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1

Distance and backhaul in commodity transport modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aims and scope  The goal of this work is to provide methodological information for modeling distance and backhaul for commodity transport\\u000a in a life cycle inventory (LCI). The scope includes a review of modeling parameters accounted for in transport unit process\\u000a models and accounted for in unit process models using transported materials. Assumptions related to backhaul (or return trip)\\u000a and

Joyce Smith Cooper; Liila Woods; Seung Jin Lee

2008-01-01

2

Research on Short-Distance Transportation '84.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contributions in this book are summaries of papers from a status seminar for the research programmes 'Research and Technological Development in Urban Transport' (BMFT) and 'Research on Urban Transport' (BMV), which was held in Berlin on June 27/28, 19...

1984-01-01

3

Long-distance liquid transport in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic problems related to long-distance liquid flow and signalling in plants is presented. Geometrical parameters of the plant leaf venation are measured and the general relationships between the diameters and lengths of the veins, branching angles at the vein bifurcations, and the corresponding drainage areas are obtained. The same relationships had been

Natalya N. Kizilova

2008-01-01

4

Transporting coal requires long-distance hauling  

SciTech Connect

The movement of coal in Canada is over four main routes. They are: (1) Across southern British Columbia to Roberts Bank, located south of Vancouver, via CP Rail. The coal originates from mines in southern British Columbia and Alberta. (2) Across northeast British Columbia to North Vancouver and Roberts Bank via CN Rail. The coal originates from mines in west-central Alberta. (3) Across southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario to Thunder Bay via CP Rail. The coal originates in the mines of southern British Columbia and Alberta. (4) Across central Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, through southern Ontario to Thunder Bay via CN Rail. Coal originates in the mines of west-central Alberta. The 1980 volumes over these routes were 11,000,000 tons, 5,250,000 tons, 600,000 tons, and 1,600,000 tons respectively. In order to cope with large volume movements over long distances, high capacity unit trains were designed to move continuously between origin mine and destination port. These trains are made up to 98 to 108 rotary dump gondola cars capable of carrying 102 to 104 tons of coal each.

Van Hinte, W.

1981-07-01

5

ASSESSMENT OF MODEL SIMULATION OF LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of trajectory models and meteorological data bases to simulate long-distance transport of air pollutants is assessed by comparing trajectories of tetroons and tetroon grounding locations from several recent U.S. Environmental Protection field studies with diagnostic t...

6

Change of collision efficiency with distance in bacterial transport experiments.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial transport in aquifers is important in developing bioremediation strategies. Collision efficiency (alpha) is one important parameter used in modeling bacterial transport. This study was undertaken to measure change in alpha with distance by performing a bacterial transport experiment in Oyster, Virginia. Following injection of a bacterium, Comamonas sp., into a well, water samples were collected at various distances along the flowpath and injected into columns packed with homogenized South Oyster focus area sediment. Zeta potentials of the bacteria in the samples were measured. Values of alpha were determined at various locations in the field in two ways: based on field breakthrough concentrations at the sampling points and based on column breakthrough concentrations. The alpha values estimated from field breakthrough decreased with distance, whereas those estimated from column breakthrough increased with distance. Bacterial cell surface charge became progressively more negative with distance in the field. We hypothesize that the apparent contradiction between field and column alpha values was caused by differences in the flow of the two systems. Flow in the columns was forced to occur through fine-grained zones of iron and aluminum hydroxide coatings that selectively removed the most negatively charged bacteria. In contrast, in the field, the injected cells did not come into contact with the positively charged coatings because the bulk solution bypassed them due to heterogeneous hydraulic properties. These results suggest that laboratory-based models may underestimate bacterial transport distance in the field. A more realistic approach may be necessary to capture the degree of heterogeneity. PMID:16681522

Dong, Hailiang; Scheibe, Timothy D; Johnson, William P; Monkman, Crystal M; Fuller, Mark E

2006-01-01

7

Victory Mail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Victory Mail (better known as V-mail) operated during WWII in order to expedite mail service for American armed forces overseas. Delivering such a large volume of mail posed a number of problems for the War Departments and the Post Office as they sought to reduce the bulk and weight of letters. Using the model of the British Airgraph Service, officials started microfilming messages for dispatch in order to eliminate much of the bulk. The Smithsonian's National Postal Museum has provided this site as a complement to an in situ exhibit in Washington D.C. The site provides several sections "Introducing V-mail", "Operating V-Mail", "Using V-Mail", "Letter writing in WWII", and "References". Each section provides an introduction, several related links to additional resources or articles, and a series of relevant images. For WWII or postal historians and enthusiasts this site should prove quite a treat.

8

Mailed versus frozen transport of nasal swabs for surveillance of respiratory bacteria in remote Indigenous communities in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Surveillance programs and research for acute respiratory infections in remote Australian communities are complicated by difficulties in the storage and transport of frozen samples to urban laboratories for testing. This study assessed the sensitivity of a simple method for transporting nasal swabs from a remote setting for bacterial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Methods We sampled every individual who presented to a remote community clinic over a three week period in August at a time of low influenza and no respiratory syncytial virus activity. Two anterior nasal swabs were collected from each participant. The left nare specimen was mailed to the laboratory via routine postal services. The right nare specimen was transported frozen. Testing for six bacterial species was undertaken using real-time PCR. Results One hundred and forty participants were enrolled who contributed 150 study visits and paired specimens for testing. Respiratory illnesses accounted for 10% of the reasons for presentation. Bacteria were identified in 117 (78%) presentations for 110 (79.4%) individuals; Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common (each identified in 58% of episodes). The overall sensitivity for any bacterium detected in mailed specimens was 82.2% (95%?CI 73.6, 88.1) compared to 94.8% (95%?CI 89.4, 98.1) for frozen specimens. The sensitivity of the two methods varied by species identified. Conclusion The mailing of unfrozen nasal specimens from remote communities appears to influence the utility of the specimen for bacterial studies, with a loss in sensitivity for the detection of any species overall. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding and to investigate the possible mechanisms of effect. Clinical trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609001006235.

2013-01-01

9

MCI Mail/ARPA Mail Forwarding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a description of the programs that are used to forward mail between the ARPA mail system and the MCI mail system (MCI Mail). It assumes that the reader is familiar with the ARPA mail system.

A. L. DeSchon

1984-01-01

10

Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms plants use to transport metals from roots to shoots are not completely understood. It has long been proposed that organic molecules participate in metal translocation within the plant. However, until recently the identity of the complexes involved in the long-distance transport of metals could only be inferred by using indirect methods, such as analyzing separately the concentrations of metals and putative ligands and then using in silico chemical speciation software to predict metal species. Molecular biology approaches also have provided a breadth of information about putative metal ligands and metal complexes occurring in plant fluids. The new advances in analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry and the increased use of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy have allowed for the identification of some metal-ligand species in plant fluids such as the xylem and phloem saps. Also, some proteins present in plant fluids can bind metals and a few studies have explored this possibility. This study reviews the analytical challenges researchers have to face to understand long-distance metal transport in plants as well as the recent advances in the identification of the ligand and metal-ligand complexes in plant fluids.

Alvarez-Fernandez, Ana; Diaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadia, Anunciacion; Lopez-Millan, Ana-Flor; Abadia, Javier

2014-01-01

11

Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants.  

PubMed

The mechanisms plants use to transport metals from roots to shoots are not completely understood. It has long been proposed that organic molecules participate in metal translocation within the plant. However, until recently the identity of the complexes involved in the long-distance transport of metals could only be inferred by using indirect methods, such as analyzing separately the concentrations of metals and putative ligands and then using in silico chemical speciation software to predict metal species. Molecular biology approaches also have provided a breadth of information about putative metal ligands and metal complexes occurring in plant fluids. The new advances in analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry and the increased use of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy have allowed for the identification of some metal-ligand species in plant fluids such as the xylem and phloem saps. Also, some proteins present in plant fluids can bind metals and a few studies have explored this possibility. This study reviews the analytical challenges researchers have to face to understand long-distance metal transport in plants as well as the recent advances in the identification of the ligand and metal-ligand complexes in plant fluids. PMID:24723928

Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadía, Anunciación; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Abadía, Javier

2014-01-01

12

The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

1922-01-01

13

Smooth Mailing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the…

Palmer, Tracey

2010-01-01

14

Transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance by ammonia-water absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the importance and the cycle choice for long-distance transportation of low-grade thermal energy, and\\u000a the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of single-effect ammonia-water absorption system for heat or cold transportation\\u000a over long distance are also involved. A model of a long-distance thermal energy transportation system is built and analyzed,\\u000a which shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam

Qiang Ma; RuZhu Wang; LinGai Luo; ZaiZhong Xia; Peng Lin

2009-01-01

15

Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport and acceleration of low energy electrons (10-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the geostationary orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on November 6-7, 1997 and June 12-14, 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM model was compared to the observed electron fluxes in four energy ranges measured onboard the LANL spacecraft by the SOPA instrument. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields are the drivers of the transport of plasma sheet electrons from 10 RE to geostationary orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes. At the same time, comparison between the modeled electron fluxes and observed ones showed two orders of difference most likely due to inaccuracy of electron boundary conditions and omission of the important loss processes due to wave-particle interactions. This did not allow us to accuractly reproduce the dynamics of 150-225 keV electron fluxes. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not significantly influence on the modeled electron fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and Boyle et al. [1997] models at the distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled electron fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled electron fluxes can be as large as three orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low energy electron fluxes can be used as an input to the radiation belt models. This seed population for radiation belts will affect the local acceleration up to relativistic energies.

Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

2012-12-01

16

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

17

An Analysis of the Market Potential for Distance Learning Opportunities in Transportation Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feasibility and sustainability of a distance learning program at the Texas Transportation Institute, which is part of the Texas A&M University system, was investigated. A literature review and online survey of current transportation professionals were conducted to examine the market potential for a distance learning program and to identify…

Durkop, Brooke R.; Jasek, Debbie; Kuhn, Beverly T.

18

Single-step Charge Transport through DNA over Long Distances  

PubMed Central

Quantum yields for charge transport across adenine tracts of increasing length have been measured by monitoring hole transport in synthetic oligonucleotides between photoexcited 2-aminopurine, a fluorescent analogue of adenine, and N2-cyclopropyl guanine. Using fluorescence quenching, a measure of hole injection, and hole trapping by the cyclopropyl guanine derivative, we separate the individual contributions of single- and multi-step channels to DNA charge transport, and find that with 7 or 8 intervening adenines the charge transport is a coherent, single-step process. Moreover, a transition occurs from multi-step to single-step charge transport with increasing donor/acceptor separation, opposite to that generally observed in molecular wires. These results establish that coherent transport through DNA occurs preferentially across 10 base pairs, favored by delocalization over a full turn of the helix.

Genereux, Joseph C.; Wuerth, Stephanie M.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

2011-01-01

19

The Development of the Zeppelin Dirigible for Long Distance Transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the design and construction of German airships for regular transoceanic passenger transportation during the 1916 to 1938 period are described. Technical problems related to structural weight, fuel reduction, and passenger comfort are considered.

Ehrle, A.

1980-01-01

20

Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS), the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for

Delfien Van Dyck; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij; Greet Cardon; Benedicte Deforche

2010-01-01

21

Long-distance quantum transport dynamics in macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using renormalization group methods, we develop a rigorous coarse-grained representation of the dissipative dynamics of quantum excitations propagating inside open macromolecular systems. We show that, at very low spatial resolution, this quantum transport theory reduces to a modified Brownian process, in which quantum delocalization effects are accounted for by means of an effective term in the Onsager-Machlup functional. Using this formulation, we derive a simple analytic solution for the time-dependent probability of observing the quantum excitation at a given point in the macromolecule. This formula can be used to predict the migration of natural or charged quantum excitations in a variety of molecular systems, including biological and organic polymers, organic crystalline transistors, or photosynthetic complexes. For illustration purposes, we apply this method to investigate inelastic electronic hole transport in a long homo-DNA chain.

Schneider, E.; Faccioli, P.

2014-04-01

22

Assessment of human pancreatic islets after long distance transportation.  

PubMed

Pancreatic islet transplantation can replace functional insulin-secreting beta cells for patients with type 1 diabetes. More than 300 patients who have received islet transplantation have returned to a euglycemic condition without using insulin. Therefore, islet transplantation has gained public attention and interest. Unfortunately, shortages in organ donations, suboptional antirejection regimens, and difficulties in islet isolation limit clinical utilization of this therapy. Recently, successful islet transplantation has been reported using a centralized islet isolation facility. The advantage of this experience is that it avoids the high costs in building an isolation facility and maintaining an experienced technical team. However, a private airplane carrier was required for transporting islets back to the transplantation site in a remote hospital. The cost of this specialized transportation was still too high to be considered as a routine procedure. In this study, we report our experience using commercial carriers to deliver isolated human islets from an established isolation facility to a remote medical center. PMID:15251378

Yang, Z; Chen, M; Deng, S; Ellett, J D; Wu, R; Langman, L; Carter, J D; Fialkow, L B; Markmann, J; Nadler, J L; Brayman, K

2004-06-01

23

Contractivity of Transport Distances for the Kinetic Kuramoto Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present synchronization and contractivity estimates for the kinetic Kuramoto model obtained from the Kuramoto phase model in the mean-field limit. For identical Kuramoto oscillators, we present an admissible class of initial data leading to time-asymptotic complete synchronization, that is, all measure valued solutions converge to the traveling Dirac measure concentrated on the initial averaged phase. In the case of non-identical oscillators, we show that the velocity field converges to the average natural frequency proving that the oscillators move asymptotically with the same frequency under suitable assumptions on the initial configuration. If two initial Radon measures have the same natural frequency density function and strength of coupling, we show that the Wasserstein p -distance between corresponding measure valued solutions is exponentially decreasing in time. This contraction principle is more general than previous L^1 -contraction properties of the Kuramoto phase model.

Carrillo, José A.; Choi, Young-Pil; Ha, Seung-Yeal; Kang, Moon-Jin; Kim, Yongduck

2014-05-01

24

Contractivity of Transport Distances for the Kinetic Kuramoto Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present synchronization and contractivity estimates for the kinetic Kuramoto model obtained from the Kuramoto phase model in the mean-field limit. For identical Kuramoto oscillators, we present an admissible class of initial data leading to time-asymptotic complete synchronization, that is, all measure valued solutions converge to the traveling Dirac measure concentrated on the initial averaged phase. In the case of non-identical oscillators, we show that the velocity field converges to the average natural frequency proving that the oscillators move asymptotically with the same frequency under suitable assumptions on the initial configuration. If two initial Radon measures have the same natural frequency density function and strength of coupling, we show that the Wasserstein -distance between corresponding measure valued solutions is exponentially decreasing in time. This contraction principle is more general than previous -contraction properties of the Kuramoto phase model.

Carrillo, José A.; Choi, Young-Pil; Ha, Seung-Yeal; Kang, Moon-Jin; Kim, Yongduck

2014-07-01

25

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

26

Vacuolar sequestration capacity and long-distance metal transport in plants  

PubMed Central

The vacuole is a pivotal organelle functioning in storage of metabolites, mineral nutrients, and toxicants in higher plants. Accumulating evidence indicates that in addition to its storage role, the vacuole contributes essentially to long-distance transport of metals, through the modulation of Vacuolar sequestration capacity (VSC) which is shown to be primarily controlled by cytosolic metal chelators and tonoplast-localized transporters, or the interaction between them. Plants adapt to their environments by dynamic regulation of VSC for specific metals and hence targeting metals to specific tissues. Study of VSC provides not only a new angle to understand the long-distance root-to-shoot transport of minerals in plants, but also an efficient way to biofortify essential mineral nutrients or to phytoremediate non-essential metal pollution. The current review will focus on the most recent proceedings on the interaction mechanisms between VSC regulation and long-distance metal transport.

Peng, Jia-Shi; Gong, Ji-Ming

2014-01-01

27

Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

2014-03-01

28

Direct measurement of room-temperature nondiffusive thermal transport over micron distances in a silicon membrane.  

PubMed

The "textbook" phonon mean free path of heat carrying phonons in silicon at room temperature is ?40??nm. However, a large contribution to the thermal conductivity comes from low-frequency phonons with much longer mean free paths. We present a simple experiment demonstrating that room-temperature thermal transport in Si significantly deviates from the diffusion model already at micron distances. Absorption of crossed laser pulses in a freestanding silicon membrane sets up a sinusoidal temperature profile that is monitored via diffraction of a probe laser beam. By changing the period of the thermal grating we vary the heat transport distance within the range ?1-10???m. At small distances, we observe a reduction in the effective thermal conductivity indicating a transition from the diffusive to the ballistic transport regime for the low-frequency part of the phonon spectrum. PMID:23383915

Johnson, Jeremy A; Maznev, A A; Cuffe, John; Eliason, Jeffrey K; Minnich, Austin J; Kehoe, Timothy; Torres, Clivia M Sotomayor; Chen, Gang; Nelson, Keith A

2013-01-11

29

PixMail: Pictures through Mail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the pictur...

M. Blattner F. Sierra P. Prassinos

1989-01-01

30

PixMail: Pictures through mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form

Meera Blattner; Francisco Sierra; Peter Prassinos

1989-01-01

31

Evidence of long-distance transport of mountain cedar pollen into Tulsa, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous study of Cupressaceae pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere during December and January suggested that the source of this pollen is the Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar) populations that occur mainly in southern Oklahoma and central Texas. The present investigation examined the evidence of long-distance transport of pollen from these populations during the 1996/1997 season at three sites in Oklahoma using Burkard traps. Two of the pollen-monitoring stations were operated in conjunction with Mesonet meteorological stations. It was found that the December and January Cupressaceae pollen occurs outside of the local season at Tulsa. Pollen concentrations are intermittent and correspond to days of peak concentrations at sites nearer the mountain cedar populations. Peak concentrations are associated with winds coming from the south over the mountain cedar areas. Diurnal rhythms show night-time peaks with a delay in timing at the northern-most site. These results are all consistent with the hypothesis that pollen is being transported over long distances from the mountain cedar populations to Tulsa, Oklahoma. These findings are important as they represent one of the few incidences of long-distance transport of pollen in significant concentrations to an area where the source vegetation is not present. Pollen-monitoring sites located in conjunction with Mesonet meteorological stations provide a unique opportunity to further examine atmospheric conditions during long-distance transport events. This will aid future studies of the spatial modeling of long-distance dispersal of pollen.

Rogers, C. A.; Levetin, E.

32

Effects of haul distance and stocking density on young suckling calves transported in Japan.  

PubMed

We conducted applicability evaluation of recommendations of the European Union (EU) and the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) for suckling calves. Nineteen calves (14 Holstein aged 11-26 days and five cross-bred aged 13-45 days) were divided into six groups. Three groups were allocated into the stocking densities of 0.25, 0.35, 0.45 m² /head and were weekly transported 50, 100, 150 km in this order. Another three groups were allocated and transported in reverse order. Observation was conducted during and after transportation. Blood sampling was performed before and after transportation. The occurrences of lying and turning round on the truck were significantly associated with stocking density (P < 0.05), but not with haul distance. Scratching was observed only in one calf. Incidence of watery feces was not associated with both factors. There were significant effects of haul distance on the concentrations of plasma cortisol and noradrenaline, and serum aspartate aminotranserase (AST) and IgM (P < 0.05). These concentrations, except cortisol, were higher after transportation at 150 km compared to the pre-transportation value (AST and IgM P < 0.05; noradrenaline P < 0.10). Results suggest that haul distances greater than 100 km should not be recommended even for suckling calves transported in Japan. PMID:21794019

Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio; Sato, Shusuke

2011-08-01

33

Evidence for long-distance xylem transport of signal peptide activity from tomato roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of small, endogenous signal peptides are now known to induce a wide range of local and systemic responses in plants, but how such signal peptide activity is transported over long distances remains unclear. In particular, the possible occurrence and root-to-shoot transport of signal peptide activity in the xylem does not appear to have been previously investigated. Suspension-cultured cells

Peter M. Neumann

2007-01-01

34

A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

2011-10-01

35

E-Mail Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers electronic mail basics, mail etiquette and tips, interesting World Wide Web sites, and how to do a Web search. Includes Web sites that offer beginner tutorials and a glossary of Internet terms. (JOW)

Cohen, Sacha

1996-01-01

36

Electronic Mail Survival Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General concepts of electronic mail communications are discussed, including many advantages and some words of caution about using email compared to traditional forms of communications. The electronic mail programs available at NOSC are described. Some han...

B. Bueche D. Endicott

1989-01-01

37

Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern

Timo Tahvanainen; Perttu Anttila

2011-01-01

38

Improved chromosome classification using monotonic functions of mahalanobis distance and the transportation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the accuracy of chromosome classification constrained by class size can be improved over previously reported results by a combination of straightforward modifications to previously used methods. These are (i) the use of the logarithm of the Mahalanobis distance of an unknown chromosome's feature vector to estimated class mean vectors as the basis of the transportation method

Peter Kleinschmidt; Ilse Mitterreiter; Jim Piper

1994-01-01

39

Improve Forest Inventory with Access Data--Measure Transport Distance and Cost to Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because forests are dispersed over wide areas and at some distance from users, forest access is one of the principal determinants of value. The objective in studying forest access is to determine the economic implications of the transport system--how they...

D. P. Bradley

1972-01-01

40

E-Mail Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between electronic mail (E-mail) and employee privacy rights. Two current course cases involving the privacy issue are summarized; the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 is explained; proposed legislation is discussed; and suggestions for employee E-mail privacy that can help avoid possible litigation are…

Shieh, Jackie; Ballard, Rhea A-L

1994-01-01

41

Viral regulation of the long distance axonal transport of herpes simplex virus nucleocapsid.  

PubMed

Many membranous organelles and protein complexes are normally transported anterograde within axons to the presynaptic terminal, and details of the motors, adaptors and cargoes have received significant attention. Much less is known about the transport in neurons of non-membrane bound particles, such as mRNAs and their associated proteins. We propose that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) can be used to study the detailed mechanisms regulating long distance transport of particles in axons. A critical step in the transmission of HSV from one infected neuron to the next is the polarized anterograde axonal transport of viral DNA from the host infected nerve cell body to the axon terminal. Using the in vivo mouse retinal ganglion cell model infected with wild type virus or a mutant strain that lacks the protein Us9, we found that Us9 protein was necessary for long distance anterograde axonal transport of viral nucleocapsid (DNA surrounded by capsid proteins), but unnecessary for transport of virus envelope. Thus, we conclude that nucleocapsid can be transported independently down axons via a Us9-dependent mechanism. PMID:17382478

LaVail, J H; Tauscher, A N; Sucher, A; Harrabi, O; Brandimarti, R

2007-05-25

42

Spatial pattern of long-distance symplasmic transport and communication in trees.  

PubMed

Symplasmic short- and long-distance communication may be regulated at different levels of plant body organization. It depends on cell-to-cell transport modulated by plasmodesmata conductivity and frequency but above all on morphogenetic fields that integrate a plant at the supracellular level. Their control of physiological and developmental processes is especially important in trees, where the continuum consists of 3-dimensional systems of: 1) stem cells in cambium, and 2) living parenchyma cells in the secondary conductive tissues. We found that long-distance symplasmic transport in trees is spatially regulated. Uneven distribution of fluorescent tracer in cambial cells along the branches examined illustrates an unknown intrinsic phenomenon that can possibly be important for plant organism integration. Here we illustrate the spatial dynamics of symplasmic transport in cambium, test and exclude the role of callose in its regulation, and discuss the mechanism that could possibly be responsible for the maintenance of this spatial pattern. PMID:23989002

Soko?owska, Katarzyna; Brysz, Alicja Maria; Zagórska-Marek, Beata

2013-11-01

43

Spatial pattern of long-distance symplasmic transport and communication in trees  

PubMed Central

Symplasmic short- and long-distance communication may be regulated at different levels of plant body organization. It depends on cell-to-cell transport modulated by plasmodesmata conductivity and frequency but above all on morphogenetic fields that integrate a plant at the supracellular level. Their control of physiological and developmental processes is especially important in trees, where the continuum consists of 3-dimensional systems of: 1) stem cells in cambium, and 2) living parenchyma cells in the secondary conductive tissues. We found that long-distance symplasmic transport in trees is spatially regulated. Uneven distribution of fluorescent tracer in cambial cells along the branches examined illustrates an unknown intrinsic phenomenon that can possibly be important for plant organism integration. Here we illustrate the spatial dynamics of symplasmic transport in cambium, test and exclude the role of callose in its regulation, and discuss the mechanism that could possibly be responsible for the maintenance of this spatial pattern.

Sokolowska, Katarzyna; Brysz, Alicja Maria; Zagorska-Marek, Beata

2013-01-01

44

Long-distance carcass transport at Olduvai Gorge? A quantitative examination of Bed I skeletal element abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative abundances of skeletal elements at Plio-Pleistocene archaeological sites have long been interpreted to represent selective transport of portions of large prey. Models from optimal foraging theory suggest that the degree of carcass transport selectivity reflects transport constraints, particularly transport distance. A quantitative analysis of skeletal element abundances in five bone assemblages from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, indicates that within

J. Tyler Faith; Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo; Adam D. Gordon

2009-01-01

45

Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals commonly found in most terrestrial sedimentary deposits, basaltic sediments are composed of varying amounts of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, and vitric and lithic fragments. One of the few locations on Earth containing such material is the Ka'u Desert of Hawaii. This area is unique in that both eolian and fluvial sediment pathways occur in the same area, thus allowing a direct comparison of particles transported by different processes over identical distances (~20 km). We are currently documenting the physical and chemical changes that take place in basaltic sediments as they are transported by wind and water over increasing distances. This will result in an improvement in our understanding of traditional sedimentological concepts when applying them to Martian surface materials. Process: The Ka'u Desert is ~350 km2 and contains the largest basaltic dune fields on Earth. We have identified several different dune types located in various parts of the desert, including climbing and falling dunes, sand sheets, parabolic dunes (that were initially barchans), and crescentic dunes. Fluvial sediments occur as floodout deposits where ephemeral streams go from confined to unconfined flow outside the continuous Keanakako'i Formation [7]. There are also a number of sand bottom streams and playas that occur along a series of channels that extend from the Keanakako'i Formation ~20 km to the sea. We have collected samples from dunes and fluvial deposits at various locations in the Ka'u Desert, at varying distances from sources and subject to different environmental processes. In the lab, we have begun to use optical and scanning electron microscopic images to assess how grain size, shape, and angularity of individual particles change with increasing transport distances. We are also conducting point counts of particles contained within each sample to better understand how olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and lithic and vitric fragments weather with increasing transport distances. Selected samples are being analyzed for changes in chemistry. T

Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

2012-04-01

46

Regional intensive care transports: a prospective analysis of distance, time and cost for road, helicopter and fixed-wing ambulances  

PubMed Central

Background There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this. Methods We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system. Results Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles). Conclusions In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems.

2014-01-01

47

Transportation statistics annual report 1998: Long-distance travel and freight  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth annual report prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). As in prior years, the report brings together under one cover information about how the transportation system is used, how well it works, its economic contributions and costs, and its unintended consequences for safety, energy import dependency, and the environment. This year`s report also contains a detailed analysis of long-distance passenger travel and freight activity, drawing on the American Travel Survey and the Commodity Flow Survey conducted by BTS in cooperation with the US Census Bureau.

Fenn, M.

1998-12-01

48

Internetwork Mail Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internetwork Mail Guide, recently updated, documents methods of sending mail from one network to another. It represents the aggregate knowledge of the readers of comp.mail.misc and many contributors from other sources. The Guide explains e-mail sending conventions between different combinations of many different networks. It is provided by Scott Yanoff. Also available is a forms-based service that lets the user enter the "from" and "to" networks and returns the proper addressing to get from one to the other.

Yanoff, Scott.

1992-01-01

49

Long-distance root-to-shoot transport of phytochelatins and cadmium in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) mediate cellular heavy-metal resistance in plants, fungi, and worms. However, phytochelatins (PCs) are generally considered to function as intracellular heavy-metal detoxification mechanisms, and whether long-distance transport of PCs occurs during heavy-metal detoxification remains unknown. Here, wheat TaPCS1 cDNA expression was either targeted to Arabidopsis roots with the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter (Adh::TaPCS1\\/cad1-3) or ectopically expressed with

Ji-Ming Gong; David A. Lee; Julian I. Schroeder

2003-01-01

50

AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION CYCLE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW GRADE THERMAL ENERGY OVER LONG DISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of the application of the ammonia-water absorption system for transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance. A model is built and analyzed, and it shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam heat source at the temperature of 1200C is available, the user site can get hot water output at about

Qiang MA; Lingai LUO; Ruzhu WANG

51

Models of long-distance transport: how is carrier-dependent auxin transport regulated in the stem?  

PubMed

• This paper presents two models of carrier-dependent long-distance auxin transport in stems that represent the process at different scales. • A simple compartment model using a single constant auxin transfer rate produced similar data to those observed in biological experiments. The effects of different underlying biological assumptions were tested in a more detailed model representing cellular and intracellular processes that enabled discussion of different patterns of carrier-dependent auxin transport and signalling. • The output that best fits the biological data is produced by a model where polar auxin transport is not limited by the number of transporters/carriers and hence supports biological data showing that stems have considerable excess capacity to transport auxin. • All results support the conclusion that auxin depletion following apical decapitation in pea (Pisum sativum) occurs too slowly to be the initial cause of bud outgrowth. Consequently, changes in auxin content in the main stem and changes in polar auxin transport/carrier abundance in the main stem are not correlated with axillary bud outgrowth. PMID:22443265

Renton, Michael; Hanan, Jim; Ferguson, Brett J; Beveridge, Christine A

2012-05-01

52

Electronic Mail Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of new developments in electronic mail, including the interconnection of online networks, some on an international level; and news on system upgrades of specific information services. The growth of the electronic mail industry and possible future trends are discussed and a glossary of technical terms is included. (CLB)

Tucker, Susan A.

1987-01-01

53

Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

2013-12-01

54

Possibility of long-distance heat transport in weightlessness using supercritical fluids.  

PubMed

Heat transport over large distances is classically performed with gravity or capillarity driven heat pipes. We investigate here whether the "piston effect," a thermalization process that is very efficient in weightlessness in compressible fluids, could also be used to perform long-distance heat transfer. Experiments are performed in a modeling heat pipe (16.5 mm long, 3 mm inner diameter closed cylinder), with nearly adiabatic polymethylmethacrylate walls and two copper base plates. The cell is filled with H2 near its gas-liquid critical point (critical temperature: 33 K). Weightlessness is achieved by submitting the fluid to a magnetic force that compensates gravity. Initially the fluid is isothermal. Then heat is sent to one of the bases with an electrical resistance. The instantaneous amount of heat transported by the fluid is measured at the other end. The data are analyzed and compared with a two-dimensional numerical simulation that allows an extrapolation to be made to other fluids (e.g., CO2, with critical temperature of 300 K). The major result is concerned with the existence of a very fast response at early times that is only limited by the thermal properties of the cell materials. The yield in terms of ratio, injected or transported heat power, does not exceed 10-30% and is limited by the heat capacity of the pipe. These results are valid in a large temperature domain around the critical temperature. PMID:21230663

Beysens, D; Chatain, D; Nikolayev, V S; Ouazzani, J; Garrabos, Y

2010-12-01

55

Initial Motion and Bedload Transport Distance Determined by Particle Tracking in a Large Regulated River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir releases on large regulated rivers are increasingly being used to rejuvenate riverine habitat downstream of dams. Determining the effective flow level is complicated by the trade-off between mobilizing bed particles and retaining coarse sediment in rivers with low sediment supply. This study determined mobilization and transport distance of bed particles using motion-sensing radio transmitting particles that approximated the reach-average D84 grain size. The distribution of shear stress at initial motion varied substantially between flood events, and suggests that the sequence of flood events and the history of underthreshold flows may be an important determinant of bed strength and thus particle mobility. In addition, particle activity was greatest on the rising limb of each flood and was maximized at near bank-full flow. Travel distances did not vary between floods when scaled by transport event duration, and a negative exponential distribution was a good fit to the data. Results of this study provide important insight into individual particle movement, which can be used to inform flow releases and understand the effects of flood magnitude on particle mobility and transport.

May, C. L.; Smith Pryor, B.; Lisle, T. E.

2012-12-01

56

Knockdown of a rice stelar nitrate transporter alters long-distance translocation but not root influx.  

PubMed

Root nitrate uptake is well known to adjust to the plant's nitrogen demand for growth. Long-distance transport and/or root storage pools are thought to provide negative feedback signals regulating root uptake. We have characterized a vascular specific nitrate transporter belonging to the high-affinity Nitrate Transporter2 (NRT2) family, OsNRT2.3a, in rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica 'Nipponbare'). Localization analyses using protoplast expression, in planta promoter-?-glucuronidase assay, and in situ hybridization showed that OsNRT2.3a was located in the plasma membrane and mainly expressed in xylem parenchyma cells of the stele of nitrate-supplied roots. Knockdown expression of OsNRT2.3a by RNA interference (RNAi) had impaired xylem loading of nitrate and decreased plant growth at low (0.5 mm) nitrate supply. In comparison with the wild type, the RNAi lines contained both nitrate and total nitrogen significantly higher in the roots and lower in the shoots. The short-term [(15)N]NO(3)(-) influx (5 min) in entire roots and NO(3)(-) fluxes in root surfaces showed that the knockdown of OsNRT2.3a in comparison with the wild type did not affect nitrate uptake by roots. The RNAi plants showed no significant changes in the expression of some root nitrate transporters (OsNRT2.3b, OsNRT2.4, and OsNAR2.1), but transcripts for nia1 (nitrate reductase) had increased and OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2 had decreased when the plants were supplied with nitrate. Taken together, the data demonstrate that OsNRT2.3a plays a key role in long-distance nitrate transport from root to shoot at low nitrate supply level in rice. PMID:23093362

Tang, Zhong; Fan, Xiaorong; Li, Qing; Feng, Huimin; Miller, Anthony J; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua

2012-12-01

57

[Intensive care within the context of military long-distance transport].  

PubMed

Due to the changed task spectrum of the German Federal Armed Forces with participation in international deployments for UN and NATO the concept of Aeromedical Evacuation (MedEvac) gained a new quality for the Air Force as well as for the Medical Corps. The transport of mostly severely injured or critically ill patients requires both, medical equipment which has to be permanently adapted to the national standard, and qualified intensive-care-personnel. At present, the aircrafts used for such deployments are four C-160 Transall, one CL-601 Challenger and two Airbus A310, which, if necessary, can be equipped with one or more intensive-care "patient transportation units" (PTU). Contrary to the two other aircrafts, the CL-601 Challenger is only equipped for the intensive-care transport of one individual patient. The PTU corresponds to the technical equipment of the intensive care unit of a level-1-trauma centre and ensures an intensive-care therapy on highest level also during longer transportation. The work with this equipment, the characteristics of the long-distance air transport and the special situation of the military deployment causes special demands on the qualifications of the assigned personnel. Primarily planned for the repatriation of injured or ill soldiers, in the mean time, this concept is also essential for the medevac of civilian victims after mass casualties worldwide. PMID:15156416

Hossfeld, B; Rohowsky, B; Rödig, E; Lampl, L

2004-05-01

58

Symplasmic networks in secondary vascular tissues: parenchyma distribution and activity supporting long-distance transport.  

PubMed

Stems that develop secondary vascular tissue (i.e. xylem and phloem derived from the vascular cambium) have unique demands on transport owing to their mass and longevity. Transport of water and assimilates must occur over long distances, while the increasing physical separation of xylem and phloem requires radial transport. Developing secondary tissue is itself a strong sink positioned between xylem and phloem along the entire length of the stem, and the integrity of these transport tissues must be maintained and protected for years if not decades. Parenchyma cells form an interconnected three-dimensional lattice throughout secondary xylem and phloem and perform critical roles in all of these tasks, yet our understanding of their physiology, the nature of their symplasmic connections, and their activity at the symplast-apoplast interface is very limited. This review highlights key historical work as well as current research on the structure and function of parenchyma in secondary vascular tissue in the hopes of spurring renewed interest in this area, which has important implications for whole-plant transport processes and resource partitioning. PMID:24453225

Spicer, Rachel

2014-04-01

59

Influence of water chemistry and travel distance on bacteriophage PRD-1 transport in a sandy aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of groundwater chemistry and travel distance on the transport and fate behavior of PRD-1, a bacteriophage employed as a surrogate tracer for pathogenic enteric viruses. The experiments were conducted in the unconfined aquifer at the United States Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic-Substances Hydrology Research Site in Falmouth, Massachusetts. The transport behavior of bromide (Br-) and PRD-1 were evaluated in a sewage-effluent contaminated zone and a shallower uncontaminated zone at this site. Several multilevel sampling devices located along a 13-m transect were used to collect vertically discrete samples to examine longitudinal and vertical variability of PRD-1 retardation and attenuation. The concentration of viable bacteriophage in the aqueous phase decreased greatly during the first few meters of transport. This decrease is attributed to a combination of colloid filtration (attachment) and inactivation. The removal was greater (10 -12 relative recovery) and occurred within the first meter for the uncontaminated zone, whereas it was lesser (10-9 relative recovery) and occurred over 4 m in the contaminated zone. The lesser removal observed for the contaminated zone is attributed to the influence of sorbed and dissolved organic matter, phosphate, and other anions, which are present in higher concentrations in the contaminated zone, on PRD-1 attachment. After the initial decrease, the aqueous PRD-1 concentrations remained essentially constant in both zones for the remainder of the tests (total travel distances of 13 m), irrespective of variations in geochemical properties within and between the two zones. The viable, mobile PRD-1 particles traveled at nearly the rate of bromide, which was used as a non-reactive tracer. The results of this study indicate that a small fraction of viable virus particles may persist in the aqueous phase and travel significant distances in the subsurface environment. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Blanford, W. J.; Brusseau, M. L.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Gerba, C. P.; Harvey, R.

2005-01-01

60

Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) consists of extensions to existing message processing software plus a key management infrastruc-ture. These combine to provide users with a facility in which message confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity can be ef-fected. PEM is compatible with RFC 822 message processing con-ventions and is transparent to SMTP mail relays. PEM uses symmetric cryptography, for example, the Data Encryption

Stephen T. Kent

1993-01-01

61

Going the Distance? NRC's Response to the National Academy of Science's Transportation Study  

SciTech Connect

In February 2006, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the results of a 3 1/2-year study, titled Going the Distance, that examined the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) in the United States. NAS initiated this study to address what it perceived to be a national need for an independent, objective, and authoritative analysis of SNF and HLW transport in the United States. The study was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. This paper addresses some of the recommendations made in the NAS study related to the performance of SNF transportation casks in long duration fires, the use of full-scale package testing, and the need for an independent review of transportation security prior to the commencement of large scale shipping campaigns to an interim storage site or geologic repository. In conclusion: The NRC believes that the current regulations in 10 CFR Part 71 for the design of SNF and HLW transportation packages provide a very high level of protection to the public for very severe accidents and credible threat scenarios. As recommended by the NAS study, additional studies of accidents involving severe fires have been completed. These studies have confirmed that spent fuel casks would be expected to withstand very severe fires without the release of any fission products from the spent fuel. Additionally, changes in rail operating procedures such as the use of dedicated trains and prohibition on the co-location of SNF and flammable liquids in rail tunnels can further reduce the already low probability of severe rail accident fires involving SNF and HLW. (authors)

Easton, E.P.; Bajwa, C.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2008-07-01

62

A model system of development regulated by the long-distance transport of mRNA.  

PubMed

BEL1-like transcription factors are ubiquitous in plants and interact with KNOTTED1-types to regulate numerous developmental processes. In potato, the RNA of several BEL1-like transcription factors has been identified in phloem cells. One of these, StBEL5, and its Knox protein partner regulate tuber formation by targeting genes that control growth. RNA detection methods and grafting experiments demonstrated that StBEL5 transcripts move across a graft union to localize in stolon tips, the site of tuber induction. This movement of RNA originates in source leaf veins and petioles and is induced by a short-day photoperiod, regulated by the untranslated regions, and correlated with enhanced tuber production. Addition of the StBEL5 untranslated regions to another BEL1-like mRNA resulted in its preferential transport to stolon tips leading to increased tuber production. Upon fusion of the untranslated regions of StBEL5 to a beta-glucuronidase marker, translation in tobacco protoplasts was repressed by those constructs containing the 3' untranslated sequence. The untranslated regions of the StBEL5 mRNA are involved in mediating its long-distance transport and in controlling translation. The 3' untranslated sequence contains an abundance of conserved motifs that may serve as binding motifs for RNA-binding proteins. Because of their presence in the phloem sieve tube system, their unique untranslated region sequences and their diverse RNA accumulation patterns, the family of BEL1-like RNAs from potato represents a valuable model for studying the long-distance transport of full-length mRNAs and their role in development. PMID:20074139

Hannapel, David J

2010-01-01

63

Long-distance transport of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive mRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Background The Gibberellic Acid (GA) signal is governed by the GAI (Gibberellic Acid Insensitive) repressor, which is characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal DELLA domain. Deletion of the DELLA domain results in constitutive suppression of GA signaling. As the GAI transcript is transportable in phloem elements, a ?-DELLA GAI (gai) transgenic stock plant can reduce the stature of a scion through transport of gai mRNA from the stock. However, little is known about the characteristics of a scion on a gai stock. Results Arabidopsis ?-DELLA GAI (gai) was fused with a T7 epitope tag and expressed under the control of a companion cell-specific expression promoter, Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter (CoYMVp), to enhance transport in the phloem. The CoYMVp:Atgai-T7 (CgT) transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana exhibited a dwarf phenotype and lower sensitivity to GA enhancement of shoot stature. A wild-type (WT) scion on a CgT stock contained both Atgai-T7 mRNA and the translated product. Microarray analysis to clarify the effect of the CgT stock on the gene expression pattern in the scion clearly revealed that the WT scions on CgT stocks had fewer genes whose expression was altered in response to GA treatment. An apple rootstock variety, Malus prunifolia, integrating CoYMVp:Atgai moderately reduced the tree height of the apple cultivar scion. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Atgai mRNA can move from companion cells to sieve tubes and that the translated product remains at the sites to which it is transported, resulting in attenuation of GA responses by reducing the expression of many genes. The induction of semi-dwarfism in an apple cultivar on root stock harbouring Atgai suggests that long-distance transport of mRNA from grafts would be applicable to horticulture crops.

2013-01-01

64

Contributions of long-distance dust transport to atmospheric P inputs in the Yucatan Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is not typically considered in conceptual models of P cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but in P-limited tropical forests that receive significant inputs of dust, it may play an important role in sustaining ecosystem productivity. We used models and observations to quantify total atmospheric P inputs and the contribution of long-distance dust transport to tropical dry forests in the Yucatan peninsula over a 10 year period. Total atmospheric P input was estimated from atmospheric bulk deposition sampling in the southern Yucatan peninsula in 2007 and 2010-2011, and P input from dust deposition was estimated using two independent methods: zonal dust flux divergence based on MODIS AOD retrievals, and MATCH atmospheric transport modeling. Total atmospheric P input was 265 ± 80 g P ha-1 yr-1, and dust P input was 46 ± 12 g P ha-1 yr-1. There was significant seasonal and interannual variation, with local biomass burning accounting for high P inputs in April and May, and dust transport from June through August. We found that MATCH underestimates P deposition from dust to the Yucatan because of underestimation of dust transport relative to MODIS remote sensing. Dust accounted for 25% of total atmospheric P inputs in the Yucatan, indicating local sources dominate atmospheric inputs. However, dust is still an important source of P for tropical dry forests in the Yucatan since it is a new input of P that occurs during the early growing season of the forest, and is large enough to offset leaching and erosional losses from soils.

Das, Rishiraj; Evan, Amato; Lawrence, Deborah

2013-01-01

65

Aggregates reduce transport distance of soil organic carbon: are our balances correct?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink for greenhouse gases, has been the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) whilst in-transit from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. Solving this controversy requires an improved understanding of the transport distance of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocity of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. Although settling velocity has already been included in some erosion models, it is often based on mineral particle size distribution. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than by mineral particle size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by SOC. In order to identify the effect of aggregation of source soil on the transport distance of eroded SOC, and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and temporary deposition, a rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam. Both the eroded sediments and undisturbed soil were fractionated into six different size classes using a settling tube apparatus according to their settling velocities. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates were measured for each of the six class fractions. Our results indicate that: (1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-deposited down eroding hillslopes, rather than with fine particles likely transferred to water courses; (2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded SOC, and thus might contribute more CO2 to the atmosphere than current estimates which often ignore potential effects of aggregation; (3) preferential deposition of SOC-rich coarse aggregates potentially causes an increase of SOC remaining in the colluvial system and a reduction of SOC flux to the alluvial or aquatic system. These findings identify a potential error of overestimating net erosion-induced carbon sink effects, and thus add an additional factor to consider when improving our current understanding of SOC erosion and deposition on hillslopes.

Hu, Y.; Kuhn, N. J.

2014-06-01

66

Is Direct Mail Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Varied approaches taken to bringing vitality to direct mail fundraising campaigns are described for 10 institutions: Northern Arizona University, Georgetown University (District of Columbia); Miami University (Ohio), Kansas University, Pennsylvania State University, St. Ignatius High School (Ohio); Metropolitan State University (Minnesota),…

Hauk, Jeff; Burdenski, Robert A.

1998-01-01

67

Space allowance during commercial long distance transport of cattle in North America.  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to study space allowance in cattle during commercial long haul transport (?400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys, delivered to livestock transport carriers, gathered information on the number, BW, and distribution of cattle by trailer compartment as well as the characteristics of the transport vehicles used. Space allowance (SA; m(2)/animal), allometric coefficient (k = SA / BW(0.6667)), and the percentage of deviation from recommended SA (DRSA; %) in the Canadian Codes of Practice were calculated for each compartment of the trailers. All quad-axle (77%) and tri-axle (23%) cattle trailers were reported with 5 compartments (nose, deck, belly, back, and doghouse). Sixty percent of all animals were carried in the middle compartments (deck and belly), 30% in the rear (back and doghouse), and 10% in the front or nose. Approximately 30% of the journeys required that the cattle be redistributed at the Canada-USA border to comply with different axle weight regulations, and most journeys moved them between the deck and the doghouse. Total loaded weight increased and the number of animals decreased with increasing BW of the animals. space allowance, k-value, and DRSA were least for calves and feeders compared with fat and cull cattle (p < 0.01). Both total loaded weight and number of animals increased with the number of axles in the trailer, being greatest in quad-axle trailers pulled by push tractors, which were most frequently used. Space allowance (k-value) was least in vehicles with greater number of axles and transporting the lightest cattle (i.e., quad-axles trailers transporting calves and feeders). Space allowance, k-value, and variability among journeys were least in the middle compartments (belly and deck), followed by the back, then doghouse and nose compartments of the trailers showing the largest values (p < 0.05). Many factors contributed to the variability in SA such as body size (smaller animals are placed more densely), compartment of the trailer (greater density in belly and deck), and number of axles on the vehicle (greater density with more axles). The present study provides a framework to assess and understand factors affecting SA during commercial long distance transport of cattle. This information is vital in assessing the consequences of changing industry standards, guidelines, recommended values, laws and regulations on animal welfare, the industry, and economics. PMID:22696620

González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

2012-10-01

68

77 FR 23643 - Advance Notice of Implementation of Full-Service Intelligent Mail Required for Automation Prices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...trays, sacks, and containers, such as pallets, and submission of electronic mailing...containers used to transport mail such as pallets, all purpose containers (APCs...Intelligent Mail Container Barcode for Pallets, APCs, Rolling Stock Mailers...

2012-04-20

69

BrandMyMail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to tweak the appearance of your Gmail account? This is now possible, courtesy of BrandMyMail. First-time users can watch the short video on the homepage to learn about the functionality of the program, gather some insights into how one might best utilize its primary features. Visitors can add social media links to their emails, create different layouts, and tweak the colors for individual expression and uniqueness. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2012-03-30

70

Geochemical processes during long-distance lateral magma transport within upper crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent geophysical observations demonstrate that magma is transported long distances from volcanic centers by dyke propagation (e.g., Miyakejima volcano: Geshi et al., 2002; Hachijojima volcano: Ishizuka et al., 2008). However, studying the physical and chemical properties of upper crustal fissures and intrusions in active volcanic systems is difficult. We have chosen to utilize the extensive dyke networks of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province that are exposed within the upper crust to investigate the processes occurring during magma transport. Lineations within dykes formed by bubble and crystal alignment indicate that the direction of magma flow gradually changed with distance from the volcanic center. Adjacent to the Mull volcanic center the dominant flow direction is near vertical to high-angle, while beyond c. 50km the flow direction is essentially horizontal. These observations indicate that the dykes extending southeast from Mull were fed by laterally-transported magma from this volcanic center. Geochemically, the dykes show two distinct trends: one representing magmatic differentiation and the other crustal assimilation. Assimilation is most clearly recognized in the correlations between radiogenic isotopes and major elements (e.g., SiO2 vs. 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd), and in the relationships between trace element ratios or ?Nb. Potential assimilants in the studied area are the lower crust, which is likely to be dominated by Lewisian gneiss, and the upper crust, featuring schists of sedimentary origin. Most of the dykes lie along a distinct isotopic trend from the Mull Plateau Group (MPG) lavas; these being a likely equivalent composition to the initial magmas before displacement along the fissures. Isotopically, these lavas reflect a contribution of lower crustal material (with low143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb and Th/Ce) to the MORB-type asthenospheric mantle. In contrast, the dykes, except for some proximal samples, can be explained by addition of upper crustal material to a similar asthenospheric source. Contribution of this crustal material to the dykes appears to vary with distance, with the maximum143Nd/144Nd decreasing, and the minimum Th/Ce increasing away from Mull. Magmas with lesser crustal contribution (i.e., high 143Nd/144Nd, low Th/Ce) only occur close to the Mull volcanic center, and all the distal dykes have strong influence of upper crustal assimilation. These data imply that the dyke magma gradually assimilated upper crust on its journey away from Mull. A lateral variation in extent of crustal assimilation such as this has not been recognized in the Mackenzie Dyke Swarm (Baragar et al., 1996). Variable Ti/Zr between dykes implies that they formed during different stages of Mull volcanism, reflecting the equivalent variation in Ti/Zr in the Mull lavas. Accordingly, isolating geochemical signatures constrained by high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of dyke rocks enable us to correlate individual intrusions with known effusive events.

Ishizuka, O.; Geshi, N.; Mochizuki, N.; Taylor, R. N.

2013-12-01

71

Precise control of intramolecular charge-transport: the interplay of distance and conformational effects.  

PubMed

A new series of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) compounds consisting of ?-conjugated oligofluorene (oFL) bridges between a ferrocene (Fc) electron-donor and a fullerene (C60 ) electron-acceptor have been synthesized. In addition to varying the length of the bridge (i.e., mono- and bi-fluorene derivatives), four different ways of linking ferrocene to the bridge have been examined. The Fc moiety is linked to oFL: 1)?directly without any spacer, 2)?by an ethynyl linkage, 3)?by a vinylene linkage, and 4)?by a p-phenylene unit. The electronic interactions between the electroactive species have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry, absorption, fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations. The calculations reveal exceptionally close energy-matching between the Fc and the oFL units, which results in strong electronic-coupling. Hence, intramolecular charge-transfer may easily occur upon exciting either the oFLs or Fcs. Photoexcitation of Fc-oFL-C60 conjugates results in transient radical-ion-pair states. The mode of linkage of the Fc and FL bridge has a profound effect on the photophysical properties. Whereas intramolecular charge-separation is found to occur rather independently of the distance, the linker between Fc and oFL acts (at least in oFL) as a bottleneck and significantly impacts the intramolecular charge-separation rates, resulting in beta values between ?CS 0.08 and 0.19?Å(-1). In contrast, charge recombination depends strongly on the electron-donor-acceptor distance, but not at all on the linker. A value of ?CR (0.35±0.01?Å(-1)) was found for all the systems studied. Oligofluorenes prove, therefore, to be excellent bridges for probing how small structural variations affect charge transport in D-B-A systems. PMID:23576309

Schubert, Christina; Wielopolski, Mateusz; Mewes, Lars-Hendrik; de Miguel Rojas, Gustavo; van der Pol, Cornelia; Moss, Kathryn C; Bryce, Martin R; Moser, Jacques E; Clark, Timothy; Guldi, Dirk M

2013-06-01

72

76 FR 7114 - International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Mailing Services. This price change correlates to the Postal...Docket No. R2011-2, Notice of Price Adjustment, with the Postal Regulatory Commission...filed a notice of Mailing Services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory...

2011-02-09

73

Brassinosteroids Do Not Undergo Long-Distance Transport in Pea. Implications for the Regulation of Endogenous Brassinosteroid Levels1  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that brassinosteroids (BRs) are important regulators of plant growth and development. However, in comparison to the other classical plant hormones, such as auxin, relatively little is known about BR transport and its potential role in the regulation of endogenous BR levels in plants. Here, we show that end-pathway BRs in pea (Pisum sativum) occur in a wide range of plant tissues, with the greatest accumulation of these substances generally occurring in the young, actively growing tissues, such as the apical bud and young internodes. However, despite the widespread distribution of BRs throughout the plant, we found no evidence of long-distance transport of these substances between different plant tissues. For instance, we show that the maintenance of steady-state BR levels in the stem does not depend on their transport from the apical bud or mature leaves. Similarly, reciprocal grafting between the wild type and the BR-deficient lkb mutants demonstrates that the maintenance of steady-state BR levels in whole shoots and roots does not depend on either basipetal or acropetal transport of BRs between these tissues. Together, with results from 3H-BR feeding studies, these results demonstrate that BRs do not undergo long-distance transport in pea. The widespread distribution of end-pathway BRs and the absence of long-distance BR transport between different plant tissues provide significant insight into the mechanisms that regulate BR homeostasis in plants.

Symons, Gregory M.; Reid, James B.

2004-01-01

74

Heavy Users of Electronic Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted using a questionnaire and interview:; concerning how electronic mail (E-mail) is used as a work tool for communication. The questionnaire, distributed electronically within a large organization, showed that employeessending and receiving large numbers of E-mail messages are not the same employees having problems handling E-mail. Managers seem to have problems to a larger extent than

Ann Lantz

1998-01-01

75

Micro-Mail User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two NOSC electronic mail utilities, MSG (UNIX-based) and umail (PC-based) are contrasted. umail is an electronic mail utility that transfers mail between mini-computers running the UNIX operating system and personal computers running the MS-DOS operating ...

B. Bueche H. R. Hall

1988-01-01

76

Bioinspired tilt-angle fabricated structure gradient fibers: micro-drops fast transport in a long-distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues of surfaces, e.g., inspired from beetle's back, spider silk, cactus stem, etc., become the active area of research on designing novel materials in need of human beings to acquire fresh water resource from air. However, the design of materials on surface structure is little achieved on controlling of micro-scale drop transport in a long distance. Here, we report the ability of micro-drop transport in a long distance on a bioinspired Fibers with Gradient Spindle-knots (BFGS), which are fabricated by tilt angle dip-coating method. The micro-drop of ~0.25 ?L transports in distance of ~5.00 mm, with velocity of 0.10-0.22 m s-1 on BFGS. It is attributed to the multi-level cooperation of the release energy of drop coalescence along the gradient spindle-knots, in addition to capillary adhesion force and continuous difference of Laplace pressure, accordingly, water drops are driven to move fast directionally in a long distance on BFGS.

Chen, Yuan; Wang, Lin; Xue, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

2013-10-01

77

Evaluating Your Campus Mail Center Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five strategies to consider when evaluating the security of a campus mail center: mail center efficiency, electronic tracking, identifying dangerous mail, training, and continuity planning. (EV)

Weiner, Mitchell D.

2003-01-01

78

Does distance affect utilization of substance abuse and mental health services in the presence of transportation services?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long travel times have been identified as a significant barrier to accessing mental health and other critical services. This study examines whether distance to treatment was a barrier to receiving outpatient mental health and substance abuse care for HIV-positive persons when transportation was provided. Data from a cohort of HIV-positive persons who participated in a year-long substance abuse and mental

R. Whetten; K. Whetten; B. W. Pence; S. Reif; C. Conover; S. Bouis

2006-01-01

79

Electronic mail abstract submissions increase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of meeting abstracts submitted to AGU by electronic mail is growing. Two hundred electronic mail submissions were received for the Fall Meeting, compared with only 30 for the Spring Meeting. Electronic transmission allows presenters to submit abstracts up to the abstract deadline without risking rejection due to late arrival. AGU had to reject 40 Fall Meeting abstracts that arrived after the deadline because of slow mail service. Electronic submission offers presenters the chance to submit abstracts even on the last day.

DeVito, M. Catherine

80

Setting Up and Using Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Using Mail on your iPod is just as user-friendly and powerful as using a desktop e-mail client. After you play around with\\u000a it for a week, you’ll find yourself using your iPod to check your e-mail more and more. Here are some things to take away\\u000a with you from this chapter:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a Although Mail attachments introduce occasional difficulties, the rest

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

81

43 CFR 1810.2 - Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met...Rules § 1810.2 Communications by mail; when mailing requirements are met...this chapter provide for communication by mail by the authorized officer, the...

2013-10-01

82

Transport Equation Based Wall Distance Computations Aimed at Flows With Time-Dependent Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson equations can be used for economical nearest wall distance computation and modification. Economical computations may be especially useful for aeroelastic and adaptive grid problems for which the grid deforms, and the nearest wall distance needs to be repeatedly computed. Modifications are directed at remedying turbulence model defects. For complex grid structures, implementation of the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches is not straightforward. This prohibits their use in industrial CFD solvers. However, both the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be written in advection and advection-diffusion forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson's Laplacian, are commonly occurring industrial CFD solver elements. Use of the NASA CFL3D code to solve the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations in advective-based forms is explored. The advection-based distance equations are found to have robust convergence. Geometries studied include single and two element airfoils, wing body and double delta configurations along with a complex electronics system. It is shown that for Eikonal accuracy, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is found effective and, since it does not require offset metric evaluations, easiest to implement. The sensitivity of flow solutions to wall distance assumptions is explored. Generally, results are not greatly affected by wall distance traits.

Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

2003-01-01

83

Transport Equation Based Wall Distance Computations Aimed at Flows With Time-Dependent Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson equations can be used for economical nearest wall distance computation and modification. Economical computations may be especially useful for aeroelastic and adaptive grid problems for which the grid deforms, and the nearest wall distance needs to be repeatedly computed. Modifications are directed at remedying turbulence model defects. For complex grid structures, implementation of the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches is not straightforward. This prohibits their use in industrial CFD solvers. However, both the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be written in advection and advection-diffusion forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson s Laplacian, are commonly occurring industrial CFD solver elements. Use of the NASA CFL3D code to solve the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations in advective-based forms is explored. The advection-based distance equations are found to have robust convergence. Geometries studied include single and two element airfoils, wing body and double delta configurations along with a complex electronics system. It is shown that for Eikonal accuracy, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is found effective and, since it does not require offset metric evaluations, easiest to implement. The sensitivity of flow solutions to wall distance assumptions is explored. Generally, results are not greatly affected by wall distance traits.

Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

2003-01-01

84

Optimal Selection for Direct Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct marketing (mail) is a growing area of marketing practice, yet the academic journals contain very little research on this topic. The most important issue for direct marketers is how to sample targets from a population for a direct mail campaign. Although some selection methods are described in the literature, there seems to be not a single paper discussing the

Jan Roelf Bult; Tom Wansbeek

1995-01-01

85

Join Our Online Mailing List  

Cancer.gov

Home About TCGA People and Contacts Join Our Online Mailing List Join Our Online Mailing List To receive the latest cancer genomics news and announcements from The Cancer Genome Atlas, sign up for TCGA updates. To sign up for our email list: Send

86

Mass transport problems for the Euclidean distance obtained as limits of p-Laplacian type problems with obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze a mass transportation problem that consists in moving optimally (paying a transport cost given by the Euclidean distance) an amount of a commodity larger than or equal to a fixed one to fulfil a demand also larger than or equal to a fixed one, with the obligation of paying an extra cost of -g1(x) for extra production of one unit at location x and an extra cost of g2(y) for creating one unit of demand at y. The extra amounts of mass (commodity/demand) are unknowns of the problem. Our approach to this problem is by taking the limit as p?? to a double obstacle problem (with obstacles g1, g2) for the p-Laplacian. In fact, under a certain natural constraint on the extra costs (that is equivalent to impose that the total optimal cost is bounded) we prove that this limit gives the extra material and extra demand needed for optimality and a Kantorovich potential for the mass transport problem involved. We also show that this problem can be interpreted as an optimal mass transport problem in which one can make the transport directly (paying a cost given by the Euclidean distance) or may hire a courier that cost g2(y)-g1(x) to pick up a unit of mass at y and deliver it to x. For this different interpretation we provide examples and a decomposition of the optimal transport plan that shows when we have to use the courier.

Mazón, J. M.; Rossi, J. D.; Toledo, J.

87

Live-cell imaging of Marburg virus-infected cells uncovers actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids over long distances  

PubMed Central

Transport of large viral nucleocapsids from replication centers to assembly sites requires contributions from the host cytoskeleton via cellular adaptor and motor proteins. For the Marburg and Ebola viruses, related viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers, the mechanism of nucleocapsid transport remains poorly understood. Here we developed and used live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled viral and host proteins to characterize the dynamics and molecular requirements of nucleocapsid transport in Marburg virus-infected cells under biosafety level 4 conditions. The study showed a complex actin-based transport of nucleocapsids over long distances from the viral replication centers to the budding sites. Only after the nucleocapsids had associated with the matrix viral protein VP40 at the plasma membrane were they recruited into filopodia and cotransported with host motor myosin 10 toward the budding sites at the tip or side of the long cellular protrusions. Three different transport modes and velocities were identified: (i) Along actin filaments in the cytosol, nucleocapsids were transported at ?200 nm/s; (ii) nucleocapsids migrated from one actin filament to another at ?400 nm/s; and (iii) VP40-associated nucleocapsids moved inside filopodia at 100 nm/s. Unique insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of nucleocapsids and their interaction with the cytoskeleton and motor proteins can lead to novel classes of antivirals that interfere with the trafficking and subsequent release of the Marburg virus from infected cells.

Schudt, Gordian; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Dolnik, Olga; Sodeik, Beate; Becker, Stephan

2013-01-01

88

Live-cell imaging of Marburg virus-infected cells uncovers actin-dependent transport of nucleocapsids over long distances.  

PubMed

Transport of large viral nucleocapsids from replication centers to assembly sites requires contributions from the host cytoskeleton via cellular adaptor and motor proteins. For the Marburg and Ebola viruses, related viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers, the mechanism of nucleocapsid transport remains poorly understood. Here we developed and used live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled viral and host proteins to characterize the dynamics and molecular requirements of nucleocapsid transport in Marburg virus-infected cells under biosafety level 4 conditions. The study showed a complex actin-based transport of nucleocapsids over long distances from the viral replication centers to the budding sites. Only after the nucleocapsids had associated with the matrix viral protein VP40 at the plasma membrane were they recruited into filopodia and cotransported with host motor myosin 10 toward the budding sites at the tip or side of the long cellular protrusions. Three different transport modes and velocities were identified: (i) Along actin filaments in the cytosol, nucleocapsids were transported at ?200 nm/s; (ii) nucleocapsids migrated from one actin filament to another at ?400 nm/s; and (iii) VP40-associated nucleocapsids moved inside filopodia at 100 nm/s. Unique insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of nucleocapsids and their interaction with the cytoskeleton and motor proteins can lead to novel classes of antivirals that interfere with the trafficking and subsequent release of the Marburg virus from infected cells. PMID:23940347

Schudt, Gordian; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Dolnik, Olga; Sodeik, Beate; Becker, Stephan

2013-08-27

89

Viral regulation of the long distance axonal transport of herpes simplex virus nucleocapsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many membranous organelles and protein complexes are normally transported anterograde within axons to the presynaptic terminal, and details of the motors, adaptors and cargoes have received significant attention. Much less is known about the transport in neurons of non-membrane bound particles, such as mRNAs and their associated proteins. We propose that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) can be used

J. H. LaVail; A. N. Tauscher; A. Sucher; O. Harrabi; R. Brandimarti

2007-01-01

90

39 CFR 927.1 - Noncontractual carriage of international mail by vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Noncontractual carriage of international mail by vessel. 927.1 Section 927.1...Noncontractual carriage of international mail by vessel. (a) Report of infraction...evidence is found or reported that a carrier of mail by vessel which has transported...

2013-07-01

91

Distance Education: When Distance Is an Issue. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education occurs when distance and/or time prevents the learner and instructor from meeting face to face. Ways of providing distance learning opportunities include traditional materials by mail (print materials, audio and video support materials, audio and video lectures) and electronic materials (faxed information, telephone, electronic…

Epstein, Margarete

92

Teaching Action Research via Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examined important factors and student outcomes in action research courses taught via distance in a Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction program. Over the three years of the study, communication used in the program evolved from primarily mail and phone correspondence to primarily e-mail and online discussion groups. Following a systematic analysis of faculty meeting notes, syllabi,

Betty Aune

2002-01-01

93

Knockdown of a Rice Stelar Nitrate Transporter Alters Long-Distance Translocation But Not Root Influx1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Root nitrate uptake is well known to adjust to the plant’s nitrogen demand for growth. Long-distance transport and/or root storage pools are thought to provide negative feedback signals regulating root uptake. We have characterized a vascular specific nitrate transporter belonging to the high-affinity Nitrate Transporter2 (NRT2) family, OsNRT2.3a, in rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica ‘Nipponbare’). Localization analyses using protoplast expression, in planta promoter-?-glucuronidase assay, and in situ hybridization showed that OsNRT2.3a was located in the plasma membrane and mainly expressed in xylem parenchyma cells of the stele of nitrate-supplied roots. Knockdown expression of OsNRT2.3a by RNA interference (RNAi) had impaired xylem loading of nitrate and decreased plant growth at low (0.5 mm) nitrate supply. In comparison with the wild type, the RNAi lines contained both nitrate and total nitrogen significantly higher in the roots and lower in the shoots. The short-term [15N]NO3? influx (5 min) in entire roots and NO3? fluxes in root surfaces showed that the knockdown of OsNRT2.3a in comparison with the wild type did not affect nitrate uptake by roots. The RNAi plants showed no significant changes in the expression of some root nitrate transporters (OsNRT2.3b, OsNRT2.4, and OsNAR2.1), but transcripts for nia1 (nitrate reductase) had increased and OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2 had decreased when the plants were supplied with nitrate. Taken together, the data demonstrate that OsNRT2.3a plays a key role in long-distance nitrate transport from root to shoot at low nitrate supply level in rice.

Tang, Zhong; Fan, Xiaorong; Li, Qing; Feng, Huimin; Miller, Anthony J.; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua

2012-01-01

94

Electronic Mail (E-Mail) Management and Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is substantially revised and must be completely reviewed. This revision updates the entire instruction. Paragraph 2. includes establishing organizational and individual E-mail accounts. Paragraph 3. differentiates between acceptable and unac...

1999-01-01

95

Privacy-enhanced electronic mail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of electronic mail sent through the Internet may be described in exactly three words: there is none. The Privacy and Security Research Group has recommended implementing mechanisms designed to provide security enhancements. The first set of mechanisms provides a protocol to provide privacy, integrity, and authentication for electronic mail; the second provides a certificate-based key management infrastructure to support key distribution throughout the internet, to support the first set of mechanisms. These mechanisms are described, as well as the reasons behind their selection and how these mechanisms can be used to provide some measure of security in the exchange of electronic mail.

Bishop, Matt

1990-06-01

96

Douglas M-3 mail plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The predecessor of this Douglas M-3 mail plane was first manufactured in about 1926 as a replacement for the ancient DH-4 which was widely used at that time for carrying the mail. The aircraft was powered by the World War I Liberty engine of about 400 HP. This Douglas M-3 mail plane was used by the NACA in evaluations of flying qualities. The M-3 also took part in a study on the influence of tip shape on wing load distribution.

1931-01-01

97

A Fluidic, Stacked Mail Counter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of counting vertically stacked letters in standard mail racks with the use of a fluidic sensing and counting system was investigated. A description of the system, the test program conducted, and innovations employed to increase the system ...

C. E. Spyropoulos

1969-01-01

98

Mail Call, VHA Correspondence Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program motivates new and existing employees to process controlled executive correspondence accurately and on time. It describes the importance of mail flow, tracking procedures and the role of staff members who work with executive correspondence. Pr...

1994-01-01

99

Mail LOG: Program operating instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

100

Securing electronic mail: The risks and future of electronic mail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network explosion of the past decade has significantly affected how many of us conduct our day to day work. We increasingly rely on network services such as electronic mail, file transfer, and network newsgroups to collect and distribute information. Unfortunately, few of the network services in use today were designed with the security issues of large heterogeneous networks in mind. In particular, electronic mail, although heavily relied upon, is notoriously insecure. Messages can be forged, snooped, and even altered by users with only a moderate level of system proficiency. The level of trust that can be assigned at present to these services needs to be carefully considered. In the past few years, standards and tools have begun to appear addressing the security concerns of electronic mail. Principal among these are RFC's 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424, which propose Internet standards in the areas of message encipherment, key management, and algorithms for privacy enhanced mail (PEM). Additionally, three PEM systems, offering varying levels of compliance with the PEM RFC's, have also recently emerged: PGP, RIPEM, and TIS/PEM. This paper addresses the motivations and requirements for more secure electronic mail, and evaluates the suitability of the currently available PEM systems.

Weeber, S. A.

1993-03-01

101

INTERMAIL, an Experimental Mail Forwarding System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of large electronic mail systems testifies to the increasing importance of electronic mail as a means of communication and coordination throughout the scientific research community. These systems include the DARPA Internet mail system, the G...

A. L. DeSchon

1985-01-01

102

76 FR 46856 - Mail Classification Schedule Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. MC2011-26; Order No. 777] Mail Classification Schedule Change AGENCY...regarding classification changes to Priority Mail packaging. This document invites public...90 and 3020.91 concerning Priority Mail...

2011-08-03

103

28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mail depositories. 540.11 Section 540...COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.11 Mail depositories. The Warden shall establish at least one mail depository within the institution for...

2013-07-01

104

77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CP2013-25; Order No. 1578] New International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...enter into an additional international mail contract. This document invites public...small- or medium-sized businesses that mail products directly to foreign...

2012-12-19

105

77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CP2013-26; Order No. 1579] New International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...enter into an additional international mail contract. This document invites public...small- or medium-sized businesses that mail products directly to foreign...

2012-12-20

106

77 FR 40527 - New Express Mail Price Category-Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 New Express Mail Price Category--Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope AGENCY: Postal...Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), to expand Express Mail[supreg] product options to include a...

2012-07-10

107

77 FR 38684 - Product Change-Express Mail & Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail & Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY...Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 9 to Competitive Product...

2012-06-28

108

77 FR 60730 - Product Change-Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY...Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 10 to Competitive Product...

2012-10-04

109

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

2014-05-01

110

Sexual and treatment-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection in long-distance transport workers of East Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the sexual and treatment?seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection (STI) in long?distance transport workers of East Africa. Methods A health?seeking behaviour survey was carried out at four sites on the Mombasa–Kampala trans?Africa highway (n?=?381). The questionnaires probed details of STI knowledge, symptoms and care?seeking behaviour. In one site at the Kenya–Uganda border, a sexual patterning matrix was used (n?=?202) to measure sexual behaviour in truck drivers and their assistants over the 12?month period before the interview. Results Over half of the sexual acts of long?distance transport workers over 12?months were with female sex workers, with an annual average of 2.8 sexual partners. Condom use was reported at 70% for liaisons with casual partners. 15% of truckers had had a self?reported STI and one?third exhibited high?risk sexual behaviour in the previous year. Of those with an STI, 85% had symptoms when on the road and 77.2% sought treatment within 1?week of onset of symptoms. 94% of drivers and 56% of assistants sought treatment for STI in a private health facility or pharmacy. The cost of private facilities and pharmacies was not significantly higher than in the public sector. Waiting times were three times longer in the public sector. Only 28.9% of patients completed their medication courses as prescribed. Conclusions Truck drivers and their assistants in East Africa have high rates of reported STIs and many continue to exhibit high?risk sexual behaviour. The transport workers studied here favoured private health facilities because of convenience and shorter waiting times.

Morris, Chester N; Ferguson, Alan G

2007-01-01

111

Dropping rates of elaiosome-bearing seeds during transport by ants ( Formica polyctena Foerst.): Implications for distance dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a deciduous forest, foraging ants collect elaiosome-bearing seeds and carry them to their nests. Some of the seeds reach the nest and are concentrated there. Others may be dropped by ants during transport. The dropped seeds enter the soil seed pool. However, they might be repeatedly removed by other ant individuals and carried again in the direction of the nest. Rates of seed dropping and repeated removals must be known to evaluate the effect of ant workers on dispersal distance of seeds. The rate of seed dropping is predicted to depend on size of seeds and of elaiosomes, both of which vary among plant species, and on the size of the ant workers. Mark-recapture experiments were used to evaluate dropping rates of seeds of five myrmecochorous and diplochorous plants ( Chelidonium majus L., Asarum europaeum L., Viola matutina Klok., V. mirabilis L., V. hirta L.) during their transport by the ant Formica polyctena Foerst. In the series of species A. europaeum - V. hirta - V. mirabilis - Ch. majus - V. matutina, the dropping rate increased. Small workers dropped seeds of A. europaeum more often than did large ones, while seeds of V. hirta were dropped by ants of different size classes with the same frequency. Across species, dropping rates of seeds were negatively correlated with the rate at which ants removed them from the depot. The number of seeds which reach the nests is the other important parameter of seed dispersal. This parameter depends on dropping rates: seeds with lower dropping rates have higher chances of being deposited in nests. Diplochores usually produce many small seeds, which are characterised by low removal rates and high dropping rates during transport by ants. Obligate myrmecochores produce rather few large seeds, which have high removal rates and low dropping rates. To analyse the significance of seed dropping in the dispersal distance of seeds, a computer simulation based on two factors [(i) seed number produced by a plant; (ii) dropping rate of seeds] is proposed.

Gorb, Stanislav N.; Gorb, Elena V.

1999-09-01

112

The effect of short distance transport under commercial conditions on the physiology of slaughter calves; pH and colour profiles of veal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the position of calves on the truck (back or front compartment) and other aspects of short distance transport on the welfare of cattle and meat quality parameters. A total of 158 Dutch Fresian calves, aged 28 weeks, were followed during 17 transports from 12 different farms to the slaughterhouse.

F. Verjans; R. Geers

2003-01-01

113

Keypals--E-mail Leads to New Friends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Keypal Project, a project in which e-mail was introduced in two kindergarten classes with the intent to enrich children's literacy and communication skills and foster long-distance relationships. Found the project had great learning potential and was easily incorporated into constructivist programs which emphasize active learning.…

Durost, Dennis D.; Hutchinson, Sue L.

1997-01-01

114

An analysis of long-distance water transport in the soybean stem using H215O.  

PubMed

The lateral water movement in the intact stem of a transpiring soybean plant was analyzed quantitatively by a real-time measurement system utilizing labeled water, H(2)(15)O and gamma ray detectors. A large volume of water escaping from xylem vessels during its transport was detected. The escape of water was not influenced by evaporation from the stem surface or mass flow in the sieve tubes. It was assumed that the total amount of water transported through xylem vessels was kept almost completely constant along the internode. As a result, most of the escaped water was found to re-enter the xylem vessels, i.e. water exchange occurred. The analysis of radiographs of tritiated water suggested that the self-diffusion effect of water was strong for lateral water movement, although another driving force besides thermal motion was included in the process, and that the process was also affected by the water permeability of the plasma membrane. An analysis based on a mathematical model showed that the net volume of water which escaped from xylem vessels was not dependent on the transpiration rate of the plant. PMID:18372296

Ohya, Tomoyuki; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hamada, Yousuke; Okabe, Hirotaka; Rai, Hiroki; Hojo, Junko; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

2008-05-01

115

Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.  

PubMed

Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. PMID:22265239

Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

2012-05-01

116

Petrology of the Namib Sand Sea: Long-distance transport and compositional variability in the wind-displaced Orange Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sourced as the Nile in distant basaltic rift highlands, the Orange River is the predominant ultimate source of sand for the Namib Desert dunes, as proved independently by bulk-petrography, heavy-mineral, pyroxene-chemistry, and U/Pb zircon-age datasets. Additional local entry points of sand do exist at the edges of the desert, and were quantified by comparison with detrital modes and heavy-mineral suites of hinterland-river sediments. After long-distance fluvial transport, Orange sand is washed by ocean waves and dragged northwards by vigorous longshore currents. Under the incessant action of southerly winds, sand is blown inland and carried farther north to accumulate in the Namib erg, a peculiar wind-dominated sediment sink displaced hundreds of kilometres away from the river mouth. And yet changes in sand mineralogy along the way are minor. After a multistep journey of cumulative 3000 km from their source in Lesotho, volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene are found in unchanged abundance as far as the northern edge of the desert. Only locally is volcanic detritus slightly depleted and minor but regular enrichment in quartz and garnet is observed, the sole potential effect of prolonged transport or recycling of Tertiary aeolianites. Selective comminution of fragile minerals is thus proved unable to substantially modify sand composition in fluvial, coastal, or aeolian settings. Mechanical processes have a much greater effect on the morphology of detrital grains, which in Namib dunes appear commonly shaped into nearly perfect spheres. Aeolian sorting concentrates denser minerals locally in placer lags, but such effects can be identified and compensated for. This study demonstrates that mechanical breakdown is unable to markedly affect provenance signatures even during long-distance and prolonged multistep transport in high-energy settings. In arid climates, where chemical processes are negligible, high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses are thus powerful techniques to quantitatively reconstruct provenance, and to trace sediment sources and dispersal paths over distances up to thousands of kilometres.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Lustrino, Michele; Boni, Maria; Vermeesch, Pieter

2012-05-01

117

Evidence for the long-distance atmospheric transport of polychlorinated terphenyl  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitous occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment is well-known. A class of chemically similar compounds, the polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs), has also been found, but their routes into the environment and the extent of contamination are not known. Recent sampling from a site location in the middle of Lake Huron indicates that the atmosphere over the lake contains low levels (preliminary work shows levels up to 2 ng/m/sup 3/) of PCTs; PCTs were also found in precipitation samples. The detection of PCTs well after their production ceased (approx. 1970) suggests that this class of compounds may already be as ubiquitous as PCBs with respect to long-range atmospheric transport.

Wingender, R.J.; Williams, R.M.

1984-01-01

118

39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service...POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail....

2013-07-01

119

39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service...POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail....

2010-07-01

120

Business E-mail: Guidelines for Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines to help businesspeople and business students become more effective and efficient in the use of e-mail. Includes the authors' experiences as instructors in diverse business schools and corporate settings. Notes that the guidelines cover: recognizing the nature of e-mail; composing e-mail; and processing and managing e-mail. (SG)

Munter, Mary; Rogers, Priscilla S.; Rymer, Jone

2003-01-01

121

Mailman: The GNU Mailing List Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic mailing lists are ubiquitous community-forging tools that serve the important needs of Internet users, both experienced and novice. The most popular mailing list managers generally use textual mail-based interfaces for all list operations, from subscription management to list administration. Unfortunately, anecdotal evidence suggests that most mailing list users, and many list administrators and moderators are novice to intermediate computer

John Viega; Barry Warsaw; Ken Manheimer

1998-01-01

122

Hooked on E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information overload, and an expectation that e-mails, tweets, and text messages will be answered immediately, impact productivity. The younger, information-addicted workers have a greater capacity to process this open floodgate of information, as well as a better ability to multitask. Research suggests that there is a marked drop in worker…

Espinoza, Kathy

2011-01-01

123

Current Trends in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines distance education; provides a historical background; discusses emerging modes of instruction, including interactive television, computer-mediated communication, electronic mail, and national and international networks; and considers the future of distance education, including the use of the Internet, multimedia, and a new paradigm for…

Gaspar, Richard F.; Thompson, Theron D.

1995-01-01

124

Comparing Two Survey Research Approaches: E-Mail and Web-Based Technology versus Traditional Mail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasted two survey methodologies: e-mail-Web and traditional mail. Found that: (1) e-mail-Web respondents were proportionately more likely to be male and enrolled in school full-time; (2) more individual question non-response was present for the e-mail-Web sample; and (3) e-mail-Web respondents value different aspects of graduate school. (EV)

Howes, Colleen M.; Mailloux, Mark R.

2001-01-01

125

AADD-FOCUSED Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AADD-FOCUSED mailing list is an unmoderated focused discussion list for adults who have ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). Although there are other forums available for discussion of ADD-related topics, they are often too broadly defined and receive many postings not having to do with Adult ADD. Therefore AADD-FOCUSED has been created specifically for those who wish to read fewer, more focused messages per day on the subject of Adult ADD.

126

PDF-Basics Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by PDFzone, a .pdf resource and news site, this new mailing list is designed as a "101 level" list, aimed to "address the needs of relative newcomers to Adobe Acrobat software and .pdf files." Discussion will be geared towards inexperienced users, and beginners may safely post more elementary questions than they might on other .pdf-centric lists. A digest version is available, and a searchable Web archive is planned for the future.

127

Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects over long distances in air using a bending vibrator and a reflector.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic manipulation of small particles, including liquid droplets, over long distances is discussed. It is well known that particles can be trapped at the nodal points of an acoustic standing wave if the particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the standing wave. We used an experimental setup consisting of a 3-mm-thick, 605-mm-long duralumin bending vibrating plate and a reflector. A bolt-clamped Langevin transducer with horn was attached to each end of the vibrating plate to generate flexural vibrations along the plate. A plane reflector with the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the plate at a distance of approximately 17 mm to generate an ultrasonic standing wave between them and to trap the small particles at the nodal lines. The acoustic field and acoustic radiation force between the vibrator and reflector were calculated by finite element analysis to predict the positions of the trapped particles. The sound pressure distribution was measured experimentally using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. By controlling the driving phase difference between the two transducers, a flexural traveling wave can be generated along the vibrating plate, and the vertical nodal lines of the standing wave and the trapped particles can be moved. The flexural wave was excited along the vibrator at 22.5 kHz. A lattice standing wave with a wavelength of 35 mm in the length direction could be excited between the vibrator and the reflector, and polystyrene spheres with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at the nodal lines of the standing wave. The experimental and calculated results showed good agreement for the relationship between the driving phase difference and the positions of the trapped particles. Noncontact transportation of the trapped particles over long distances could be achieved by changing the driving phase difference. The position of the trapped particles could be controlled to an accuracy of 0.046 mm/deg. An ethanol droplet could also be trapped and moved. PMID:20442026

Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

2010-05-01

128

Parametric Studies Fluidic Handling and Processing of Letter Mail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program objective was to determine the kinetics of letter mail in fluidic handling and processing systems and reduce or eliminate the problems related to letter size and weight. The fluidic transport system consisted of a set of pinch rollers to obtai...

S. M. Tenney C. E. Spyropoulos

1974-01-01

129

United States Postal Service Bulk Mail Center, Springfield, Massachusetts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is a facility for the handling, sorting, transporting, and distributing of bulk (non-preferential) mail. It consists of a 345,000 square foot Processing Building plus several supporting buildings and structures constructed on a 76 acre tract o...

1973-01-01

130

77 FR 64150 - Product Change-Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...to the list of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products...

2012-10-18

131

78 FR 65393 - Product Change-Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...to the list of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products...

2013-10-31

132

78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...to the list of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products...

2013-09-12

133

78 FR 6361 - Product Change-Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail and Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...to the list of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products...

2013-01-30

134

76 FR 16588 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...system under 2.0 through 4.0, procedures for combining the mailing, the expected date of first mailing, quality control procedures, and a sample of all supporting mailing documentation, including postage statements and the USPS...

2011-03-24

135

Effects of transportation time, distance, stocking density, temperature and lairage time on incidences of pale soft exudative (PSE) and the physico-chemical characteristics of pork.  

PubMed

The study determined the effects of transportation time, distance, stocking density, temperature and lairage time on incidences of PSE and pork quality. Frequencies of PSE cases in stocking density categories within transport duration classes were determined. General linear models, regression and the principal component (PC) analysis were used to analyse the data. Highest incidences of PSE were recorded in autumn season while lowest incidences were recorded in the spring season. Transportation time and stocking density significantly affected pHu and ultimately PSE incidences although there were no interactive effects. Highest risks of PSE occurrence were observed with more space allowance. The highest incidences of PSE were observed for animals that had travelled for two hours while the PSE cases were lower in animals that travelled for longer times. Distance travelled and transportation time had significant effects (P<0.05) on thawing loss (TL) % of pork. No relationships were reported between the other pre-slaughter variables and pork quality attributes. With the exception of transportation time and distance travelled which had a positive relationship with TL%, variation in other pre-slaughter variables did not affect meat quality variables. The risks of PSE occurrence were dependent on stocking density and transportation time. PMID:23793088

Gajana, C S; Nkukwana, T T; Marume, U; Muchenje, V

2013-11-01

136

Business Education Leaders Compare E-mail and Regular Mail Survey Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business education leaders (n=128) received e-mail surveys; 34 returned them via e-mail, 13 by postal mail, 12 were blank and unusable; another group of 128 received mailed surveys with 73 returned. E-mail response took an average of 12.5 days, postal response 24.2 days. E-mail respondents completed 20.9 of 35 questions, the postal group 19.4 of…

Truell, Allen D.; Goss, Perry

2002-01-01

137

A field experiment on the influence of load transportation and patch distance on the locomotion velocity of Dorymyrmex goetschi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Locomotion velocity during foraging activities is determined by factors such as travel distance, habitat structure and load mass among others. However, few studies on foraging behavior have analyzed the influence of spatial heterogeneity and food transportation on the locomotion velocity of ants under natural conditions. In order to study the mentioned factors, we selected 20 nests of the ant

H. Torres-Contreras; R. A. Vásquez

2004-01-01

138

Design Packing to Safely Mail Raw Spaghetti  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use their creative skills to determine a way to safely mail raw (dry, uncooked) spaghetti using only the provided materials. To test the packing designs, the spaghetti is mailed through the postal system and evaluated after delivery.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

139

39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authority and procedure for initiating a mail cover, and for processing, using and disclosing information obtained from mail covers...transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope, wrapper, or contents...

2013-07-01

140

28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24 Judicial... Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by...

2013-07-01

141

39 CFR 3055.50 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.50 Section 3055.50 Postal...Performance Achievements § 3055.50 Standard Mail. (a) For each product within the Standard Mail class, report the on-time...

2013-07-01

142

28 CFR 540.18 - Special mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special mail. 540.18 Section 540.18 Judicial...COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.18 Special mail. (a) The Warden shall open incoming special mail only in the presence of the inmate for...

2013-07-01

143

77 FR 65912 - Priority Mail Contract  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CP2010-1; Order No. 1517] Priority Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...filing concerning an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 19. This notice informs the public...to an amendment to the existing Priority Mail Contract 19 subject to this...

2012-10-31

144

39 CFR 3055.21 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Mail. 3055.21 Section 3055.21 Postal Service...Performance Achievements § 3055.21 Standard Mail. For each product within the Standard Mail class, report the on-time service...

2013-07-01

145

78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...R2013-7; Order No. 1714] Priority Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...insurance up to $100 on most Priority Mail pieces. This notice addresses procedural...of insurance coverage with most Priority Mail pieces.\\1\\ The price change is...

2013-05-21

146

34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education...and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A parent of a child with a disability...300.504, and 300.508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency...

2013-07-01

147

75 FR 10529 - Mail Classification Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket Nos. MC2010-19; Order No. 415] Mail Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory...request to make a minor modification to the Mail Classification Schedule. The change affects...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) and other related...

2010-03-08

148

NJE Enhancements to NBI OASys Mail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NJE Enhancements to NBI OASys Mail supplements the NBI OASys Mail Reference Guide (S200848) published by NBI Inc. The NBI vendor document covers the base Mail package (e.g., setting up tailors, alias lists), a package that allows NBI users to communicate ...

R. A. Carlson S. M. Errion

1987-01-01

149

NJE enhancements to NBI OASys mail  

SciTech Connect

NJE Enhancements to NBI OASys Mail supplements the NBI OASys Mail Reference Guide (S200848) published by NBI Inc. The NBI vendor document covers the base Mail package (e.g., setting up tailors, alias lists), a package that allows NBI users to communicate with other NBI users on the same Integrated Control Unit (ICU) and to communicate with other NBI users on another ICU, when the ICUs are interconnected. NJE Enhancements to NBI OASys Mail assumes that you already know how to send mail to and receive mail from other NBI OASys users. It provides NBI users with necessary supplemental information for using ''Gateway'' Mail, which allows NBI users to communicate with Argonne computer users on the IBM mainframe or divisional VAX computers (see Appendix A for a description of the NBI configuration with the central Argonne computers and Table 1 for a list of Argonne nodenames) and to communicate with other research centers and universities through BITnet. By using Gateway Mail, NBI users can send and receive electronic mail to and from other computers on the network simply by using OASys Mail commands. NBI users type the same commands to communicate with external users via Gateway Mail as they use when communicating with other NBI users via OASys Mail.

Carlson, R.A.; Errion, S.M. (ed.)

1987-08-01

150

Repeat chlamydia screening by mail, San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of home screening for repeat chlamydial infection using urine test kits sent through the mail.Methods: A letter offering home rescreening was mailed to 399 adults who previously tested positive for chlamydia. Kits were then mailed to anyone who did not actively decline. The home testing kits contained instructions on how to collect a

P J Bloomfield; K C Steiner; C K Kent; J D Klausner

2003-01-01

151

77 FR 39273 - Express Mail Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. CP2012-39; Order No. 1382] Express Mail Rates AGENCY: Postal Regulatory...request to implement prices for a new Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope. This...Service seeks to implement prices for a new Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope. The...

2012-07-02

152

Automating E-Mail to Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method whereby college instructors can efficiently create individualized e-mail messages to students. The technique combines the mail merge capability of Microsoft Word and Excel with an e-mail client. Examples are from successful use in two courses: large-enrollment statistics course taught by lecture and a graduate-level course in…

Oosterhof, Albert

2000-01-01

153

Cyber-Rights Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CYBER-RIGHTS - Campaign for Cyber Rights Cyberspace is the "coordination headquarters" for the global Cyber Rights campaign being conducted by CPSR (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.) CPSR is a highly respected public service organization that has an effective track record in influencing legislation and regulation. CPSR contributed to the exposure of the fallacies behind the Star Wars project and helped defeat the Clipper Chip. CYBER-RIGHTS is moderated. send mail to: LISTSERV@CPSR.ORG in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE CYBER-RIGHTS yourfirstname yourlastname For example: SUBSCRIBE CYBER-RIGHTS Joe Shmoe

1995-01-01

154

Long-distance island hopping without dispersal stages: transportation across major zoogeographic barriers in a Southern Ocean isopod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species integrity is maintained only if recurrent allelic exchange between subpopulations occurs by means of migrating specimens. Predictions of this gene flow on the basis of observed or assumed mobility of marine species have proven to be error-prone. Using one mitochondrial gene and seven microsatellite markers, we studied the genetic structure and gene flow in Septemserolis septemcarinata, a strictly benthic species lacking pelagic larvae and the ability to swim. Suitable shallow-water habitats around three remote islands (South Georgia, Bouvet, and Marion Island) are geographically disjunct, isolated by more than 2,000 km of uninhabitable deep sea (east-west) and also separated by the Polar Front (north-south), which serves as a strong demarcation line in many marine taxa. Although we did find genetic differentiation among the three island populations, our results also revealed that a scenario with recent gene flow explains our data best. A model assuming no gene flow after initial colonization of the islands performs significantly worse. The tests also favor an asymmetric gene flow pattern (west to east ? east to west) thus mirroring the directionality of major oceanographic currents in the area. We conclude that rare long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance or human-mediated transport must be responsible for the observed patterns. As a mechanism, we propose passive rafting on floating substrata in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness of a physical barrier is not solely a function of its physical parameters but strongly depends on how organisms interact with their environment.

Leese, Florian; Agrawal, Shobhit; Held, Christoph

2010-06-01

155

76 FR 76619 - International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes-Mailing Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes--Mailing...United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) throughout various...reflect price adjustments for First-Class Mail International[supreg] and extra...

2011-12-08

156

76 FR 37655 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...dat[supreg] will be available for use with combined mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals flats in January 2012. Mail.XML[supreg] may be available for use with mixed class combined mailings in the future. Four commenters were opposed to the...

2011-06-28

157

Response Rates for Mixed-Mode Surveys Using Mail and E-Mail/Web  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines response rates for mixed-mode survey implementation involving mail and e-mail/Web components. Using Dillman's Tailored Design Method, 1,500 participants were sent a survey either (a) via mail with a follow-up contact via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based questionnaire or (b) via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based…

Converse, Patrick D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Huang, Xiaoting; Oswald, Frederick L.

2008-01-01

158

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

2014-09-01

159

Practical Protocols for Certified Electronic Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic mail, or e-mail, has brought us a big step closer towards the vision of paperless offices. To advance even closer to this vision, however, it is essential that existing e-mail systems be enhanced with value-added services which are capable of replacing many of the human proce- dures established in pen and paper communications. One of the most important and

Robert Huijie Deng; Li Gong; Aurel A. Lazar; Weiguo Wang

1996-01-01

160

Extracting Source Code from E-Mails  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-mails, used by developers and system users to communicate over a broad range of topics, offer a valuable source of information. If archived, e-mails can be mined to support program comprehension activities and to provide views of a software system that are alternative and complementary to those offered by the source code. However, e-mails are written in natural language, and

Alberto Bacchelli; Marco D'Ambros; Michele Lanza

2010-01-01

161

U. S. Postal Service to recycle undelivered bulk business mail  

SciTech Connect

US Postal Service officials are completing a plan that they say will generate more than 500,000 tons of mixed recycled paper per year. Under a program that could begin as early as October, managers of the nation's 35,000 post offices will collect and recycle all undeliverable bulk business mail. Postal officials say recycling the flyers, magazines, and catalogs could save the federal service millions of dollars per year in transport and tipping fees.

Not Available

1994-09-01

162

GPS-measured distance to clinic, but not self-reported transportation factors, are associated with missed HIV clinic visits in rural Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies of the association between transportation barriers and HIV-related health outcomes have shown both positive and negative effects, possibly because a reliable, validated measure of transportation barriers has not been identified. Design Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. Methods Participants were enrolled from the HIV clinic at the regional referral hospital in Mbarara, Uganda as part of the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) Study. We collected the following measures of transportation barriers to HIV clinic: global positioning systems (GPS)-tracked distance measured by driving participants to their homes along their typical route; straight-line GPS distance from clinic to home, calculated with the Great Circle Formula; self-reported travel time; and self-reported travel cost. We assessed inter-measure agreement using linear regression, correlation coefficients and ? statistics (by measure quartile) and validated measures by fitting linear regression models to estimate associations with days late for clinic visits. Results One hundred and eighty-eight participants were tracked with GPS. Seventy-six percent were women, with a median age of 40 years and median CD4 cell count of 193 cells/?l. We found a high correlation between GPS-based distance measures (? = 0.74, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.92, k = 0.73), but little correlation between GPS-based and self-reported measures (all R2 ? 0.4). GPS-based measures were associated with days late to clinic (P < 0.001); but neither self-reported measure was associated (P > 0.85). Conclusion GPS-measured distance to clinic is associated with HIV clinic absenteeism and should be prioritized over self-reported measures to optimally risk-stratify patients accessing care in rural, resource-limited settings.

Siedner, Mark J.; Lankowski, Alexander; Tsai, Alexander C.; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter W.; Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.

2013-01-01

163

CHOLINE TRANSPORTER-LIKE1 is required for sieve plate development to mediate long-distance cell-to-cell communication.  

PubMed

Phloem, a plant tissue responsible for long-distance molecular transport, harbours specific junctions, sieve areas, between the conducting cells. To date, little is known about the molecular framework related to the biogenesis of these sieve areas. Here we identify mutations at the CHER1/AtCTL1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutations cause several phenotypic abnormalities, including reduced pore density and altered pore structure in the sieve areas associated with impaired phloem function. CHER1 encodes a member of a poorly characterized choline transporter-like protein family in plants and animals. We show that CHER1 facilitates choline transport, localizes to the trans-Golgi network, and during cytokinesis is associated with the phragmoplast. Consistent with its function in the elaboration of the sieve areas, CHER1 has a sustained, polar localization in the forming sieve plates. Our results indicate that the regulation of choline levels is crucial for phloem development and conductivity in plants. PMID:25008948

Dettmer, Jan; Ursache, Robertas; Campilho, Ana; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Belevich, Ilya; O'Regan, Seana; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Yadav, Shri Ram; Lanz, Christa; Beverina, Luca; Papagni, Antonio; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Weigel, Detlef; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Moritz, Thomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Jokitalo, Eija; Helariutta, Ykä

2014-01-01

164

MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

165

E-Mail and Ethical Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

2009-01-01

166

Did You Get My E-Mail? Moving E-Mails beyond the Inbox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…

Ellis, Susan J.

2011-01-01

167

78 FR 76533 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...customers with more flexibility to ship their packages using the Postal Service, we are reducing...Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service[supreg], Parcel Select[supreg...sent as Priority Mail, First-Class Package Service, or Parcel Select...

2013-12-18

168

78 FR 63915 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...customers with more flexibility to ship their packages using the Postal Service, we propose...Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service[supreg], Parcel Select[supreg...sent as Priority Mail, First-Class Package Service, or Parcel Select...

2013-10-25

169

75 FR 56920 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority...257, Tag 267, or Label 257S, on all Express Mail[supreg] Open and Distribute containers...proposes to revise the service commitment for Express Mail Open and Distribute as a...

2010-09-17

170

75 FR 72686 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority...257, Tag 267, or Label 257S, on all Express Mail[supreg] Open and Distribute containers...also revising the service commitment for Express Mail Open and Distribute as a...

2010-11-26

171

Estimation of septic tank setback distances based on transport of E. coli and F-RNA phages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setback distances between septic tank systems and the shorelines of Lake Okareka, New Zealand were determined from model simulations for a worst-case scenario, using the highest hydraulic conductivity and gradient measured in the field, removal rates of the microbial indicators (Escherichia coli and F-RNA phages) determined from a column experiment, and maximum values of the design criteria for the disposal

Liping Pang; Murray Close; Mark Goltz; Lester Sinton; Helen Davies; Carollyn Hall; Greg Stanton

2004-01-01

172

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

2011-06-01

173

Expression of Sucrose Transporter cDNAs Specifically in Companion Cells Enhances Phloem Loading and Long-Distance Transport of Sucrose but Leads to an Inhibition of Growth and the Perception of a Phosphate Limitation1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Sucrose (Suc) is the predominant form of carbon transported through the phloem from source to sink organs and is also a prominent sugar for short-distance transport. In all streptophytes analyzed, Suc transporter genes (SUTs or SUCs) form small families, with different subgroups evolving distinct functions. To gain insight into their capacity for moving Suc in planta, representative members of each clade were first expressed specifically in companion cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested for their ability to rescue the phloem-loading defect caused by the Suc transporter mutation, Atsuc2-4. Sequence similarity was a poor indicator of ability: Several genes with high homology to AtSUC2, some of which have phloem-loading functions in other eudicot species, did not rescue the Atsuc2-4 mutation, whereas a more distantly related gene, ZmSUT1 from the monocot Zea mays, did restore phloem loading. Transporter complementary DNAs were also expressed in the companion cells of wild-type Arabidopsis, with the aim of increasing productivity by enhancing Suc transport to growing sink organs and reducing Suc-mediated feedback inhibition on photosynthesis. Although enhanced Suc loading and long-distance transport was achieved, growth was diminished. This growth inhibition was accompanied by increased expression of phosphate (P) starvation-induced genes and was reversed by providing a higher supply of external P. These experiments suggest that efforts to increase productivity by enhancing sugar transport may disrupt the carbon-to-P homeostasis. A model for how the plant perceives and responds to changes in the carbon-to-P balance is presented.

Dasgupta, Kasturi; Khadilkar, Aswad S.; Sulpice, Ronan; Pant, Bikram; Scheible, Wolf-Rudiger; Fisahn, Joachim; Stitt, Mark; Ayre, Brian G.

2014-01-01

174

Group Mail Free 3.4.145  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For persons looking for a way to send email to groups of friends or colleagues, Group Mail will prove to be a valuable find. This free version of the Group Mail application lets users send email to groups of up to 100 recipients at a time. While many of the extra features are only available to those who purchase the professional edition, persons using the free version still have the ability to download Spanish and Dutch dictionaries to use in conjunction with the application. Group Mail Free 3.4.145 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and higher.

175

Information Dissemination by Mail. Implications for CME.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two evaluation approaches were used to assess the impact of a continuing medical education manual that was distributed by mail. Implications for development of materials and for information dissemination strategies in continuing medical education are discussed. (Author/CT)

Scott, Craig S.; And Others

1986-01-01

176

76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tests of experimental market dominant products. It seeks the exemption for Every Door Direct Mail Retail, a Standard Flats experiment now underway. This document describes the Postal Service's reasons for seeking the exemption, addresses procedural...

2011-11-30

177

AARP Informational Mailing 90-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mailing focuses on the aftermath of the Supreme Court's decision in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, et al., 110 S.Ct. 2841 (1990), as well as providing an update on guardianship legislation.

1993-01-01

178

Creating an E-Mail Brainstorm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how large-group brainstorming via e-mail at the University of Northern Iowa was used for strategic planning. Discusses factors affecting electronic brainstorming success and the advantages and disadvantages of electronic brainstorming. (AEF)

Neuhaus, Chris

1997-01-01

179

E-mail on the Move  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PocketScience, Inc. was a member of the NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center. Their PocketMail product is an email service that brings email capabilities to new hand-held devices. The PocketMail service uses technology originally developed at JPL. Through its involvement with the ATCC, PocketScience, Inc. was able to use this space probe communications technology and adapt it for advanced signal processing on Earth.

1999-01-01

180

Changes in haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and pig-MAP during a housing period following long distance transport in swine.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a housing period following long distance transport on haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) in swine. After transportation, 80 gilts were allotted to group A, B, C, or D. Blood samples were collected on arrival and 28 days later; additional samples were collected from Group C on day 14, and from Group D on days 3, 5 and 14. Acute phase proteins (APPs) in Group A were significantly lower on day 28 than on day 1; the opposite occurred in Group B because of a tail biting episode. In Group C, values remained elevated on day 14 and showed a reduction on day 28; in Group D elevated levels detected on day 14 were preceded by a decrease from days 1 to 5. The results indicate that stressors associated with transportation and new accommodation can cause an increase in APPs that could be useful indicators of welfare during transport and routine management. PMID:17509918

Salamano, Germana; Mellia, Elisabetta; Candiani, Denise; Ingravalle, Francesco; Bruno, Renato; Ru, Giuseppe; Doglione, Luca

2008-07-01

181

Effects of different lairage times after long distance transportation on carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hungarian Simmental bulls.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three lairage times (24 h, 48 h and 72 h) on the meat quality of tame trained to lead Hungarian Simmental bulls subjected to long commercial transportation of approximately 1800 km. A total of 30 bulls, with an average age of 24 months, were used. During the lairage, bulls received 0.5 kg concentrate feed per animal per day and ad libitum access to the hay and water. As the lairage duration increased, the pH(ult) decreased (P<0.05). Bulls lairaged for 24 h had lower L*, b* and H* values than those lairaged for 48 h and 72 h (P<0.05). The effect of lairage time on WHC, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force values was not significant. The b* value was considered the best predictor of muscle pH(ult). In conclusion, 72 h quiet lairage time is recommended after transportation in order to prevent the adverse effects of transportation on meat quality. PMID:23916957

Teke, Bulent; Akdag, Filiz; Ekiz, Bulent; Ugurlu, Mustafa

2014-01-01

182

76 FR 21413 - Classification Changes for Competitive Mail Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Classification Changes for Competitive Mail Services AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...changes concerning certain competitive mail services. This notice informs the public...3020.91 concerning certain competitive mail services.\\1\\ The first change...

2011-04-15

183

Electronic Mail at ANL (Argonne National Laboratory). Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electronic Mail at ANL discusses concepts, issues, and commands basic to electronic mail and describes the capabilities and limitations of the electronic mail systems currently in place at Argonne National Laboratory, with an emphasis on communication thr...

B. Finkel M. Andre K. Janoski

1986-01-01

184

19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs examination. (a)...

2013-04-01

185

76 FR 9382 - Changes in Contractual Priority Mail Prices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...671] Changes in Contractual Priority Mail Prices AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...notice concerning an amendment to a Priority Mail contract. This document provides public...prices pursuant to an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 12.\\1\\ The Notice...

2011-02-17

186

75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 111 Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode AGENCY: Postal Service...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) for the optional use of Intelligent Mail[supreg] package barcodes...

2010-09-17

187

77 FR 31615 - Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012-0004, Sequence 3] Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and...Executive Branch agencies for improving mail management policies, procedures, and...Applicability Date: This notice applies to Mail Management Policy performed on or...

2012-05-29

188

39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233...SERVICE AUTHORITY § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation...satisfactory evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone...

2013-07-01

189

76 FR 9381 - Change in Contractual Priority Mail Postal Prices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...670] Change in Contractual Priority Mail Postal Prices AGENCY: Postal Regulatory...changes in certain contractual Priority Mail prices. This document provides public...prices pursuant to an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 7.\\1\\ The Notice...

2011-02-17

190

39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section...REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The...

2013-07-01

191

19 CFR 191.74 - Certification of exportation by mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certification of exportation by mail. 191.74 Section 191.74 Customs...74 Certification of exportation by mail. If the merchandise on which drawback is to be claimed is exported by mail or parcel post, the official...

2013-04-01

192

Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains four articles covering trends and issues on distance learning including: the experience of two learners learning via the Internet; a systematic approach to determining the scalability of a distance education program; identifying factors that affect learning community development and performance in asynchronous distance education; and…

Orey, Michael; Koenecke, Lynne; Snider, Richard C.; Perkins, Ross A.; Holmes, Glen A.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Moller, Leslie A.; Harvey, Douglas; Downs, Margaret; Godshalk, Veronica M.

2003-01-01

193

39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 ...SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Copies of the...

2013-07-01

194

39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.3 Section 111.3 ...SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Except for...

2009-07-01

195

77 FR 55234 - Product Change-Express Mail, Priority Mail, & First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail, Priority Mail, & First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service...to the list of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products...

2012-09-07

196

39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services. 111.1 Section 111.1...SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL...

2013-07-01

197

76 FR 17787 - Market Dominant Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First- Class Mail and Standard Mail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule...Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 709.1, to establish a...

2011-03-31

198

39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...notices rather than complete text of changes made to the Mailing Standards...Mail Manual, including the text of all changes published to date, will...this section, and the full text of all other changes to the Mailing Standards...

2013-07-01

199

Provenancing of silcrete raw materials indicates long-distance transport to Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, during the Middle Stone Age.  

PubMed

Lithic artifacts from the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) offer an avenue to explore a range of human behaviors, including mobility, raw material acquisition, trade and exchange. However, to date, in southern Africa it has not been possible to provenance the locations from which commonly used stone materials were acquired prior to transport to archaeological sites. Here we present results of the first investigation to geochemically fingerprint silcrete, a material widely used for tool manufacture across the subcontinent. The study focuses on the provenancing of silcrete artifacts from the MSA of White Paintings Shelter (WPS), Tsodilo Hills, in the Kalahari Desert of northwest Botswana. Our results suggest that: (i) despite having access to local quartz and quartzite at Tsodilo Hills, MSA peoples chose to transport silcrete over 220 km to WPS from sites south of the Okavango Delta; (ii) these sites were preferred to silcrete sources much closer to Tsodilo Hills; (iii) the same source areas were repeatedly used for silcrete supply throughout the 3 m MSA sequence; (iv) during periods of colder, wetter climate, silcrete may have been sourced from unknown, more distant, sites. Our results offer a new provenancing approach for exploring prehistoric behavior at other sites where silcrete is present in the archaeological record. PMID:23453438

Nash, David J; Coulson, Sheila; Staurset, Sigrid; Ullyott, J Stewart; Babutsi, Mosarwa; Hopkinson, Laurence; Smith, Martin P

2013-04-01

200

From Lesotho basaltic highlands to the Namib Sand Sea: long-distance transport and compositional variability in the wind-displaced Orange Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sourced as the Nile in distant basaltic rift highlands, the Orange River is the predominant ultimate source of sand for the Namib desert dunes, as proved independently by bulk-petrography, heavy-mineral, pyroxene-chemistry, and U/Pb zircon-age datasets. Additional local entry points of sand do exist at the edges of the desert, and were quantified by comparison with detrital modes and heavy-mineral suites of hinterland-river sediments. After long-distance fluvial transport, Orange sand is washed by ocean waves and dragged northward by vigorous longshore currents. Under the incessant action of southerly winds, sand is blown inland and carried farther north to accumulate in the Namib erg, a peculiar wind-dominated sediment sink displaced hundreds of kilometres away from the river mouth. And yet changes in sand mineralogy along the way are minor. After a multistep journey of cumulative 3000 km from their source in Lesotho, volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene are found in unchanged abundance as far as the northern edge of the desert. Only locally is volcanic detritus slightly depleted and minor but regular enrichment in quartz and garnet observed, the sole potential effect of prolonged transport or recycling of Tertiary eolianites. Selective comminution of fragile minerals is thus proved unable to substantially modify sand composition in fluvial, coastal, or eolian settings. Mechanical processes have a much greater effect on the morphology of detrital grains, which in Namib dunes appear commonly shaped into nearly perfect spheres. Eolian sorting concentrates denser minerals locally in placer lags, but such effects can be identified and compensated for. This study demonstrates that mechanical breakdown is unable to markedly affect provenance signatures even during long-distance and prolonged multistep transport in high-energy settings. In arid climates, where chemical processes are negligible, high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses are thus powerful techniques to quantitatively reconstruct provenance, and to trace sediment sources and dispersal paths over distances up to thousands of kilometres.

Garzanti, E.; Vermeesch, P.; Andò, S.; Boni, M.; Lustrino, M.; Vezzoli, G.

2012-04-01

201

MailCat: an intelligent assistant for organizing e-mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most mail reader applications allow users to file mes- sages into folders, in practice this task tends to be tedious. For each message, the user must first decide which folder is most appropriate. Then, the user must inform the mail reader of that choice by selecting the appropriate icon or menu item from among what is typically a set

Richard B. Segal; Jeffrey O. Kephart

1999-01-01

202

Browsing Electronic Mail: Experiences Interfacing a Mail System to a DBMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database management system provides the ideal support for electronic mail applications. The Walnut mail system built at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center was recently redesigned to take better advantage of its underlying database facilities. The ability to pose ad-hoc queries with a \\

Jack Kent; Douglas B. Terry; Willie-sue Orr

1988-01-01

203

Adaptive e-mail intention finding mechanism based on e-mail words social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the rapid evaluation of spam, no fully successful solution for filtering spam has been found. However, the spammers still spread spam by using the same intentions such as advertising and phishing. In this investigation, we propose a mechanism of E-mail Words Social Network (EWSN) for profiling users' intentions related to interesting and uninteresting e-mails. An EWSN is constructed from

Che-Fu Yeh; Ching-Hao Mao; Hahn-Ming Lee; Tsuhan Chen

2007-01-01

204

Testing of the Air Resources Laboratories trajectory model on cases of pollen wet deposition after long-distance transport from known source regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A version of the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model was tested to determine how well it could identify probable pathways and source regions of airborne pollens from non-local sources which were deposited in precipitation at Albany, New York. The model calculates either forward or backward trajectories from any selected location starting every 6-h during a chosen time period. Each trajectory is calculated using transport winds averaged over a selected vertical layer and is based on past upper air observations stored in the computer. At Albany, New York, airborne pollens were sampled during both wet and dry weather. Samples were examined under a microscope and pollen grains identified and counted. In this study, only obviously fresh pollens of non-local origin are considered. These were obtained primarily in the winter and early spring months before local pollens of the same or similar species were released and include species whose ranges do not reach the north-eastern states. These cases document atmospheric transport from distant source regions and subsequent wet deposition. Probable source regions were determined from ranges and flowering dates of the taxa collected. Backward trajectories from Albany were computed for nine precipitation events. In all cases, the trajectories passed through or very near previously identified source regions located to the south or south-west. Travel times ranged from 10 to over 50 h but were mostly from 18 to 42 h. Results demonstrate the utility of the model and the feasibility of locating source regions of materials transported over long distances.

Raynor, Gilbert S.; Hayes, Janet V.; Lewis, Donald M.

205

Filtration and transport of Bacillus subtilis spores and the F-RNA phage MS2 in a coarse alluvial gravel aquifer: Implications in the estimation of setback distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filtration of Bacillus subtilis spores and the F-RNA phage MS2 (MS2) on a field scale in a coarse alluvial gravel aquifer was evaluated from the authors' previously published data. An advection-dispersion model that is coupled with first-order attachment kinetics was used in this study to interpret microbial concentration vs. time breakthrough curves (BTC) at sampling wells. Based on attachment rates ( katt) that were determined by applying the model to the breakthrough data, filter factors ( f) were calculated and compared with f values estimated from the slopes of log ( cmax/ co) vs. distance plots. These two independent approaches resulted in nearly identical filter factors, suggesting that both approaches are useful in determining reductions in microbial concentrations over transport distance. Applying the graphic approach to analyse spatial data, we have also estimated the f values for different aquifers using information provided by some other published field studies. The results show that values of f, in units of log ( cmax/ co) m -1, are consistently in the order of 10 -2 for clean coarse gravel aquifers, 10 -3 for contaminated coarse gravel aquifers, and generally 10 -1 for sandy fine gravel aquifers and river and coastal sand aquifers. For each aquifer category, the f values for bacteriophages and bacteria are in the same order-of-magnitude. The f values estimated in this study indicate that for every one-log reduction in microbial concentration in groundwater, it requires a few tens of meters of travel in clean coarse gravel aquifers, but a few hundreds of meters in contaminated coarse gravel aquifers. In contrast, a one-log reduction generally only requires a few meters of travel in sandy fine gravel aquifers and sand aquifers. Considering the highest concentration in human effluent is in the order of 10 4 pfu/l for enteroviruses and 10 6 cfu/100 ml for faecal coliform bacteria, a 7-log reduction in microbial concentration would comply with the drinking water standards for the downgradient wells under natural gradient conditions. Based on the results of this study, a 7-log reduction would require 125-280 m travel in clean coarse gravel aquifers, 1.7-3.9 km travel in contaminated coarse gravel aquifers, 33-61 m travel in clean sandy fine gravel aquifers, 33-129 m travel in contaminated sandy fine gravel aquifers, and 37-44 m travel in contaminated river and coastal sand aquifers. These recommended setback distances are for a worst-case scenario, assuming direct discharge of raw effluent into the saturated zone of an aquifer. Filtration theory was applied to calculate collision efficiency ( ?) from model-derived attachment rates ( katt), and the results are compared with those reported in the literature. The calculated ? values vary by two orders-of-magnitude, depending on whether collision efficiency is estimated from the effective particle size ( d10) or the mean particle size ( d50). Collision efficiency values for MS-2 are similar to those previously reported in the literature (e.g. DeBorde et al., 1999) [DeBorde, D.C., Woessner, W.W., Kiley, QT., Ball, P., 1999. Rapid transport of viruses in a floodplain aquifer. Water Res. 33 (10), 2229-2238]. However, the collision efficiency values calculated for Bacillus subtilis spores were unrealistic, suggesting that filtration theory is not appropriate for theoretically estimating filtration capacity for poorly sorted coarse gravel aquifer media. This is not surprising, as filtration theory was developed for uniform sand filters and does not consider particle size distribution. Thus, we do not recommend the use of filtration theory to estimate the filter factor or setback distances. Either of the methods applied in this work (BTC or concentration vs. distance analyses), which takes into account aquifer heterogeneities and site-specific conditions, appear to be most useful in determining filter factors and setback distances.

Pang, Liping; Close, Murray; Goltz, Mark; Noonan, Mike; Sinton, Lester

2005-04-01

206

MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

207

29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452...Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the...

2013-07-01

208

Mailman: The GNU Mailing List Manager (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic mailing lists are ubiquitous community-forging tools that serve the important needs of Internet users, both experienced and novice. The most popular mailing list managers generally use textual mail-based interfaces for all list operations, from subscription management to list administration. Unfortunately, anecdotal evidence suggests that most mailing list users, and many list administrators and moderators are novice to intermediate computer

John Viega; Barry Warsaw; Ken Manheimer

209

The Traveler's Guide to E-mail Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents options that travelers can use to keep in e-mail contact. Discusses equipment/access issues related to traveling with a laptop; Internet cafes; free e-mail services; accessing home mail via a Web page; and new options e-mail access for travelers. Includes Internet resources on Internet access providers. (AEF)

Clyde, Anne

1999-01-01

210

Distance Menu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides students with experience using three types of distance scales on regional maps of North America. An introduction shows how to make use of the bar scale, the statement of equivalence, and the representative fraction (ratio) to determine distance between two locations. Printable instructions and two sets of interactive exercises are provided.

Leveson, David J.

2011-01-01

211

Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational technique for combatting junk mail, in particular, and controlling access to a shared resource, in general. The main idea is to require a user to compute a moderately hard, but not intractable, function in order to gain access to the resource, thus preventing frivolous use. To this end we suggest several pricing functions, based on, respectively,

Cynthia Dwork; Moni Naor

1992-01-01

212

Internet Mailing Lists Facilitate Nutrition Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Describe the role of internet mailing lists in facilitating information exchange between health care professionals.Rapid changes in the health care environment dictate that the dietetic professional continue to strive to practice in the most cost beneficial and time-effective manner. Budgeting of financial resources and time require that dietitians utilize efficient techniques to seek information as well as network

J. M. Ryan; S. J. Carlson

1997-01-01

213

Censoring the Mails: What Is Your Opinion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains a primary source document--a letter written in 1916 protesting U.S. Postal Service censorship of an anarchist publication--and suggests ways to use the document in secondary U.S. history classes. Samples of student surveys on mail censorship and a document analysis worksheet are included. (AM)

Alexander, Mary, Ed.; Childress, Marilyn, Ed.

1982-01-01

214

Detecting Junk Mails by Implementing Statistical Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian filter works efficiently by comparing email content (phrases or tokens) against stored database. This paper presents a discussion about the implementation of binomial distribution and Poisson distribution in Bayesian spam filter. This approach is beneficial for calculating the probability of a mail being spam, containing words that are not stored in database (i.e., encountered by the filter for the

Redwan Zakariah; Samina Ehsan

2006-01-01

215

COSEE Mid-Atlantic Mailing List Signup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this site to sign up for the COSEE Mid-Atlantic mailing list. COSEE-MA offers a variety of instructional tools, workshops and classes to bay and coastal ocean educators. This list will inform subscribers of materials and workshops as they are developed.

216

Books by Mail Program: An Implementation Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program to expand the Books by Mail program at the Monterey (California) County Library. An introductory section provides background information on the development of the program, and the second section discusses the process of identifying target populations, which include those in geographically remote areas and the…

Sulsona, Judith

217

Reducing Error in Mail Surveys. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest describes four types of errors in mail surveys and summarizes the ways they can be reduced. Any one of these sources of error can make survey results unacceptable. Sampling error is examined through inferential statistics applied to sample survey results. In general, increasing sample size will decrease sampling error when simple…

Cui, Weiwei

218

75 FR 4741 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority...standards to reflect changes and updates for Express Mail[supreg] Open and Distribute and...INFORMATION: The Open and Distribute feature of Express Mail and Priority Mail service...

2010-01-29

219

77 FR 64775 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Postal Service filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC), effective...adopt to implement the changes coincident with the price adjustments. DATES: We must receive comments on or before...

2012-10-23

220

77 FR 75362 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...the changes coincident with the price adjustments. DATES: Effective date: January...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Prices will be available under...

2012-12-20

221

Fission track evidence for tilting of the Peninsular Ranges batholith of southern California: An alternative to long-distance northward transport  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic directions of Mesozoic plutonic rocks from the Peninsular Ranges batholith in southern California and Baja California are discordant with the expected Cretaceous magnetic field direction. The difference between expected and observed directions suggests ca 25[degree] of clockwise tectonic rotation and ca 11[degree] northward translation of peninsular California with respect to cratonic North America. Lithologic correlations between peninsular California and Sonora, however, support only 300 [+-] 10 km of north-northwest translation along the San Andreas transform system. Southwest tilting of the batholith about an axis subparallel to its trend has been proposed in order to explain the discordant paleomagnetic directions, thereby eliminating the need for long-distance transport. The distribution of zircon and apatite fission-track ages across the western half of the batholith between Palomar Mountain and Escondido, California support this proposal. In the northeastern part of the study area apatite and zircon fission-track ages of Early Cretaceous tonalities and granodiorites range from 73.9 to 81.9 Ma and 74.8 to 79.9 Ma, respectively. The show no systematic increase or decrease with changes in elevation or distance along the ca N37E line of sampling. Towards the southwest, however, apatite and zircon fission-track ages increase progressively from 82 to 96 Ma and 83 to 93 Ma, respectively. The author interprets these results as indicating rapid, episodic uplift of the study area during Late Cretaceous time followed by regional tilting of the batholith and its fission-track age surfaces to the southwest. The amount of tilt estimated from the distribution of the fission-track ages is compatible with those based on geobarometry data and the distribution of U-Pb and K-Ar ages.

George, P.G.; Dokka, R.K. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01

222

The Whole Internet... By E-Mail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Dr. Bob" Rankin has recently updated "The Whole Internet... By E-Mail," a comprehensive guide for using email to access all types of Internet sites. The guide provides examples of email access to information available on FTP, Gopher, WWW, Usenet, WAIS, Listserv, Finger, and "Directory Assistance" (Whois and Netfind) sites. If a user lacks full Internet connectivity but wishes to take advantage of the complete array of Internet resources, this guide is for them. It also provides instructions for accessing several miscellaneous Internet information sources via email, including dictionary lookup, sending a fax, sources of U.S. government information, Internet patent news service, currency conversion, virus protection software, and Internet Service Providers by area code. "The Whole Internet...By E-Mail" has been translated into over 25 languages. Foreign language access instructions are in the guide.

1999-01-01

223

MAILS. Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source  

SciTech Connect

MAILS is an air-quality screening model, that provides conservative estimates of ground-level pollutant concentrations resulting from aircraft engine emissions along low-altitude (under 3000 ft) military training routes (MTRs). It was developed to evaluate the air-quality impacts of proposed MTRs, in accordance with the environmental-impact analysis requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, Pub.L. 91-190).

Liebsch, E.J.; Miller, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)

1991-03-01

224

Personnel and mail screening with millimeter waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and interdiction of biological and chemical warfare agents at point-of-entry military, government, and civilian facilities remains a high priority for security personnel. Commercial personnel and mail screening technologies for these harmful agents are still being developed and improved upon to meet all security client requirements. Millimeter-wave holographic imaging technology developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is an

Douglas L. McMakin; David M. Sheen; Jeffery W. Griffin; Nancy B. Valentine; Wayne M. Lechelt

2005-01-01

225

Community-Based Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening Through the United States Mail, San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because gonococcal and chlamydial infections are often asymptomatic, disease control requires population- based screening. This report describes the feasibility of home- based testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and of specimen transport via the US mail. Goal: This project sought to establish the efficacy and ac- ceptability to the public of screening by means of urine kits made available

PETER J. BLOOMFIELD; CHARLOTTE KENT; DIANE CAMPBELL; LARRY HANBROOK; JEFFREY D. KLAUSNER

2001-01-01

226

The C-terminus of Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is involved in differential infection of wheat and maize through host-specific long-distance transport.  

PubMed

Viral determinants and mechanisms involved in extension of host range of monocot-infecting viruses are poorly understood. Viral coat proteins (CP) serve many functions in almost every aspect of the virus life cycle. The role of the C-terminal region of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) CP in virus biology was examined by mutating six negatively charged aspartic acid residues at positions 216, 289, 290, 326, 333, and 334. All of these amino acid residues are dispensable for virion assembly, and aspartic acid residues at positions 216, 333, and 334 are expendable for normal infection of wheat and maize. However, mutants D289N, D289A, D290A, DD289/290NA, and D326A exhibited slow cell-to-cell movement in wheat, which resulted in delayed onset of systemic infection, followed by a rapid recovery of genomic RNA accumulation and symptom development. Mutants D289N, D289A, and D326A inefficiently infected maize, eliciting milder symptoms, while D290A and DD289/290NA failed to infect systemically, suggesting that the C-terminus of CP is involved in differential infection of wheat and maize. Mutation of aspartic acid residues at amino acid positions 289, 290, and 326 severely debilitated virus ingress into the vascular system of maize but not wheat, suggesting that these amino acids facilitate expansion of WSMV host range through host-specific long-distance transport. PMID:24111920

Tatineni, Satyanarayana; French, Roy

2014-02-01

227

Distance Wizard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, online activity, students estimate the distances of objects in the Hubble Deep Field from Earth using the relationship between size, brightness, and distance. Students can complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the activity title page, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is part of the online exploration "The Hubble Deep Field Academy" that is available on the Amazing Space website.

228

Mailing of Genetically Modified Microorganisms: A Field Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research institutions exchange genetically modified bacterial strains by mail on a regular basis. Therefore, most countries have introduced strict rules which regulate the way in which genetically modified microorganisms are mailed. Also the IATA has form...

H. C. J. C. Cremers H. F. Groot

1991-01-01

229

Is Monitoring Employees' E-Mail an Invasion of Privacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the issue of e-mail and employee privacy rights. Highlights include laws and proposed legislation, ethical dilemmas, task and nontask messages and organizational misconduct, and policy guidelines for decision making about e-mail monitoring. (AEF)

Geroy, Gary D.; Jankovich, Jackie L.

1996-01-01

230

37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents...2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2013-07-01

231

37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents...1.8 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the situations...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2013-07-01

232

31 CFR 560.508 - Telecommunications and mail transactions authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States and Iran are authorized, provided that mail is limited to personal communications not involving a transfer of anything of value. For purposes of this section, the term mail includes parcels only to the extent the parcels contain goods...

2013-07-01

233

1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING (MBE) IN RELATION TO TERMINAL BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

234

[Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue on distance education serving individuals with disabilities considers historical developments, technology, staff training strategies, and staff training materials. It is noted that improving access to training for staff members can improve the quality of services for individuals with disabilities. The following articles…

Wallace, Teri, Ed.; Weatherman, Dick, Ed.

1995-01-01

235

Information Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted abso- lute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal information metric, based on length of shortest programs for either ordinary compu- tations or reversible (dissipationless) computations.

Charles H. Bennett; Péter Gács; Ming Li; Paul M. B. Vitányi; Wojciech H. Zurek

1998-01-01

236

Internet security: malicious e-mails detection and protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

New malicious e-mails are created at the rate of thousands a year and pose a serious security threat. Especially, new, unseen Internet worms and virus often are arriving as e-mail attachments. In this paper, Bayesian probabilistic network is examined to detect new malicious e-mail viruses through anomaly detection. Experimental results show a better malicious e-mail detection using Bayesian probabilistic networks.

Dong-her Shih; Hsiu-sen Chiang; Chun-yuan Chan; Binshan Lin

2004-01-01

237

Towards an integrated e-mail forensic analysis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its simple and inherently vulnerable nature, e-mail communication is abused for numerous illegitimate purposes. E-mail spamming, phishing, drug trafficking, cyber bullying, racial vilification, child pornography, and sexual harassment are some common e-mail mediated cyber crimes. Presently, there is no adequate proactive mechanism for securing e-mail systems. In this context, forensic analysis plays a major role by examining suspected

Rachid Hadjidj; Mourad Debbabi; Hakim Lounis; Farkhund Iqbal; Adam Szporer; Djamel Benredjem

2009-01-01

238

Technical-Economic Problems of Air Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Technical - operating aspects of air transport; The role of air transport in a single transportation network of the USSR: Passenger service, mail and freight hauls; Problems of air transport development in the USSR: The development of air hauls,...

B. M. Parakhonskii

1966-01-01

239

42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption for mails. 71.43 Section 71.43 Public Health...Sanitary Inspection § 71.43 Exemption for mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to...

2013-10-01

240

78 FR 12368 - Priority Mail Contract; Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CP2013-7; Order No. 1660] Priority Mail Contract; Negotiated Service Agreement...concerning an amendment to the existing Priority Mail Contract 47 Negotiated Service Agreement...agreed to an amendment to existing Priority Mail Contract 47, which was added to the...

2013-02-22

241

77 FR 45246 - Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) dated June 24...The most recent issue of the Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) is dated June 24,...

2012-07-31

242

76 FR 48722 - Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR PART 111 Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), and its incorporation...The most recent Issue 300 of the Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) was issued on July 5,...

2011-08-09

243

39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 121.1 Section 121.1 Postal Service...POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.1 First-Class...

2013-07-01

244

27 CFR 19.238 - Payment by mail or courier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment by mail or courier. 19.238 Section 19.238 Alcohol...for Filing Tax Returns § 19.238 Payment by mail or courier. (a) Payment by mail. The proprietor must file each return...

2013-04-01

245

75 FR 29893 - Business Reply Mail Online Application Option  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Business Reply Mail Online Application Option AGENCY: Postal...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 507.9.3...eliminate the option to obtain a Business Reply Mail[supreg] (BRM) permit online....

2010-05-28

246

31 CFR 593.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Transactions related to mail authorized. 593.509 Section 593... § 593.509 Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U...incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a...

2013-07-01

247

75 FR 17861 - 2010 Standard Mail Incentive Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 2010 Standard Mail Incentive Program AGENCY: Postal Service...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), to replace...incentive program for mailers of Standard Mail[supreg] letters and flats with...

2010-04-08

248

31 CFR 538.513 - Transactions related to mail authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Transactions related to mail authorized. 538.513 Section 538... § 538.513 Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U...incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between the United States and Sudan...

2013-07-01

249

39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal...Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece Letters/Postcards...Parcels products within the First-Class Mail class, report the: (1)...

2013-07-01

250

77 FR 62446 - Every Door Direct Mail-Retail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Every Door Direct Mail-Retail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...the retail option of Every Door Direct Mail-Retail[supreg] (EDDM-Retail) as...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) that we...

2012-10-15

251

39 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Mail Classification  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Mail Classification A Appendix A to Subpart...COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule Pt. 3020, Subpt... Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 3020âMail Classification Schedule Part...

2009-07-01

252

43 CFR 20.509 - Penalty mail and official stationery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Penalty mail and official stationery. 20.509 ...Conduct Provisions § 20.509 Penalty mail and official stationery. (a...packet, package, or other matter in the mail (18 U.S.C. 1719). (b)...

2013-10-01

253

39 CFR 3055.20 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.20 Section 3055.20 Postal...Achievements § 3055.20 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece Letters/Postcards...Parcels products within the First-Class Mail class, report the on-time...

2013-07-01

254

31 CFR 594.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Transactions related to mail authorized. 594.509 Section 594... § 594.509 Transactions related to mail authorized. All transactions by U...incident to the receipt or transmission of mail between a U.S. person and a...

2013-07-01

255

Diversity in the use of electronic mail: a preliminary inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a series of interviews that examine the ways that professional office workers use electronic mail to manage their daily work. The purpose is to generate hypotheses for future research. A number of implications for the design of flexible mail systems are discussed.Two principal claims are made. First, the use of electronic mail is strikingly diverse, although not

Wendy E. Mackay

1988-01-01

256

Prevent Spam Filters from Blocking Legitimate E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's no question about it: Spam is a scourge. This ever-increasing torrent of unsolicited commercial mass e-mail saps productivity and, for some, threatens the very viability of e-mail. The battle against spam, unfortunately, is creating problems of its own, with people sometimes unable to send legitimate e-mail and other times unable to…

Goldsborough, Reid

2004-01-01

257

Considering behavior of sender in spam mail detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the number of spam mails is exponentially growing. It affects the costs of organizations and annoying the e-mail recipient. Spammers always try to find the way to avoid filtering out from the email system. At the same time, as an email recipient or network system\\/administrator, we try to have an effective spam mail filtering technique to catch the spam

S. Naksomboon; C. Charnsripinyo; N. Wattanapongsakorn

2010-01-01

258

Electronic Mail Reference Services in the Public Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although more and more libraries are offering electronic mail reference services, little information about these services has been reported. We conducted an exploratory survey to examine public library e-mail reference services and the patrons who use them. Data collection techniques included a questionnaire mailed to participating libraries and a Web-based questionnaire completed by library patrons. Data gathered included: (1) information

Beth A. Garnsey; Ronald R. Powell

2000-01-01

259

Fluctuation in e-mail sizes weakens power-law correlations in e-mail flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power-law correlations have been observed in packet flow over the Internet. The possible origin of these correlations includes demand for Internet services. We observe the demand for e-mail services in an organization, and analyze correlations in the flow and the sequence of send requests using a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). The correlation in the flow is found to be weaker than that in the send requests. Four types of artificial flow are constructed to investigate the effects of fluctuations in e-mail sizes. As a result, we find that the correlation in the flow originates from that in the sequence of send requests. The strength of the power-law correlation decreases as a function of the ratio of the standard deviation of e-mail sizes to their average.

Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Hieida, Yasuhiro; Tadaki, Shin-ichi

2013-09-01

260

Personnel and mail screening with millimeter waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and interdiction of biological and chemical warfare agents at point-of-entry military, government, and civilian facilities remains a high priority for security personnel. Commercial personnel and mail screening technologies for these harmful agents are still being developed and improved upon to meet all security client requirements. Millimeter-wave holographic imaging technology developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is an ideal sensor to interrogate objects concealed behind low dielectric barriers such as paper, cardboard, and clothing. It uses harmless millimeter waves to illuminate the object or person under surveillance. The waves penetrate through the low dielectric barrier and either reflects off or pass through the hidden object, depending on its material dielectric properties. The reflected signals are digitized and sent to high-speed computers to form high-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) images. Feasibility imaging studies have been conducted to determine whether simulated biological or chemical agents concealed in mail packages or under clothing could be detected using holographic radar imaging techniques. The results of this study will be presented in this paper.

McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Griffin, Jeffery W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

2005-05-01

261

75 FR 14076 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority...16 to reflect changes and updates for Express Mail[supreg] Open and Distribute and...a revision to change the standards for Express Mail Open and Distribute and...

2010-03-24

262

76 FR 16534 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...within the same bundle, when placed on pallets, and to combine bundles of Standard Mail...bundles of Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service also withdraws the...Periodicals flats, when bundled and placed on pallets. Mailers using this option would...

2011-03-24

263

Understanding relationships among teleworkers' e-mail usage, e-mail richness perceptions, and e-mail productivity perceptions under a software engineering environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the use of e-mail and its implications under a telework environment for distributed software engineering. For this, the relative strength between a social influence and individual attributes in affecting teleworkers' e-mail use was studied. Management support was used as the representative social influence, and age, status, and ease of use represented individual attributes. An

Kunihiko Higa; Olivia R. Liu Sheng; Bongsik Shin; Aurelio Jose Figueredo

2000-01-01

264

Identification of a tri-iron(III), tri-citrate complex in the xylem sap of iron-deficient tomato resupplied with iron: new insights into plant iron long-distance transport.  

PubMed

The identification of Fe transport forms in plant xylem sap is crucial to the understanding of long-distance Fe transport processes in plants. Previous studies have proposed that Fe may be transported as an Fe-citrate complex in plant xylem sap, but such a complex has never been detected. In this study we report the first direct and unequivocal identification of a natural Fe complex in plant xylem sap. A tri-Fe(III), tri-citrate complex (Fe(3)Cit(3)) was found in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. 'Tres Cantos') resupplied with Fe, by using an integrated mass spectrometry approach based on exact molecular mass, isotopic signature and Fe determination and retention time. This complex has been modeled as having an oxo-bridged tri-Fe core. A second complex, a di-Fe(III), di-citrate complex was also detected in Fe-citrate standards along with Fe(3)Cit(3), with the allocation of Fe between the two complexes depending on the Fe to citrate ratio. These results provide evidence for Fe-citrate complex xylem transport in plants. The consequences for the role of Fe to citrate ratio in long-distance transport of Fe in xylem are also discussed. PMID:19942594

Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Giner-Martínez-Sierra, Justo; Orduna, Jesús; Orera, Irene; Rodríguez-Castrillón, José Angel; García-Alonso, José Ignacio; Abadía, Javier; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana

2010-01-01

265

A Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface-Based Mail Client  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interface-based communication plays an important role in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications; electronic mail is one of the most common communication tools. In this study, we propose a hybrid BCI-based mail client that implements electronic mail communication by means of real-time classification of multimodal features extracted from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write, and attach files to their mail. Using a BCI mouse that utilizes hybrid brain signals, that is, motor imagery and P300 potential, the user can select and activate the function keys and links on the mail client graphical user interface (GUI). An adaptive P300 speller is employed for text input. The system has been tested with 6 subjects, and the experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Li, Feng

2013-01-01

266

A hybrid brain-computer interface-based mail client.  

PubMed

Brain-computer interface-based communication plays an important role in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications; electronic mail is one of the most common communication tools. In this study, we propose a hybrid BCI-based mail client that implements electronic mail communication by means of real-time classification of multimodal features extracted from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write, and attach files to their mail. Using a BCI mouse that utilizes hybrid brain signals, that is, motor imagery and P300 potential, the user can select and activate the function keys and links on the mail client graphical user interface (GUI). An adaptive P300 speller is employed for text input. The system has been tested with 6 subjects, and the experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:23690880

Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Li, Feng

2013-01-01

267

39 CFR 3020.13 - Contents of the Mail Classification Schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Contents of the Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.13 Section...COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.13 Contents of the Mail Classification Schedule. The Mail...

2013-07-01

268

75 FR 32143 - Submission of Electronic Documentation With Comailed and Copalletized Mailings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intelligent Mail[supreg] tray labels to pallets bearing Intelligent Mail container placards...Mailers consolidating multiple mailings on pallets will be required to provide the electronic...Mailers consolidating multiple mailings on pallets must use the electronic data...

2010-06-07

269

Electronic mail appraisal: a buyer and seller survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication environment for buyer-seller interfaces is being transformed by a variety of new communication choices. The use of electronic mail in business today is especially prevalent. This investigation explores buyer and seller reactions to electronic mail use in buyer-seller relationships. Two studies conducted explore themes perceived by buyers and sellers regarding electronic mail use. From in-depth interviews of sellers,

Cynthia J. Bean; James S. Boles; Cynthia Rodriguez Cano

2003-01-01

270

MailRank: using ranking for spam detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we use social networks to combat spam? This paper investigates the feasibility of MailRank, a new email ranking and classification scheme exploiting the social communication network created via email interactions. The underlying email network data is collected from the email contacts of all MailRank users and updated automatically based on their email activities to achieve an easy maintenance. MailRank

Paul-Alexandru Chirita; Jörg Diederich; Wolfgang Nejdl

2005-01-01

271

Gender-Preferential Text Mining of E-mail Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of authorship gen- der attribution mining from e-mail text documents. We used an extended set of predominantly topic content-free e-mail document features such as style markers, structural charac- teristics and gender-preferential language features together with a Support Vector Machine learning algorithm. Exper- iments using a corpus of e-mail documents generated by a large number of

Malcolm Corney; Olivier Y. De Vel; Alison Anderson; George M. Mohay

2002-01-01

272

Cost-Effective Trucking Distances for Woody Biomass Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transportation costs and alternate energy prices were used to determine maximum distances woody fuels can be transported economically. Currently, costs of most woody materials would have to exceed $20 per ton to restrict trucking distances to 50 miles or ...

D. A. Eza J. W. McMinn P. E. Dress

1984-01-01

273

37. VIEW OF SOUTH END, PLATFORM LEVEL, SHOWING SITE MAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. VIEW OF SOUTH END, PLATFORM LEVEL, SHOWING SITE MAIL CONVEYOR (NOW ABANDONED) - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

274

38. VIEW OF SOUTH END, PLATFORM LEVEL, SHOWING SITE MAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. VIEW OF SOUTH END, PLATFORM LEVEL, SHOWING SITE MAIL CONVEYOR MACHINE PIT (NOW ABANDONED) - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

275

Break the Chain: Stop Junk E-Mail and Misinformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

False virus alerts, hoaxes, and chain letters sent through e-mail are becoming almost commonplace, which makes them more annoying than ever. This is why Break the Chain tries to educate people to stop forwarding junk e-mail to their entire contacts list. The site offers some good guidelines for e-mail etiquette and how to research chain letters. It also has a searchable database of over 300 chain letters and hoaxes currently in circulation. A fun part of the site is the Yanking the Chain Awards, which is a monthly award given out to a particularly effective (and usually humorous) response to junk e-mail.

Ratliff, John R.

1999-01-01

276

Identification of Distance Education Barriers for Trade and Industrial Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mail and e-mail questionnaire received 60 responses from 76 trade and industrial teacher education majors using distance learning. They reported difficulty scheduling general education courses; technical support and library access were limited. Isolation from advisors, job conflicts, and family constraints were concerns. Fewer technical and…

Zirkle, Chris

2002-01-01

277

75 FR 70128 - 2011 Changes for Domestic Mailing Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standard Mail letters that are mailed at saturation or high density prices pay the corresponding...ask if they can enter nonautomation saturation or high density letters at destination...and/or nonautomation-compatible saturation and high density letters by...

2010-11-17

278

Learning U.S. Geography with The Great Mail Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People nowadays communicate with each other in many ways. Beyond sending letters and postcards, Internet services such as e-mail, blogs, chatrooms, instant messaging, and video conferencing are used. It should be no surprise that children love to get mail too, and it is nice to know that the envelope-and-stamp variety has not lost its charm.…

Junkel, Shelli; Strong, Jill; Hannon, Janna

2007-01-01

279

29 CFR 515.7 - Transmission of official mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmission of official mail. 515.7 Section 515.7 Labor Regulations Relating...INVESTIGATIONS AND INSPECTIONS § 515.7 Transmission of official mail. Subject to the requirements of law and of the...

2013-07-01

280

How To: Use an E-Mail List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-mail lists (also known as LISTERVS[TM]) are organized by topic of interest, such as the Foreign Language Teaching Forum or the "Elementary Education List." People with an interest in the topic can subscribe to the list to receive periodic e-mails. Some lists are read-only and similar to newsletters; others give subscribers the option to post to…

Branzburg, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

281

Gender Differences in Perceived Gratifications Obtained through Electronic Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic mail provides users with unique positive psychological consequences that differentiate it from other media. These consequences or gratifications have been mentioned separately across the electronic mail literature, yet there is no specific measure for these gratifications. The study found that females (M = 7.7; SD = 1.8) achieve higher…

Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.

2010-01-01

282

42 CFR 71.43 - Exemption for mails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Arrival at U.S. Ports: Sanitary Inspection § 71.43 Exemption for mails. Except to the extent that mail contains any article or thing subject to restrictions under subpart F of this part, nothing in the regulations in this part shall render liable to...

2012-10-01

283

A Bayesian approach to filtering junk e-mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing the growing problem of junk E-mail on the Internet, we examine methods for the automated construction of filters to eliminate such unwanted mes- sages from a user's mail stream. By casting this prob- lem in a decision theoretic framework, we are able to make use of probabilistic learning methods in conjunc- tion with a notion of differential misclassification

Mehran Sahami; Susan Dumais; David Heckerman; Eric Horvitz

1998-01-01

284

On-Campus E-Mail for Communicative Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project using on-campus electronic mail (e-mail) to teach communicative writing in English as a Second Language to Japanese junior college students is described. The project had three stages: (1) planning; (2) piloting with a small group of students; and (3) implementation in three large classes (n=55, 28, 36). The aim was to help students write…

Miyao, Mariko

285

Characteristics of Parent-Teacher E-Mail Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, the use of computer-mediated communication such as e-mail has reportedly increased the level of parental involvement and parent-teacher communication at the elementary and secondary level. However, research has not yet examined the characteristics of parent-teacher e-mail communication. Thirty parent and 30 teacher interviews…

Thompson, Blair

2008-01-01

286

A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

2011-01-01

287

E-mail Survey Response Rates: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes response rates to e-mail surveys undertaken since 1986. Examines five influences on response rates: year undertaken, number of survey questions, number of pre-notification contacts, number of follow-up contacts, and survey topic salience. Notes response rates to e-mail surveys have significantly decreased. Suggests year the survey was…

Sheehan, Kim

2001-01-01

288

E-mail Reference in Ohio Public Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-mail reference services in Ohio public libraries was studied using the survey method in January 1999. Through the Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN), the researcher identified 94 Ohio public libraries that have World Wide Web pages that host an e-mail address as a contact method. Fifty-nine questionnaires were returned, resulting in…

Lay, Teresa M.

289

Teacher Talk on E-Mail. Current Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school and a university teacher converse via e-mail concerning their cooperative project in electronic literacy. The conversation highlights the frustrations of system crashes, student successes and failures, and the beginning of one teacher's dissertation. References to technology include experiences with e-mail, an LCD panel, and closed…

Whitaker, Elaine; Hill, Elaine

1996-01-01

290

Target Marketing and Direct Mail: A Smart Campaign Combination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that helps identify and classify a camp's product or service and determine the needs of a targeted market for the purpose of allocating marketing resources. Offers strategies for defining a target market and discusses the benefits of direct mail, deriving a mailing list, and suggestions for using a…

Brostoff, Mark J.

1994-01-01

291

A Critical Analysis of Interview, Telephone, and Mail Survey Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical analysis is presented of the literature as it relates to survey research, including personal interviews, telephone interviews, and mail questionnaires. Additional research concerns are explored, and a code of ethics for survey researchers is presented. Focus groups, interviews, long interviews, telephone interviews, and mail surveys are…

Katz, Elinor

292

The Effect of All-mail Elections on Voter Turnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of all-mail elections argue that this type of election facilitates participation such that elevated levels of turnout occur. The research tests this assumption by analyzing 48 statewide elections from the state of Oregon. This analysis suggests that the all-mail format is a major stimulus to voter participation, second only to the impact of a presidential contest.

PRISCILLA L. SOUTHWELL; JUSTIN I. BURCHETT

2000-01-01

293

E-mail security. An overview of threats and safeguards.  

PubMed

Not everyone in the organization needs to know how to secure the e-mail service, but anyone who handles patient information must understand e-mail's vulnerabilities and recognize when a system is secure enough to transmit sensitive information. PMID:20437800

Stine, Kevin; Scholl, Matthew

2010-04-01

294

Changing Technology and the U.S. Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changes in technology that have affected mail delivery are a dynamic way to encourage students to think critically and make meaningful connections across historical eras. In the classroom, personal communication through the mail can become the "thematic glue" used across historical units to highlight the changes in everyday life caused by…

Gandy, S. Kay; Resor, Cynthia Williams

2012-01-01

295

After the Bell: Breaking the Code: Examining Your Mail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the amount of mail that arrives during the holidays--from early December to early January--the post holiday season provides an excellent opportunity to perform an informal science and mathematics classification activity--determining where our mail is coming from. In the included activity, students extend their scientific thinking through the processes of classifying, observing, gathering, hypothesizing, and generalizing through the use of zip codes. Students will be astonished to learn that it is possible to determine the origin of a piece of mail by simply examining the zip code of the sender.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

296

Comparing Response Rates in E-Mail and Paper Surveys: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis examined 35 study results within last 10 years that directly compared the response rates of e-mail versus mail surveys. Individual studies reported inconsistent findings concerning the response rate difference between e-mail and mail surveys, but e-mail surveys generally have lower response rate (about 20% lower on the average)…

Shih, Tse-Hua; Fan, Xitao

2009-01-01

297

35. VIEW, LOOKING WEST UNDER SHED, PLATFORM LEVEL, SHOWING MAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. VIEW, LOOKING WEST UNDER SHED, PLATFORM LEVEL, SHOWING MAIL CONVEYOR AND CONNECTION TO POST OFFICE BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

298

DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Experimental Multimedia Mail System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article describes the development, implementation, and use of an experimental multimedia mail system. About 40 researchers in 10 organizations have contributed to the experiment. With this system users can create messages containing text, image, and ...

J. K. Reynolds J. B. Postel A. R. Katz G. G. Finn A. L. DeSchon

1985-01-01

299

Geographical Concentrations, Identities, and Letter Mail Volumes of Large Mailers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a study to determine the geographical concentrations, identities, and letter mail volumes of large mailers are presented. The purpose of the study is to size the potential markets for large-volume postal customer preprocessing programs, suc...

W. T. McCormick

1972-01-01

300

75 FR 39477 - New Standards for Domestic Mailing Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...standards that would accompany the new prices in 2011. DATES: We must receive...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Proposed prices are or will be available...

2010-07-09

301

77 FR 72960 - International Mail: Product Rate and Fee Changes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...international mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...changes coincident with the price adjustments and classification changes...subject matter sections below. Price Adjustment Two respondents were in...

2012-12-07

302

E-mail et Web : pour une navigation sans risque  

SciTech Connect

Présentation orale en français, support visuel en anglais. À travers des exemples concrets, vous consoliderez vos connaissances et pourrez ainsi réajuster vos habitudes concernant l’utilisation sécurisée de votre boîte e-mail et de votre navigateur Web.

None

2010-06-28

303

E-mail et Web : pour une navigation sans risque  

ScienceCinema

Présentation orale en français, support visuel en anglais. À travers des exemples concrets, vous consoliderez vos connaissances et pourrez ainsi réajuster vos habitudes concernant l’utilisation sécurisée de votre boîte e-mail et de votre navigateur Web.

304

3. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE; NOTE THE MAILING PLATFORM TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE; NOTE THE MAILING PLATFORM TO THE LEFT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-2675, South "F" Street, Midway Between 1700 Block & Intersection of South "F" Street & West Eaton Road, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

305

10. VIEW TO EAST; MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW TO EAST; MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING IS VISIBLE BEYOND TRACKS (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

306

78 FR 7820 - Notice of Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...performance criteria for Postage Evidencing Systems (PES). DATES: Copies of the Intelligent Mail[supreg...initially provided to the Postage Evidencing System (PES) industry. The PES environment has changed substantially with the...

2013-02-04

307

E-mail et Web : pour une navigation sans risque  

ScienceCinema

Présentation orale en français, support visuel en anglais. À travers des exemples concrets, vous consoliderez vos connaissances et pourrez ainsi réajuster vos habitudes concernant l?utilisation sécurisée de votre boîte e-mail et de votre navigateur Web.

None

2011-10-06

308

77 FR 64724 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION...14, 2012, and its incorporation by reference in the Code of Federal Regulations...October 23, 2012. The incorporation by reference of the IMM is approved by the...

2012-10-23

309

75 FR 34017 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...supreg]) and its incorporation by reference in the Code of Federal Regulations...June 16, 2010. The incorporation by reference of Issue 36 of the IMM is approved...

2010-06-16

310

76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...circumstances. 135.62 Primary Lithium (Non-Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries. Small consumer-type...mail. 135.63 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries. Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and...

2011-08-25

311

Looking at Distance Learning through Both Ends of the Camera.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation chronicled the experiences of an instructor and her students as they first experienced a distance course that utilized various technologies. Both the instructor and the students had limited or no experience with e-mail, use of the Internet, or the supporting software. The students were 33 elementary school teachers taking a…

Whitworth, Joan M.

312

Distance Education Transforms Help Desks Into '24-7' Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports many colleges and universities are extending the hours during which they provide technical support for distance education, offering late-night, weekend, or around- the-clock services, and notes use of private companies to provide such services to multiple institutions. Problems include large fluctuations in number of calls and e-mail

Young, Jeffrey R.

2000-01-01

313

Distance Education: Perspectives from All Sides of the Desk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two distance education courses on educational technology offered to the University of Wyoming by the University of Toledo (Ohio) and Florida State University. The first course, "Teaching Computer Courseware Design Using Audio Teleconferencing and Electronic Mail," is described by its professor, Dennis C. Myers of Toledo. This…

Rezabek, Landra L.; And Others

314

The effect of visual stimuli on mail survey response rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of two considerations of a questionnaire's appearance on response rates. Factors of questionnaire color and a user-friendly format are evaluated as part of a follow-up mail survey to a corporate-sponsored incentive program. In response to a mailing of more than 3,500 questionnaires, it was found that appearance variations of the questionnaire resulted in significantly higher

Raymond LaGarce; Linda D. Kuhn

1995-01-01

315

MailStore Home 3.0.2.2448  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People who need to backup their emails with little fuss will want to give MailStore Home a whirl. The programs works with a variety of email account types (including Thunderbird and Outlook) to provide a complete backup of all email files. After the backup is created, users can leave it in the MailStore application or export it as a file. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2008-01-01

316

Negotiating quality the case of TQM in Royal Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines how a TQM programme has been implemented within the context of Royal Mail. Demonstrates that within the organization TQM has been “negotiated” around four main factors: the complexities of utilizing the discourse of the customer; the organization?s market dominance in the collection and delivery of door-to-door mail; its industrial relations; and the formal and central adoption of TQM within

Sarah Jenkins; Mike Noon; Miguel Martinez Lucio

1995-01-01

317

39 CFR 20.1 - International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference. ...UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 International Mail Manual; incorporation by...

2013-07-01

318

77 FR 58186 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal...of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive...United States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 43 to Competitive Product...

2012-09-19

319

78 FR 39344 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal...of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive...United States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 60 to Competitive Product...

2013-07-01

320

41 CFR 102-192.130 - What are your general responsibilities as an agency mail manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are your general responsibilities as an agency mail manager? 102-192.130 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Agency Mail Manager Requirements § 102-192.130 What...

2013-07-01

321

32 CFR 806b.29 - Sending personal information over electronic mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sending personal information over electronic mail. 806b.29 Section 806b.29 National...Sending personal information over electronic mail. (a) Exercise caution before transmitting personal information over e-mail to ensure it is adequately...

2013-07-01

322

41 CFR 102-192.135 - Must we have a mail center manager at our facility?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Must we have a mail center manager at our facility? 102-192.135...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Mail Center Manager Requirements § 102-192.135...

2013-07-01

323

49 CFR 551.62 - Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation? 551.62 Section 551...62 Where should a foreign manufacturer mail the designation? Foreign manufacturers must mail their designations to the Office of...

2013-10-01

324

41 CFR 102-192.145 - Which program levels should have a mail manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Which program levels should have a mail manager? 102-192.145 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Program Level Mail Responsibilities § 102-192.145 Which...

2013-07-01

325

75 FR 6570 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Mail Disputes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Mail Disputes AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION...presiding officers in proceedings relating to mail disputes. DATES: Effective Date: March...the rules governing proceedings involving Mail Disputes. Only one change is made....

2010-02-10

326

39 CFR 3020.12 - Publication of the Mail Classification Schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Publication of the Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.12 ...COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.12 Publication of the Mail Classification Schedule....

2013-07-01

327

77 FR 26796 - Product Change-Standard Mail Saturation Flats Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Standard Mail Saturation Flats Negotiated Service Agreement...Regulatory Commission to add a Standard Mail Saturation Flats negotiated service agreement...market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule. DATES: May...

2012-05-07

328

39 CFR 20.4 - Amendments to the International Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Amendments to the International Mail Manual. 20.4 Section 20.4 ...STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.4 Amendments to the International Mail Manual. New issues of the...

2013-07-01

329

49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records. 830.10 Section...AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT WRECKAGE, MAIL, CARGO, AND RECORDS Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records § 830.10...

2013-10-01

330

78 FR 76336 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal...of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive...United States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 72 to Competitive Product...

2013-12-17

331

41 CFR 102-192.170 - What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management? 102-192.170 Section...REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT GSA's Responsibilities and... What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management? 44 U.S.C §...

2013-07-01

332

77 FR 19391 - Notice of Proposed Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria With Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICE Notice of Proposed Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria With Request...Criteria (IBI PC) with new Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria (IMI PC...receive a copy of the proposed IMI PC, mail or deliver written requests to: USPS...

2012-03-30

333

75 FR 52378 - Transfer of Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal...Regulatory Commission to transfer commercial Standard Mail Parcels from the Mail Classification Schedule's Market Dominant...

2010-08-25

334

19 CFR Policy Statement to Part 145 - Examination of Sealed Letter Class Mail  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Examination of Sealed Letter Class Mail Statement Policy Statement to Part...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Pt. 145, Policy Stmt...145âExamination of Sealed Letter Class Mail A. Customs officers and employees...

2013-04-01

335

39 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Mail Classification Schedule  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mail Classification Schedule A Appendix...COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule Pt. 3020, Subpt... Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 3020âMail Classification Schedule Part...

2010-07-01

336

19 CFR 145.3 - Opening of letter class mail; reading of correspondence prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Opening of letter class mail; reading of correspondence prohibited...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.3 Opening of letter class mail; reading of correspondence...

2013-04-01

337

39 CFR 20.3 - Availability of the International Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Availability of the International Mail Manual. 20.3 Section 20.3 Postal...UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.3 Availability of the International Mail Manual. Copies of the...

2013-07-01

338

28 CFR 0.196 - Procedures for resolving disagreements concerning mail or case assignments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedures for resolving disagreements concerning mail or case assignments. 0.196 Section...Procedures for resolving disagreements concerning mail or case assignments. When an assignment for the handling of mail or a case has been made...

2013-07-01

339

32 CFR Enclosure to Part 100 - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure to Part 100 National Defense...Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail State of _____ County of...which is attached hereto, by Certified Mail (Return Receipt Requested)...

2013-07-01

340

76 FR 13000 - Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal...Regulatory Commission to transfer commercial First-Class Mail Parcels from the Mail Classification Schedule's Market-Dominant...

2011-03-09

341

39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Noncontractual air service for international and military mail. 927.2 Section 927.2 Postal Service...Noncontractual air service for international and military mail. (a) Report of infraction. Each mail handling irregularity will be...

2013-07-01

342

38 CFR 1.701 - Contact person for missing children official mail program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contact person for missing children official mail program. 1.701 Section 1.701... GENERAL PROVISIONS Use of Official Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing...Contact person for missing children official mail program. The Department of...

2013-07-01

343

78 FR 59383 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal...of Negotiated Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive...United States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 64 to Competitive Product...

2013-09-26

344

77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICE Product Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM...Regulatory Commission to add Every Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule. [[Page...

2012-07-17

345

19 CFR Policy Statement to Part 145 - Examination of Sealed Letter Class Mail  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Examination of Sealed Letter Class Mail Statement Policy Statement to Part...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Pt. 145, Policy Stmt...145âExamination of Sealed Letter Class Mail A. Customs officers and employees...

2010-04-01

346

41 CFR 102-192.120 - Must we have an agency mail manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Must we have an agency mail manager? 102-192.120 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Agency Mail Manager Requirements § 102-192.120 Must...

2013-07-01

347

39 CFR 3020.111 - Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter. 3020.111 Section 3020...LISTS Size and Weight Limitations for Mail Matter § 3020.111 Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter. (a) The Postal...

2013-07-01

348

39 CFR 3020.112 - Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter. 3020.112 Section 3020...LISTS Size and Weight Limitations for Mail Matter § 3020.112 Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter. The Postal Service shall...

2013-07-01

349

76 FR 46853 - International Business Machines Corporation, ITD Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and Collaboration Group, Including Workers Off-Site...Business Unit, Division 7, E- mail and Collaboration Group, including workers off-site...Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and Collaboration [[Page 46854

2011-08-03

350

75 FR 54287 - Submission of Electronic Documentation With Comailed and Copalletized Mailings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...container placards must also be used on pallets or similar containers when making comailed...trays with Intelligent Mail tray labels to pallets bearing Intelligent Mail container placards...Mailers consolidating multiple mailings on pallets must use the electronic data...

2010-09-07

351

39 CFR 3020.112 - Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Size and Weight Limitations for Mail Matter § 3020.112 Limitations...to competitive mail matter. The Postal Service...Commission of updates to size and weight limitations for competitive mail matter pursuant to subpart...

2010-07-01

352

39 CFR 3020.111 - Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter. 3020.111 Section 3020.111... Size and Weight Limitations for Mail Matter § 3020.111 Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter. (a) The Postal Service...

2010-07-01

353

39 CFR 3020.111 - Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter. 3020.111 Section 3020.111... Size and Weight Limitations for Mail Matter § 3020.111 Limitations applicable to market dominant mail matter. (a) The Postal Service...

2009-07-01

354

39 CFR 3020.112 - Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter. 3020.112 Section 3020.112 ...Size and Weight Limitations for Mail Matter § 3020.112 Limitations applicable to competitive mail matter. The Postal Service shall...

2009-07-01

355

Solid-state magnetic switching triggered by proton-coupled electron-transfer assisted by long-distance proton-alkali cation transport.  

PubMed

Acidity of water molecules coordinated to Co ions in CoFe Prussian blue analogues (PBA) has been used to reversibly activate the Co(III)Fe(II) ? Co(II)Fe(III) electron transfer. The study of the structure and the electronic structure shows that the process implies an original PCET reaction between a solid-state porous coordination polymer and hydroxide ions in solution. The PCET reaction spreads throughout the solid network thanks to a long-range H(+) and Rb(+) transport within the pore channels of PBA taking advantage of the hydrogen-bonding network of zeolitic water molecules acting as proton wires. PMID:24731182

Higel, Pauline; Villain, Françoise; Verdaguer, Michel; Rivière, Eric; Bleuzen, Anne

2014-04-30

356

Development of a Standard E-Mail Methodology: Results of an Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Review of past e-mail surveys indicates that a methodology to achieve consistently high response rates similar to those that can be obtained by traditional mail has not been developed. Additionally, researchers have tended to use e-mail surveys only for populations with universal e-mail access. This study utilizes knowledge,from past mail survey research to develop an e-mail procedure. Further, an

David R. Schaefer; Don A. Dillman

1998-01-01

357

Distance from a distance: psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance.  

PubMed

What is the difference between far and further? Investigations into such psychological distancing--removal from an egocentric reference point--have suggested similarities between geographical space, time, probability, and social distance. We draw on these similarities to propose that experiencing any kind of distance will reduce sensitivity to any other distance. Nine studies varied the initial distance of an event and assessed sensitivity to a second distance. Consistently, people were less responsive to a given span of distance when it was distal versus proximal. This effect held using each of the four distances as the initial instantiation of distance; it also held using each dimension to assess sensitivity to distance (i.e., as the second distance dimension). These findings suggest that the dimensions of psychological distance share a common, interchangeable meaning and that the cross-dimension difference between far and further is less than that between near and far. PMID:23025560

Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

2013-08-01

358

Extremely high-frequency holographic radar imaging of personnel and mail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The awareness of terrorists covertly transporting chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents into government, military, and civilian facilities to harm the occupants has increased dramatically since the attacks of 9/11. Government and civilian security personnel have a need for innovative surveillance technology that can rapidly detect these lethal agents, even when they are hidden away in sealed containers and concealed either under clothing or in hand-carried items such as mailed packages or handbags. Sensor technology that detects BW and CW agents in mail or sealed containers carried under the clothing are under development. One promising sensor technology presently under development to detect these threats is active millimeter-wave holographic radar imaging, which can readily image concealed items behind paper, cardboard, and clothing. Feasibility imaging studies at frequencies greater than 40 GHz have been conducted to determine whether simulated biological or chemical agents concealed in mail packages or under clothing could be detected using this extremely high-frequency imaging technique. The results of this imaging study will be presented in this paper.

McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Griffin, Jeffery W.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

2006-06-01

359

77 FR 7214 - Notice of Availability: Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Mail Processing Network...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Assessment for Mail Processing Network Rationalization Initiative (Formerly Known as the ``Network Optimization'' Initiative), Nationwide...Assessment (PEA) for the Mail Processing Network Rationalization Initiative (the...

2012-02-10

360

Long-distance transport of particulate iron from the Amur River to the western subarctic Pacific reinforced by the combination of Fe and Nd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron is an essential nutrient and limits primary productivity in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. The western subarctic Pacific (WSP) is one of HNLC regions, and the most important source of iron in the WSP has been thought to be the dust from East Asia such as Gobi dessert. In recent years, however, some studies suggest that the northwestern continental shelf region of the Sea of Okhotsk (OS) where the Amur River discharges large amounts of dissolved iron is one of the most important source area of iron in the WSP (e.g. Nishioka et al., 2007). The Amur has high concentration of dissolved iron, and more than 90% of the dissolved iron precipitates in the estuary mixing zone by coagulation. In the Amur estuary on the northwestern continental shelf of the OS, the strong tidal mixing causes the iron precipitates to be resuspended. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) is carried out to the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW) by the Dense Shelf Water (DSW) (Nakatsuka et al., 2004). The OSIW flows out to the WSP through the Bussol strait, and adds to the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The SPM is possibly transported to the WSP in the above processes, and re-dissolved iron from the SPM (Sugie et al., 2013) contributes to the biological productivity in the WSP. In this study, we analyzed stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and radiogenic isotopes of neodymium (Nd) in particulate iron chemically extracted from the continental shelf sediments and SPM of the OS and those in dissolved Fe and Nd of the Amur River water in order to clarify the transport process of the particulate iron from the Amur River in the OS. Iron isotopes have been recently applied to trace origin of marine iron because ?56Fe value varies depending on source, such as river, eolian dust and hydrothermal input. In addition, we used neodymium isotopes to draw information where the particulate iron in the OSIW precipitates because the particulate iron takes up large amounts of REEs from surrounding water in the precipitation process. The analytical results show that the dissolved iron in the Amur River has higher ?56Fe value than those in the other rivers in the world. The higher iron isotope ratio probably attributes to Fe-organic complexes which are enriched in heavy iron isotopes than the other iron species of dissolved iron. ?56Fe values of particulate iron extracted from the continental shelf sediments and SPM in the wide region of the OS are fairly similar to that of the Amur dissolved iron. The iron isotopes of the SPM around the Bussol strait also show the Amur River signal. Regional distribution of neodymium isotopes in the particulate iron support that the particulate iron derived from the Amur is long-transported to the southern part of the OS and probably to the WSP. The Fe and Nd isotope variations are consistent with the transport process of iron based on the previous studies on Fe concentration (Nishioka et al., 2007; 2011), and strongly suggest that particulate iron of the Amur origin is the main source of iron in the WSP.

Yasuda, T.; Asahara, Y.; Ichikawa, R.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nishioka, J.; Minami, H.; Nagao, S.; Tanimizu, M.; Shin, K.; Kono, M.

2013-12-01

361

Oxygen isotopes in single micrometer-sized quartz grains: tracing the source of Saharan dust over long-distance atmospheric transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope compositions were measured by ion microprobe in individual micrometer-sized quartz grains extracted from one aerosol sample collected on the Cape Verde Islands and from four surface samples (three soils and one sediment) representing potential source regions of aerosols in Western and Central Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Niger, and Chad). A large range of ? 18O values, from +6.2‰ to +39.3‰ is present within the aerosol quartz grains. The different size fractions of the quartz grains from the surface samples overlap nearly entirely this range but show significant differences in their ? 18O distributions for the different size fractions of the grains (i.e., different modes, different proportions of grains with low or high ? 18O, ...). These differences in ? 18O distributions can be related to different geological formations (i.e., mantle-derived magmatic rocks, crustal magmatic rocks, or sedimentary rocks) outcropping in each region, thus giving a fingerprint of the source region. Quartz grains with unusually high ? 18O values between +30‰ and +40‰ were attributed to lacustrine cherts formed in evaporitic environments (Chad basin). The existence of distinct ? 18O distributions for the surface samples, which reflect regional geology but indicate some transport of the grains, enables the characterization of mixing processes during dust emission in the atmosphere. Particles are mixed at a regional scale in the dust reservoir, but injection of fine particles into the high troposphere occurs as a discrete and localized event with no mixing during the subsequent long-range transport by the easterlies. The comparison of the ? 18O distribution of the quartz from the aerosol sample with the equivalent size fractions in surface samples shows that the Niger area is the more probable source region for the aerosol although the Moroccan source cannot be excluded. This method gives a valuable tool to trace the source region of dust into the atmosphere or into sediment samples, allowing the reconstruction of air mass circulations.

Aléon, Jérôme; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard; Schütz, Lothar; Jaenicke, Ruprecht

2002-10-01

362

Holocene variations in mineral and grain-size composition along the East Greenland glaciated margin (ca 67??-70??N): Local versus long-distance sediment transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (qXRD) analysis of the <2 mm sediment fraction from surface (sea floor) samples, and marine sediment cores that span the last 10-12 cal ka BP, are used to describe spatial and temporal variations in non-clay mineral compositions for an area between Kangerlussuaq Trough and Scoresby Sund (???67??-70??N), East Greenland. Bedrock consists primarily of an early Tertiary alkaline complex with high weight% of pyroxene and plagioclase. Farther inland and to the north, the bedrock is dominantly felsic with a high fraction of quartz and potassium feldspars. Principal Component (PC) analysis of the non-clay sediment compositions indicates the importance of quartz and pyroxene as compositional end members, with an abrupt shift from quartz and k-feldspar dominated sediments north of Scoresby Sund to sediments rich in pyroxene and plagioclase feldspars offshore from the early Tertiary basaltic outcrop. Coarse (<2 mm or <1 mm) ice-rafted sediments are largely absent from the trough sediments between ???8 and 5 cal ka BP, but then increase in the last 4 cal ka BP. Compositional unmixing of the sediments in Grivel Basin and Kangerlussuaq Trough indicate the dominance of local over long distance sediment sources, with pulses of sediment from tidewater glaciers in Kangerlussuaq and Nansen fjords reaching the inner shelf during the Neoglaciation. The change in IRD is more dramatic in the sediment grain-size proxies than in the quartz wt%. Forty to seventy percent of the variance in the quartz records from either side of Denmark Strait is explained by low frequency trends, but the data from the Grivel Basin, East Greenland, are distinctly different, with an approximate 2500 yr periodicity. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Andrews, J. T.; Jennings, A. E.; Coleman, G. C.; Eberl, D. D.

2010-01-01

363

Holocene variations in mineral and grain-size composition along the East Greenland glaciated margin (ca 67°-70°N): Local versus long-distance sediment transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (qXRD) analysis of the <2 mm sediment fraction from surface (sea floor) samples, and marine sediment cores that span the last 10-12 cal ka BP, are used to describe spatial and temporal variations in non-clay mineral compositions for an area between Kangerlussuaq Trough and Scoresby Sund (˜67°-70°N), East Greenland. Bedrock consists primarily of an early Tertiary alkaline complex with high weight% of pyroxene and plagioclase. Farther inland and to the north, the bedrock is dominantly felsic with a high fraction of quartz and potassium feldspars. Principal Component (PC) analysis of the non-clay sediment compositions indicates the importance of quartz and pyroxene as compositional end members, with an abrupt shift from quartz and k-feldspar dominated sediments north of Scoresby Sund to sediments rich in pyroxene and plagioclase feldspars offshore from the early Tertiary basaltic outcrop. Coarse (<2 mm or <1 mm) ice-rafted sediments are largely absent from the trough sediments between ˜8 and 5 cal ka BP, but then increase in the last 4 cal ka BP. Compositional unmixing of the sediments in Grivel Basin and Kangerlussuaq Trough indicate the dominance of local over long distance sediment sources, with pulses of sediment from tidewater glaciers in Kangerlussuaq and Nansen fjords reaching the inner shelf during the Neoglaciation. The change in IRD is more dramatic in the sediment grain-size proxies than in the quartz wt%. Forty to seventy percent of the variance in the quartz records from either side of Denmark Strait is explained by low frequency trends, but the data from the Grivel Basin, East Greenland, are distinctly different, with an approximate 2500 yr periodicity.

Andrews, John T.; Jennings, Anne E.; Coleman, George C.; Eberl, Dennis D.

2010-09-01

364

Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems  

PubMed Central

Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

Daly, Jeanette M.; Jones, Julie K.; Gereau, Patricia L.; Levy, Barcey T.

2011-01-01

365

Effectiveness of Computer-Based Educational Technology in Distance Learning: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning at a distance has been on the fringe of educational acceptance since the first correspondence course was delivered through the mail system in return for academic credit. As distance learning has matured, elements of enhanced instructional design and advances in educational technology have migrated this medium of learning closer to the…

Lesh, Steven G.; Rampp, Lary C.

366

Gender in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Introduction to Gender in Distance Education" (Spronk); "From the Local to the Global" (Taylor, Kirkup); "Addressing Some Gender Issues in Distance Education at the University of the South Pacific" (Tuimaleili'fano); "Women and Science at a Distance" (Va'a); "Women as Distance Learners in Israel" (Enoch); "Women Friendly Programming in…

Spronk, Barbara; And Others

1994-01-01

367

Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

2002-01-01

368

78 FR 78720 - Deferral of Compliance Date: Full-Service Intelligent Mail Barcode Requirement To Qualify for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Compliance Date: Full-Service Intelligent Mail Barcode Requirement To Qualify for Automation...mailers to use full-service Intelligent Mail[supreg] to qualify for automation prices when mailing First-Class Mail[supreg], Standard...

2013-12-27

369

Putting Out the Flames: The Etiquette and Law of E-Mail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary of guidelines for the use of electronic mail (e-mail) and examines legal issues and existing law governing electronic communication. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 is discussed, lawsuits involving e-mail are described, and the future of e-mail privacy is considered. (11 references) (LRW)

Goode, Joanne; Johnson, Maggie

1991-01-01

370

e-mail authentication system: a spam filtering for smart senders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present time, the electronic mail is the most popular communication method of people around the world. However, the increasing of electronic mails is the beginning of a malevolent aftereffect e-mail. The transgressors have developed a set of codes that is the electronic bomb of the electronic mails passing through the communication line. As a result, various protection methods

Pattaraporn Klangpraphant; Pattarasinee Bhattarakosol

2009-01-01

371

76 FR 75461 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and...policy for filing claims for domestic Express Mail[supreg] postage refunds from 90...the date of mailing, and to change the Express Mail ``waiver of signature''...

2011-12-02

372

76 FR 62000 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and...policy for filing claims for domestic Express Mail[supreg] refunds from 90 days to...the date of mailing, and to change the Express Mail ``waiver of signature''...

2011-10-06

373

Astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz organizes shuttle mail message  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Discovery's aft flight deck, Astronaut Franklin R. Chang-Diaz begins to organize what was believed to be among the longest mail messages in Shuttle history. Though early Shuttle flights could brag of longer teleprinted messages, the Thermal Imaging Printing Systems's day four correspondence, most of which is out of frame here, is a record length for recent flights.

1994-01-01

374

The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

Rice, R. F.

1983-01-01

375

"E" for Exposed? E-Mail and Privacy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of litigation, a number of companies have written policies declaring the right to monitor employee electronic communication. Discusses reasons why employers monitor employee e-mail, the prevalence of monitoring in universities, use and ethics policy statements, and bills of rights statements protecting employee privacy. (PEN)

Gannon-Leary, Pat

1997-01-01

376

76 FR 79072 - New Standards for Domestic Mailing Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...included in the applicable subject matter sections below. Changes for...contain books or other printed matter remains at 25 pounds regardless...Periodicals flats, SCF Bound Printed Matter, Standard mail irregular parcels...elsewhere. * * * * * 4.4.4 Dark Fibers and Background...

2011-12-21

377

76 FR 50414 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION...June 6, 2011, and its incorporation by reference in the Code of Federal Regulations...August 15, 2011. The incorporation by reference of the IMM is approved by the...

2011-08-15

378

Cryptography: It's Not Just For Electronic Mail Anymore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report extends cryptographic techniques to the protection of the application of stamps for mail. We show how to provide electronic stamps (using off-the-shelf bar code technology to represent a cryptographic message) to use in a fully integrated fran...

J. D. Tygar B. Yee

1993-01-01

379

Electronic Mail Reference Services in the Public Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of an exploratory survey that examined public library electronic mail reference services and the patrons who used them. Discusses results of print questionnaires and Web-based questionnaires that investigated user satisfaction and classified email reference questions received by public libraries. Library questionnaire and web…

Garnsey, Beth A.; Powell, Ronald R.

2000-01-01

380

Colleges Get out of E-Mail Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frantic troubleshooting by an overworked staff versus someone else fixing problems smoothly. A sliver of server space per person versus a five-gigabyte chunk. Half a million dollars versus free. That's what colleges are faced with as they decide whether to continue running their own e-mail services or outsource them to a professional service like…

Carnevale, Dan

2008-01-01

381

View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail Room, from elevated west dock toward east. Office is on right (south) and mezzanine on left (north). West wall of American Railway Express Room is between - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

382

Detail of one way mirror, mail slot, and electrical box ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of one way mirror, mail slot, and electrical box at sentry post no. 3, top of east stairs near the end of second floor corridor - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

383

Missing White House E-Mail: A Whistleblowing Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whistleblowing is a core topic for ethics courses taught to Computer Science and Computer Engineering majors. However, most of the prominent engineering whistleblowing cases have little if anything to do with computing (the Hughes Aircraft case being a notable exception). Another recent case is appropriate for study, especially given the increasing focus on e-mail privacy in the workplace. In early

Edward F. Gehringer

384

E-Mail from Professor Enhances Student Motivation and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, professors use the first day of class to build rapport. However, current technology allows professors to contact students prior to the first day of class. This study assessed how the receipt of a welcoming e-mail from a female professor 1 week before the first day of class affected student motivation and attitudes toward the…

Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

2009-01-01

385

Fostering E-Mail Security Awareness: The West Point Carronade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point had a problem with some cadets clicking on suspicious attachments and embedded links, significantly affecting network performance and resource availability. West Point information technology leadership needed a way to increase e-mail security awareness in hopes of maintaining a strong…

Ferguson, Aaron J.

2005-01-01

386

Transportation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to increase students' knowledge and understanding of diesel and gasoline engines, providing an introduction for students interested in more specialized training in the automobile field and its scientific principles through math, science, and chemistry. It will also help students realize the importance of transportation, and will help them meet their needs in math through problem solving by dealing with materials in their world, letting them develop skills and techniques through hands-on experience. Includes more than 20 problems to solve.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-05-12

387

Learning at a Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses distance learning at East Mecklenburg High School (Charlotte, North Carolina), a demonstration site for the North Carolina Information Highway. Highlights include community/adult education, hardware, costs, video and sound equipment, distance learning class scheduling, and future outlooks. (AEF)

Beasley, Augie E.

1997-01-01

388

Distance Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews six papers from the Open University Distance Education Research Group which cover the following topics: the credibility of distance education, admission systems, distance methods in adult basic education, the Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica), Radio Ecca (Canary Islands), and the Open University (Great Britain). (EAO)

Curran, Chris

1983-01-01

389

The Mahalanobis distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of many multivariate chemometrical methods is based on the measurement of distances. The Mahalanobis distance (MD), in the original and principal component (PC) space, will be examined and interpreted in relation with the Euclidean distance (ED). Techniques based on the MD and applied in different fields of chemometrics such as in multivariate calibration, pattern recognition and process control

R. De Maesschalck; D. Jouan-Rimbaud; D. L. Massart

2000-01-01

390

Incomplete Orthogonal Distance Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common method of fitting curves and surfaces to data is to minimize the sum of squares of the orthogonal distances from the data points to the curve or surface, a process known as orthogonal distance regression. Here we consider fitting geometrical objects to data when some orthogonal distances are not available. Methods based on the Gauss–Newton method are developed,

A. Atieg; G. A. Watson

2004-01-01

391

Ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in mail carriers.  

PubMed

Mail carriers represent an occupational group suffering from respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. Although environmental conditions may play role, information on the effects of air pollution exposure in this population is lacking. The present study was conducted in Athens, Greece, in order to investigate the adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on respiratory outcomes in mail carriers. A total of 226 mail carriers and 73 office employees were enrolled. Information on respiratory symptoms, medical, occupational, residential and smoking history was obtained through a questionnaire. Flow-volume curves were performed in the workplace using a portable spirometer. Individualised personal exposure assessment has been applied based on long-term residential and occupational subject history linked with geographical air pollution distribution. Furthermore, personal measurements were obtained for forty-one mail carriers using NO(2) and O(3) passive samplers, assuming that current air pollution exposure is sufficiently representative of long-term, previous exposure to make a plausible link with current health status. The analysis based on exposures estimated on the basis of residential and work addresses showed that the most exposed to PM(10) postal workers have rhinitis at a higher rate (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.75). In mail carriers there is indication that those exposed to higher concentrations of Omicron(3) or PM(10) have a greater possibility to present rhinitis (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.93-2.88 and OR=1.70, 95% CI: 0.96-3.03, respectively). The effect of O(3) on rhinitis became even more apparent in the analysis based on exposures assessed by personal measurements (OR=6.74, 95% CI: 1.24-36.55). Exposure to NO(2) was significantly associated with decrements in lung function. For office employees the exposure to air pollutants was not associated to any adverse respiratory outcome. Our findings suggest that air pollution is a contributing factor for the occurrence of rhinitis and lung function impairment in mail carriers. PMID:20047736

Karakatsani, A; Kapitsimadis, F; Pipikou, M; Chalbot, M-C; Kavouras, I G; Orphanidou, D; Papiris, S; Katsouyanni, K

2010-04-01

392

Distance learning conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This document reflects the content of the Distance Learning Conference sponsored by the Cognitive Systems Engineering Group, Analysis and Assessment Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The conference participants -- highly respected representatives of military/government, industry, and academia -- analyzed the potential of distance learning to deal with common educational problems. The group explored the distance learning problem, media, interactivity, instructional strategies, collective learning, student performance evaluation, and implementation of a national distance learning strategy. The conferees mandated a national initiative to implement distance learning in our country. Such a focused effort may help alleviate the current global education and training crisis. 50 refs.

Alexander, J.B.; Andrews, A.E.; Hamer, N.D.; Keller, J.W.; Trainor, M.S. (comps.)

1990-06-01

393

Business evolution or revolution? Mail-order pharmacies in Germany.  

PubMed

It is an interesting detail of the present reform of national public health service in Germany that mail-order and internet pharmacies will be founded in future as new (e-commerce) business models. Main points of conceivable business systems can be characterised as well as critical success factors. No potential participant can ever have all the necessary resources and competences to implement a competitive business system without external support. This is why cooperation seems to be a useful tool for competence management. The Resource-based View will serve as theoretical background for analysis. The required and available competences of conceivable players can be identified. Features of resources can be described that recommend special types of cooperation with the intention of establishing and operate a business system. Especially German and international pharmaceutical wholesalers can be identified as conceivable "parents" of mail-order pharmacies in the future. PMID:18048201

Gersch, Martin

2004-01-01

394

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

STD 11, RFC 822, defines a message representation protocol specifying considerable detail about US-ASCII message headers, and leaves the message content, or message body, as flat US-ASCII text. This set of documents, collectively called the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or MIME, redefines the format of messages to allow for (1) textual message bodies in character sets other than US-ASCII,

J. Klensin

1996-01-01

395

Return Postage in Mail Surveys a Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a five-step procedure for meta-analysis. Especially important was the contacting of authors of prior papers. This was done primarily to improve the accuracy of the coding; it also helped to identify unpublished research and to supply missing information. Application of the five-step procedure to the issue of return postage in mail surveys yielded significantly more papers and

J. Scott Armstrong; Edward J. Lusk

1987-01-01

396

Crossing Global Borders: 'Mail order brides' in Atlantic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we draw on neo-Marxist post-colonial feminism in order to better understand the complex ways in which gender, race, class, nationality, and education affect women who have migrated to Atlantic Canada as so-called 'mail-order brides.' I find what I need. Magic. First man I write. I find very quickly. Like magic I find him. Russian woman (a so-called

Catherine Baillie Abidi; Susan M. Brigham

397

Editor's Roundtable: Stop avoiding your e-mails!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't expect the online "innovation" to go away--email communication is here to stay, and it is your responsibility as an educational professional to respond to them, and even use them to your advantage. This month's Editor's Roundtable column discusses the upsides to the effective use of e-mail to communicate with parents, students, and administrators. In additon, it provides some helpful guidelines for you to follow.

Robert A. Liftig, Edd -.

2007-03-01

398

GroupMail Free Edition 5.0.0.706  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If one has to deliver a number of email messages to a vast array of persons, say for example a listserv comprised of 18th century British historians, the GroupMail application may be just the thing for the job. With a well-designed interface, the application features a relatively easy way to create such email lists, and the free version profiled here supports up to 100 recipients. This program is compatible with computers which run Windows 95 or newer.

1997-01-01

399

Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications" by Robert H. Anderson, Tora K. Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell; 1995; Rand Corporation; 267 pages, 24 tables, 18 figures; bibliography, is available for downloading from Rand Corporation's Web site. "This is the final report of a two-year RAND study. It is designed as a sourcebook on key social, technical, economic, and international issues related to providing universal access to e-mail within the United States. It is our hope that this report will help stimulate public policy discussions regarding the feasibility, desirability, and implications of universal e-mail access. Decision makers involved with such public policy issues are the primary audience for this report, but it should also be of interest to academic and business professionals involved with telecommunications policy and its social implications." The report is available in both HTML and .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. A free Acrobat Reader download site is available from the page.

Anderson, Robert H.; Bikson, Tora K.; Law, Sally A.; Mitchell, Bridger M.

1995-01-01

400

Report on Climate Change E-mails Exonerates Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new report commissioned by the University of East Anglia (UEA) has largely exonerated climate scientists from the university's Climatic Research Unit (CRU) who wrote a number of controversial e-mail messages that were made public without authorization in November 2009. Critics have argued that the e-mails indicate that scientists had tampered with scientific data—including data related to land station temperatures and temperature reconstructions from tree ring analysis—subverted the peer review process, misused the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and withheld data from critics. At a 7 July news conference to release the “Independent climate change e-mails review,” report chair Muir Russell said, “Climate science is a matter of such global importance that the highest standards of honesty, rigor, and openness are needed in its conduct. On the specific allegations made against the behavior of CRU scientists, we find that their rigor and honesty as scientists are not in doubt.” He continued, “In addition, we do not find that their behavior has prejudiced the balance of advice given to policy makers. In particular, we did not find any evidence of behavior that might undermine the conclusions of the IPCC assessments.” Russell is chair of the Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland and formerly was principal and vice-chancellor of the University of Glasgow, in Scotland.

Showstack, Randy

2010-07-01

401

Stored Whole Blood after Long Distance Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liquid whole blood in plastic containers shipped overseas was compared to units collected and stored undisturbed. Physical appearance indicated the increase in physical stress. Chemical analysis clearly indicated cellular damage. Thus, the necessary trans...

C. E. Shields

1967-01-01

402

Conceptions of learning in adult students embarking on distance education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-item questionnaire on conceptions of learning was mailed to students taking preparatory courses by distance learning\\u000a with The Open University in the United Kingdom. Complete data were provided by 372 respondents. Their scores on six factor-based\\u000a scales showed satisfactory internal consistency, cluster analysis identified five groups of students with distinct patterns\\u000a of scores, and discriminant analysis identified the scales

Mpine Makoe; John T. E. Richardson; Linda Price

2008-01-01

403

North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia.  

PubMed

Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 count >350?cells/ ? L) have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate "real world" programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events). Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:23606977

Gomez, G B; Venter, W D F; Lange, J M A; Rees, H; Hankins, C

2013-01-01

404

North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 count >350?cells/?L) have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events). Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes.

Gomez, G. B.; Venter, W. D. F.; Lange, J. M. A.; Rees, H.; Hankins, C.

2013-01-01

405

Distance to Horizon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows students to explore the relationship between their height above the Earth and the distance they can see to the horizon. Learners can change the height above sea level by dragging the point labeled Height. Based on the height, the distance to the horizon is automatically calculated. Students are challenged to find a relationship between the height of a person above sea level and the distance he/she can see to the horizon.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

406

Learning String Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many applications, it is necessary to determine the similarity of two strings. A widely-used notion of string similarity is the edit distance: The minimum number of insertions, deletions, and substitutions required to transform one string into the other. In this report, we provide a stochastic model for string-edit distance. Our stochastic model allows us to learn a string-edit distance

Eric Sven Ristad; Peter N. Yianilos

1997-01-01

407

Distance in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The distance between two vertices is the basis of the definition of several graph parameters including diameter, radius, average\\u000a distance and metric dimension. These invariants are examined, especially how they relate to one another and to other graph\\u000a invariants and their behaviour in certain graph classes. We also discuss characterizations of graph classes described in terms\\u000a of distance or shortest

Wayne Goddard; Ortrud R. Oellermann

408

36 CFR 1236.22 - What are the additional requirements for managing electronic mail records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...the electronic mail record or linked to the electronic mail record...for transfer to the National Archives must either store them in...related transmission and receipt data specified by the...

2010-07-01

409

28 CFR 540.23 - Inmate funds received through the mails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Inmate funds received through the mails. 540.23 Section 540.23 Judicial Administration ...Correspondence § 540.23 Inmate funds received through the mails. Except as provided for in part 506 of this...

2013-07-01

410

75 FR 39475 - International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees AGENCY: Postal Service...filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...standards that would accompany new prices in 2011. DATES: We must...

2010-07-09

411

76 FR 65639 - International Mail: Proposed Product Rate and Fee Changes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...that would accompany the new prices. DATES: We must receive your...International Mailing Services Price Change.'' Faxed comments...

2011-10-24

412

78 FR 63433 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-CPI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes--CPI AGENCY: Postal...filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...supreg]) to reflect these new price changes. DATES: We must...

2013-10-24

413

78 FR 63434 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-Exigent  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes--Exigent AGENCY: Postal...filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission...supreg]) to reflect these new price changes. DATES: We must...

2013-10-24

414

19 CFR 133.24 - Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and mail importations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and mail importations...Trade § 133.24 Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and mail importations. (a) Detention. Articles accompanying an importer and...

2013-04-01

415

39 CFR 233.11 - Mail reasonably suspected of being dangerous to persons or property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Screening of mail. When the Chief Postal Inspector determines that there is a credible threat that certain mail may contain a bomb, explosives, or other material that would endanger life or property, including firearms which are not mailable...

2013-07-01

416

16 CFR 1130.7 - Requirements for Web site registration or alternative e-mail registration.  

...2014-01-01 false Requirements for Web site registration or alternative e-mail...PRODUCTS § 1130.7 Requirements for Web site registration or alternative e-mail...registration page. The manufacturer's Web site, or other Web site established...

2014-01-01

417

78 FR 24132 - New Mailing Standards for Live Animals and Special Handling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manager, Product Classification, U.S. Postal...conditions), and packaging sufficient to resist...Mailing Animals, Plants, and Related Matter...except Parcel Select Lightweight) pieces...Mailing Animals, Plants, and Related Matter...manager, Product Classification (see...

2013-04-24

418

78 FR 79027 - Product Change-Priority Mail Express Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Express Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Express Contract 17 to Competitive Product List. Documents are...

2013-12-27

419

78 FR 4174 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Express Mail Contract 13 to Competitive Product [[Page 4175

2013-01-18

420

75 FR 81318 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service...Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Express Mail Contract 10 to Competitive Product List. Documents...

2010-12-27

421

MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 1. [Scout project automatic data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program theory used to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, is described. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: (1) incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; (2) design information releases and reports; and (3) drawings and engineering orders. All subroutine descriptions, flowcharts, and MAIL LOG outputs are given and the data base design is described.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

422

Cost-effective clinical uses of wide-area networks: electronic mail as telemedicine.  

PubMed Central

Electronic mail (E-mail) is widely used as a means of communication in the medical community. E-mail is clearly inexpensive when compared to two-way, fully interactive, real-time, video telemedicine. By content analysis of 200 consecutive messages, we show E-mail to be a low-cost use of computer networks, supporting a wide range of physician decision-making.

Worth, E. R.; Patrick, T. B.; Klimczak, J. C.; Reid, J. C.

1995-01-01

423

Physicians’ use of and attitudes toward electronic mail for patient communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess physicians’ use of and attitudes toward electronic mail (e-mail) for patient communication, we conducted a mailin\\u000a survey of physicians who see patients in outpatient clinics affiliated with a large academic medical center (N=283). Seventy-two percent of physicians reported using e-mail to communicate with patients, averaging 7.7 e-mails from patients\\u000a per month. The lowest level of use was by

Barak Gaster; Christopher L. Knight; Dawn E. DeWitt; John V. L. Sheffield; Nassim P. Assefi; Dedra Buchwald

2003-01-01

424

Distance, Education and Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the role which distance, in a variety of forms, can play in the reproduction, intensification or reduction of educational inequality in different types of school systems in different countries. This is a very broad issue, and in the paper we examine the ways in which distance to school has emerged as an important factor in…

Hamnett, Chris; Butler, Tim

2013-01-01

425

"Distance Education for Newbies".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the effectiveness of distance education at Morehead State University. Distance education, which operates via fiber optic telecommunications, has been delivered to as many as 18 sites. Twenty-three faculty and 622 students have participated in this program. The technologies used to present information include full motion video…

Lennex, Lesia C.

426

Distance Education Attrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A need for research to determine predictors of attrition from distance education is of particular importance because governmental funding to institutions of higher education is often based on attendance. Attrition rates in distance education format have been reported as high as twice that of traditional instruction. One hundred and seventy community college students were the sample for this study. Each

Angie Parker

1995-01-01

427

Supervised Distance Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel statistical concept, called a supervised distance matrix, which quantifies pairwise similarity between variables in terms of their association with an outcome. Supervised distance matrices are derived in two stages. First, the observed data is transformed based on particular working models for association. Examples of transformations include residuals or influence curves from regression models. In the second

Katherine S. Pollard; Mark J. van der Laan

2008-01-01

428

The Magnetopause Boundary Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a mathematical lesson utilizing algebra to investigate Earth's magnetosphere. Learners will solve algebraic distance equations that will show how the distance to the Earth's magnetopause depends on the incoming solar wind pressure. This is the twentieth and final activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.

429

Is Distance Learning Transformational?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is distance learning transformational? The author heard this question posed to a panel of faculty members during Distance Education Week activities. After reflecting upon her own students' reaction to her syllabus, her answer to the question changed from an initial, enthusiastic "yes" to a reflective "maybe," given the most favorable environment.…

Hoskins, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

430

E-Mail Exchanges: Teaching Language, Culture, and Technology for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom electronic mail (e-mail) exchanges between University College of the Cariboo (British Columbia), University of Wisconsin, University of Northeastern Illinois, and Carleton University (Ontario) college preparatory English-as-a-Second-Language students demonstrate that e-mail can be effective in teaching intercultural awareness, can create…

Ruhe, Valeria

1998-01-01

431

More than just a communication system: diversity in the use of electronic mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a series of interviews that focus on the ways that professional office workers use electronic mail to manage their daily work. A number of implications for the design of flexible mail systems are discussed.Two principal claims are made. First, electronic mail is more than just a communication system. In addition to supporting information management, it provides a

Wendy E. Mackay

1988-01-01

432

28 CFR 540.25 - Change of address and forwarding of mail for inmates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Change of address and forwarding of mail for inmates. 540.25 Section 540...25 Change of address and forwarding of mail for inmates. (a) Staff shall make...e) through (g) of this section, all mail received for a released or...

2013-07-01

433

27 CFR 478.146 - Deliveries by mail to certain persons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2010-04-01 true Deliveries by mail to certain persons. 478.146 Section...Forfeitures § 478.146 Deliveries by mail to certain persons. The provisions...depositing a firearm for conveyance in the mails to any officer, employee, agent,...

2011-04-01

434

41 CFR 102-192.30 - What types of mail does this part apply to?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What types of mail does this part apply to? 102-192...REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.30 What types of mail does this part apply to? (a)...

2013-07-01

435

19 CFR 145.13 - Internal revenue tax on mail entries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Internal revenue tax on mail entries. 145.13 Section 145.13...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Requirements and Procedures § 145.13 Internal revenue tax on mail entries. (a) Method of...

2013-04-01

436

39 CFR 20.2 - Effective date of the International Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Effective date of the International Mail Manual. 20.2 Section 20.2 Postal...UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.2 Effective date of the International Mail Manual. The provisions of the...

2013-07-01

437

29 CFR 25.6 - Time; additional time after service by mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Time; additional time after service by mail. 25.6 Section 25.6 Labor ...Time; additional time after service by mail. (a) In computing any period...party and the notice is served upon him by mail, 3 days shall be added to the...

2013-07-01

438

28 CFR 19.2 - Contact person for Missing Children Penalty Mail Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contact person for Missing Children Penalty Mail Program. 19.2 Section 19.2 ...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING...Contact person for Missing Children Penalty Mail Program. The DOJ contact person...

2013-07-01

439

20 CFR 418.3615 - Will we mail you a notice of the initial determination?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will we mail you a notice of the initial determination...Review Process § 418.3615 Will we mail you a notice of the initial determination? (a) We will mail a written notice of the initial...

2013-04-01

440

49 CFR 831.12 - Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. 831.12 Section 831...Access to and release of wreckage, records, mail, and cargo. (a) Only the Board's...permitted access to wreckage, records, mail, or cargo in the Board's custody....

2013-10-01

441

20 CFR 408.1005 - Will we mail you a notice of the initial determination?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will we mail you a notice of the initial determination...Determinations § 408.1005 Will we mail you a notice of the initial determination? (a) We will mail a written notice of the initial...

2013-04-01

442

29 CFR 459.2 - Additional time after service by mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Additional time after service by mail. 459.2 Section 459.2 Labor...2 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the right...the notice or paper is served on him by mail, five (5) days shall be added to...

2013-07-01

443

22 CFR 1429.22 - Additional time after service by mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Additional time after service by mail. 1429.22 Section 1429.22 Foreign...22 Additional time after service by mail. Whenever a party has the right...notice or paper is served on such party by mail, five (5) days shall be added to...

2013-04-01

444

37 CFR 104.2 - Address for mail and service; telephone number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address for mail and service; telephone number. 104.2 ...General Provisions § 104.2 Address for mail and service; telephone number. (a) Mail under this part should be addressed to...

2013-07-01

445

22 CFR 102.14 - Salvage of mail and other property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salvage of mail and other property. 102.14 Section 102...Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.14 Salvage of mail and other property. (a) Mail. Article 3, sections 6 and 7, of the...

2013-04-01

446

Ceci n'est pas un Objet? Talking about Objects in E-Mail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how e-mail users have evolved new forms of electronic deictic references to refer to work objects and offers design suggestions for future electronic mail software. Highlights include a study of e-mail work conversations; and changing the way we talk by transforming the conversation itself into an object of conversation. (Author/LRW)

Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Bellotti, Victoria

2003-01-01

447

Understanding the "Other Side": Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English E-Mail Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent research on intercultural learning and reports on a yearlong e-mail exchange between Spanish and English second year university students. Identifies key characteristics of e-mail exchanges that helped to develop learners' intercultural communicative competence. Outlines elements of e-mail messages that may enable students to develop…

O'Dowd, Robert

2003-01-01

448

37 CFR 205.2 - Address for mail and service; telephone number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address for mail and service; telephone number. 205.2 ...General Provisions § 205.2 Address for mail and service; telephone number. (a) Mail under this part should be addressed to...

2013-07-01

449

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Americans' Instant Messaging and E-mail Use: A National Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 884 adults with hearing impairments found they were using e-mail and instant messaging (IM) more than TTY and telecommunications relay services. Virtually all participants had e-mail and IM at home. While the vast majority also had and used e-mail at work, just 1 in 3 had IM. (Contains 2 references.) (Author/CR)

Bowe, Frank G.

2002-01-01

450

Outcomes of an Intercultural E-Mail Based University Discussion Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the development of intercultural awareness in an electronic mail (e-mail) discussion project between Hungarian learners of English and American speakers. Students discussed topics relating to cultures, languages, and pedagogical issues. The e-mails were analyzed in terms of language skill improvement, apprehensiveness…

Furcsa, Laura

2009-01-01

451

The Development of E-Mail Literacy: From Writing to Peers to Writing to Authority Figures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power…

Chen, Chi-Fen Emily

2006-01-01

452

Improving Instructor Response to Student E-Mails Using Template and Reminder Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student e-mails without the student's name, message, file attachment, and other identifying information may impede a timely and thorough instructor response. To help resolve this issue, we apply template and reminder interventions to improve student e-mail format defined as the degree of agreement between a student's e-mail format and an…

Elbeck, Matthew; Song, Minjung

2011-01-01

453

Students' Use of E-Mail in an Undergraduate Public Relations Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of e-mail between the students in an introductory public relations class and their instructor. E-mail use was parallel to the use of face-to-face communication, with students reporting that they used office time and e-mail primarily to ask questions about quizzes, tests, and assignments. Older students and students further…

Kelleher, Tom; Dodd, Julie E.

454

An Analysis of the Determinants of Student E-Mail Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 577 economics students showed that most viewed e-mail as a viable substitute for faculty contact. E-mail does not significantly increase student/faculty interaction; it changes its form. Existence of a course Web site and prior Internet experience increased e-mail use. (SK)

Haworth, Barry

1999-01-01

455

The Use of Electronic Mail in Research Libraries. SPEC Kit #149.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the primary function of electronic mail within research libraries has changed from interlibrary loan to administrative purposes in the last four years, this kit begins with an overview of the results of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) surveys of the use of electronic mail (e-mail) in member libraries conducted in 1984 and 1988.…

Wiltse, Helen

456

76 FR 68166 - Discontinuing the Mass Mailing of Paper Fee Schedules to Registered Attorneys, Agents, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PTO-C-2011-0054] Discontinuing the Mass Mailing of Paper Fee Schedules to Registered Attorneys...discontinuing the mass mailing of revised paper fee schedules to registered attorneys...has discontinued the mass mailing of the paper fee schedules. The current fee...

2011-11-03

457

37 CFR 2.198 - Filing of correspondence by âExpress Mail  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...198 Filing of correspondence by âExpress Mail.â (a)(1) Except for documents...the Office that was delivered by the âExpress Mail Post Office to Addresseeâ service...the date of deposit with the USPS. The Express Mail procedure does not apply to:...

2009-07-01

458

37 CFR 2.198 - Filing of correspondence by âExpress Mail  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...198 Filing of correspondence by âExpress Mail.â (a)(1) Except for documents...the Office that was delivered by the âExpress Mail Post Office to Addresseeâ service...the date of deposit with the USPS. The Express Mail procedure does not apply to:...

2010-07-01

459

37 CFR 2.198 - Filing of correspondence by âExpress Mail  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...198 Filing of correspondence by âExpress Mail.â (a)(1) Except for documents...the Office that was delivered by the âExpress Mail Post Office to Addresseeâ service...the date of deposit with the USPS. The Express Mail procedure does not apply to:...

2013-07-01

460

The Utility of Electronic Mail Follow-Ups for Library Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of academic librarians determined that the use of e-mail in the follow-up stage of a library research project using mailed questionnaires was as effective as postal mail in speed and size of response. Discusses additional benefits (interpersonal communication, reduced time and costs) and drawbacks (time spent identifying messages…

Roselle, Ann; Neufeld, Steven

1998-01-01

461

Electronic Mail Systems. A Brief Description. One in a Series of Papers on Alaskan Telecommunications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes several electronic mail systems in use in Alaska. The University of Alaska Computer Network has had an electronic mail system since 1976 that connects its campuses throughout the state. The Department of Education also has had a mail system since the late 1970s that links the 53 school districts as well as the support and…

Klein, Jennifer

462

hr-law: Human Rights Law Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

hr-law is a mailing list for law students studying international human rights or humanitarian law, or who are just interested in the subject. The purpose of the list is to provide a forum where people can share information, experiences and ideas. Some of the appropriate topics for this list include: information on how to do research in the human rights area, and sharing of hints; exchanging help on papers or research projects; discussion of topics related to human rights law; and sharing information on employment, internship and volunteer opportunities.

463

Teledentistry: Distant Diagnosis of Oral Disease Using E-Mails  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of telediagnosis in oral medicine, through the transmission of clinical digital images by e-mail. Subjects and Methods: The sample included 60 consecutive patients who sought oral medicine services at the Federal University of Paraná, in the state of Paraná, located in southern Brazil. The clinical history and oral lesion images were recorded using clinical electronic charts and a digital camera, respectively, and sent by e-mail to two oral medicine consultants. The consultants provided a maximum of two clinical hypotheses for each case, which were compared with biopsy results that served as the gold standard. Results: In 31 of the 60 cases (51.7%), both consultants made the correct diagnosis; in 17 cases (28.3%), only one consultant made the correct diagnosis; and in 12 cases (20%), neither consultant made the correct diagnosis. Therefore, in 80% of cases, at least one consultant provided the correct diagnosis. The agreement between the first consultant and the gold standard was substantial (?=0.669), and the agreement between the second consultant and the gold standard was fair (?=0.574). Conclusions: The use of information technology can increase the accuracy of consultations in oral medicine. As expected, the participation of two remote experts increased the possibility of correct diagnosis.

Morosini, Imara de Almeida Castro; Possebon, Renata Seleme; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Leao, Jair Carneiro; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo

2013-01-01

464

Enhancing therapeutic impact and therapeutic alliance through electronic mail homework assignments.  

PubMed

Homework assignments can enhance therapeutic impact and increase therapy effectiveness by encouraging patients to focus on therapy-related issues between sessions. Computer technology provides a new avenue for reporting, monitoring, and feedback of patient homework assignments through electronic mail (e-mail). In two case examples, e-mail was used as an extension of therapy to enhance patient involvement in treatment. In both cases, patient reports suggest that therapeutic alliance and therapeutic impact improved with the use of e-mail homework reporting. The costs and benefits of the use of e-mail as an adjunct to therapy are discussed. PMID:11069136

Murdoch, J W; Connor-Greene, P A

2000-01-01

465

41 CFR 102-192.150 - What are your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager? 102-192.150 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Program Level Mail Responsibilities § 102-192.150 What...

2013-07-01

466

41 CFR 102-192.140 - What are your general responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What are your general responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager? 102-192.140 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Mail Center Manager Requirements § 102-192.140...

2010-07-01

467

41 CFR 102-192.125 - What is the appropriate managerial level for an agency mail manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What is the appropriate managerial level for an agency mail manager? 102-192.125 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Agency Mail Manager Requirements § 102-192.125 What...

2013-07-01

468

41 CFR 102-192.150 - What are your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager? 102-192.150 Section 102-192...MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Program Level Mail Responsibilities § 102-192.150 What...

2010-07-01

469

41 CFR 102-192.155 - What should our agency-wide mail management policy statement cover?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What should our agency-wide mail management policy statement cover? 102-192...REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Other Agency Responsibilities...102-192.155 What should our agency-wide mail management policy statement cover?...

2009-07-01

470

78 FR 39784 - International Product Change-Priority Mail International Regional Rate Boxes-Non-Published Rates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Product Change--Priority Mail International Regional Rate Boxes--Non-Published...Postal Regulatory Commission to add Priority Mail International[supreg] Regional Rate...Commission: (1) A request to add Priority Mail International Regional Rate...

2013-07-02

471

41 CFR 102-192.90 - What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA? 102-192...REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Reporting Requirements ...90 What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA? Your...

2009-07-01

472

41 CFR 102-192.175 - What types of support does GSA offer to Federal agency mail management programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...You may contact GSA at: General Services Administration, Office of Governmentwide Policy, Mail Management Policy Division (MTT), 1800 F Street, NW., STE 1221, Washington, DC 20405; or e-mail: federal.mail@gsa.gov...

2013-07-01

473

76 FR 2710 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...326] Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On-Site...workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering Quality...of Pitney Bowes, Inc., the Mailing Solutions Management Division, located in...

2011-01-14

474

76 FR 9702 - Shortpaid and Unpaid Information-Based Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage, Revised Proposal AGENCY...revenue protection procedures for shortpaid Express Mail[reg] postage. DATES: We must...Information-Based Indicia Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail[reg] Postage.'' Faxed...

2011-02-22

475

76 FR 39299 - Shortpaid and Unpaid Information-Based Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage AGENCY: Postal Service TM...revenue protection procedures for shortpaid Express Mail[supreg] postage. DATES: Effective...Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage, Revised Proposal (76...

2011-07-06

476

Mailing strategies and recruitment into an intervention trial of the exercise effect on breast cancer biomarkers. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

In a pilot study, the authors compared mail-based recruitment methods for a breast cancer intervention trial. There was no significant difference in numbers of responses to recruitment strategies using bulk mail and first-class mail; the cost of randomizing women reached via first-class mail was higher than for those reached via bulk mail. There was no significant difference in responses from women who received or did not receive an introductory letter with the mailing.

477

Automobile Stopping Distances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)

Logue, L. J.

1979-01-01

478

Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high performance technologies. An all Pentium PC network ported to Novell/Ethernet and ATM/SONET (Asynchronous ...

C. Viren

1996-01-01

479

Orthogonal Distance Regression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orthogonal Distance Regression (ODR) is the name given to the computational problem associated with finding the maximum likelihood estimators of measurement error models in the case of normally distributed errors. The authors examine the stable and effici...

P. T. Boggs J. R. Donaldson

1989-01-01

480

Teaching for Learning...at a Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three typical scenarios in which distance education (DE) is used. Defines elements of DE and provides a rationale for its implementation. Discusses important trends in DE related to technology (i.e., advances in signal transporting and communication systems) and to pedagogy and andragogy (i.e., instructional design and planning for…

Major, Howard

1995-01-01

481

Adapting Courses to Distance Delivery: Three Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three approaches to adapting courses to distance delivery: the most common "dive-in" technique (little preparation other than adapting print on transparencies, practicing with technology controls, and test-running); the "chunking" approach (considering how the major "chunks" of teaching can be transported to new technologies); and the…

Landis, Melodee

1999-01-01

482

Bayesian Graph Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel framework for comparing and matching corrupted relational graphs. The paper develops the idea of edit-distance originally introduced for graph-matching by Sanfeliu and Fu (1). We show how the Levenshtein distance can be used to model the probability distribution for structural errors in the graph-matching problem. This probability distribution is used to locate matches using MAP

Richard Myers; Richard C. Wilson; Edwin R. Hancock

2000-01-01

483

Bayesian Graph Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractDThis paper describes a novel framework for comparing and matching corrupted relational graphs. The paper develops the idea of edit-distance originally introduced for graph-matching by Sanfeliu and Fu [1]. We show how the Levenshtein distance can be used to model the probability distribution for structural errors in the graph-matching problem. This probability distribution is used to locate matches using MAP

Richard Myers; Richard C. Wilson; Edwin R. Hancock

1999-01-01

484

Benefit and Distance Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the relationship between R. W. Shephard's input distance function (“Cost and Production Functions,” Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1953) and D. G. Luenberger's benefit function (J. Math. Econ.21(1992a), 461–481). We point out that the latter can be recognized in a production context as a directional input distance function which can exhaustively characterize technologies in both price and input space.

Robert G. Chambers; Yangho Chung

1996-01-01

485

Educational Satellite Loan Guarantee Program Act, and Distance Learning. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate. One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing focused on the role of technology in promoting distance learning in the United States. Distance learning programs make educational resources available to citizens, regardless of socioeconomic status or geographic location, and enable citizens to remain…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

486

Keeping One's Distance  

PubMed Central

Current conceptualizations of psychological distance (e.g., construal-level theory) refer to the degree of overlap between the self and some other person, place, or point in time. We propose a complementary view in which perceptual and motor representations of physical distance influence people’s thoughts and feelings without reference to the self, extending research and theory on the effects of distance into domains where construal-level theory is silent. Across four experiments, participants were primed with either spatial closeness or spatial distance by plotting an assigned set of points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment (Study 1), less emotional distress from violent media (Study 2), lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food (Study 3), and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns (Study 4). These results support a broader conceptualization of distance-mediated effects on judgment and affect.

Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.

2008-01-01

487

Supervised distance matrices.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel statistical concept, called a supervised distance matrix, which quantifies pairwise similarity between variables in terms of their association with an outcome. Supervised distance matrices are derived in two stages. First, the observed data is transformed based on particular working models for association. Examples of transformations include residuals or influence curves from regression models. In the second stage, a choice of distance measure is used to compute all pairwise distances between variables in the transformed data. We present consistent estimators of the resulting distance matrix, including an inverse probability of censoring weighted estimator for use with right-censored outcomes. Supervised distance matrices can be used with standard (unsupervised) clustering algorithms to identify groups of similarly predictive variables and to discover subpopulations of related samples. This approach is illustrated using simulations and an analysis of gene expression data with a censored survival outcome. The proposed methods are widely applicable in genomics and other fields where high-dimensional data is collected on each subject. PMID:19049489

Pollard, Katherine S; van der Laan, Mark J

2008-01-01

488

A Detection Method of FAQ Matching Inquiry E-mails by Automatic Generation of Characteristic Word Groups from Past Inquiry E-mails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how to detect the inquiry e-mails corresponding to pre-defined FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions). Web-based interactions such as order and registration form on a Web page are usually provided with their FAQ pages for helping a user. However, most users submit their inquiry e-mails without checking such pages. This causes a help desk operator to process lots of e-mails even if some contents match FAQs. Automatic detecting of such e-mails is proposed based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) and specific Jaccard coefficient based on positive and negative already-received inquiry e-mails. Experimental results show its effectiveness, and we also discuss future work to improve our method.

Sakumichi, Yuki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Samejima, Masaki; Oka, Hironori

489

Computer-Mediated Communication in Distance MA Programmes: The Student's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of computer-mediated communication within the context of a distance MA in TEFL programme which used an e-mail discussion list and then a discussion board. The study focused on the computer/Internet access and skills of the target population and their CMC needs and wants. Data were collected from 63 questionnaires and…

Paran, Amos; Furneaux, Clare; Sumner, Neal

2004-01-01

490

Transforming Educational and Business Practices in Belarus: Collaborative Learning at a Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Bryant College Collaborative Learning at a Distance (CLD) program in Belarus. Program components include Web-based courses, international virtual roundtable discussions via e-mail, seminars on business skills and Web design, Internet protocol video conferencing between the United States and Belarus, a faculty exchange and training…

Langlois, Gaytha A.; Litoff, Judy Barrett; Ilacqua, Joseph A.

2003-01-01

491

Impact of Information Technologies on Faculty and Students in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of distance education technologies received responses from 81 business faculty and 153 students, who indicated that e-mail, Internet lectures/assignments, and discussion groups were most frequently used. There were few differences between teachers and students. A technology's frequent usage and positive impact on productivity did not…

Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila

2003-01-01

492

The Effects of Cultural Distance, Free Trade Agreements, and Protectionism on Perceived Export Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the questions as to whether cultural distance and a free trade agreement with a trade bloc, as well as protectionism, have an impact on perceived external export barriers. The evaluation of a mail survey of chief executive officers from 459 Norwegian companies shows that protectionism has a strong significant effect on the level of perceived external export

Tor Korneliussen; Jörg Blasius

2008-01-01

493

Distance Learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the newest methods of distance learning (DL) use the Internet and the World Wide Web. DL on the Internet usually takes one of the following forms: electronic mail; bulletin boards/newsgroups; downloading of course materials or tutorials; interactive tutorials on the Web; real-time, interactive conferencing; "intranets" (internal,…

Kerka, Sandra

494

USDA Economics and Statistics System Reports: Electronic Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Economics and Statistics System Reports are now available automatically via email. The electronic mailing list provides quick and timely access to the agricultural and economic estimates that are available in the reports section of the Economics and Statistics System. You will receive the reports of your choice within three hours of their publication via email. (Note that delivery time may take longer depending on factors, such as network speed and congestion.) The reports are posted on the gopher server and sent to the subscribers simultaneously. Subscribe to as many reports as you wish. To request a USDA Reports catalog with detailed information on reports, including a short description, publication frequency, and publication date/time for 1995, send email to: usda-reports@usda.mannlib.cornell.edu in the body of the message type: send catalog

1998-01-01

495

CMARGIN Notes: Mailing list for K-12 teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every weekday, CMARGIN Notes provides K-12 teachers with a wrap-up of the previous day's most educationally significant news stories. Each issue of this free email newsletter contains summaries of about a dozen articles in ten content-specific categories. Using a Web browser with an integrated mail feature (like Netscape Navigator 2.0 or 3.0 or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0), subscribers can jump directly to the full-text versions of articles that interest them. An online archive allows subscribers and nonsubscribers alike to view back issues. (Note: CMARGIN Notes is part of a comprehensive site for K-12 teachers called CMARGIN.) To subscribe, fill out the web form at: http://www.cmargin.com/subscribe.html

496

Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (<0.02 ng/g). Concentrations of Hg in stream water varied from 1.2 to 320 ng/L, all of which were below the 1,000 ng/L Italian drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline recommended to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream water varied from <0.02 to 0.53 ng/L and were generally elevated compared to the baseline site (<0.02 ng/L). All stream water samples contained concentrations of As (<1.0–6.2 ?g/L) and Sb (<0.20–0.37 ?g/L) below international drinking water guidelines to protect human health (10 ?g/L for As and 20 ?g/L for Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 ?g/L for As and 5.6 ?g/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 ?g/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 ?g/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 ?g/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 ?g/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

2014-01-01

497

E-mail netiquette for the medical practice employee: 50 do's and don'ts.  

PubMed

E-mail has at one and the same time become a primary communication tool for many medical practice employees and a source of untold frustration, misunderstandings, and stress. This article provides a total of 50 rules (25 do's and 25 don'ts) for e-mail netiquette to help medical practice employees use e-mail more effectively. It offers suggestions about the optimal format of e-mails, tips for writing concise e-mail texts, and guidance about the most pressing e-mail privacy and confidentiality concerns. Medical practice employees can use the practical tips presented in this article to help them save time and use their medical practices' e-mail system more productively and effectively. This article also offers suggestions for creating and using a medical practice e-mail disclaimer statement. It describes the six legal threats a disclaimer statement can prevent and the typical content for such disclaimers. Finally, this article includes guidance about creating and implementing a medical practice e-mail policy and provides an outline of typical e-mail policy content. PMID:22111286

Hills, Laura

2011-01-01

498

The DDO IVC Distance Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first set of distance limits from the David Dunlap Observatory Intermediate Velocity Cloud (DDO IVC) distance project. Such distance measures are crucial to understanding the origins and dynamics of IVCs, as the distances set most of the basic physical parameters for the clouds. Currently there are very few IVCs with reliably known distances. This paper describes in

Michael D. Gladders; Tracy E. Clarke; Christopher R. Burns; Allen Attard; Michael P. Casey; Devon Hamilton; Gabriela Mallen-Ornelas; Jennifer L. Karr; Sara M. Poirier; Marcin Sawicki; Felipe Barrientos; Wayne Barkhouse; Mark Brodwin; Jason Clark; Rosemary McNaughton; Marcelo Ruetalo-Pacheco; Stefan W. Mochnacki

1998-01-01

499

Stereoscopic distance perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

Foley, John M.

1989-01-01

500

Cosmic Distance Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site was developed by Maggie Masetti to demonstrate astronomical distances and help users grasp the size our universe. Starting at Earth, users simply select the Zoom Out link to see continuously larger areas of our universe until they reach The Farthest Visible Reaches of Space. At each stop, visitors can click on the Tell Me About ___! link to receive information about the particular object such as its importance, its distance, and the time it would take to travel to the object. Teachers and students will find this site both incredibly easy to navigate and very educational.

Masetti, Maggie.