition du patient avant l’embarquement, et la poursuite de la prise en charge en vol. PMID:26668564

  13. 78 FR 11237 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contract... entered into an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 1 negotiated service...

  14. 77 FR 16568 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... has entered into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The...

  15. 78 FR 70601 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning a bilateral rate and service agreement with...

  16. 78 FR 70600 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... performance reporting requirements for all contracts that fall within the parameters of the Inbound...

  17. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... entered into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3...

  18. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cover, and for processing, using and disclosing information obtained from mail covers. (c) Definitions... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope,...

  19. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cover, and for processing, using and disclosing information obtained from mail covers. (c) Definitions... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope,...

  20. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cover, and for processing, using and disclosing information obtained from mail covers. (c) Definitions... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope,...

  1. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cover, and for processing, using and disclosing information obtained from mail covers. (c) Definitions... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope,...

  2. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cover, and for processing, using and disclosing information obtained from mail covers. (c) Definitions... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope,...

  3. 77 FR 71643 - Standard Mail Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning Standard Mail pricing and related matters. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes other administrative...

  4. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 600.2 Mailing addresses. (a) Licensed biological products... applications (BLAs) and their amendments and supplements, adverse experience reports, biological product deviation reports, fatality reports, and other correspondence. Biological products samples must not be...

  5. Volcano/net electronic mail network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Jonathan

    To promote rapid communication and data exchange among volcanologists, an international list of researchers and their electronic mail addresses is being compiled. If you are currently an electronic mail user on a non-commercial network (e.g., BITNET , SPAN, ARPANET, CSNET, UUCP, JANET, OZ, etc.) or on one of the networks that uses GTE Mail or Telemail (such as Kosmos, Pi-mail, or Omnet) and would like to be added to the list, send your name, title, user identification, node, network name, and a brief (one-line maximum) description of your volcano-related research interests to Jonathan Fink, Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe , AZ 85287 (tel.: 602-965-3195) (BITNET: AIJHF@ ASUACAD).

  6. 75 FR 10529 - Mail Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Mail Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Classification Schedule. The change affects a change in terminology. This notice addresses procedural steps....90 et seq. concerning a change in classification which reflects a change in terminology from...

  7. Probing the transport of plasma-generated RONS in an agarose target as surrogate for real tissue: dependency on time, distance and material composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szili, Endre J.; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Ha; Hatta, Akimitsu; Short, Robert D.

    2015-05-01

    We report a simple experimental approach to follow the transport of helium (He) plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) through millimetre thick agarose targets. These RONS may be either primary RONS, generated directly by the plasma jet, or secondary RONS generated for example at the surface of, or within, the material. Our experiment involves placing an agarose film over a quartz cuvette filled with deionized water. The agarose film is exposed to a He plasma jet and the UV absorption profile (of the deionized water) is recorded in real-time. Plasma exposure time, source-target distance and agarose film thickness and composition are varied to explore their effects on the depth of RONS delivery by the plasma jet. We conclude that plasma UV plays a minor role in the transport of RONS; whereas direct plasma contact and the He gas flow promote the transport of RONS into tissue. Our data indicate an accumulation of RONS within the agarose film (during plasma exposure) and a subsequent (time-lagged) release into the deionized water. Our approach can be readily adapted to other plasma sources; it can accommodate more complex biological materials, and has the potential to provide new insights into plasma-induced phenomena within real tissues.

  8. Distribution of mathematical software via electronic mail

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Grosse, E.

    1985-03-01

    A large collection of mathematical software is now available via electronic mail. Messages sent to netlib at anl-mcs (on the Arpanet/CSNET) or to research netlib (on the UNIX network) wake up a server that distributes items from the collection. For example the on-line message, send index, gets a library catalog by return mail. We describe how to use the service and some of the issues in its implementation.

  9. E-mail on the Move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    PocketScience, Inc. was a member of the NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center. Their PocketMail product is an email service that brings email capabilities to new hand-held devices. The PocketMail service uses technology originally developed at JPL. Through its involvement with the ATCC, PocketScience, Inc. was able to use this space probe communications technology and adapt it for advanced signal processing on Earth.

  10. Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This publication is devoted to distance education. "The Future of Distance Teaching Universities in a Worldwide Perspectives" (John S. Daniel) examines challenges likely to face the various countries and regions of the world in the next decade. "An Australian University's Approach to Distance Education--Formal and Non-Formal" (Peter M. Grayson)…

  11. Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The American Association of University Professors' government relations committee report on distance learning addresses issues and makes recommendations concerning the political context of the growth of distance learning; definitions, descriptions, and claims of distance learning; academic freedom; intellectual property rights; faculty workload…

  12. Sandstone detrital modes in the Makran accretionary wedge, southwest Pakistan: implications for tectonic setting and long-distance turbidite transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critelli, Salvatore; De Rosa, Rosanna; Platt, John Paul

    1990-10-01

    Detrital modes of Early Miocene to Early Pliocene sandstones from the Makran accretionary wedge in southwest Pakistan show a mainly quartzolithic composition with an evolution from the transitional recycled to quartzose recycled. The lithic types, however, indicate two distinct petrofacies. Accreted abyssal plain turbidites have Qp 11Lvm 27Lsm 62 and Lm 39Lv 27Ls 34, showing a predominant supply from sedimentary and metasedimentary source terranes whereas slope and shelf facies sediments deposited on the accretionary wedge have Qp 7Lvm 47Lsm 47 and Lm 22Lv 48Ls 30 due to an increase of volcanic detritus. The detrital modes of the abyssal plain sediments suggest a recycled orogenic source, probably the Himalayan collision zone. The facies and longitudinal dispersal pattern suggest deposition in an Oligo-Miocene analogue of the present Indus fan. The sediment must have been transported across strike, parallel to the transform structure linking the Makran wedge to the Himalayas (Chaman-Ornach Nal fault system), and fed into the fan at the western end of the subduction zone. The detrital modes also show an increase in volcanic detritus with time (Lv/L = 0.27 for the Early Miocene abyssal plain sediments to 0.47 for the slope sequences). This may have been derived from Late Mesozoic volcanic terrains in northern Baluchistan or the Ladakh Himalayas, or more probably from the Early to middle Miocene andesitic volcanic centre in the northern Makran.

  13. 21 CFR 1321.01 - DEA mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DEA mailing addresses. 1321.01 Section 1321.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEA MAILING ADDRESSES § 1321.01 DEA mailing addresses. The following table provides information regarding mailing addresses to be used when sending specified correspondence to...

  14. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  15. 42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemption for mails. 71.43 Section 71.43 Public... mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to restrictions under..., disinfection, or destruction any mail conveyed under the authority of the postal administration of the...

  16. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  17. 19 CFR 191.74 - Certification of exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certification of exportation by mail. 191.74... exportation by mail. If the merchandise on which drawback is to be claimed is exported by mail or parcel post, the official postal records which describe the mail shipment shall be sufficient to prove...

  18. 19 CFR 191.74 - Certification of exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certification of exportation by mail. 191.74... exportation by mail. If the merchandise on which drawback is to be claimed is exported by mail or parcel post, the official postal records which describe the mail shipment shall be sufficient to prove...

  19. 39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section 3020.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The initial Mail Classification Schedule...

  20. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs examination. (a) Restrictions. Customs examination of mail as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  1. 19 CFR 191.74 - Certification of exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of exportation by mail. 191.74... exportation by mail. If the merchandise on which drawback is to be claimed is exported by mail or parcel post, the official postal records which describe the mail shipment shall be sufficient to prove...

  2. 42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption for mails. 71.43 Section 71.43 Public... mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to restrictions under..., disinfection, or destruction any mail conveyed under the authority of the postal administration of the...

  3. 42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemption for mails. 71.43 Section 71.43 Public... mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to restrictions under..., disinfection, or destruction any mail conveyed under the authority of the postal administration of the...

  4. 39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section 3020.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The initial Mail Classification Schedule...

  5. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs examination. (a) Restrictions. Customs examination of mail as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  6. 27 CFR 19.238 - Payment by mail or courier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment by mail or courier... Tax Returns § 19.238 Payment by mail or courier. (a) Payment by mail. The proprietor must file each... submits the return by U.S. mail, the official postmark of the U.S. Postal Service stamped on the cover...

  7. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs examination. (a) Restrictions. Customs examination of mail as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  8. 27 CFR 19.238 - Payment by mail or courier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment by mail or courier... Tax Returns § 19.238 Payment by mail or courier. (a) Payment by mail. The proprietor must file each... submits the return by U.S. mail, the official postmark of the U.S. Postal Service stamped on the cover...

  9. 27 CFR 19.238 - Payment by mail or courier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment by mail or courier... Tax Returns § 19.238 Payment by mail or courier. (a) Payment by mail. The proprietor must file each... submits the return by U.S. mail, the official postmark of the U.S. Postal Service stamped on the cover...

  10. 27 CFR 19.238 - Payment by mail or courier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment by mail or courier... Tax Returns § 19.238 Payment by mail or courier. (a) Payment by mail. The proprietor must file each... submits the return by U.S. mail, the official postmark of the U.S. Postal Service stamped on the cover...

  11. 42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemption for mails. 71.43 Section 71.43 Public... mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to restrictions under..., disinfection, or destruction any mail conveyed under the authority of the postal administration of the...

  12. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs examination. (a) Restrictions. Customs examination of mail as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  13. 39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section 3020.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The initial Mail Classification Schedule...

  14. 42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for mails. 71.43 Section 71.43 Public... mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to restrictions under..., disinfection, or destruction any mail conveyed under the authority of the postal administration of the...

  15. 39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section 3020.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The initial Mail Classification Schedule...

  16. 39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section 3020.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The initial Mail Classification Schedule...

  17. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  18. 19 CFR 191.74 - Certification of exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification of exportation by mail. 191.74... exportation by mail. If the merchandise on which drawback is to be claimed is exported by mail or parcel post, the official postal records which describe the mail shipment shall be sufficient to prove...

  19. 19 CFR 191.74 - Certification of exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certification of exportation by mail. 191.74... exportation by mail. If the merchandise on which drawback is to be claimed is exported by mail or parcel post, the official postal records which describe the mail shipment shall be sufficient to prove...

  20. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  1. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  2. Electronic Mail in Academic Settings: A Multipurpose Communications Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

    1992-01-01

    Explores possible uses of electronic mail in three areas of the academic setting: instruction, research, and administration. Electronic mail is defined, the components needed to get started with electronic mail are discussed, and uses and benefits of electronic mail in diverse educational environments are suggested. (12 references) (DB)

  3. 75 FR 17861 - 2010 Standard Mail Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... mail hardcopy to Summer Sale Program Office, 475 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., RM 5410, Washington, DC 20260... copy via e-mail to summersale@usps.gov , or mail hardcopy to Summer Sale Program Office, 475 L'Enfant... 111 2010 Standard Mail Incentive Program AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  4. The Traveler's Guide to E-mail Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Presents options that travelers can use to keep in e-mail contact. Discusses equipment/access issues related to traveling with a laptop; Internet cafes; free e-mail services; accessing home mail via a Web page; and new options e-mail access for travelers. Includes Internet resources on Internet access providers. (AEF)

  5. Long-distance transport of mRNA via parenchyma cells and phloem across the host-parasite junction in Cuscuta.

    PubMed

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Runo, Steven; Townsley, Brad; Machuka, Jesse; Sinha, Neelima

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) establishes a continuous vascular system through which water and nutrients are drawn. Along with solutes, viruses and proteins, mRNA transcripts are transported from the host to the parasite. The path of the transcripts and their stability in the parasite have yet to be revealed. To discover the route of mRNA transportation, the in situ reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to locally amplify host transcript within parasitic tissue. The stability of host mRNA molecules was also checked by monitoring specific transcripts along the growing dodder thread. Four mRNAs, alpha and beta subunits of PYROPHOSPHATE (PPi)-DEPENDENT PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE (LePFP), the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), and GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE (LeGAI), were found to move from host (tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)) to dodder. LePFP mRNA was localized to the dodder parenchyma cells and to the phloem. LePFP transcripts were found in the growing dodder stem up to 30 cm from the tomato-dodder connection. These results suggest that mRNA molecules are transferred from host to parasite via symplastic connections between parenchyma cells, move towards the phloem, and are stable for a long distance in the parasite. This may allow developmental coordination between the parasite and its host. PMID:18631294

  6. Distance Education Programme at Universiti Sains, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Yusup; Saleh, Nor

    1999-01-01

    Describes the growth and development of the distance-education program at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Highlights include enrollment; degree programs offered; learning materials; instructional strategy and delivery systems, including interactive videoconferencing and electronic mail; continuing education; international links; and future trends.…

  7. Long-distance magma transport from arc volcanoes inferred from the submarine eruptive fissures offshore Izu-Oshima volcano, Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Geshi, Nobuo; Kawanabe, Yoshihisa; Ogitsu, Itaru; Taylor, Rex N.; Tuzino, Taqumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Arai, Kohsaku; Nakano, Shun

    2014-09-01

    Long-distance lateral magma transport away from volcanic centers in island arcs is emerging as a common phenomenon where the regional stress regime is favorable. It should also be recognized as an important factor in the construction and growth of island arcs, and a potential trigger for devastating eruptions. In this contribution, we report on recent investigations into the magma dynamics of Izu-Oshima volcano, an active basaltic volcano with an extensive fissure system. Izu-Oshima is flanked by numerous, subparallel NW-SE trending submarine ridges extending up to 22 km to the NW and the SE from the central vent. During a recent submersible survey we have identified that these ridges are fissures which erupted basaltic spatter and lava flows. Furthermore, lavas are petrographically similar along each ridge, while there are noticeable differences between ridges. The subparallel ridges are observed to transect a series of seamounts - the Izu-Tobu monogenetic volcanoes - which are dispersed across this area of the rear-arc. However, there are consistent petrographic and chemical differences between these seamounts and the ridges, indicating that they have different magma sources, yet, they are essentially bounding each other in dive tracks. The most appropriate scenario for their development is one where the Izu-Tobu Volcanoes are fed by an "in-situ" underlying source, while the NW-SE ridges are fed by lateral magma transport from Izu-Oshima. Magma erupted from each ridge is of a consistent geochemistry along its length, but has experienced crystal fractionation and some plagioclase accumulation. Compositions of the ridges are also very similar to lavas from the subaerial cones that can be traced down the flanks of Izu-Oshima. This implies that pairs of subaerial cones and submarine ridges represent the locus of magma transport events away from the storage system beneath Izu-Oshima. Hence, magma from this crustal reservoir moved upward to feed the on-edifice cones, as well as laterally to supply submarine fissures and dykes to a distance of 22 km.

  8. 76 FR 37655 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Register notice, Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats, (75 FR 16588-16592). The Postal... Register notice, New Origin Entry and Containerization Standards (75 FR 13704-13767). If that proposal is... as appropriate). 12345 MIX COMAIL * * * * * [Add a new 7.1.8 to described new OEL requirements...

  9. Inhale, exhale, e-mail: tips for effectively handling e-mail.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Today's world is all about speed and gathering information, superficial or otherwise. E-mail, computers and technological devices, all of which are designed to make us more productive and efficient, can use us up, spit us out, and leave us feeling inferior, ineffective, frustrated, and stressed out. Learn how to get control of your e-mail. PMID:21090209

  10. Your Books Are in the Mail: Launching a Books by Mail Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes a books by mail program developed by the San Francisco (California) Public Library to extend free mail service to homebound patrons, including both older users and users with disabilities. Discusses previous library service; planning, including working with the Postal Service; and costs. (LRW)

  11. Modern Mail and Ancient Tongues: By-Mail Options for Classical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Mark R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes two correspondence courses for early adolescent students ("Latin-By-Mail" and "Ancient Greek-By-Mail") established by the Talent Identification Program at Duke University to help fill the gap caused by the teacher shortage in classical languages. The Latin program includes introductory, intermediate, and advanced courses; the ancient…

  12. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on...

  13. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on...

  14. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on...

  15. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on...

  16. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on...

  17. The 'yellow snowepisode' of northern Fennoscandia, march 1991—A case study of long-distance transport of soil, pollen and stable organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzén, Lars G.; Hjelmroos, Mervi; Kållberg, Per; Brorström-Lunden, Eva; Juntto, Sirkka; Savolainen, Anna-Liisa

    The present paper describes a vast dustfall with snow in northern Fennoscandia, 10 March 1991. The area affected by dust deposition was at least 320,000 km 2. and the particulate mass received amounted to between 50 and 200 mgm -2. The total amounts of dust deposited in the investigated area sum up to approximately 50,000 tonnes. The dust consisted of soil particles, i.e. single mineral grains and loose ferric aggregates of mineral grains in addition to pollen and spores. Mineralogically, the dust was dominated by small rounded quartz grains. Median size of the dust particles was 2.72 μm. The total pollen concentration varied from 327 to 1172 pollen cm -2. The pollen types identified were divided in "Nordic/Central European" taxa and "Exotic" taxa. Pollen from the former group, e.g. Betula, Alnus and Corylus were believed to originate in the Alps and in the northern parts of Central Europe where these species were flowering. The latter category was considered to originate in more remote areas, many of them belonging to the taxa growing only around the Mediterranean. From a paleo-ecological point of view, long-distance transport such as this would count for an important potential source of error whenever interpreting Holocene pollen diagrams. The content of stable organic compounds showed that the dust was relatively clean, compared to other episodes, when the dust deposited had originated in heavily polluted regions. The small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyles (PCB), polyaromated hydrocarbons (PAH) and other hydrocarbons found, are believed to have been adsorbed by the particle surfaces during transportation. The results of the study, along with meteorological data, lead to the conclusion that the material originated in North Africa. Dust mobilization was reported in Tunisia as well as in Algeria. This means that the dust was transported at least 7000 km before deposition.

  18. 77 FR 55234 - Product Change-Express Mail, Priority Mail, & First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail, Priority Mail, & First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY... States Postal Service to Add Express Mail, Priority Mail, & First-Class Package Service Contract 1...

  19. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.3 Section 111.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Except for interim or final... changes made to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual...

  20. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.3 Section 111.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Except for interim or final... changes made to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual...

  1. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.3 Section 111.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Except for interim or final... changes made to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual...

  2. 7 CFR 984.445 - Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone, videoconference, facsimile, or any other means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone... Rules and Regulations § 984.445 Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone, videoconference... vote. (b) Whenever the Board conducts meetings by telephone, videoconference, or any technology...

  3. 7 CFR 984.445 - Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone, videoconference, facsimile, or any other means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone... Rules and Regulations § 984.445 Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone, videoconference... vote. (b) Whenever the Board conducts meetings by telephone, videoconference, or any technology...

  4. 7 CFR 984.445 - Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone, videoconference, facsimile, or any other means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone... Rules and Regulations § 984.445 Procedures for voting by mail, e-mail, telephone, videoconference... vote. (b) Whenever the Board conducts meetings by telephone, videoconference, or any technology...

  5. 75 FR 14076 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ..., the Postal Service published a Federal Register proposed rule (75 FR 4741-4742) inviting comments on a... 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates AGENCY... Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute to improve efficiencies...

  6. 75 FR 4741 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates AGENCY... to reflect changes and updates for Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute to improve efficiencies in processing and to control costs. DATES: Submit comments on or...

  7. Performance evaluation of mail-scanning cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekar, Umesh; Vu, Tony Tuan; Hooning, John E.; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Letter-scanning cameras (LSCs) form the front- end imaging systems for virtually all mail-scanning systems that are currently used to automatically sort mail products. As with any vision-dependent technology, the quality of the images generated by the camera is fundamental to the overall performance of the system. We present novel techniques for objective evaluation of LSCs using comparative imaging-a technique that involves measuring the fidelity of target images produced by a camera with reference to an image of the same target captured at very high quality. Such a framework provides a unique opportunity to directly quantify the camera's ability to capture real-world targets, such as handwritten and printed text. Noncomparative techniques were also used to measure properties such as the camera's modulation transfer function, dynamic range, and signal-to-noise ratio. To simulate real-world imaging conditions, application-specific test samples were designed using actual mail product materials.

  8. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Czatl, David G.; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PCCd and glutathioneCd complexes. PMID:18208526

  9. 78 FR 57419 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning a bilateral rate and service agreement with Korea...

  10. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...) agreement within the IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product. This notice informs the public of the filing...) within the IBRS Competitive Contract 3 (MC2011-21) product.\\1\\ This Notice informs the public of...

  11. 78 FR 3922 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... International Mail Contracts AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This... notice announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\...

  12. 78 FR 48728 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... obligation to provide its contracting partner, on a periodic basis, with a list of countries to which... an Additional Global Plus 1C Contract, January 11, 2013. IV. Ordering Paragraphs It is ordered:...

  13. 78 FR 4906 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... International Mail Contracts AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This... notice announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\...

  14. 78 FR 3476 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... International Mail Contracts AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal...

  15. 78 FR 3477 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... International Mail Contracts AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This... notice announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\...

  16. 77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... New International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... (GEPS) 3 contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks to have the Agreement included within...

  17. 77 FR 26583 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The Commission is... Package contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service states that the...

  18. 77 FR 75678 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice concerning changes to Inbound Air Parcel Post (at UPU...

  19. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Services--Non-Published Rates 4 model contract. This notice informs the public of the filing, ] invites...-Published Rates (GEPS-NPR) 4 model contract.\\1\\ This Order provides public notice of the Postal...

  20. 78 FR 3478 - International Mail Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... International Mail Contracts AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal...

  1. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION International Mail Postal Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Business Reply Service Contract 3. It seeks inclusion of the new contract within an existing product... public that the Postal Service has filed a notice stating that it (1) has entered into a new contract...

  2. 77 FR 12888 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... it has entered into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The...

  3. 77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... New International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... (GEPS) 3 contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR 3015.5. Notice at...

  4. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... New International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Expedited Package Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39...

  5. 78 FR 21171 - International Mail Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Mail Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...\\ It seeks to have the Agreement included within the existing IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product on... Competitive Contract 3 product in Docket No. CP2012-18. Id. at 3. ] The Postal Service filed the...

  6. 77 FR 50728 - International Mail Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION International Mail Rates AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of changes in rates for Inbound International...

  7. Integration of Electronic Mail into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Eric N.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the introduction of electronic mail into three elementary schools. A contingency model of technology adoption by organizations was used to develop the instruments and interpret results. Findings indicated that a majority of the contingency factors (expectations, influence of peers and administrators, training, technical support, and…

  8. 50 CFR 228.8 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 228.8 Section 228.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS NOTICE AND HEARING ON SECTION 103(d) REGULATIONS § 228.8...

  9. 7 CFR 1209.235 - Mail balloting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... writing such information as name, mailing address, number of pounds of mushrooms produced or imported, or... producers in the mushroom producing areas involved or among mushroom importers. (e) Each producer...

  10. 7 CFR 1209.235 - Mail balloting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... writing such information as name, mailing address, number of pounds of mushrooms produced or imported, or... producers in the mushroom producing areas involved or among mushroom importers. (e) Each producer...

  11. 7 CFR 1209.235 - Mail balloting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... writing such information as name, mailing address, number of pounds of mushrooms produced or imported, or... producers in the mushroom producing areas involved or among mushroom importers. (e) Each producer...

  12. 7 CFR 1209.235 - Mail balloting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... writing such information as name, mailing address, number of pounds of mushrooms produced or imported, or... producers in the mushroom producing areas involved or among mushroom importers. (e) Each producer...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.235 - Mail balloting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... writing such information as name, mailing address, number of pounds of mushrooms produced or imported, or... producers in the mushroom producing areas involved or among mushroom importers. (e) Each producer...

  14. 18 CFR 3b.227 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mailing lists. 3b.227 Section 3b.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... specifically authorized by law. This provision shall not be construed to require the withholding of names...

  15. Use of Electronic Mail for ILL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJohn, William

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center's use of Electronic Mail Systems to transmit and receive interlibrary loan requests among the network's member libraries. Cost was determined to be minimal when compared to benefits of faster turn-around time, savings in staff time, and improved communications. (RAA)

  16. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin...

  17. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) turnaround Standard Mail® pieces accepted at origin before the day-zero Critical Entry Time is 3 days when... day-zero Critical Entry Time is 4 days when the OPD&C/F and the ADC are the same building, unless the...-zero Critical Entry Time is 5 days for each remaining 3-digit ZIP Code origin-destination pair...

  18. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) turnaround Standard Mail® pieces accepted at origin before the day-zero Critical Entry Time is 3 days when... day-zero Critical Entry Time is 4 days when the OPD&C/F and the ADC are the same building, unless the...-zero Critical Entry Time is 5 days for each remaining 3-digit ZIP Code origin-destination pair...

  19. 77 FR 74032 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning modification of a mail contract with Singapore Post... existing bilateral agreement (Modified Agreement) for inbound market dominant services with Singapore Post Limited (Singapore Post).\\1\\ It asks that the Commission include the Modified Agreement within the...

  20. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  1. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  2. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  3. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  4. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  5. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  6. 37 CFR 150.6 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mailing address. 150.6 Section 150.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN MASK WORKS REQUESTS FOR PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C....

  7. 37 CFR 150.6 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mailing address. 150.6 Section 150.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN MASK WORKS REQUESTS FOR PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C....

  8. 37 CFR 150.6 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mailing address. 150.6 Section 150.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN MASK WORKS REQUESTS FOR PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C....

  9. 37 CFR 150.6 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mailing address. 150.6 Section 150.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN MASK WORKS REQUESTS FOR PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C....

  10. 37 CFR 150.6 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mailing address. 150.6 Section 150.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN MASK WORKS REQUESTS FOR PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C....

  11. 76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service application for an exemption from the annual revenue limitation that applies to market tests of experimental market dominant products. It seeks the exemption for Every Door Direct Mail Retail, a Standard Flats experiment now underway. This document describes the Postal Service's reasons for seeking the exemption, addresses procedural......

  12. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The....\\3\\ Id. at 5-7. \\3\\ Differences include numerous revisions to existing Articles and five new...

  13. 77 FR 73062 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Service seeks to have the inbound portion of the Agreement, which concerns delivery of inbound Air CP,\\3\\ Surface CP, and Express Mail Service, included within the Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements...\\ ``CP'' is an abbreviation used to identify or reference international parcel post (from the...

  14. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  15. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  16. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  17. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  18. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  19. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  20. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  1. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...

  2. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  3. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and...) may be placed in the box used to ship the samples to CBER. A cover letter should not be included when... Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda, MD 20892-6780. (d) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting...

  4. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and...) may be placed in the box used to ship the samples to CBER. A cover letter should not be included when... Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda, MD 20892-6780. (d) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and... Nicholson Lane, Kensington, MD 20895. The protocol(s) may be placed in the box used to ship the samples to... Center, c/o Radiation Safety Office, National Institutes of Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda,...

  6. 21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing addresses. 600.2 Section 600.2 Food and...) may be placed in the box used to ship the samples to CBER. A cover letter should not be included when... Health, 21 Wilson Dr., rm. 107, Bethesda, MD 20892-6780. (d) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting...

  7. 48 CFR 242.1404 - Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1404 Shipments by parcel post or other classes of mail. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipments by parcel...

  8. Long-distance fluid and heat transport in the oceanic crust entering the Nankai subduction zone, NanTroSEIZE transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Glenn A.

    2014-03-01

    I examine the potential causes of anomalous seafloor heat flux on the oceanic plate in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) transect offshore southern Japan. The most prominent anomaly is a ˜50 mW m change in heat flux between Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Sites C0011 and C0012 over a distance of <10 km. I develop thermal models to investigate the effects of hydrothermal circulation in the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust and variations in heat input from the mantle. The <10 km wide transition in surface heat flux reflects a process in the shallow subsurface; variations in heat input from ⩾5 km depth would generate a >30 km wide transition at the seafloor. The observed surface heat flux pattern is indicative of hydrothermal circulation in the basement aquifer and advection of heat from the subducted crust into the aquifer on the incoming plate. For a 600 m thick aquifer, the permeability is likely ⩾7×10-11 m, and hydrothermal circulation transports at least 300 times more heat than conduction alone. The heat flux from the subduction zone seaward to the incoming plate is consistent with hydrothermal circulation in the subducting crust persisting to ˜100 km landward of the deformation front. Vigorous fluid circulation in the basaltic basement is consistent with both the seafloor thermal anomalies and geochemical anomalies near the sediment-basement interface.

  9. The C-terminus of Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is involved in differential infection of wheat and maize through host-specific long-distance transport.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; French, Roy

    2014-02-01

    Viral determinants and mechanisms involved in extension of host range of monocot-infecting viruses are poorly understood. Viral coat proteins (CP) serve many functions in almost every aspect of the virus life cycle. The role of the C-terminal region of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) CP in virus biology was examined by mutating six negatively charged aspartic acid residues at positions 216, 289, 290, 326, 333, and 334. All of these amino acid residues are dispensable for virion assembly, and aspartic acid residues at positions 216, 333, and 334 are expendable for normal infection of wheat and maize. However, mutants D289N, D289A, D290A, DD289/290NA, and D326A exhibited slow cell-to-cell movement in wheat, which resulted in delayed onset of systemic infection, followed by a rapid recovery of genomic RNA accumulation and symptom development. Mutants D289N, D289A, and D326A inefficiently infected maize, eliciting milder symptoms, while D290A and DD289/290NA failed to infect systemically, suggesting that the C-terminus of CP is involved in differential infection of wheat and maize. Mutation of aspartic acid residues at amino acid positions 289, 290, and 326 severely debilitated virus ingress into the vascular system of maize but not wheat, suggesting that these amino acids facilitate expansion of WSMV host range through host-specific long-distance transport. PMID:24111920

  10. Effects of transport distance, lairage time and stunning efficiency on cortisol, glucose, HSPA1A and how they relate with meat quality in cattle.

    PubMed

    Chulayo, A Y; Bradley, G; Muchenje, V

    2016-07-01

    This study determined the effects of distance travelled, lairage duration and number of stunning shots on the plasma levels of bovine heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A), cortisol (CORT) and glucose (GLU) and their relationship with beef quality. There were positive correlations among HSPA1A, GLU, CORT, a*, b* and the HUE angle. Animals that were stunned more than once had the highest HSPA1A (13.61±2.874ng/ml) and CORT (109.36±8.373nmol/L) levels. Animals that travelled for 200<400km had lower HSPA1A expression (8.29±2.026ng/ml) than those that were transported for 400<800km (12.11±2.548ng/ml) and <200km (17.32±2.362ng/ml). Lairage duration affected (P<0.05) the expression of HSPA1A, GLU and CORT levels. Animals stunned more than once had elevated CORT and HSPA1A levels. HSPA1A, CORT and GLU were related to beef quality. Stunning of animals more than once increased the levels of blood CORT and HSPA1A. PMID:26967002

  11. Expert Opinions about Distance Education Research in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.

    Experts on distance education in developing countries were asked their opinions regarding the availability of research information, areas in which research efforts should be concentrated, and the order of priority to be given to various research areas in distance education. Five-page questionnaires were mailed to 90 randomly selected members of

  12. E-mail, decisional styles, and rest breaks.

    PubMed

    Baker, James R; Phillips, James G

    2007-10-01

    E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail. PMID:17927540

  13. The N-Terminal Region of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Is a Host- and Strain-Specific Long-Distance Transport Factor▿

    PubMed Central

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Van Winkle, David H.; French, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetics underlying host range differences among plant virus strains can provide valuable insights into viral gene functions and virus-host interactions. In this study, we examined viral determinants and mechanisms of differential infection of Zea mays inbred line SDp2 by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) isolates. WSMV isolates Sidney 81 (WSMV-S81) and Type (WSMV-T) share 98.7% polyprotein sequence identity but differentially infect SDp2: WSMV-S81 induces a systemic infection, but WSMV-T does not. Coinoculation and sequential inoculation of SDp2 with WSMV-T and/or WSMV-S81 did not affect systemic infection by WSMV-S81, suggesting that WSMV-T does not induce a restrictive defense response but that virus-encoded proteins may be involved in differential infection of SDp2. The viral determinant responsible for strain-specific host range was mapped to the N terminus of coat protein (CP) by systematic exchanges of WSMV-S81 sequences with those of WSMV-T and by reciprocal exchanges of CP or CP codons 1 to 74. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged WSMV-S81 with CP or CP residues 1 to 74 from WSMV-T produced similar numbers of infection foci and genomic RNAs and formed virions in inoculated leaves as those produced with WSMV-S81, indicating that failure to infect SDp2 systemically is not due to defects in replication, cell-to-cell movement, or virion assembly. However, these GFP-tagged hybrids showed profound defects in long-distance transport of virus through the phloem. Furthermore, we found that four of the five differing amino acids in the N terminus of CP between the WSMV-S81 and WSMV-T isolates were collectively involved in systemic infection of SDp2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the N-terminal region of tritimoviral CP functions in host- and strain-specific long-distance movement. PMID:21147925

  14. Electronic Mail: Another Justification for Using Computers in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murranka, Patricia A.

    1982-01-01

    Various electronic mail systems are described (facsimile, communicating word processors, and computer-based message systems); applications of the computer-based message systems are examined; and the classroom applications of electronic mail are discussed. (CT)

  15. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING (MBE) IN RELATION TO TERMINAL BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 77 FR 31615 - Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Services Administration (GSA) has issued Federal Management Regulation (FMR) Bulletin G-03 which provides guidance to Executive Branch agencies for improving mail management policies, procedures, and...

  17. Is Monitoring Employees' E-Mail an Invasion of Privacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Jankovich, Jackie L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the issue of e-mail and employee privacy rights. Highlights include laws and proposed legislation, ethical dilemmas, task and nontask messages and organizational misconduct, and policy guidelines for decision making about e-mail monitoring. (AEF)

  18. Business E-Mail Communication: Some Emerging Tendencies in Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Julio C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the spoken nature of electronic mail messages has already started to affect business written communication. Examines register and context of the language as well as the style used in commercial electronic mail. (Author/VWL)

  19. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail...

  20. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail...

  1. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail...

  2. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail...

  3. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... by means of a false-representation or lottery scheme. Such orders provide for return of mail...

  4. Direct Mail Marketing--Ways To Make It Worth It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassom, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how including direct mail in marketing a child care program can enhance enrollment. Describes how to develop an effective plan and design the mailing pieces creatively. Discusses the importance of having realistic expectations of the level of response. (KB)

  5. Free Nicotine Patches by Mail May Help Smokers Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156886.html Free Nicotine Patches by Mail May Help Smokers Quit Intervention ... may be as easy as mailing them free nicotine-replacement patches, even in the absence of counseling ...

  6. Bioterrorism: Lessons Learned Since the Anthrax Mailings

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the fall of 2001, Bacillus anthracis spores were spread through letters mailed in the United States. Twenty-two people are known to have been infected, and five of these individuals died. Together with the  September 11 attacks, this resulted in a reevaluation of the risks and benefits of life science research with the potential for misuse. In this editorial, we review some of the results of these discussions and their implications for the future. PMID:22027008

  7. Contrast enhancement of mail piece images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Chul; Sridhar, Ramalingam; Demjanenko, Victor; Palumbo, Paul W.; Hull, Jonathan J.

    1992-08-01

    A New approach to contrast enhancement of mail piece images is presented. The contrast enhancement is used as a preprocessing step in the real-time address block location (RT-ABL) system. The RT-ABL system processes a stream of mail piece images and locates destination address blocks. Most of the mail pieces (classified into letters) show high contrast between background and foreground. As an extreme case, however, the seasonal greeting cards usually use colored envelopes which results in reduced contrast osured by an error rate by using a linear distributed associative memory (DAM). The DAM is trained to recognize the spectra of three classes of images: with high, medium, and low OCR error rates. The DAM is not forced to make a classification every time. It is allowed to reject as unknown a spectrum presented that does not closely resemble any that has been stored in the DAM. The DAM was fairly accurate with noisy images but conservative (i.e., rejected several text images as unknowns) when there was little ground and foreground degradations without affecting the nondegraded images. This approach provides local enhancement which adapts to local features. In order to simplify the computation of A and (sigma) , dynamic programming technique is used. Implementation details, performance, and the results on test images are presented in this paper.

  8. 78 FR 12368 - Priority Mail Contract; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Priority Mail Contract; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... Priority Mail Contract 47 Negotiated Service Agreement. This notice informs the public of the filing... Service filed notice that it has agreed to an amendment to existing Priority Mail Contract 47, which...

  9. 77 FR 45246 - Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 111 Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) dated June 24, 2012, and its incorporation by reference in the Code... contains all Postal Service domestic mailing standards, and continues to: (1) Increase the user's...

  10. 75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... 111 Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Advance... Intelligent Mail package barcodes (IMpb), no later than January of 2011; and expects to require the mandatory...Standards@usps.gov , with a subject line of ``Intelligent Mail Package Barcode comments.'' Faxed...

  11. 43 CFR 20.509 - Penalty mail and official stationery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalty mail and official stationery. 20... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.509 Penalty mail and official stationery. (a... other matter in the mail (18 U.S.C. 1719). (b) Official Government envelopes and official...

  12. 31 CFR 593.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a person...

  13. 19 CFR 191.165 - No exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false No exportation by mail. 191.165 Section 191.165... to Sample or Specifications § 191.165 No exportation by mail. Merchandise covered by this subpart shall not be exported by mail....

  14. 31 CFR 538.513 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.513 Transactions related to mail... the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and Sudan are authorized, provided...

  15. 7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351.6 Section 351... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The foregoing instructions shall be followed in the treatment...

  16. 31 CFR 593.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a person...

  17. 31 CFR 586.511 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Policy § 586.511 Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between...

  18. 43 CFR 20.509 - Penalty mail and official stationery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Penalty mail and official stationery. 20... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.509 Penalty mail and official stationery. (a... other matter in the mail (18 U.S.C. 1719). (b) Official Government envelopes and official...

  19. 31 CFR 538.513 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.513 Transactions related to mail... the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and Sudan are authorized, provided...

  20. 31 CFR 538.513 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.513 Transactions related to mail... the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and Sudan are authorized, provided...

  1. 5 CFR 1840.1 - Service of subpoenas by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Service of subpoenas by mail. 1840.1... by mail. In addition to all other methods of authorized service, an Office of Special Counsel... certified or registered mail....

  2. 5 CFR 1840.1 - Service of subpoenas by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of subpoenas by mail. 1840.1... by mail. In addition to all other methods of authorized service, an Office of Special Counsel... certified or registered mail....

  3. 43 CFR 20.509 - Penalty mail and official stationery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty mail and official stationery. 20... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.509 Penalty mail and official stationery. (a... other matter in the mail (18 U.S.C. 1719). (b) Official Government envelopes and official...

  4. 31 CFR 538.513 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.513 Transactions related to mail... the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and Sudan are authorized, provided...

  5. 7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351.6 Section 351... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The foregoing instructions shall be followed in the treatment...

  6. 5 CFR 1840.1 - Service of subpoenas by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service of subpoenas by mail. 1840.1... by mail. In addition to all other methods of authorized service, an Office of Special Counsel... certified or registered mail....

  7. 5 CFR 1840.1 - Service of subpoenas by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Service of subpoenas by mail. 1840.1... by mail. In addition to all other methods of authorized service, an Office of Special Counsel... certified or registered mail....

  8. 19 CFR 191.165 - No exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false No exportation by mail. 191.165 Section 191.165... to Sample or Specifications § 191.165 No exportation by mail. Merchandise covered by this subpart shall not be exported by mail....

  9. 31 CFR 593.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a person...

  10. 25 CFR 141.25 - Withholding of mail prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Withholding of mail prohibited. 141.25 Section 141.25... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.25 Withholding of mail... delivery of mail....

  11. 14 CFR 298.35 - Limitations on carriage of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on carriage of mail. 298.35... Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.35 Limitations on carriage of mail. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier is not authorized to carry mail except pursuant to contract with the U.S....

  12. 43 CFR 20.509 - Penalty mail and official stationery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Penalty mail and official stationery. 20... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.509 Penalty mail and official stationery. (a... other matter in the mail (18 U.S.C. 1719). (b) Official Government envelopes and official...

  13. 7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351.6 Section 351... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The foregoing instructions shall be followed in the treatment...

  14. 25 CFR 141.25 - Withholding of mail prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withholding of mail prohibited. 141.25 Section 141.25... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.25 Withholding of mail... delivery of mail....

  15. 31 CFR 585.514 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and the FRY (S&M)...

  16. 25 CFR 141.25 - Withholding of mail prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withholding of mail prohibited. 141.25 Section 141.25... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.25 Withholding of mail... delivery of mail....

  17. 25 CFR 141.25 - Withholding of mail prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withholding of mail prohibited. 141.25 Section 141.25... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.25 Withholding of mail... delivery of mail....

  18. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 121.1 Section 121.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.1 First-Class Mail. (a)(1) Until February 1, 2014, a 1-day (overnight) service standard...

  19. 25 CFR 141.25 - Withholding of mail prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding of mail prohibited. 141.25 Section 141.25... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.25 Withholding of mail... delivery of mail....

  20. 31 CFR 545.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.509 Transactions related to mail... the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and the territory of...

  1. 31 CFR 538.513 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.513 Transactions related to mail... the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and Sudan are authorized, provided...

  2. 14 CFR 298.35 - Limitations on carriage of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on carriage of mail. 298.35... Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.35 Limitations on carriage of mail. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier is not authorized to carry mail except pursuant to contract with the U.S....

  3. 31 CFR 593.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a person...

  4. 14 CFR 298.35 - Limitations on carriage of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on carriage of mail. 298.35... Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.35 Limitations on carriage of mail. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier is not authorized to carry mail except pursuant to contract with the U.S....

  5. 19 CFR 191.165 - No exportation by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false No exportation by mail. 191.165 Section 191.165... to Sample or Specifications § 191.165 No exportation by mail. Merchandise covered by this subpart shall not be exported by mail....

  6. 7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351.6 Section 351... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The foregoing instructions shall be followed in the treatment...

  7. 43 CFR 20.509 - Penalty mail and official stationery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Penalty mail and official stationery. 20... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.509 Penalty mail and official stationery. (a... other matter in the mail (18 U.S.C. 1719). (b) Official Government envelopes and official...

  8. 14 CFR 298.35 - Limitations on carriage of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on carriage of mail. 298.35... Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.35 Limitations on carriage of mail. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier is not authorized to carry mail except pursuant to contract with the U.S....

  9. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail...—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail State of _____ County of _____ _____ (Name of individuals who... is attached hereto, by Certified Mail (Return Receipt Requested) to _____ (Name and address of...

  10. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail...—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail State of _____ County of _____ _____ (Name of individuals who... is attached hereto, by Certified Mail (Return Receipt Requested) to _____ (Name and address of...

  11. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 121.1 Section 121.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.1 First-Class Mail. (a)(1) Until the effective date identified by the Postal Service in...

  12. 31 CFR 593.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transactions related to mail... Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U.S. persons, including payment and transfers to common carriers, incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a person...

  13. 7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351.6 Section 351... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The foregoing instructions shall be followed in the treatment...

  14. 5 CFR 1840.1 - Service of subpoenas by mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service of subpoenas by mail. 1840.1... by mail. In addition to all other methods of authorized service, an Office of Special Counsel... certified or registered mail....

  15. Political Direct Mail: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutbirth, Craig W.; Rasmussen, Cynthia

    During the last 30 years, direct mail campaigning has become an integral part of the political process, and more recently has also become an influential fund raising tool for other political and religious groups. Analysis of over 70 examples of direct mail campaigns reveals at least 4 major content norms featured in most direct mail. First, the…

  16. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document describes the proposed test, addresses... experimental market dominant product, Marketing Mail Made Easy (MMME).\\1\\ The market test will begin on...

  17. 77 FR 62446 - Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... 111 Every Door Direct Mail-Retail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the retail option of Every Door Direct Mail-Retail (EDDM-Retail) as a formal... announcement to make EDDM-Retail a permanent product, and contains the revisions to Mailing Standards of...

  18. Comparing Comments and Semantic Networks about Voice Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; Danowski, James

    1991-01-01

    Discusses semantic communication networks, methods of content analysis, and voice mail as a communication system. A study that examined conceptual distinctions between voice mail answering and voice mail messaging in a large insurance organization is described, and semantic network analysis is compared to traditional content analysis. (28…

  19. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section 145.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to...

  20. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... before the day-zero Critical Entry Time (CET), except for mail between Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin... intra-SCF domestic Presort First-Class Mail pieces properly accepted at the SCF before the day-zero CET... standard is applied to inter-SCF domestic First-Class Mail pieces properly accepted before the day-zero...