These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation...free of charge, on a voluntary space-available...

2011-01-01

2

14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation...free of charge, on a voluntary space-available...

2012-01-01

3

14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation...free of charge, on a voluntary space-available...

2014-01-01

4

14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation...free of charge, on a voluntary space-available...

2013-01-01

5

14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation...free of charge, on a voluntary space-available...

2010-01-01

6

Magnetic transport of trapped cold atoms over a large distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the transport of magnetically trapped cold atoms over a large distance. Atoms are captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and loaded into a magnetic quadrupole trap. The quadrupole potential is then moved over a distance of 33 cm into an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) chamber using a chain of quadrupole coils. By running suitable currents through the quadrupole coil pairs

Markus Greiner; Immanuel Bloch; Theodor W. Hänsch; Tilman Esslinger

2001-01-01

7

Image Inpainting Based On Coherence Transport With Adapted Distance Functions  

E-print Network

We discuss an extension of our method Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Up till now, to induce the serialization we have used the distance to boundary map. But there are inpainting problems where the distance to boundary serialization causes unsatisfactory inpainting results. In the present work we demonstrate cases where we can resolve the difficulties by employing other distance functions which better suit the problem at hand.

März, Thomas

2010-01-01

8

ASSESSMENT OF MODEL SIMULATION OF LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of trajectory models and meteorological data bases to simulate long-distance transport of air pollutants is assessed by comparing trajectories of tetroons and tetroon grounding locations from several recent U.S. Environmental Protection field studies with diagnostic t...

9

ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

10

Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms plants use to transport metals from roots to shoots are not completely understood. It has long been proposed that organic molecules participate in metal translocation within the plant. However, until recently the identity of the complexes involved in the long-distance transport of metals could only be inferred by using indirect methods, such as analyzing separately the concentrations of metals and putative ligands and then using in silico chemical speciation software to predict metal species. Molecular biology approaches also have provided a breadth of information about putative metal ligands and metal complexes occurring in plant fluids. The new advances in analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry and the increased use of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy have allowed for the identification of some metal-ligand species in plant fluids such as the xylem and phloem saps. Also, some proteins present in plant fluids can bind metals and a few studies have explored this possibility. This study reviews the analytical challenges researchers have to face to understand long-distance metal transport in plants as well as the recent advances in the identification of the ligand and metal-ligand complexes in plant fluids. PMID:24723928

Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadía, Anunciación; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Abadía, Javier

2014-01-01

11

Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river.  

PubMed

Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system. PMID:24523940

Deiner, Kristy; Altermatt, Florian

2014-01-01

12

Transport Distance of Invertebrate Environmental DNA in a Natural River  

PubMed Central

Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system. PMID:24523940

Deiner, Kristy; Altermatt, Florian

2014-01-01

13

Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants  

SciTech Connect

The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

2014-07-01

14

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

15

Polar auxin transport in relation to long-distance transport of nutrients in the Charales.  

PubMed

This paper examines the significance of the recent demonstration of polar auxin transport (PAT) in the green macroalga Chara (Charophyceae: Charales) and, especially, options for explaining some features of PAT in the Charales. The occurrence of PAT in the Charales shows that PAT originated in the algal ancestors of the embryophytes (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, and vascular plants), although it is not yet known if PAT occurs elsewhere in the Charophyceae or in other algae. While in the embryophytes PAT occurs in parenchymatously constructed structures which commonly also have xylem and phloem (or their bryophyte analogues) as long-distance transport processes in parallel to PAT, in Chara corallina PAT shares the pathway for long-distance transport of nutrients though the parenchymatously constructed nodal complexes and the single giant cells of the internode. The speed of auxin movement of PAT is much more rapid than that attributable to diffusion and of the same order as the rate of cytoplasmic streaming in the giant internodal cells, yet complete inhibition of streaming by the inhibitor cytochalasin H does not slow down auxin transport. Explanations for this phenomenon are sought in the operation of other mechanochemical motors, dynein-tubulin and kinesin-tubulin, as alternatives to the myosin-actin system which powers cytoplasmic streaming. Experiments in which microtubules are disrupted, for example by colchicine, could show if one of the tubulin-based motors is involved. If these motors are involved, some mechanism is needed to amplify the speeds known for the motors to explain the order of magnitude higher speeds seen for auxin transport. PMID:23264638

Raven, John A

2013-01-01

16

Determining cutoff distances for assessing risks from transportation accident radiation releases  

SciTech Connect

The transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States and the world is a ubiquitous and sometimes controversial activity. Almost universally, these transportation activities have been performed without major incident, and the safety record for transportation of radioactive material is outstanding compared with the transportation of other hazardous materials. Nevertheless, concerns still exist regarding adequate regulation of radioactive material transportation and accurate assessment of the health risks associated with accidents. These concerns are addressed through certification by the cognizant regulatory authority over the transportation container or the performance of a transportation risk assessment. In a transportation risk assessment, accident situations are examined, frequencies are estimated, and consequences resulting from the accident are analyzed and evaluated for acceptance. A universal question with any transportation risk assessment that examines the radiological consequences from release accidents is, At what distance may the dispersion analysis be terminated? This paper examines cutoff distances and their consequences for assessing health risks from radiological transportation releases.

Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kimura, C.Y.; Brumburgh, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-12-31

17

Analytical solution for one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent coefficients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mathematical models describing contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media are often formulated as an advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent transport coefficients. In this work, a general analytical solution is presented for the linear, one-dimensional advection-di...

18

Interplay between Velocity and Travel Distance of Kinesin-based Transport in the Presence of Tau  

E-print Network

Interplay between Velocity and Travel Distance of Kinesin-based Transport in the Presence of Tau-relevant microtubule-associated protein tau is known to severely inhibit kinesin-based transport in vitro the presence of tau, via decreased single-kinesin velocity. Interestingly, the presence of tau also modestly

Xu, Jing

19

Fresh Product Supply Chain Coordination under CIF Business Model with Long Distance Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the optimization and coordination of a fresh product supply chain under the CIF (Cost Insurance and Freight) business model with an uncertain long distance transportation. The following system is considered: A producer transports a certain amount of fresh products to a distant wholesale market, at which he sells them to a distributor. Because of the uncertain

Yong-bo XIAO; Jian CHEN; Xiao-lin XU

2008-01-01

20

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

21

Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire  

E-print Network

Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire in the Swiss Alps Á Abstract: The correct interpretation of charcoal records in a palaeoecological context requires the understanding of the sources and transport of charcoal particles. Conventionally, it is assumed that macroscopic

Richner, Heinz

22

Long-distance quantum transport dynamics in macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using renormalization group methods, we develop a rigorous coarse-grained representation of the dissipative dynamics of quantum excitations propagating inside open macromolecular systems. We show that, at very low spatial resolution, this quantum transport theory reduces to a modified Brownian process, in which quantum delocalization effects are accounted for by means of an effective term in the Onsager-Machlup functional. Using this formulation, we derive a simple analytic solution for the time-dependent probability of observing the quantum excitation at a given point in the macromolecule. This formula can be used to predict the migration of natural or charged quantum excitations in a variety of molecular systems, including biological and organic polymers, organic crystalline transistors, or photosynthetic complexes. For illustration purposes, we apply this method to investigate inelastic electronic hole transport in a long homo-DNA chain.

Schneider, E.; Faccioli, P.

2014-04-01

23

Long-Distance Phloem Transport of Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites found mainly in the order Capparales, which includes a large number of economically important Brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis. In the present study, several lines of evidence are provided for phloem transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis. When radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzyl- glucosinolate (p-OHBG) and sucrose were co-applied to the tip of

Sixue Chen; Bent Larsen Petersen; Carl Erik Olsen; Alexander Schulz; Barbara Ann Halkier

2001-01-01

24

Long-distance transport of signals during symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Legumes enter nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), whereas most flowering plants establish symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Once first steps of symbiosis are initiated, nodule formation and mycorrhization in legumes is negatively controlled by a shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI), a phenomenon termed autoregulation. According to current views, autoregulation of nodulation and mycorrhization in legumes is regulated in a similar way. CLE peptides induced in response to rhizobial nodulation signals (Nod factors) have been proposed to represent the ascending long-distance signals to the shoot. Although not proven yet, these CLE peptides are likely perceived by leucine-rich repeat (LRR) autoregulation receptor kinases in the shoot. Autoregulation of mycorrhization in non-legumes is reminiscent to the phenomenon of “systemic acquired resistance” in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:21455020

Xie, Zhi-Ping; Illana, Antonio

2011-01-01

25

Contractivity of Transport Distances for the Kinetic Kuramoto Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present synchronization and contractivity estimates for the kinetic Kuramoto model obtained from the Kuramoto phase model in the mean-field limit. For identical Kuramoto oscillators, we present an admissible class of initial data leading to time-asymptotic complete synchronization, that is, all measure valued solutions converge to the traveling Dirac measure concentrated on the initial averaged phase. In the case of non-identical oscillators, we show that the velocity field converges to the average natural frequency proving that the oscillators move asymptotically with the same frequency under suitable assumptions on the initial configuration. If two initial Radon measures have the same natural frequency density function and strength of coupling, we show that the Wasserstein -distance between corresponding measure valued solutions is exponentially decreasing in time. This contraction principle is more general than previous -contraction properties of the Kuramoto phase model.

Carrillo, José A.; Choi, Young-Pil; Ha, Seung-Yeal; Kang, Moon-Jin; Kim, Yongduck

2014-07-01

26

Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

2014-03-01

27

A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

2011-10-01

28

Improved chromosome classification using monotonic functions of mahalanobis distance and the transportation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the accuracy of chromosome classification constrained by class size can be improved over previously reported results by a combination of straightforward modifications to previously used methods. These are (i) the use of the logarithm of the Mahalanobis distance of an unknown chromosome's feature vector to estimated class mean vectors as the basis of the transportation method

Peter Kleinschmidt; Ilse Mitterreiter; Jim Piper

1994-01-01

29

Viral Regulation of the Long Distance Axonal Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Nucleocapsid  

PubMed Central

Many membranous organelles and protein complexes are normally transported anterograde within axons to the presynaptic terminal, and details of the motors, adaptors and cargoes have received significant attention. Much less is known about the transport in neurons of non-membrane bound particles, such as mRNAs and their associated proteins. We propose that Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV) can be used to study the detailed mechanisms regulating long distance transport of particles in axons. A critical step in the transmission of HSV from one infected neuron to the next is the polarized anterograde axonal transport of viral DNA from the host infected nerve cell body to the axon terminal. Using the in vivo mouse retinal ganglion cell model infected with wild type virus or a mutant strain that lacks the protein Us9, we found that Us9 protein was necessary for long distance anterograde axonal transport of viral nucleocapsid (DNA surrounded by capsid proteins), but unnecessary for transport of virus envelope. Thus, we conclude that nucleocapsid can be transported independently down axons via a Us9-dependent mechanism. PMID:17382478

LaVail, Jennifer H.; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Sucher, Anatol; Harrabi, Ons; Brandimarti, Renato

2007-01-01

30

Distance, transportation cost, and mode of transport in the utilization of facility-based maternity services: evidence from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Although the maternal mortality ratio in Bangladesh has decreased, significant underutilization of facilities continues to be a persistent challenge to policy makers. Women face long distances and significant transportation cost to deliver at health facilities. This study identifies the distance traveled to utilize facilities, associated transportation cost, and transport mode used for maternal healthcare services. A total of 3,300 mothers aged 18-49 years, who had given birth in the year before the survey, were interviewed from 22 sub-districts in 2010. Findings suggest that facility-based maternal healthcare service utilization was very poor. Only 53% of women received antenatal care, 20% used delivery care. and 10% used postnatal care from health centers. Median distance traveled for antenatal and postnatal check-ups was 2 kilometers but 4 kilometers for complication management care and delivery. Most women used non-motorized rickshaw or van to reach a health facility. On average, women spent Taka 100 (US$1.40) as transportation cost for antenatal care, Taka 432 (US$6.17) for delivery, and Taka 132 (US$1.89) for postnatal check-up. For each additional kilometer, the cost increased by Taka 9 (US$0.13) for antenatal, Taka 31 (US$0.44) for delivery, and Taka 8 (US$0.11) for postnatal care. PMID:25416431

Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bajracharya, Ashish; Bellows, Benjamin

2014-01-01

31

Spatial pattern of long-distance symplasmic transport and communication in trees  

PubMed Central

Symplasmic short- and long-distance communication may be regulated at different levels of plant body organization. It depends on cell-to-cell transport modulated by plasmodesmata conductivity and frequency but above all on morphogenetic fields that integrate a plant at the supracellular level. Their control of physiological and developmental processes is especially important in trees, where the continuum consists of 3-dimensional systems of: 1) stem cells in cambium, and 2) living parenchyma cells in the secondary conductive tissues. We found that long-distance symplasmic transport in trees is spatially regulated. Uneven distribution of fluorescent tracer in cambial cells along the branches examined illustrates an unknown intrinsic phenomenon that can possibly be important for plant organism integration. Here we illustrate the spatial dynamics of symplasmic transport in cambium, test and exclude the role of callose in its regulation, and discuss the mechanism that could possibly be responsible for the maintenance of this spatial pattern. PMID:23989002

Soko?owska, Katarzyna; Brysz, Alicja Maria; Zagórska-Marek, Beata

2013-01-01

32

The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

1922-01-01

33

Regional intensive care transports: a prospective analysis of distance, time and cost for road, helicopter and fixed-wing ambulances  

PubMed Central

Background There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this. Methods We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system. Results Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles). Conclusions In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems. PMID:24902480

2014-01-01

34

Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals commonly found in most terrestrial sedimentary deposits, basaltic sediments are composed of varying amounts of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, and vitric and lithic fragments. One of the few locations on Earth containing such material is the Ka'u Desert of Hawaii. This area is unique in that both eolian and fluvial sediment pathways occur in the same area, thus allowing a direct comparison of particles transported by different processes over identical distances (~20 km). We are currently documenting the physical and chemical changes that take place in basaltic sediments as they are transported by wind and water over increasing distances. This will result in an improvement in our understanding of traditional sedimentological concepts when applying them to Martian surface materials. Process: The Ka'u Desert is ~350 km2 and contains the largest basaltic dune fields on Earth. We have identified several different dune types located in various parts of the desert, including climbing and falling dunes, sand sheets, parabolic dunes (that were initially barchans), and crescentic dunes. Fluvial sediments occur as floodout deposits where ephemeral streams go from confined to unconfined flow outside the continuous Keanakako'i Formation [7]. There are also a number of sand bottom streams and playas that occur along a series of channels that extend from the Keanakako'i Formation ~20 km to the sea. We have collected samples from dunes and fluvial deposits at various locations in the Ka'u Desert, at varying distances from sources and subject to different environmental processes. In the lab, we have begun to use optical and scanning electron microscopic images to assess how grain size, shape, and angularity of individual particles change with increasing transport distances. We are also conducting point counts of particles contained within each sample to better understand how olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and lithic and vitric fragments weather with increasing transport distances. Selected samples are being analyzed for changes in chemistry. T

Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

2012-04-01

35

Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration, tolerance, and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic.  

PubMed

Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential metals, at high concentrations, and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification of transporters that sequester cadmium and arsenic in vacuoles and the mechanisms mediating the partitioning of these metal(loid)s between roots and shoots. We further discuss recent models of phloem-mediated long-distance transport, seed accumulation of Cd and As and recent data demonstrating that plants posses a defined transcriptional response that allow plants to preserve metal homeostasis. This research is instrumental for future engineering of reduced toxic metal(loid) accumulation in edible crop tissues as well as for improved phytoremediation technologies. PMID:21820943

Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Jobe, Timothy O; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I

2011-10-01

36

Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic  

PubMed Central

Summary Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification of transporters that sequester cadmium and arsenic in vacuoles and the mechanisms mediating the partitioning of these metal(loid)s between roots and shoots. We further discuss recent models of phloem-mediated long-distance transport, seed accumulation of Cd and As and recent data demonstrating that plants posses a defined transcriptional response that allow plants to preserve metal homeostasis. This research is instrumental for future engineering of reduced toxic metal(loid) accumulation in edible crop tissues as well as for improved phytoremediation technologies. PMID:21820943

Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I.

2011-01-01

37

Long-distance root-to-shoot transport of phytochelatins and cadmium in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) mediate cellular heavy-metal resistance in plants, fungi, and worms. However, phytochelatins (PCs) are generally considered to function as intracellular heavy-metal detoxification mechanisms, and whether long-distance transport of PCs occurs during heavy-metal detoxification remains unknown. Here, wheat TaPCS1 cDNA expression was either targeted to Arabidopsis roots with the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter (Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3) or ectopically expressed with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::TaPCS1/cad1-3) in the PC-deficient mutant cad1-3. Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3 and 35S::TaPCS1/cad1-3 complemented the cadmium, mercury, and arsenic sensitivities of the cad1-3 mutant. Northern blot, RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses showed Adh promoter-driven TaPCS1 expression only in roots and thus demonstrated lack of long-distance TaPCS1 mRNA and protein transport in plants. Fluorescence HPLC analyses showed that under Cd2+ stress, no PCs were detectable in cad1-3. However, in Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants, PCs were detected in roots and in rosette leaves and stems. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses showed that either root-specific or ectopic expression of TaPCS1 significantly enhanced long-distance Cd2+ transport into stems and rosette leaves. Unexpectedly, transgenic expression of TaPCS1 reduced Cd2+ accumulation in roots compared with cad1-3. The reduced Cd2+ accumulation in roots and enhanced root-to-shoot Cd2+ transport in transgenic plants were abrogated by l-buthionine sulfoximine. The presented findings show that (i) transgenic expression of TaPCS1 suppresses the heavy-metal sensitivity of cad1-3, (ii) PCs can be transported from roots to shoots, and (iii) transgenic expression of the TaPCS1 gene increases long-distance root-to-shoot Cd2+ transport and reduces Cd2+ accumulation in roots. PMID:12909714

Gong, Ji-Ming; Lee, David A.; Schroeder, Julian I.

2003-01-01

38

Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

2013-12-01

39

The geochemical fingerprint of microbial long-distance electron transport in the seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a novel “electrogenic” type of sulfur oxidation has been documented in marine sediments, whereby long filamentous cable bacteria are generating electrical currents over centimeter-scale distances. Here we propose a numerical model description that is capable of quantitatively simulating the solute depth profiles and biogeochemical transformations in such electro-active marine sediments. The model is based on a conventional reactive transport description of marine sediments, which is extended with a new model formulation for the long-distance electron transport induced by the cable bacteria. The mechanism of electron hopping is implemented to describe the electron transport along the longitudinal axis of the microbial filaments. We demonstrate that this model is capable of reproducing the observed geochemical fingerprint of electrogenic sulfur oxidation, which consists of a characteristic set of O2, pH and H2S depth profiles. Our simulation results suggest that the cable bacteria must have a high affinity for both oxygen and sulfide, and that intensive cryptic sulfur cycling takes place within the suboxic zone. A sensitivity analysis shows how electrogenic sulfur oxidation strongly impacts the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, iron, carbon and calcium in marine sediments.

Meysman, Filip J. R.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Nielsen, Lars Peter

2015-03-01

40

A class of compartmental models for long-distance tracer transport in plants.  

PubMed

Studies of long-distance tracer transport in plants result in spatio-temporal data sets. Compartmental tracer transport models can be used to quantitatively characterize or compare such data sets derived from different experiments. Depending on the specific experimental situation it might be necessary to apply different models. Here, we present a general class of compartmental tracer transport models which allows a systematic comparison of different models regarding the quality of fitting to the experimental data. This model class is defined by a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) for an arbitrary number of parallel compartments with individual transport velocities and numerous lateral exchange connections. A large number of model instances with adjustable complexity can be derived from this model class by permitting only certain model parameters such as flux velocities or exchange rates between compartments to be non-zero. Since some of these models are either inconsistent or redundant we designed a model filter using combinatory rules in order to keep only valid and unique models. A numerical solver for the PDEs was implemented using finite volumes and a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme. Several candidate models were fitted to experimental data using a Monte Carlo multi-start strategy to approximate the global optimum within a certain parameter space. Analysis of exemplary tracer transport experiments on sugar beet, radish and maize root resulted in different best models depending on the respective data and the required fit quality. PMID:24076452

Bühler, Jonas; von Lieres, Eric; Huber, Gregor

2014-01-21

41

[Intensive care within the context of military long-distance transport].  

PubMed

Due to the changed task spectrum of the German Federal Armed Forces with participation in international deployments for UN and NATO the concept of Aeromedical Evacuation (MedEvac) gained a new quality for the Air Force as well as for the Medical Corps. The transport of mostly severely injured or critically ill patients requires both, medical equipment which has to be permanently adapted to the national standard, and qualified intensive-care-personnel. At present, the aircrafts used for such deployments are four C-160 Transall, one CL-601 Challenger and two Airbus A310, which, if necessary, can be equipped with one or more intensive-care "patient transportation units" (PTU). Contrary to the two other aircrafts, the CL-601 Challenger is only equipped for the intensive-care transport of one individual patient. The PTU corresponds to the technical equipment of the intensive care unit of a level-1-trauma centre and ensures an intensive-care therapy on highest level also during longer transportation. The work with this equipment, the characteristics of the long-distance air transport and the special situation of the military deployment causes special demands on the qualifications of the assigned personnel. Primarily planned for the repatriation of injured or ill soldiers, in the mean time, this concept is also essential for the medevac of civilian victims after mass casualties worldwide. PMID:15156416

Hossfeld, B; Rohowsky, B; Rödig, E; Lampl, L

2004-05-01

42

Influence of water chemistry and travel distance on bacteriophage PRD-1 transport in a sandy aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of groundwater chemistry and travel distance on the transport and fate behavior of PRD-1, a bacteriophage employed as a surrogate tracer for pathogenic enteric viruses. The experiments were conducted in the unconfined aquifer at the United States Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic-Substances Hydrology Research Site in Falmouth, Massachusetts. The transport behavior of bromide (Br-) and PRD-1 were evaluated in a sewage-effluent contaminated zone and a shallower uncontaminated zone at this site. Several multilevel sampling devices located along a 13-m transect were used to collect vertically discrete samples to examine longitudinal and vertical variability of PRD-1 retardation and attenuation. The concentration of viable bacteriophage in the aqueous phase decreased greatly during the first few meters of transport. This decrease is attributed to a combination of colloid filtration (attachment) and inactivation. The removal was greater (10 -12 relative recovery) and occurred within the first meter for the uncontaminated zone, whereas it was lesser (10-9 relative recovery) and occurred over 4 m in the contaminated zone. The lesser removal observed for the contaminated zone is attributed to the influence of sorbed and dissolved organic matter, phosphate, and other anions, which are present in higher concentrations in the contaminated zone, on PRD-1 attachment. After the initial decrease, the aqueous PRD-1 concentrations remained essentially constant in both zones for the remainder of the tests (total travel distances of 13 m), irrespective of variations in geochemical properties within and between the two zones. The viable, mobile PRD-1 particles traveled at nearly the rate of bromide, which was used as a non-reactive tracer. The results of this study indicate that a small fraction of viable virus particles may persist in the aqueous phase and travel significant distances in the subsurface environment. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Blanford, W.J.; Brusseau, M.L.; Yeh, T.-C.J.; Gerba, C.P.; Harvey, R.

2005-01-01

43

A Selfish Constraint Satisfaction Genetic Algorithms for Planning a Long-Distance Transportation Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To build a cooperative logistics network covering multiple enterprises, a planning method that can build a long-distance transportation network is required. Many strict constraints are imposed on this type of problem. To solve these strict-constraint problems, a selfish constraint satisfaction genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. In this GA, each gene of an individual satisfies only its constraint selfishly, disregarding the constraints of other genes in the same individuals. Moreover, a constraint pre-checking method is also applied to improve the GA convergence speed. The experimental result shows the proposed method can obtain an accurate solution in a practical response time.

Onoyama, Takashi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kubota, Sen; Tsuruta, Setuso; Komoda, Norihisa

44

Going the Distance? NRC's Response to the National Academy of Science's Transportation Study  

SciTech Connect

In February 2006, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the results of a 3 1/2-year study, titled Going the Distance, that examined the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) in the United States. NAS initiated this study to address what it perceived to be a national need for an independent, objective, and authoritative analysis of SNF and HLW transport in the United States. The study was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. This paper addresses some of the recommendations made in the NAS study related to the performance of SNF transportation casks in long duration fires, the use of full-scale package testing, and the need for an independent review of transportation security prior to the commencement of large scale shipping campaigns to an interim storage site or geologic repository. In conclusion: The NRC believes that the current regulations in 10 CFR Part 71 for the design of SNF and HLW transportation packages provide a very high level of protection to the public for very severe accidents and credible threat scenarios. As recommended by the NAS study, additional studies of accidents involving severe fires have been completed. These studies have confirmed that spent fuel casks would be expected to withstand very severe fires without the release of any fission products from the spent fuel. Additionally, changes in rail operating procedures such as the use of dedicated trains and prohibition on the co-location of SNF and flammable liquids in rail tunnels can further reduce the already low probability of severe rail accident fires involving SNF and HLW. (authors)

Easton, E.P.; Bajwa, C.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2008-07-01

45

Aggregates reduce transport distance of soil organic carbon: are our balances correct?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink for greenhouse gases, has been the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) whilst in-transit from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. Solving this controversy requires an improved understanding of the transport distance of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocity of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. Although settling velocity has already been included in some erosion models, it is often based on mineral particle size distribution. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than by mineral particle size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by SOC. In order to identify the effect of aggregation of source soil on the transport distance of eroded SOC, and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and temporary deposition, a rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam. Both the eroded sediments and undisturbed soils were fractionated into six different size classes using a settling tube apparatus according to their settling velocities: > 250, 125 to 250, 63 to 125, 32 to 63, 20 to 32 and < 20 ?m. Weight, SOC content and instantaneous respiration rates were measured for each of the six class fractions. Our results indicate that (1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-deposited down eroding hillslopes, rather than with fine particles likely transferred to water courses; (2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded SOC, and thus might contribute more CO2 to the atmosphere than current estimates which often ignore potential effects of aggregation; (3) preferential deposition of SOC-rich coarse aggregates potentially causes an increase of SOC remaining in the colluvial system and a reduction of SOC flux to the alluvial or aquatic system. These findings identify a potential error of overestimating net erosion-induced carbon sink effects, and thus add an additional factor to consider when improving our current understanding of SOC erosion and deposition on hillslopes.

Hu, Y.; Kuhn, N. J.

2014-11-01

46

Aggregates reduce transport distance of soil organic carbon: are our balances correct?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink for greenhouse gases, has been the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) whilst in-transit from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. Solving this controversy requires an improved understanding of the transport distance of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocity of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. Although settling velocity has already been included in some erosion models, it is often based on mineral particle size distribution. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than by mineral particle size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by SOC. In order to identify the effect of aggregation of source soil on the transport distance of eroded SOC, and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and temporary deposition, a rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam. Both the eroded sediments and undisturbed soil were fractionated into six different size classes using a settling tube apparatus according to their settling velocities. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates were measured for each of the six class fractions. Our results indicate that: (1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-deposited down eroding hillslopes, rather than with fine particles likely transferred to water courses; (2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded SOC, and thus might contribute more CO2 to the atmosphere than current estimates which often ignore potential effects of aggregation; (3) preferential deposition of SOC-rich coarse aggregates potentially causes an increase of SOC remaining in the colluvial system and a reduction of SOC flux to the alluvial or aquatic system. These findings identify a potential error of overestimating net erosion-induced carbon sink effects, and thus add an additional factor to consider when improving our current understanding of SOC erosion and deposition on hillslopes.

Hu, Y.; Kuhn, N. J.

2014-06-01

47

Cable bacteria associated with long-distance electron transport in New England salt marsh sediment.  

PubMed

Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae have been proposed as 'cable bacteria', which electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction in marine sediment and thereby create a centimetre-deep suboxic zone. We incubated New England salt marsh sediment and found long-distance electron transport across 6?mm and 16S rRNA genes identical to those of previously observed cable bacteria in Aarhus Bay sediment incubations. Cable bacteria density in sediment cores was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to the coastal, subtidal sediments with short-termed blooms of cable bacteria based on rapidly depleted iron sulfide pools, the salt marsh cable community was based on ongoing sulfate reduction and therefore probably more persistent. Previously observed seasonal correlation between Desulfobulbaceae dominance and extensive reduced sulfur oxidation in salt marshes suggest that cable bacteria at times may have an important role in situ. PMID:25224178

Larsen, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

2015-04-01

48

Mail Irradiation  

MedlinePLUS

Tobacco Smoke Mail Irradiation Food Irradiation Smoke Detectors Becoming Aware of Radiation Sources: Mail Irradiation In October, the deadly bacterium anthrax was found in mail sent to various news agencies, and to offices of the ...

49

Cope's Rule and the evolution of long-distance transport in vascular plants: allometric scaling, biomass partitioning and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in allometric theory have proposed a novel quantitative framework by which to view the evolu- tion of plant form and function. This general theory has placed strong emphasis on the importance of long-distance transport in shaping the evolution of many attributes of plant form and function. Specifically, it is hypothesized that with the evolutionary increase in plant size

B. J. ENQUIST

2003-01-01

50

Apparent Decreases in Colloid Deposition Rate Coefficients with Distance of Transport under Unfavorable Deposition Conditions: A General Phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

The transport of polystyrene microspheres of two different diameters (1.1-?m and 5.7-?m) was examined in packed glass beads (-?m) under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and flow conditions. Numerical models accounting for advection, dispersion, attachment, and limited detachment were capable of simulating the observed breakthrough-elution data, but were incapable of simulating the observed profile of numbers of attached microspheres versus distance from the column entrance, which was much steeper than expected based on a constant rate of attachment across the length of the column. The ubiquity of apparent decreases in attachment rate with distance of transport among microspheres, bacteria, and viruses leads to the conclusion that such effects reflect processes that are fundamental to filtration. Potential processes hypothesized to contribute to the apparent decrease in attachment rate with distance of transport include: distributed interaction potentials among the microsphere population; straining; and depletion of the colloid concentration in the pore water adjacent to grain surfaces. It is shown that all three mechanisms are viable contributors to apparent decreases in attachment rate with distance of transport, and that direct observations are needed to determine the conditions under which each of these potential contributors is relevant.

Li, Xiqing; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, William P.

2004-11-01

51

Ice transport directions and distances as a tool for ore exploration in glaciated regions - a compilation in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex information from SGU database has been used to evaluate ice transport directions and distances in Sweden. Till geochemistry, boulder counting and glacial striae have been applied to detect source rocks and mineralization in various regions of the country. The preliminary ice transport distances have been estimated in one region in middle Sweden (Bergslagen) and in two regions in northern Sweden (Västerbotten and Norbotten). Boulder dispersal trains have been recognized, classified based on lithology and morphology after which the maximum ice transport distance has been evaluated. In most areas the transport is short, up to 2-3 km. In Bergslagen, Cu-Zn and W mineralization can be traced in boulders from c. 300 m to c. 7 km. In Västerbotten, the transport distances range from 400 m to 3 km for sulphide mineralization. In Norbotten, a majority of known Ni mineralization can be detected in boulders located between 0.5 and 3 km. The source bedrock can be found based on outcrop record, ice direction indicators, presence of geophysical anomalies and glacial morphological landforms. The morphological information may, however, provide contradicting information when compared with independent ice direction indicators such as striae on the bedrock. During the latest glaciation an ice divide existed in northern Sweden which complicates the detection of source rocks. Till geochemistry provides information about local and regional anomalies, however quality of information depends on the methodology (e.g. sampling density) and the grid used, which sometimes is larger then the largest boulder train observed in the studied area. On the other hand, application of boulder trains can be difficult in areas with long transport distances. While boulder trains provide exact information about the mineralization, the till geochemistry carries uncertainty about exact ore type. Geochemical anomalies can be both very local or widely spread out, e.g. in southwestern Sweden (Falbygden) large Ni and As anomalies can be correlated with distribution of Cambro-Silurian gravel over the distance of 60 km, while in Västerbotten, geochemical anomalies for Cu and Zn are very small (up tp 3 km) and they often do not correlate with boulder trains. Knowledge of transport distances gained from this project provides additional complementary information mainly for mineral exploration.

Sohlenius, G. S.; Ladenberger, A.:L.; Lax, K. L.

2009-04-01

52

Bioinspired tilt-angle fabricated structure gradient fibers: micro-drops fast transport in a long-distance.  

PubMed

Issues of surfaces, e.g., inspired from beetle's back, spider silk, cactus stem, etc., become the active area of research on designing novel materials in need of human beings to acquire fresh water resource from air. However, the design of materials on surface structure is little achieved on controlling of micro-scale drop transport in a long distance. Here, we report the ability of micro-drop transport in a long distance on a bioinspired Fibers with Gradient Spindle-knots (BFGS), which are fabricated by tilt angle dip-coating method. The micro-drop of ~0.25??L transports in distance of ~5.00?mm, with velocity of 0.10-0.22?m s?¹ on BFGS. It is attributed to the multi-level cooperation of the release energy of drop coalescence along the gradient spindle-knots, in addition to capillary adhesion force and continuous difference of Laplace pressure, accordingly, water drops are driven to move fast directionally in a long distance on BFGS. PMID:24113433

Chen, Yuan; Wang, Lin; Xue, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

2013-01-01

53

Bioinspired tilt-angle fabricated structure gradient fibers: micro-drops fast transport in a long-distance  

PubMed Central

Issues of surfaces, e.g., inspired from beetle's back, spider silk, cactus stem, etc., become the active area of research on designing novel materials in need of human beings to acquire fresh water resource from air. However, the design of materials on surface structure is little achieved on controlling of micro-scale drop transport in a long distance. Here, we report the ability of micro-drop transport in a long distance on a bioinspired Fibers with Gradient Spindle-knots (BFGS), which are fabricated by tilt angle dip-coating method. The micro-drop of ~0.25??L transports in distance of ~5.00?mm, with velocity of 0.10–0.22?m s?1 on BFGS. It is attributed to the multi-level cooperation of the release energy of drop coalescence along the gradient spindle-knots, in addition to capillary adhesion force and continuous difference of Laplace pressure, accordingly, water drops are driven to move fast directionally in a long distance on BFGS. PMID:24113433

Chen, Yuan; Wang, Lin; Xue, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

2013-01-01

54

Bioinspired tilt-angle fabricated structure gradient fibers: micro-drops fast transport in a long-distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues of surfaces, e.g., inspired from beetle's back, spider silk, cactus stem, etc., become the active area of research on designing novel materials in need of human beings to acquire fresh water resource from air. However, the design of materials on surface structure is little achieved on controlling of micro-scale drop transport in a long distance. Here, we report the ability of micro-drop transport in a long distance on a bioinspired Fibers with Gradient Spindle-knots (BFGS), which are fabricated by tilt angle dip-coating method. The micro-drop of ~0.25 ?L transports in distance of ~5.00 mm, with velocity of 0.10-0.22 m s-1 on BFGS. It is attributed to the multi-level cooperation of the release energy of drop coalescence along the gradient spindle-knots, in addition to capillary adhesion force and continuous difference of Laplace pressure, accordingly, water drops are driven to move fast directionally in a long distance on BFGS.

Chen, Yuan; Wang, Lin; Xue, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

2013-10-01

55

Integration of Biosynthesis and Long-Distance Transport Establish Organ-Specific Glucosinolate Profiles in Vegetative Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Although it is essential for plant survival to synthesize and transport defense compounds, little is known about the coordination of these processes. Here, we investigate the above- and belowground source-sink relationship of the defense compounds glucosinolates in vegetative Arabidopsis thaliana. In vivo feeding experiments demonstrate that the glucosinolate transporters1 and 2 (GTR1 and GTR2), which are essential for accumulation of glucosinolates in seeds, are likely to also be involved in bidirectional distribution of glucosinolates between the roots and rosettes, indicating phloem and xylem as their transport pathways. Grafting of wild-type, biosynthetic, and transport mutants show that both the rosette and roots are able to synthesize aliphatic and indole glucosinolates. While rosettes constitute the major source and storage site for short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates, long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates are synthesized both in roots and rosettes with roots as the major storage site. Our grafting experiments thus indicate that in vegetative Arabidopsis, GTR1 and GTR2 are involved in bidirectional long-distance transport of aliphatic but not indole glucosinolates. Our data further suggest that the distinct rosette and root glucosinolate profiles in Arabidopsis are shaped by long-distance transport and spatially separated biosynthesis, suggesting that integration of these processes is critical for plant fitness in complex natural environments. PMID:23995084

Andersen, Tonni Grube; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Fuller, Victoria Louise; Olsen, Carl Erik; Burow, Meike; Halkier, Barbara Ann

2013-01-01

56

Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-? (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ?1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation. PMID:25720808

ENDO, Yoshiro; TSUCHIYA, Takeru; OMURA, Takaya; NAKAI, Kenji; KOROSUE, Kenji; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro; HOBO, Seiji

2014-01-01

57

Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-? (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10ml, IV, once; control group) ?1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 male, 8 female). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation. PMID:25354717

Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Omura, Takaya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Hobo, Seiji

2014-10-29

58

Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-? (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ?1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation. PMID:25720808

Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Omura, Takaya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Hobo, Seiji

2015-02-17

59

Victory Mail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Victory Mail (better known as V-mail) operated during WWII in order to expedite mail service for American armed forces overseas. Delivering such a large volume of mail posed a number of problems for the War Departments and the Post Office as they sought to reduce the bulk and weight of letters. Using the model of the British Airgraph Service, officials started microfilming messages for dispatch in order to eliminate much of the bulk. The Smithsonian's National Postal Museum has provided this site as a complement to an in situ exhibit in Washington D.C. The site provides several sections "Introducing V-mail", "Operating V-Mail", "Using V-Mail", "Letter writing in WWII", and "References". Each section provides an introduction, several related links to additional resources or articles, and a series of relevant images. For WWII or postal historians and enthusiasts this site should prove quite a treat.

60

Unselected mode alternatives: What drives modal choice in long-distance passenger transport?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the process of modal choice behaviour in long-distance travel is one of the main objectives of the INVERMO project. Based on the extensive survey data collected in the ongo- ing project we present a collection of initial results. Referring to respondents' answers about mode alternatives in long-distance journeys that were finally not chosen, we found that significant shares of

Jörg Last; Wilko Manz

61

Mail Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University at Buffalo Digital Collections (UBdigit) presents this collection of digitized mail art, "art sent through the post rather than displayed or sold through conventional commercial channels." Mail art is made using a variety of mediums including postcards, books, and images made by photocopier or rubber stamping, and postage stamps, and is often created by outsider artists. The works in the collection span the 1970s to the early 2000s, and range in variety from a small cardboard box filled with pieces of tissue paper, multi-colored cloth scraps and threads, cellophane, and dried flowers, sent by artist Ameila Etlinger; to Matteo Cagnola's booklet of rubber-stamp and photographic art, mailed from Italy in an envelope also decorated with stamping; to a rubber glove with a painting of a city skyline on one side and a tiger on the other, with Canadian postage stamps stapled on, and sent through the mail by artist Genevieve Garneau.

62

Transport Equation Based Wall Distance Computations Aimed at Flows With Time-Dependent Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson equations can be used for economical nearest wall distance computation and modification. Economical computations may be especially useful for aeroelastic and adaptive grid problems for which the grid deforms, and the nearest wall distance needs to be repeatedly computed. Modifications are directed at remedying turbulence model defects. For complex grid structures, implementation of the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches is not straightforward. This prohibits their use in industrial CFD solvers. However, both the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be written in advection and advection-diffusion forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson's Laplacian, are commonly occurring industrial CFD solver elements. Use of the NASA CFL3D code to solve the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations in advective-based forms is explored. The advection-based distance equations are found to have robust convergence. Geometries studied include single and two element airfoils, wing body and double delta configurations along with a complex electronics system. It is shown that for Eikonal accuracy, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is found effective and, since it does not require offset metric evaluations, easiest to implement. The sensitivity of flow solutions to wall distance assumptions is explored. Generally, results are not greatly affected by wall distance traits.

Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

2003-01-01

63

Transport Equation Based Wall Distance Computations Aimed at Flows With Time-Dependent Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson equations can be used for economical nearest wall distance computation and modification. Economical computations may be especially useful for aeroelastic and adaptive grid problems for which the grid deforms, and the nearest wall distance needs to be repeatedly computed. Modifications are directed at remedying turbulence model defects. For complex grid structures, implementation of the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches is not straightforward. This prohibits their use in industrial CFD solvers. However, both the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be written in advection and advection-diffusion forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson s Laplacian, are commonly occurring industrial CFD solver elements. Use of the NASA CFL3D code to solve the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations in advective-based forms is explored. The advection-based distance equations are found to have robust convergence. Geometries studied include single and two element airfoils, wing body and double delta configurations along with a complex electronics system. It is shown that for Eikonal accuracy, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is found effective and, since it does not require offset metric evaluations, easiest to implement. The sensitivity of flow solutions to wall distance assumptions is explored. Generally, results are not greatly affected by wall distance traits.

Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

2003-01-01

64

Smooth Mailing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the…

Palmer, Tracey

2010-01-01

65

Extrapolation distance in the cylindrical Milne problem in one- and two-group transport theory  

SciTech Connect

The extrapolation distance in the cylindrical Milne problem (''black'' cylinder immersed in a homogeneous, infinite, isotropically scattering and absorbing medium) is calculated in one- and two-group approximations. The method used consists of asymptotic expansions in 1/R and R (R being the radius of the cylinder) for large and small R, respectively, and of a variational method for R = O(1), R measured in meanfree-paths. The numerical results are given for two cases in the one-group (c = 0.90 and c = 0.95) and for two cases in the two-group approximation (both for k = 1). The results show convergence of the methods and sufficient accuracy of the applied numerical procedures. This conclusion is confirmed by the comparison of the values of the extrapolation distance calculated by variational and asymptotic expansion formulas in regions of R, where both can be applied.

Blenski, T.

1984-05-01

66

Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock (ruminants, pigs and poultry).  

PubMed

During road transportation, livestock are subjected to a number of concurrent potential stressors that can increase mortality and morbidity and compromise welfare status and production efficiency. A major concern is the thermal micro-environment within the vehicle with both heat stress and cold stress constituting major problems. It is possible to mitigate the effects of external climatic conditions by improving vehicle design and operation using engineering solutions that match 'on-board' environmental conditions with the biological requirements of the animals. This review describes an investigative approach that targets four elements. These are the thermal conditions on commercial transport vehicles under a range of climatic conditions, the 'thermal comfort zones' or target conditions for different livestock species, the heat and moisture loads upon vehicles that must be dissipated and the thermodynamic characteristics of animal transport vehicles that affect the design of mechanical or active ventilation systems able to function at maximum efficiency under everyday commercial conditions. Results of research around these four elements can provide the sound scientific basis for improved vehicle design and operation and for legislation and codes of practice aimed at optimising animal welfare and productivity in relation to transportation of livestock on journeys of both long and short duration. PMID:20405426

Mitchell, Malcolm A; Kettlewell, Peter J

2008-01-01

67

Estimation of septic tank setback distances based on transport of E. coli and F-RNA phages.  

PubMed

Setback distances between septic tank systems and the shorelines of Lake Okareka, New Zealand were determined from model simulations for a worst-case scenario, using the highest hydraulic conductivity and gradient measured in the field, removal rates of the microbial indicators (Escherichia coli and F-RNA phages) determined from a column experiment, and maximum values of the design criteria for the disposal system, and assuming an absence of an unsaturated zone, a continuous discharge of the raw effluent from a failed or non-complying treatment system (both indicators at concentrations of 1x10(7) counts/100 ml) into the groundwater and no sorption of pathogens in the aquifer. Modelling results suggest that the minimal setback distances were 16 m to satisfy the New Zealand Recreational Water Quality Guidelines for E. coli <126 per 100 ml (Ministry for the Environment, 1999) and 48 m to meet the Drinking-Water Standards for New Zealand 2000 for enteric virus <1 per 100 l (Ministry of Health, 2000). These distances may be applicable for other lakeshores in pumice sand aquifers with groundwater velocities <7 m/day. Findings of laboratory column and batch experiments provided an insight into the microbial attenuation and transport processes in pumice sand aquifers. Bacterial removal was predominately through filtration (87-88%) and partially by die-off (12-13%), while viral removal was by both die-off (45%) and filtration (55%). In addition, microbial die-off in groundwater without aquifer material (i.e., free microbes) was much lower than die-off in groundwater with aquifer material (i.e., sorbed microbes) and contributed only 2-6% to the total removal. This implies that the setback distances estimated from die-off rates for the free microbes, determined in the laboratory without considering aquifer media and other removal processes, which are often reported in the literature, could be larger than necessary. PMID:14592568

Pang, Liping; Close, Murray; Goltz, Mark; Sinton, Lester; Davies, Helen; Hall, Carollyn; Stanton, Greg

2004-01-01

68

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

2014-05-01

69

Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.  

PubMed

Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. PMID:22265239

Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

2012-05-01

70

Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source. Dispersal kernels for field observations were compared to results predicted by a Gaussian dispersal-based spore transport model. In 2011 and 2012, dispersal kernel shape coefficients were similar for both results observed in the field and predicted by the model, with both being dictated by a power law function, indicating that turbulence was the dominant transport factor on the scale we studied (˜ 1 km). Model predictions had a stronger correlation with the number of spores being released when using a time varying q0 emission rate (r= 0.92 in 2011 and r= 0.84 in 2012) than an identical daily pattern q0 emission rate (r= 0.35 in 2011 and r= 0.32 in 2012). The actual numbers of spores deposited were 3 and 2000 times lower than predicted if Qpot were equal to the actual number of spores released in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Future work should address estimating the actual number of spore released from an inoculated field during any given season, to improve prediction accuracy of the model. This work should assist in improving current risk assessment tools for FHB and contribute to the development of early warning systems for the spread of F. graminearum.

Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

71

The long distance transport (LDT) of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain to Scandinavia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) pollen grains are important aeroallergens that cause seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma to sensitive individuals. This study describes the conditions required for the LDT of ragweed pollen from the Pannonian Plain (PP) to Sweden on the 27- 28 August 2011, using a combination of daily and bi-hourly pollen count data, the overall synoptic weather situation, 3D analysis of the regional scale orography using Digital Elevation Models, surface meteorological data, satellite observations, and air mas trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. During the episode, high pressure (1024-1028 hPa) situated over European Russia and the Black Sea to the east and deep low pressure (~990 hPa) over the British Isles in the northwest resulted in a general southeast-northwest movement of air, and the occurrence of the jet-effect Kosava wind in the PP. This dry and gusty wind caused ragweed pollen release on the PP and pollen to be transported to the northwest. A foehn wind that governs air movement down leeward slopes into the PP was also active. The 24 and 25 August 2011 were very hot and caused large amounts of ragweed pollen to be released and taken high up in the atmosphere through convection. Such conditions also resulted in high Planetary Boundary Layers over the entire area, conditions that facilitated the transport of pollen over areas of low elevation on the Western Carpathians (i.e. the Moravian Gate or Low Baskid passes) northward into Poland and beyond.

Šikoparija, B..; Skjøth, C. A.; Alm Kübler, K.; Dahl, A.; Radiši?, P.; Sommer, J.; Grewling, ?.; Smith, M.

2012-04-01

72

The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.  

PubMed

Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

2014-01-01

73

The Shortlist Method for Fast Computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and Finding Optimal Solutions to Transportation Problems  

PubMed Central

Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

2014-01-01

74

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

2014-09-01

75

Characterization of submarine canyon bathymetries in northern Ionian Sea, Italy, using sediment geochemical variation induced by transportation distance and basin depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical data of marine mud sediments collected from the Esaro, Neto and Corigliano canyons in the northern Ionian Sea (southern Italy) were investigated in order to characterize canyon bathymetry types. Mud sample compositions analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA) provided useful information for the morphology of the depositional area of the northern Ionian Sea. The use of sediment geochemical data as well as transportation distance and depth as input variables for PCA enabled the extraction of following latent variables: basin depth (PC1), sedimentation rate (PC2) and transportation distance (PC3). Based on these results, we further developed geochemical indices that can estimate basin depth (F1), sedimentation rate (F2) and transportation distance (F3); these functions can be solely calculated from the elemental concentration data of the mud samples. Since these F1, F2 and F3 functions are mathematically independent variables, they facilitate more precise characterization of individual canyon types. That is, the Esaro Canyon is regarded as a sediment-starved deep canyon characterized by a single source area; the Neto Canyon can be seen as a deeply sloped submarine apron system and sediments are mainly supplied by the sediment gravity flows; the Corigliano Canyon is characterized by multiple sources and moderately sloped system, whose sediments disperse mainly by traction currents. These interpretations are concordant with the basin bathymetry of the studied area. Therefore, F1, F2 and F3 functions might be applicable to any oceanic basins.

Francesco, Perri; Tohru, Ohta; Salvatore, Critelli

2015-02-01

76

Discrimination of membrane transporter protein types using K-nearest neighbor method derived from the similarity distance of total diversity measure.  

PubMed

Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the fundamental cellular processes of living organisms. Computational techniques are very necessary to annotate the transporter functions. In this study, a multi-class K nearest neighbor classifier based on the increment of diversity (KNN-ID) was developed to discriminate the membrane transporter types when the increment of diversity (ID) was introduced as one of the novel similarity distances. Comparisons with multiple recently published methods showed that the proposed KNN-ID method outperformed the other methods, obtaining more than 20% improvement for overall accuracy. The overall prediction accuracy reached was 83.1%, when the K was selected as 2. The prediction sensitivity achieved 76.7%, 89.1%, 80.1% for channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters, primary active transporters, respectively. Discrimination and comparison between any two different classes of transporters further demonstrated that the proposed method is a potential classifier and will play a complementary role for facilitating the functional assignment of transporters. PMID:25607774

Zuo, Yong-Chun; Su, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Shi-Hua; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Cheng-Yan; Yang, Lei; Li, Guang-Peng

2015-03-17

77

CHOLINE TRANSPORTER-LIKE1 is required for sieve plate development to mediate long-distance cell-to-cell communication.  

PubMed

Phloem, a plant tissue responsible for long-distance molecular transport, harbours specific junctions, sieve areas, between the conducting cells. To date, little is known about the molecular framework related to the biogenesis of these sieve areas. Here we identify mutations at the CHER1/AtCTL1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutations cause several phenotypic abnormalities, including reduced pore density and altered pore structure in the sieve areas associated with impaired phloem function. CHER1 encodes a member of a poorly characterized choline transporter-like protein family in plants and animals. We show that CHER1 facilitates choline transport, localizes to the trans-Golgi network, and during cytokinesis is associated with the phragmoplast. Consistent with its function in the elaboration of the sieve areas, CHER1 has a sustained, polar localization in the forming sieve plates. Our results indicate that the regulation of choline levels is crucial for phloem development and conductivity in plants. PMID:25008948

Dettmer, Jan; Ursache, Robertas; Campilho, Ana; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Belevich, Ilya; O'Regan, Seana; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Yadav, Shri Ram; Lanz, Christa; Beverina, Luca; Papagni, Antonio; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Weigel, Detlef; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Moritz, Thomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Jokitalo, Eija; Helariutta, Ykä

2014-01-01

78

Long-distance air transport of an infant weighing less than 500 g: Is it in the patient’s best interest?  

PubMed Central

When a preterm infant is delivered in a region where resources are limited, long-distance air transport may be required. However, such transport is a significant stressor on an extremely fragile patient, and the neonate’s best interest must be evaluated. The current article presents the case of the smallest infant ever reported to have been transported by air, over more than 2300 km, and reflects on clinical and ethical challenges. Is a fragile 450 g baby born in a developing country better off spending the first week of his/her life where he/she was born, or risking a difficult transport to where he/she could have optimal care? What if this baby had already suffered a significant intraventricular hemorrhage? What if we were transporting the baby to provide palliative care ‘at home’? These questions are discussed to illustrate the complexity of the decision-making process, and to facilitate a debate on transport of such fragile patients. PMID:22294866

Karam, Oliver; Roy, Michel; Barrington, Keith; Janvier, Annie

2011-01-01

79

Expression of Sucrose Transporter cDNAs Specifically in Companion Cells Enhances Phloem Loading and Long-Distance Transport of Sucrose but Leads to an Inhibition of Growth and the Perception of a Phosphate Limitation.  

PubMed

Sucrose (Suc) is the predominant form of carbon transported through the phloem from source to sink organs and is also a prominent sugar for short-distance transport. In all streptophytes analyzed, Suc transporter genes (SUTs or SUCs) form small families, with different subgroups evolving distinct functions. To gain insight into their capacity for moving Suc in planta, representative members of each clade were first expressed specifically in companion cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested for their ability to rescue the phloem-loading defect caused by the Suc transporter mutation, Atsuc2-4. Sequence similarity was a poor indicator of ability: Several genes with high homology to AtSUC2, some of which have phloem-loading functions in other eudicot species, did not rescue the Atsuc2-4 mutation, whereas a more distantly related gene, ZmSUT1 from the monocot Zea mays, did restore phloem loading. Transporter complementary DNAs were also expressed in the companion cells of wild-type Arabidopsis, with the aim of increasing productivity by enhancing Suc transport to growing sink organs and reducing Suc-mediated feedback inhibition on photosynthesis. Although enhanced Suc loading and long-distance transport was achieved, growth was diminished. This growth inhibition was accompanied by increased expression of phosphate (P) starvation-induced genes and was reversed by providing a higher supply of external P. These experiments suggest that efforts to increase productivity by enhancing sugar transport may disrupt the carbon-to-P homeostasis. A model for how the plant perceives and responds to changes in the carbon-to-P balance is presented. PMID:24777345

Dasgupta, Kasturi; Khadilkar, Aswad S; Sulpice, Ronan; Pant, Bikram; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Fisahn, Joachim; Stitt, Mark; Ayre, Brian G

2014-04-28

80

Expression of Sucrose Transporter cDNAs Specifically in Companion Cells Enhances Phloem Loading and Long-Distance Transport of Sucrose but Leads to an Inhibition of Growth and the Perception of a Phosphate Limitation1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Sucrose (Suc) is the predominant form of carbon transported through the phloem from source to sink organs and is also a prominent sugar for short-distance transport. In all streptophytes analyzed, Suc transporter genes (SUTs or SUCs) form small families, with different subgroups evolving distinct functions. To gain insight into their capacity for moving Suc in planta, representative members of each clade were first expressed specifically in companion cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested for their ability to rescue the phloem-loading defect caused by the Suc transporter mutation, Atsuc2-4. Sequence similarity was a poor indicator of ability: Several genes with high homology to AtSUC2, some of which have phloem-loading functions in other eudicot species, did not rescue the Atsuc2-4 mutation, whereas a more distantly related gene, ZmSUT1 from the monocot Zea mays, did restore phloem loading. Transporter complementary DNAs were also expressed in the companion cells of wild-type Arabidopsis, with the aim of increasing productivity by enhancing Suc transport to growing sink organs and reducing Suc-mediated feedback inhibition on photosynthesis. Although enhanced Suc loading and long-distance transport was achieved, growth was diminished. This growth inhibition was accompanied by increased expression of phosphate (P) starvation-induced genes and was reversed by providing a higher supply of external P. These experiments suggest that efforts to increase productivity by enhancing sugar transport may disrupt the carbon-to-P homeostasis. A model for how the plant perceives and responds to changes in the carbon-to-P balance is presented. PMID:24777345

Dasgupta, Kasturi; Khadilkar, Aswad S.; Sulpice, Ronan; Pant, Bikram; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Fisahn, Joachim; Stitt, Mark; Ayre, Brian G.

2014-01-01

81

Bidirectional exchange of amino compounds between phloem and xylem during long-distance transport in Norway spruce trees (Picea abies [L.] Karst).  

PubMed

14C-Gln, (14)C-Asp, (15)N-Gln, and (15)N-Asp were fed to cut tips of 2- or 3-year-old needles of spruce twigs, still attached to the tree. After incubation, distribution of the radiolabel and (15)N enrichment was studied in needles, bark and wood tissues of girdled twigs and untreated controls. Analysis of the twig tissues showed that between 22% and 26% of the total amount of the tracers applied had been taken up. Since export out of the application segment and distribution between needles, bark and wood was comparable for (14)C and (15)N tracer, it was concluded that, mainly the amino compounds that had been fed were subject to long- distance transport within the plant and supplied the new sprout with nitrogen. Asp was exported to a greater extent to developing needles compared with Gln. This difference in export between the two amino compounds applied may be explained by the different pool sizes of Gln and Asp in xylem and phloem or differences in xylem and phloem loading. Girdling of the stem showed that the transport of reduced nitrogen compounds from older needle generations to current-year needles proceeded in both xylem and phloem. In addition, an intensive bidirectional exchange of Gln and Asp between xylem and phloem was observed during long-distance transport. PMID:12709485

Gessler, Arthur; Weber, Paul; Schneider, Stephan; Rennenberg, Heinz

2003-05-01

82

Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long distance water transport.  

PubMed

Water content and hydraulic conductivity, including transport within cells, over membranes, cell-to-cell, and long-distance xylem and phloem transport, are strongly affected by plant water stress. By being able to measure these transport processes non-invasely in the intact plant situation in relation to the plant (cell) water balance, it will be possible explicitly or implicitly to examine many aspects of plant function, plant performance, and stress responses. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are now available that allow studying plant hydraulics on different length scales within intact plants. The information within MRI images can be manipulated in such a way that cell compartment size, water membrane permeability, water cell-to-cell transport, and xylem and phloem flow hydraulics are obtained in addition to anatomical information. These techniques are non-destructive and non-invasive and can be used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transport, for example, as a function of environmental (stress) conditions. An overview of NMR and MRI methods to measure such information is presented and hardware solutions for minimal invasive intact plant MRI are discussed. PMID:17175554

Van As, Henk

2007-01-01

83

Williams Google Mail Quick Reference Mail Settings  

E-print Network

Williams Google Mail Quick Reference 1 23 4 5 6 10 7 9 11 12 Mail Settings Go to Other Google Apps Contacts (Address Book) 1 Click on a link for a Google App to go to another app in a new tab, such as Drive is automatically emptied every 30 days. Help with Mail8 Click Help to see tons of help info by Google, including

Aalberts, Daniel P.

84

MASS TRANSPORT PROBLEMS FOR THE EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OBTAINED AS LIMITS OF p-LAPLACIAN TYPE PROBLEMS WITH  

E-print Network

. For this different interpretation we provide examples and a decomposition of the optimal transport plan that shows there), where a problem with import/export taxes was studied, and [10], where an optimal matching

Rossi, Julio D.

85

Characterisation and distribution of deposited trace elements transported over long and intermediate distances in north-eastern France using Sphagnum peatlands as a sentinel ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements in the form of particulate matter can be transported downwind from their emission sources and may have negative effects on human health and ecosystems. The transport of trace elements is often studied by monitoring their accumulation in mosses. The aim of this study was to characterise and describe the distribution of deposited trace elements transported over long and intermediate distances in north-eastern France, a location far from the main emission sources. We analysed the trace element accumulation in Sphagnum capillifolium in 54 ombrotrophic peatlands distributed in six regions of France (Alps, Jura, Massif Central, Morvan, Rhône corridor and Vosges). The concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in the surface were determined in three replicate samples of Sphagnum within each peatland. The enrichment factors calculated using Ti as the element of reference clearly exhibited a predominant anthropogenic origin for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, although the concentrations were relatively low compared to those found in other studies. The isolation of the peatlands from any fixed and traffic emission source suggests an intermediate and/or long-distance transport of the pollutants from their emission sources. The structure of the compositional dataset was explored using a covariance biplot. The first score was used as a synthetic indicator of the origin of the deposits and the degree of contamination of each peatland. This new index showed that the Vosges and the Alps were the regions most affected by high enrichment of trace elements, particularly Pb and Cd. The erosion of soils highly contaminated by former mining and smelting activities in the Vosges and the polluted cities and busy highways in the Alps may account for these distributions. The Jura was the least affected region sampled, and the other regions presented intermediate anthropogenic deposits. This study provides valuable information concerning the management and protection of these ecosystems.

Meyer, Caroline; Diaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Monna, Fabrice; Franchi, Marielle; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

2015-01-01

86

Long-Distance Transport of Urban and Industrial Metals and Their Incorporation into the Environment: Sources, Transport Pathways and Historical Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper reviews the long-range transport of toxic metal pollutants through the atmosphere and their incorporation into\\u000a the environment. Metals remain among the most pervasive contaminants, because they are transported far from their point-sources\\u000a and are found even in remote regions. Metal pollution has a long history, with geologic archives documenting its onset ~5000 years\\u000a ago. Peak metal pollution in Europe

Samuel K. Marx; Hamish A. McGowan

87

Optical refractive synchronization: bidirectional information transport over a single wavelength/single laser for distances > 100 Km: analysis and measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direction of this paper is to describe the experiments and analytical techniques used by SilkRoad, Inc. for sending 40 GHz of bandwidth, incorporating an eclectic body of data, over a single laser - single fiber over > 100Km of optical fiber using the same wavelength in both directions. The paper will outline the various basic tenets of Optical Refractive Synchronization and the subsequent use of Ellipsometric Phase, based on these tenets, that allows a compilation of CATV, voice, video and SONET data to be transported in both directions without interference between the otpical signals going in both directions over the single fiber. The second portion of the paper will describe the test setup and measurement techniques that were used to validate the analytical models. Pictures of the Spectrum Analyzer data and the subsequent recovery of the eclectic information is then provided for all of the signals that have been transported.

Palmer, James R.

1999-11-01

88

Arabidopsis PCR2 Is a Zinc Exporter Involved in Both Zinc Extrusion and Long-Distance Zinc Transport[W  

PubMed Central

Plants strictly regulate the uptake and distribution of Zn, which is essential for plant growth and development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana PCR2 is essential for Zn redistribution and Zn detoxification. The pcr2 loss-of-function mutant was compromised in growth, both in Zn-excessive and -deficient conditions. The roots of pcr2 accumulated more Zn than did control plants, whereas the roots of plants overexpressing PCR2 contained less Zn, indicating that PCR2 removes Zn from the roots. Consistent with a role for PCR2 as a Zn-efflux transporter, PCR2 reduced the intracellular concentration of Zn when expressed in yeast cells. PCR2 is located mainly in epidermal cells and in the xylem of young roots, while it is expressed in epidermal cells in fully developed roots. Zn accumulated in the epidermis of the roots of pcr2 grown under Zn-limiting conditions, whereas it was found in the stele of wild-type roots. The transport pathway mediated by PCR2 does not seem to overlap with that mediated by the described Zn translocators (HMA2 and HMA4) since the growth of pcr2 hma4 double and pcr2 hma2 hma4 triple loss-of-function mutants was more severely inhibited than the individual single knockout mutants, both under conditions of excess or deficient Zn. We propose that PCR2 functions as a Zn transporter essential for maintaining an optimal Zn level in Arabidopsis. PMID:20647347

Song, Won-Yong; Choi, Kwan Sam; Kim, Do Young; Geisler, Markus; Park, Jiyoung; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Schellenberg, Maja; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Yong Pyo; Noh, Eun Woon; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

2010-01-01

89

Long-distance transport of signals during symbiosis: are nodule formation and mycorrhization autoregulated in a similar way?  

PubMed

Legumes enter nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), whereas most flowering plants establish symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Once first steps of symbiosis are initiated, nodule formation and mycorrhization in legumes is negatively controlled by a shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI), a phenomenon termed autoregulation. According to current views, autoregulation of nodulation and mycorrhization in legumes is regulated in a similar way. CLE peptides induced in response to rhizobial nodulation signals (Nod factors) have been proposed to represent the ascending long-distance signals to the shoot. Although not proven yet, these CLE peptides are likely perceived by leucine-rich repeat (LRR) autoregulation receptor kinases in the shoot. Autoregulation of mycorrhization in non-legumes is reminiscent to the phenomenon of "systemic acquired resistance" in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:21455020

Staehelin, Christian; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Illana, Antonio; Vierheilig, Horst

2011-03-01

90

Multimedia electronic mail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic mail is a facility, analogous to postal mail, in which computers are used to compose, deliver, and receive messages. Traditional electronic mail systems rely solely on text as the medium of communication. A multi-media electronic mall application, Mail, combines the media of Rich Text, voice, images, and electronic documents to facilitate interpersonal communication. With Mail, these various media can be integrated into a single message. The variety of available media and the complexity of the messages that result from their combination make it important for Mail to have a simple user interface. It was possible to develop a simple, graphically-based interface that would accommodate Mail's message complexity. The integration of these diverse media is made practical by the rich operating environment in which Mail runs. Modern advances in hardware, operating systems, libraries, and servers make possible this powerful multi-media electronic mail application.

Yamamoto, Brian

1990-08-01

91

Provenancing of silcrete raw materials indicates long-distance transport to Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, during the Middle Stone Age.  

PubMed

Lithic artifacts from the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) offer an avenue to explore a range of human behaviors, including mobility, raw material acquisition, trade and exchange. However, to date, in southern Africa it has not been possible to provenance the locations from which commonly used stone materials were acquired prior to transport to archaeological sites. Here we present results of the first investigation to geochemically fingerprint silcrete, a material widely used for tool manufacture across the subcontinent. The study focuses on the provenancing of silcrete artifacts from the MSA of White Paintings Shelter (WPS), Tsodilo Hills, in the Kalahari Desert of northwest Botswana. Our results suggest that: (i) despite having access to local quartz and quartzite at Tsodilo Hills, MSA peoples chose to transport silcrete over 220 km to WPS from sites south of the Okavango Delta; (ii) these sites were preferred to silcrete sources much closer to Tsodilo Hills; (iii) the same source areas were repeatedly used for silcrete supply throughout the 3 m MSA sequence; (iv) during periods of colder, wetter climate, silcrete may have been sourced from unknown, more distant, sites. Our results offer a new provenancing approach for exploring prehistoric behavior at other sites where silcrete is present in the archaeological record. PMID:23453438

Nash, David J; Coulson, Sheila; Staurset, Sigrid; Ullyott, J Stewart; Babutsi, Mosarwa; Hopkinson, Laurence; Smith, Martin P

2013-04-01

92

A mobile signal transported over a long distance induces systemic transcriptional gene silencing in a grafted partner  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) can be induced by promoter-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). Long-distance transmission of TGS by viral infection in plants has been reported. However, systemic TGS has not been observed in the case of using an inverted repeat transgene as the silencing trigger. Here it is reported that a mobile signal, presumably the siRNA, produced from a hairpin structure transgene controlled by a companion cell-specific promoter can also induce transmissible TGS in both a modified agroinfiltration and a grafting system. Although the transmissible TGS occurred only in cells located in the vicinity of a leaf vein in the scion, very strong silencing was observed in the root system, especially the lateral roots, including the root apical meristem. The transmissible TGS was maintained through tissue culture and subsequently inherited by the progeny. The results suggest the potential application of mobile promoter-targeting siRNA in horticulture for improvement of plant cultivars by grafting. PMID:21652532

Bai, Songling; Kasai, Atsushi; Yamada, Kaori; Harada, Takeo

2011-01-01

93

Evaluation of Mail Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) implemented mail registration for all continuing students in spring 1986. In fall 1986, a comprehensive evaluation of the registration system was conducted to assess the impact of mail registration on student enrollment, to determine the impact of mailing class schedules to students' homes, to…

San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

94

HushMail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hush Communications recently unveiled HushMail, the Web's first free email client with 1,024-bit encryption. This email service uses a Java applet to encrypt and decrypt messages sent between users with HushMail accounts. The developers of HushMail call this process a "public key cryptosystem with roaming user capability." HushMail offers the ease of use of Web-based email while providing the security and privacy not available with other free email services. HushMail even allows users to create secure, anonymous accounts.

95

Experimental and analytical study on long distance transport of solar thermal energy: Transient heat loss and temperature response of thermal insulation piping  

SciTech Connect

Solar incident flux is often interrupted by passing clouds. In such an unsteady heat input, it is well known that heat loss from a piping system which is part of a solar collector loop is not small when transferring solar thermal energy by fluid. Furthermore, it is also difficult to hold the outlet fluid temperature constant because of the time lag of temperature response. One of the most useful methods to help solve these problems is to reduce heat capacity of the piping material itself. The authors have manufactured a pipe made of only thermal insulation material, i.e., TIP. To prove its effectiveness, they carried out comparative experiments of temperature response and transient heat loss from the piping systems of a TIP and an externally insulated metal pipe. Furthermore, numerical calculations and simplified analysis were also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the TIP in an unsteady heat transport phenomena. This paper reports that the TIP contributes to the improvement of temperature response and the reduction of heat loss during long distance transport of solar thermal energy.

Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya; Takashima, Takumi; Ando, Yuji [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Division; Kamoshida, Junji [Shibaura Inst. of Technology, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1995-11-01

96

Internetwork Mail Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internetwork Mail Guide, recently updated, documents methods of sending mail from one network to another. It represents the aggregate knowledge of the readers of comp.mail.misc and many contributors from other sources. The Guide explains e-mail sending conventions between different combinations of many different networks. It is provided by Scott Yanoff. Also available is a forms-based service that lets the user enter the "from" and "to" networks and returns the proper addressing to get from one to the other.

Yanoff, Scott.

97

WASTE Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unmoderated mailing list/newsgroup provides a forum for scientific discussion on the one hand by people who are distressed by the negative effects that waste can have on the natural environment (soil, water, air and the seas) and on the other hand by people involved in collecting, fractioning, conditioning, recycling or dumping wastes. It is intended for the integrated discussion of all waste-related topics. Web-based subscription is available (see above URL). 1.Send an email to majordomo@cedar.at 2.Subject line does not matter 3.Mail text should read: subscribe waste your@email.address example: subscribe waste john.smith@mail.org

98

Coding for Electronic Mail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

1986-01-01

99

Long-distance fluid and heat transport in the oceanic crust entering the Nankai subduction zone, NanTroSEIZE transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine the potential causes of anomalous seafloor heat flux on the oceanic plate in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) transect offshore southern Japan. The most prominent anomaly is a ˜50 mW m change in heat flux between Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Sites C0011 and C0012 over a distance of <10 km. I develop thermal models to investigate the effects of hydrothermal circulation in the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust and variations in heat input from the mantle. The <10 km wide transition in surface heat flux reflects a process in the shallow subsurface; variations in heat input from ?5 km depth would generate a >30 km wide transition at the seafloor. The observed surface heat flux pattern is indicative of hydrothermal circulation in the basement aquifer and advection of heat from the subducted crust into the aquifer on the incoming plate. For a 600 m thick aquifer, the permeability is likely ?7×10-11 m, and hydrothermal circulation transports at least 300 times more heat than conduction alone. The heat flux from the subduction zone seaward to the incoming plate is consistent with hydrothermal circulation in the subducting crust persisting to ˜100 km landward of the deformation front. Vigorous fluid circulation in the basaltic basement is consistent with both the seafloor thermal anomalies and geochemical anomalies near the sediment-basement interface.

Spinelli, Glenn A.

2014-03-01

100

Distance Menu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides students with experience using three types of distance scales on regional maps of North America. An introduction shows how to make use of the bar scale, the statement of equivalence, and the representative fraction (ratio) to determine distance between two locations. Printable instructions and two sets of interactive exercises are provided.

David J. Leveson

2011-01-01

101

The N-Terminal Region of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Is a Host- and Strain-Specific Long-Distance Transport Factor?  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetics underlying host range differences among plant virus strains can provide valuable insights into viral gene functions and virus-host interactions. In this study, we examined viral determinants and mechanisms of differential infection of Zea mays inbred line SDp2 by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) isolates. WSMV isolates Sidney 81 (WSMV-S81) and Type (WSMV-T) share 98.7% polyprotein sequence identity but differentially infect SDp2: WSMV-S81 induces a systemic infection, but WSMV-T does not. Coinoculation and sequential inoculation of SDp2 with WSMV-T and/or WSMV-S81 did not affect systemic infection by WSMV-S81, suggesting that WSMV-T does not induce a restrictive defense response but that virus-encoded proteins may be involved in differential infection of SDp2. The viral determinant responsible for strain-specific host range was mapped to the N terminus of coat protein (CP) by systematic exchanges of WSMV-S81 sequences with those of WSMV-T and by reciprocal exchanges of CP or CP codons 1 to 74. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged WSMV-S81 with CP or CP residues 1 to 74 from WSMV-T produced similar numbers of infection foci and genomic RNAs and formed virions in inoculated leaves as those produced with WSMV-S81, indicating that failure to infect SDp2 systemically is not due to defects in replication, cell-to-cell movement, or virion assembly. However, these GFP-tagged hybrids showed profound defects in long-distance transport of virus through the phloem. Furthermore, we found that four of the five differing amino acids in the N terminus of CP between the WSMV-S81 and WSMV-T isolates were collectively involved in systemic infection of SDp2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the N-terminal region of tritimoviral CP functions in host- and strain-specific long-distance movement. PMID:21147925

Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Van Winkle, David H.; French, Roy

2011-01-01

102

MailFred  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MailFred application lets users temporarily archive and set reminders for Gmail, which can be quite handy. Visitors can use the program to get trip information reminders, notes on project management, and follow-up reminders for emails from clients or leads. This version is compatible with all computers utilizing Google Chrome.

Koelman, Manuel

2013-01-01

103

Mailing List Sign Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We encourage you to become a member of our mailing list, SCIENECASE-LIST, which we use as a way of announcing newly published cases on our web site; upcoming workshops (ours and others); and new publications related to the case method. Our list averages one to two messages every four to five weeks.

2010-01-01

104

Museum Professionals Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new bilingual (German and English), moderated mailing list is designed for professionals in "museums, universities and other academic institutions, as well as ... students of the arts, cultural sciences, museology and history." The list will focus primarily on questions related to museums, especially museums and the Internet, but it is also intended to be interdisciplinary and will include archaeological, historical, cultural, and artistic information. Users may read archived messages and join the list at the above URL.

105

BrandMyMail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to tweak the appearance of your Gmail account? This is now possible, courtesy of BrandMyMail. First-time users can watch the short video on the homepage to learn about the functionality of the program, gather some insights into how one might best utilize its primary features. Visitors can add social media links to their emails, create different layouts, and tweak the colors for individual expression and uniqueness. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2012-03-30

106

Distance Wizard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, online activity, students estimate the distances of objects in the Hubble Deep Field from Earth using the relationship between size, brightness, and distance. Students can complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the activity title page, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is part of the online exploration "The Hubble Deep Field Academy" that is available on the Amazing Space website.

2012-08-03

107

Interlingual Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The measurement of interlingual distance (how far removed one language is from another) is both possible and feasible; and it can be computed in different ways. The difference between the codes of the two languages can be measured by one technique and the differences in samples of discourse by another. The samples may be measured as static…

Mackey, William Francis

108

[Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue on distance education serving individuals with disabilities considers historical developments, technology, staff training strategies, and staff training materials. It is noted that improving access to training for staff members can improve the quality of services for individuals with disabilities. The following articles…

Wallace, Teri, Ed.; Weatherman, Dick, Ed.

1995-01-01

109

E-mail etiquette (netiquette)  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-mail has replaced the interoffice memo and is the primary means of business communication. But all too often, correspondents don't follow the same common sense rules with e-mail as with printed correspondence. In fact, business e-mail should be more carefully constructed than paper mail (snail mail) because e-mail can be easily forwarded, attached to another message or kept indefinitely in

J. C. Thompson; B. A. Lloyd

2002-01-01

110

Are There Secure Voice mail Systems? By Melanie Feder  

E-print Network

Codes.................................................................................. 5 Toll Fraud of digital media safe from becoming public information? Voice mail hackers can do more than just listen in. Hackers can divert calls; change the password, use the phone system for long distance phone calls or even

111

Distance education  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida nuclear engineering sciences (NES) department has been active in distance learning since 1991, offering core courses for a master`s degree in health physics through National Technological University (NTU) in conjunction with Colorado State University, University of Illinois, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Purdue University. In addition, the department has undertaken a long-distance lecture to Florida Junior College in Jacksonville and conducted joint research meetings with a research sponsor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, utilizing the picture phones of AT&T. The NES department is also under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop on-line training and maintenance modules for automated chemical analysis systems. These modules will be part of DOE`s Office of Technology Development Contaminant Analysis Automation Program. For the education and training portion of the Contaminant Analysis Automation Program, the University of Florida is developing an on-line Human Computer Interface Training/Maintenance Module (HCI-T/MM) maintained at a central source, a computer server in the NES department.

Clifford, S.; Dalton, R.; Hintenlang, D.; Tulenko, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-12-31

112

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long-Distance Transport Model for Plant Pathogens:1  

E-print Network

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long 18 19 20 21 22 23 #12;Prussin et. al. 2 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Meteorology Keywords: Atmospheric transport, Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Fusarium head blight, Gaussian47

Ross, Shane

113

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long-Distance Transport Model for Plant Pathogens:1  

E-print Network

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long to view linked References #12;Prussin et. al. 2 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Fusarium graminearum Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Keywords: Atmospheric transport, Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Fusarium head

Ross, Shane

114

Transportation of maternal serum specimens for screening for chromosomal aneuploidies: effect of seasonal variations, distance, and freezing on the stability of the biological markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We studied the stability of maternal serum markers for screening for Down syndrome [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3), total human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin] following transportation.Design and methods: For each gestational week between 14 and 18 weeks, we collected about 50 samples for each possible combination of three potential sources of variation during transportation: season

Jacques Massé; Anne Summers; George Cherian; Jean-Claude Forest

2000-01-01

115

76 FR 7114 - International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...20 International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION...supreg]) for Mailing Services. This price change correlates to the Postal Service's...filing of Docket No. R2011-2, Notice of Price Adjustment, with the Postal...

2011-02-09

116

Long-distance Axonal Transport of AAV9 Is Driven by Dynein and Kinesin-2 and Is Trafficked in a Highly Motile Rab7-positive Compartment  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can move along axonal pathways after brain injection, resulting in transduction of distal brain regions. This can enhance the spread of therapeutic gene transfer and improve treatment of neurogenetic disorders that require global correction. To better understand the underlying cellular mechanisms that drive AAV trafficking in neurons, we investigated the axonal transport of dye-conjugated AAV9, utilizing microfluidic primary neuron cultures that isolate cell bodies from axon termini and permit independent analysis of retrograde and anterograde axonal transport. After entry, AAV was trafficked into nonmotile early and recycling endosomes, exocytic vesicles, and a retrograde-directed late endosome/lysosome compartment. Rab7-positive late endosomes/lysosomes that contained AAV were highly motile, exhibiting faster retrograde velocities and less pausing than Rab7-positive endosomes without virus. Inhibitor experiments indicated that the retrograde transport of AAV within these endosomes is driven by cytoplasmic dynein and requires Rab7 function, whereas anterograde transport of AAV is driven by kinesin-2 and exhibits unusually rapid velocities. Furthermore, increasing AAV9 uptake by neuraminidase treatment significantly enhanced virus transport in both directions. These findings provide novel insights into AAV trafficking within neurons, which should enhance progress toward the utilization of AAV for improved distribution of transgene delivery within the brain. PMID:24100640

Castle, Michael J; Perlson, Eran; Holzbaur, Erika LF; Wolfe, John H

2014-01-01

117

Long-distance axonal transport of AAV9 is driven by dynein and kinesin-2 and is trafficked in a highly motile Rab7-positive compartment.  

PubMed

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can move along axonal pathways after brain injection, resulting in transduction of distal brain regions. This can enhance the spread of therapeutic gene transfer and improve treatment of neurogenetic disorders that require global correction. To better understand the underlying cellular mechanisms that drive AAV trafficking in neurons, we investigated the axonal transport of dye-conjugated AAV9, utilizing microfluidic primary neuron cultures that isolate cell bodies from axon termini and permit independent analysis of retrograde and anterograde axonal transport. After entry, AAV was trafficked into nonmotile early and recycling endosomes, exocytic vesicles, and a retrograde-directed late endosome/lysosome compartment. Rab7-positive late endosomes/lysosomes that contained AAV were highly motile, exhibiting faster retrograde velocities and less pausing than Rab7-positive endosomes without virus. Inhibitor experiments indicated that the retrograde transport of AAV within these endosomes is driven by cytoplasmic dynein and requires Rab7 function, whereas anterograde transport of AAV is driven by kinesin-2 and exhibits unusually rapid velocities. Furthermore, increasing AAV9 uptake by neuraminidase treatment significantly enhanced virus transport in both directions. These findings provide novel insights into AAV trafficking within neurons, which should enhance progress toward the utilization of AAV for improved distribution of transgene delivery within the brain. PMID:24100640

Castle, Michael J; Perlson, Eran; Holzbaur, Erika Lf; Wolfe, John H

2014-03-01

118

AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.

Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.

1993-01-01

119

How Combined Trip Purposes Are Associated with Transport Choice for Short Distance Trips. Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice. Methods An online questionnaire (N?=?3,663) was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use. Results Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car. Conclusion Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care. PMID:25474653

Scheepers, Eline; Slinger, Minke; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Schuit, Jantine

2014-01-01

120

Distance Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amatrol's e-Learning program meets the challenge for flexible technical training by offering superb technical content depth as well as breadth, strong interactivity for skill development, and excellent assessment and student tracking through an intuitive, easy-to-use web portal. With 24 x 7 access, Amatrol's e-Learning program creates easy access to educational opportunities for technical skill development previously restricted to the classroom. The material is self-paced, making it ideal for individual use, traditional class settings, or a blended approach. Amatrol's proven curriculum is problem- solving oriented and teaches technical skills in a wide range of industrially-relevant technologies. e-Learning Topics- CNC Machining-Design Processes -Electric Motor Control -Electric Motors -Electrical Control -Electricity -Electro-Fluid Power -Electronic Drives -Hydraulics -Machine Tools -Measurement Tools -Mechanical -Mechanical Drives -Plastics -PLCs (PLC) -Pneumatics -Quality -Robotics -Sensors -Thermal Systems Amatrol offers more than 200 titles for distance learning. Each title equals approximately 2 -3 contact hours. Virtual trainers are embedded in some of these units. One time set up charge = $3,000.00 Annual maintenance fee after 1st year = $800.00 Virtual Units = $10/title/student Non-virtual Units = $8/title/student.

121

Business Agreements Printing & Mail Services  

E-print Network

& Transportation Physical Plant Transportation & Parking Services Fleet Services Environmental Health & Safety Don Physical Planning Real Estate Services Materiel Human Financial Resource Planning Capital & Physical Planning/ Resource Planning Space ManagementAccounting Services Student Business Services Education

122

Transportation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to increase students' knowledge and understanding of diesel and gasoline engines, providing an introduction for students interested in more specialized training in the automobile field and its scientific principles through math, science, and chemistry. It will also help students realize the importance of transportation, and will help them meet their needs in math through problem solving by dealing with materials in their world, letting them develop skills and techniques through hands-on experience. Includes more than 20 problems to solve.

Bryant, Joyce

123

Distance Oracles for Spatial Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstractó The popularity of location-based services and the need to do real-time processing on them has led to an interest in performing queries on transportation networks, such as nding shortest paths and nding nearest neighbors. The challenge is that these operations involve the computation of distance along a spatial network rather than ìas the crow ies. î In many applications

Jagan Sankaranarayanan; Hanan Samet

2009-01-01

124

A study of the relationship between distance transported to school and attendance, grades, and participation in extra-curricular activities of Burleson County, Texas high school students, 1952  

E-print Network

18 20 $2. 6 18 47. 4 3$ 49. a 9 . 3 79 4$. 7 92 $5. 8 7& 44. 2 186 $$. 0 1/2 4$. 0 lip 100 110 100 22$ 100 100 3 100 '7l 100 17$ 100 16$ 100 3/8 100 The data obtained fran the stndents ar? based on reoords of their perforeanee..., The transported pupils vere Chen subdivide& into five o1ass intervals based, on diatanoe transported to school. The olass intersals inoiude4 the following' (1) one Co p. 9 miles) (?) 0 0 'to 6o9 slilssy (3) 7. 0 co 9. 9 miles) (+j 10. 0 Co 12. g milss~ and, (5...

Edwards, Robert Jim

1952-01-01

125

Why electronic mail is inherently private  

SciTech Connect

Electronic Mail originated in Large-Area Networks and computer Bulletin Board Systems. On LAN`s in offices, it served the purpose of replacing office memos to make work more efficient. On BBS`s, it became a personal way of sending notes back and forth between acquaintances and frields. From the beginning e-mail was private. The Arpanet formed as a way for researchers to discuss their work over long-distances. The Arpanet, solely in existence as a government venture to assist in furthering of research, enjoyed a certain secrecy for a while. Once the Internt formed, the system allowed others inside as it no longer existed merely for the government. Much of the work on the Arpanet/Internet was necessarily private due to its nature. This made it even more important for e-mail to be private. Today the Internet includes not only what was the Arpanet (NSFNet), but companies and several BBS`s as well. Privacy is mor eimportant today than ever and should not even be an option on e-mail systems. It should be considered inherent in all systems.

Granger, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

126

September 2014 Print & Mail Services  

E-print Network

Scott VanderVeer Digital Press & Customer Service Representative Robert Keller Production Supervisor Supervisor Mail Carriers Inocki Aponte Michael Lise Jonathan Carman Thomas Parker Darren Cifelli John

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

127

Solid-state magnetic switching triggered by proton-coupled electron-transfer assisted by long-distance proton-alkali cation transport.  

PubMed

Acidity of water molecules coordinated to Co ions in CoFe Prussian blue analogues (PBA) has been used to reversibly activate the Co(III)Fe(II) ? Co(II)Fe(III) electron transfer. The study of the structure and the electronic structure shows that the process implies an original PCET reaction between a solid-state porous coordination polymer and hydroxide ions in solution. The PCET reaction spreads throughout the solid network thanks to a long-range H(+) and Rb(+) transport within the pore channels of PBA taking advantage of the hydrogen-bonding network of zeolitic water molecules acting as proton wires. PMID:24731182

Higel, Pauline; Villain, Françoise; Verdaguer, Michel; Rivière, Eric; Bleuzen, Anne

2014-04-30

128

Join Our Online Mailing List  

Cancer.gov

Home About TCGA People and Contacts Join Our Online Mailing List Join Our Online Mailing List To receive the latest cancer genomics news and announcements from The Cancer Genome Atlas, sign up for TCGA updates. To sign up for our email list: Send

129

49 CFR 176.708 - Segregation distances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...separation distance for undeveloped film. (c) Category YELLOW-II or YELLOW-III packages or overpacks must not be transported...described in § 176.704(f), by demonstration through direct measurement, made and documented by a suitably...

2010-10-01

130

Oxygen isotopes in single micrometer-sized quartz grains: tracing the source of Saharan dust over long-distance atmospheric transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope compositions were measured by ion microprobe in individual micrometer-sized quartz grains extracted from one aerosol sample collected on the Cape Verde Islands and from four surface samples (three soils and one sediment) representing potential source regions of aerosols in Western and Central Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Niger, and Chad). A large range of ? 18O values, from +6.2‰ to +39.3‰ is present within the aerosol quartz grains. The different size fractions of the quartz grains from the surface samples overlap nearly entirely this range but show significant differences in their ? 18O distributions for the different size fractions of the grains (i.e., different modes, different proportions of grains with low or high ? 18O, ...). These differences in ? 18O distributions can be related to different geological formations (i.e., mantle-derived magmatic rocks, crustal magmatic rocks, or sedimentary rocks) outcropping in each region, thus giving a fingerprint of the source region. Quartz grains with unusually high ? 18O values between +30‰ and +40‰ were attributed to lacustrine cherts formed in evaporitic environments (Chad basin). The existence of distinct ? 18O distributions for the surface samples, which reflect regional geology but indicate some transport of the grains, enables the characterization of mixing processes during dust emission in the atmosphere. Particles are mixed at a regional scale in the dust reservoir, but injection of fine particles into the high troposphere occurs as a discrete and localized event with no mixing during the subsequent long-range transport by the easterlies. The comparison of the ? 18O distribution of the quartz from the aerosol sample with the equivalent size fractions in surface samples shows that the Niger area is the more probable source region for the aerosol although the Moroccan source cannot be excluded. This method gives a valuable tool to trace the source region of dust into the atmosphere or into sediment samples, allowing the reconstruction of air mass circulations.

Aléon, Jérôme; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard; Schütz, Lothar; Jaenicke, Ruprecht

2002-10-01

131

14 CFR 29.81 - Landing distance: Category A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Landing distance: Category A. 29.81 Section 29.81 ...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.81 Landing distance: Category A. The horizontal...

2010-01-01

132

14 CFR 29.61 - Takeoff distance: Category A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance: Category A. 29.61 Section 29.61 ...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.61 Takeoff distance: Category A. (a) The normal...

2010-01-01

133

Holocene variations in mineral and grain-size composition along the East Greenland glaciated margin (ca 67°–70°N): local versus long-distance sediment transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (qXRD) analysis of the <2 mm sediment fraction from surface (sea floor) samples, and marine sediment cores that span the last 10-12 cal ka BP, are used to describe spatial and temporal variations in non-clay mineral compositions for an area between Kangerlussuaq Trough and Scoresby Sund (???67??-70??N), East Greenland. Bedrock consists primarily of an early Tertiary alkaline complex with high weight% of pyroxene and plagioclase. Farther inland and to the north, the bedrock is dominantly felsic with a high fraction of quartz and potassium feldspars. Principal Component (PC) analysis of the non-clay sediment compositions indicates the importance of quartz and pyroxene as compositional end members, with an abrupt shift from quartz and k-feldspar dominated sediments north of Scoresby Sund to sediments rich in pyroxene and plagioclase feldspars offshore from the early Tertiary basaltic outcrop. Coarse (<2 mm or <1 mm) ice-rafted sediments are largely absent from the trough sediments between ???8 and 5 cal ka BP, but then increase in the last 4 cal ka BP. Compositional unmixing of the sediments in Grivel Basin and Kangerlussuaq Trough indicate the dominance of local over long distance sediment sources, with pulses of sediment from tidewater glaciers in Kangerlussuaq and Nansen fjords reaching the inner shelf during the Neoglaciation. The change in IRD is more dramatic in the sediment grain-size proxies than in the quartz wt%. Forty to seventy percent of the variance in the quartz records from either side of Denmark Strait is explained by low frequency trends, but the data from the Grivel Basin, East Greenland, are distinctly different, with an approximate 2500 yr periodicity. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Andrews, John T.; Jennings, Anne E.; Coleman, George C.; Eberl, Dennis D.

2010-01-01

134

Mail LOG: Program operating instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

135

JPEG 2000 over mail protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JPEG2000 offers a new coding of images with a hierarchical data structure from which a user can pick up the only necessary codestream for the generation of representation matched to his needs. Therefore, a unitary and multipurpose image exchange system can be made from combining the new JPEG2000 technology and classical mailer tools. This paper proposes such a flexible access method. The proposed server consists of two POP3 servers, a SMTP server, the image list database and the image database. The POP3 server performs user authentication and provides the image list. The SMTP server receives the client's request and transmits the appropriate image. First the user connects to the 1st POP3 server with ID and password, then receives the available image list as e-mails. One mail is sent for each available representation of an image, i.e. each JPEG2000 progression order and image format. The hash value of the codestream and the JPEG2000 progression order values are included in the Message-ID of each mail header. Information, such as the name of the image, size, quality of image, is written in the text. Then, the user orders an image by replying to the corresponding mail of the list. When the SMTP server receives the client's e-mail, it prepares the desired image, and provides a mail with that image to the client via the second POP3 server. The proposed system is validated with different platform mailer tools.

Suenaga, Takatoshi; Meessen, Jerome; Verschueren, Yannick; Macq, Benoit M. M.

2003-11-01

136

A Paradigm for Enhancing Course Offerings Using CD-ROM, Interactive Video and E-mail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored asynchronous delivery modalities in a distance education program and investigated a paradigm for enhancing interactivity in distance education using CD-ROM, interactive video, and e-mail. The purposes of the investigation were to: (1) create an asynchronous distance learning environment based in these technologies; (2) build…

Summers, Jerry; Reck, Larry

137

Humanizing voice mail in healthcare.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, voice mail has spread rapidly through the corporate environment. Healthcare facilities were slow to adopt this form of telecommunication until it became clear that healthcare was indeed a business, and this innovative technology was becoming a permanent fixture in the business world. Unfortunately, basic two-way communication with compassion, which is so critical to the success of healthcare, became peripheral to computer-mediated technology. While there is debate over the voice mail appropriateness in healthcare, one point of agreement is that voice mail is here to stay. The author examines one hospital's experience with computer-mediated communication, its initiative for improvement without monetary options, and its evolution toward a more compassionate, humanistic system for its internal and external customers. PMID:10029802

Hoban, L

1999-02-01

138

Hooked on E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information overload, and an expectation that e-mails, tweets, and text messages will be answered immediately, impact productivity. The younger, information-addicted workers have a greater capacity to process this open floodgate of information, as well as a better ability to multitask. Research suggests that there is a marked drop in worker…

Espinoza, Kathy

2011-01-01

139

Facilitating Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…

Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.

1995-01-01

140

Evaluating Your Campus Mail Center Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five strategies to consider when evaluating the security of a campus mail center: mail center efficiency, electronic tracking, identifying dangerous mail, training, and continuity planning. (EV)

Weiner, Mitchell D.

2003-01-01

141

Distance in architecture  

E-print Network

The document which follows represents an exploration of distance and its connection to architecture. This exploration is threefold. On one level it regards distance as an ontological question, researching for precedent ...

Criparacos, George C

1987-01-01

142

Going the Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and implementation of the distance education program at Peirce College. This Internet-mediated distance learning program focuses on practical fields of study, drawing on the college's strengths in business administration, information technology, and paralegal studies. (SLD)

Leno, Arthur J.

2003-01-01

143

The Mahalanobis distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of many multivariate chemometrical methods is based on the measurement of distances. The Mahalanobis distance (MD), in the original and principal component (PC) space, will be examined and interpreted in relation with the Euclidean distance (ED). Techniques based on the MD and applied in different fields of chemometrics such as in multivariate calibration, pattern recognition and process control

R. De Maesschalck; D. Jouan-Rimbaud; D. L. Massart

2000-01-01

144

Making Distance Education Borderless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Begins with a tribute to Professor G. Ram Reddy (founder of Indira Gandhi National Open University), then focuses on enhancing the role of open universities in providing borderless distance education. Highlights include the need for open distance-education; philosophy and vision; the distance teaching system; the role of information technology;…

Srisa-An, Wichit

1997-01-01

145

Phonological Distance Measures  

PubMed Central

Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

2010-01-01

146

Haptic Discrimination of Distance  

PubMed Central

While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

2014-01-01

147

?-Synuclein: The Long Distance Runner  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is characterized by ?-synuclein pathology in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Braak et al described the spatial and temporal spread of ?-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that ?-synuclein can transfer from cell to cell. In this review, we highlight the involvement of ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and in Braak's staging of Parkinson's disease pathology. We discuss whether a prion-like mechanism of ?-synuclein spread might contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. We describe recent studies investigating cell-to-cell transfer of ?-synuclein and focus our review on the long-distance axonal transport of ?-synuclein along neurons. PMID:23587141

George, Sonia; Rey, Nolwen L; Reichenbach, Nicole; Steiner, Jennifer A; Brundin, Patrik

2013-01-01

148

78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Priority Mail pieces that bear an Intelligent Mail package barcode (IMpb) and for which the mailer pays Commercial Plus prices...Mail pieces that bear an IMpb or other USPS retail tracking barcode.\\3\\ Id. at...

2013-05-21

149

7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.11 Mail. (a) Transit mail. (1) Plants, plant products, plant pests, noxious weeds, and soil which arrive in the United States in closed dispatches by international mail or international parcel post...

2014-01-01

150

Q WHYTEEWEATHER 1 Mailed January 16, 1931 By Charles Fitzhugh Talman,  

E-print Network

Q WHYTEEWEATHER 1 Mailed January 16, 1931 By Charles Fitzhugh Talman, Authority on Meteorolog On the eyes. thick. But at a distance from the town, thw&.there was no smoke, the fog was veW Not a breath

151

Traversing psychological distance.  

PubMed

Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. PMID:24726527

Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

2014-07-01

152

The Extragalactic Distance Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

1997-07-01

153

Local Distance Indicators  

E-print Network

A summary is given of the calibration of the Cepheid scale required in the derivation of distances from observations at V and I, as in the HST work on extragalactic Cepheids. There is some evidence that a small metallicity correction may be necessary in deriving distances in this way. The evidence for this comes both from observations of Cepheids of different metallicities and from a comparison of the LMC distance modulus derived from Cepheids and that derived by other methods.

Michael Feast

2000-10-29

154

Distance to the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about scale and distance. Learners will use simple sports balls as scale models of Earth and the Moon. Given the astronomical distance between Earth and the Moon, students will determine the scale of the model system and the distance that must separate the two models. This activity is in Unit 1 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

2012-08-03

155

Educational Satellite Loan Guarantee Program Act, and Distance Learning. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate. One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing focused on the role of technology in promoting distance learning in the United States. Distance learning programs make educational resources available to citizens, regardless of socioeconomic status or geographic location, and enable citizens to remain…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

156

Earth Mover's Distance Based Local Discriminant Basis  

E-print Network

Earth Mover's Distance Based Local Discriminant Basis Bradley Marchand and Naoki Saito Abstract) is a best basis algorithm developed by Saito and Coifman for the purpose of classification [9, 10]. It works, e-mail: bradley.marchand@navy.mil Naoki Saito Department of Mathematics, University of California

Saito, Naoki

157

39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal...OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End....

2011-07-01

158

39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal...OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End....

2014-07-01

159

39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal...OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End....

2013-07-01

160

Business E-mail: Guidelines for Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines to help businesspeople and business students become more effective and efficient in the use of e-mail. Includes the authors' experiences as instructors in diverse business schools and corporate settings. Notes that the guidelines cover: recognizing the nature of e-mail; composing e-mail; and processing and managing e-mail. (SG)

Munter, Mary; Rogers, Priscilla S.; Rymer, Jone

2003-01-01

161

76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Every Door Direct Mail Retail, November 18, 2011 (Request...product was originally named Marketing Mail Made Easy, but was renamed...Door Direct Mail (EDDM)--Retail. Request at 1. \\2\\ Order...of Experimental Product-- Marketing Mail Made Easy (Order...

2011-11-30

162

Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (<0.02 ng/g). Concentrations of Hg in stream water varied from 1.2 to 320 ng/L, all of which were below the 1,000 ng/L Italian drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline recommended to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream water varied from <0.02 to 0.53 ng/L and were generally elevated compared to the baseline site (<0.02 ng/L). All stream water samples contained concentrations of As (<1.0–6.2 ?g/L) and Sb (<0.20–0.37 ?g/L) below international drinking water guidelines to protect human health (10 ?g/L for As and 20 ?g/L for Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 ?g/L for As and 5.6 ?g/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052–0.56 ?g/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 ?g/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 ?g/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 ?g/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

2014-01-01

163

Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy.  

PubMed

Stream sediment, stream water, and fish were collected from a broad region to evaluate downstream transport and dispersion of mercury (Hg) from inactive mines in the Monte Amiata Hg District (MAMD), Tuscany, Italy. Stream sediment samples ranged in Hg concentration from 20 to 1,900 ng/g, and only 5 of the 17 collected samples exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1,060 ng/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in Tiber River sediment varied from 0.12 to 0.52 ng/g, and although there is no established guideline for sediment methyl-Hg, these concentrations exceeded methyl-Hg in a regional baseline site (<0.02 ng/g). Concentrations of Hg in stream water varied from 1.2 to 320 ng/L, all of which were below the 1,000 ng/L Italian drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline recommended to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream water varied from <0.02 to 0.53 ng/L and were generally elevated compared to the baseline site (<0.02 ng/L). All stream water samples contained concentrations of As (<1.0-6.2 ?g/L) and Sb (<0.20-0.37 ?g/L) below international drinking water guidelines to protect human health (10 ?g/L for As and 20 ?g/L for Sb) and for protection against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife (150 ?g/L for As and 5.6 ?g/L for Sb). Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish muscle ranged from 0.052-0.56 ?g/g (wet weight), mean of 0.17 ?g/g, but only 17 % (9 of 54) exceeded the 0.30 ?g/g (wet weight) USEPA fish muscle guideline recommended to protect human health. Concentrations of Hg in freshwater fish in this region generally decreased with increasing distance from the MAMD, where fish with the highest Hg concentrations were collected more proximal to the MAMD, whereas all fish collected most distal from Hg mines contained Hg below the 0.30 ?g/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River. PMID:23666049

Gray, John E; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

2014-02-01

164

Distance, Education and Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the role which distance, in a variety of forms, can play in the reproduction, intensification or reduction of educational inequality in different types of school systems in different countries. This is a very broad issue, and in the paper we examine the ways in which distance to school has emerged as an important factor in…

Hamnett, Chris; Butler, Tim

2013-01-01

165

"Distance Education for Newbies".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the effectiveness of distance education at Morehead State University. Distance education, which operates via fiber optic telecommunications, has been delivered to as many as 18 sites. Twenty-three faculty and 622 students have participated in this program. The technologies used to present information include full motion video…

Lennex, Lesia C.

166

Distance-Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animated slide show which: -describes a distance-time graph -explains what the slope of a distance time graph represents -explains its usefulness in understanding an objects motion This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material, and can be downloaded for offline use.

167

Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

168

Long Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, from the Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) in Washington, focuses on various distance learning courses offered by the state's two-year colleges. The report contains 16 articles from faculty members and students, including: (1) "The Emperor's New Tutor: A Confession" (Sydney Wallace Stegall); (2) "Distance…

Villeneuve, Phyllis, Ed.

1997-01-01

169

Biomechanics of Distance Running.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

170

The Magnetopause Boundary Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a mathematical lesson utilizing algebra to investigate Earth's magnetosphere. Learners will solve algebraic distance equations that will show how the distance to the Earth's magnetopause depends on the incoming solar wind pressure. This is the twentieth and final activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.

2012-08-03

171

Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

2010-01-01

172

Novel graph distance matrix.  

PubMed

We have introduced novel distance matrix for graphs, which is based on interpretation of columns of the adjacency matrix of a graph as a set of points in n-dimensional space, n being the number of vertices in the graph. Numerical values for the distances are based on the Euclidean distance between n points in n-dimensional space. In this way, we have combined the traditional representation of graphs (drawn as 2D object of no fixed geometry) with their representation in n-dimensional space, defined by a set of n-points that lead to a representation of definite geometry. The novel distance matrix, referred to as natural distance matrix, shows some structural properties and offers novel graph invariants as molecular descriptors for structure-property-activity studies. One of the novel graph descriptors is the modified connectivity index in which the bond contribution for (m, n) bond-type is given by 1/ radical(m + n), where m and n are the valence of the end vertices of the bond. The novel distance matrix (ND) can be reduced to sparse distance-adjacency matrix (DA), which can be viewed as specially weighted adjacency matrix of a graph. The quotient of the leading eigenvalues of novel distance-adjacency matrix and novel distance matrix, as illustrated on a collection of graphs of chemical interest, show parallelism with a simple measure of graph density, based on the quotient of the number of edges in a graph and the maximal possible number of edges for graphs of the same size. PMID:20301095

Randi?, Milan; Pisanski, Tomaz; Novic, Marjana; Plavsi?, Dejan

2010-07-15

173

Interactions of Transportation and Telecommunications Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project was designed as a social science complement to the engineering studies supported by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Transportation Center (URITC). The project developed a behavioral knowledge base about the actual and intended transport and telecommunications behaviors of transportation users, with a particular focus on southern Rhode Island. Background studies, drawing from literature on telecommuting and travel behavior, led to the development of a generalized framework to understand the transport-telecom interactions. In particular, we developed working papers dealing with transport aspects of e-retailing and distance education. In the empirical part of this project, two major field studies were completed. The first of these was a survey of URI students, probing their car travel, carpool, bus use, and Internet use behaviors. The students were surveyed first by telephone, selected randomly from a list obtained from the Register's office. A total of 220 students responded to the telephone survey. Characteristics of the telephone survey respondents are shown in Appendix B. This was supplemented by an in-class survey of 107 students conveniently selected from the courses taught by the research faculty. This supplementary questionnaire probed the students more deeply regarding their motivations for transportation and technology use issues. The second major field study was a mail survey of southern Rhode Island residents. In this survey, we not only investigated actual travel and transport behaviors but also measured attitudes towards the environment and alternative transport and telecommuting solutions. At the time of writing this report, about 850 individuals had responded to our mail questionnaire. Characteristics of the resident sample are described in Appendix B. The results have laid the groundwork for our second year project where we plan to study the impact of specific interventions on transportation and telecommuting attitudes and intentions.

Dholakia, N.; Mundorf, N.; Dholakia, R. R.; Xiao, J. J.

2002-05-01

174

The extragalactic distance scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disagreements and controversy surrounding the extragalactic distance scale are reviewed. Particular consideration is given to the Hubble distance scale, the Sandage-Tammann program, Kennicutt's refinements, van den Bergh's assessment, de Vaucouleur's reassessment, and the H I line-width method. The present situation of the extragalactic distance scale is then considered with regard to galactic calibrations, the Local Group, nearby groups, the Virgo cluster, and more distant clusters. It is suggested that the existing disagreements and complicated controversy are merely symptoms of the adolescent nature of the field.

Hodge, P. W.

175

77 FR 71643 - Standard Mail Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1556] Standard Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory...noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning Standard Mail pricing and related matters...substance of the Postal Service's Response. Participation...20268-0001 during regular business hours by the...

2012-12-03

176

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.9 Section 322...Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee...sides of the outside of that package with the contents of the...

2013-01-01

177

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.9 Section 322...Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee...sides of the outside of that package with the contents of the...

2011-01-01

178

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.9 Section 322...Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee...sides of the outside of that package with the contents of the...

2012-01-01

179

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.9 Section 322...Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee...sides of the outside of that package with the contents of the...

2010-01-01

180

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.9 Section 322...Regions § 322.9 Mailed packages. (a) If you import a package of honeybees, honeybee...sides of the outside of that package with the contents of the...

2014-01-01

181

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the...

2012-05-14

182

Automobile Stopping Distances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)

Logue, L. J.

1979-01-01

183

Geodetic distance measuring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1980-01-01

184

Keeping E-Mail in Top Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the fact that e-mail has been firmly entrenched in offices and homes for some time, debate still rages online about e-mail usage and style. How should and e-mail message begin and end? If replying to a message, should the message be quoted before or after? What tone should be taken with a business e-mail? The author talked with some heavy…

Goldsborough, Reid

2005-01-01

185

Predictors of Learning Satisfaction in Japanese Online Distance Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese distance education has been slow to utilize the Internet, and mainly depends on the mail system and, to a lesser extent, television broadcasting as its mode of delivery. Since 2001, however, regulations have been relaxed to allow students to complete all course requirements for a university degree via online distance learning. This…

Bray, Eric; Aoki, Kumiko; Dlugosh, Larry

2008-01-01

186

U. S. Postal Service to recycle undelivered bulk business mail  

SciTech Connect

US Postal Service officials are completing a plan that they say will generate more than 500,000 tons of mixed recycled paper per year. Under a program that could begin as early as October, managers of the nation's 35,000 post offices will collect and recycle all undeliverable bulk business mail. Postal officials say recycling the flyers, magazines, and catalogs could save the federal service millions of dollars per year in transport and tipping fees.

Not Available

1994-09-01

187

Senior Citizens Who Use E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increases in the aging population and use of computer-related technology have spawned research regarding older adults' use of the Internet. This study examined characteristics differentiating rural Midwestern senior citizens (N = 298) who use e-mail from those who do not. Compared to those who did not use e-mail, e-mail-using seniors were younger…

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Edelbaum, Jessica K.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2007-01-01

188

O How Wondrous Is E-Mail!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the use of e-mail for communication and collaborative projects in schools. Discusses the effectiveness of an e-mail system based on a UNIX host; problems with POP (post office protocol) client programs; and the new Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) which addresses most of the shortcomings of the POP protocol while keeping advantages…

Buchanan, Larry

1998-01-01

189

14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a)...

2014-01-01

190

14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a)...

2013-01-01

191

14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a)...

2012-01-01

192

14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a)...

2011-01-01

193

14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards...distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a)...

2010-01-01

194

How do we convert the transport sector to renewable energy and improve the sec-  

E-print Network

...............................................................................................22 International passenger air transport.......................................................................................................................24 Passenger transport in private cars on short and medium distances.....................................................................................32 Report from working group 2: Passenger air transport and its competitors

195

You've Got Mail!: Understanding How E-Mail Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptually, e-mail is not a whole lot different from regular postal mail ("snail mail"), except that it is much faster. E-mail requires three things: (1) a personal computer; (2) a telephone or communication line; and (3) an Internet provider (e-mail service account). This article provides details on how it works--plus some research activities…

Roman, Harry T.

2007-01-01

196

Techniques for Distance Learning Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes benefits of distance learning labs in schools. Discusses funding, equipment needed, and distance learning etiquette. Suggests techniques for making long distance learning interactions more meaningful and educational. (AEF)

Mikovsky, Edward

1997-01-01

197

Stereoscopic distance perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

Foley, John M.

1989-01-01

198

Feedback Channels: Using Social Presence Theory to Compare Voice Mail to E-mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effects of using voice mail files sent as electronic mail (e-mail) attachments versus text-based e-mail to provide student feedback. Social Presence Theory (SPT) was used as the theoretical framework for assessing the two modes of delivering feedback. SPT would predict that voice mail would be perceived as higher than e-mail in terms of social presence. In

Mark Keil; Roy D. Johnson

199

International Study on Distance Education: A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined distance education systems and practices in the major areas of the world (Australia, Asia, Africa, South and Central America, North America, and Eastern and Western Europe). A long version of the survey instrument was originally mailed to 1,640 institutions, organizations, and government agencies, and a short version was mailed to…

Graff, Kurt, Ed.; Holmberg, Borje, Ed.

200

E-Mail Research: Targeting the Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research program at IBM's® Collaborative User Experience (CUE) group supports an e-mail system used by millions of people. We present three lessons learned from working with real-world enterprise e-mail solutions. First, a prag- matic, system-level approach reveals that e-mail programs are generally used id- iosyncratically, often for many different goals at once. This fact has strong impli- cations for

Martin Wattenberg; Steven L. Rohall; Daniel Gruen; Bernard Kerr

2005-01-01

201

49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records...Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NOTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS OR INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF...

2011-10-01

202

49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records...Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NOTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS OR INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF...

2010-10-01

203

49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records...Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NOTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS OR INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF...

2013-10-01

204

49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records...Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NOTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS OR INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF...

2012-10-01

205

49 CFR 830.10 - Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Preservation of aircraft wreckage, mail, cargo, and records...Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NOTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS OR INCIDENTS AND OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF...

2014-10-01

206

Distance Courses in Mechanics and in Distance Instructor Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two related distance courses for instructor and leadership training and a distance undergraduate course in mechanics. Flexible and distance learning are becoming more and more important, so it is important to train instructors for such changes. KTH (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm) has the course "5C4502 Distance…

Karlsson, Goran

2004-01-01

207

Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

2014-01-01

208

Distance Rate Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Measurement is one of the core NCTM Principals and Standards for School Mathematics content standards, and rate is central to its practical application. While most middle school students know the distance-rate-time formula, they may still benefit from a closer study of the relationship through these online resources.

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff

2008-03-10

209

Estimating Distance and Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to estimate the time it takes to travel different distances based on an estimation of the time it takes to travel a part of the whole route. This reinforces basic fractional/ratio thinking, as well as early multiplication as repeated addition.

2008-07-18

210

Distance Education: Changing Formats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes distance education at the School of Library and Information Science at San Jose State University (California). Highlights include interactive television transmission; interactive video and asynchronous transfer mode; reliability; experiences at other schools; computer-mediated communication and interaction between teachers and students;…

Woolls, Blanche; Dowlin, Ken; Loertscher, David

2002-01-01

211

Rapport in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapport has been recognized as important in learning in general but little is known about its importance in distance education (DE). The study we report on in this paper provides insights into the importance of rapport in DE as well as challenges to and indicators of rapport-building in DE. The study relied on interviews with 42 Canadian…

Murphy, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria A.

2012-01-01

212

The Google Similarity Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Words and phrases acquire meaning from the way they are used in society, from their relative semantics to other words and phrases. For computers the equivalent of 'society' is 'database,' and the equivalent of 'use' is 'way to search the database.' We present a new theory of similarity between words and phrases based on information distance and Kolmogorov complexity. To

Rudi L. Cilibrasi; Paul M. B. Vitányi

2007-01-01

213

Nutrition for distance events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to

Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2007-01-01

214

Encyclopedia of Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The innovations in computer and communications technologies combined with on-going needs to deliver educational programs to students regardless of their physical locations, have lead to the innovation of distance education programs and technologies. To keep up with recent developments in both areas of technologies and techniques related to…

Howard, Caroline, Ed.; Boettecher, Judith, Ed.; Justice, Lorraine, Ed.; Schenk, Karen, Ed.; Rogers, Patricia, Ed.; Berg, Gary, Ed.

2005-01-01

215

Training Distance Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a course designed to enable distance teachers to develop and teach courses using computer-mediated communication and emphasizing basic pedagogy. The teaching strategies and learning points of each module, as well as the organizational and technical set-up, are described. (Contains seven references.) (EAM)

Ingesman, Lars

1993-01-01

216

Distance Learning Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Technology Assessment authorized a series of case studies in 1989 to investigate how technologies, services, and programs are implemented in distance education projects. The studies were also intended to look at the role of local, state, and federal agencies, and other public and private entities in providing educational services to…

Barker, Bruce O.

217

Metric Mean Distance Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metric Mean Distance (MMD) is normally calculated in Space Syntax as a weighted graph measure, i.e. by means of discretization. In this paper, I propose a new way of calculating MMD without discretization. In doing so, I discuss the basic concepts of the proposed algorithm and its analytical and theoretical implications. My approach is based on a dissection of a

Gunnar Tausch

2009-01-01

218

E-Mail Communication with First Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated the following questions: (1) How quickly can first graders master basic e-mailing skills? (2) Does communicating through the Internet and e-mail provide motivation or incentive for children to read or write? (3) Will children write with specific conventions due to having an identifiable audience to whom they are…

Michaels, Elizabeth A.

219

10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent...

2014-01-01

220

10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent...

2011-01-01

221

IMPROVING THE SECURITY OF ELECTRONIC MAIL: UPDATED  

E-print Network

, and business organizations throughout the world to exchange personal and business information. Electronic mail the world to exchange personal and business information. The popularity and widespread use of electronicMarch 2007 IMPROVING THE SECURITY OF ELECTRONIC MAIL: UPDATED GUIDELINES ISSUED BY NIST IMPROVING

222

MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

223

E-Mail and Ethical Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

2009-01-01

224

Using E-Mail across Computer Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of telecommunications technology to exchange electronic mail, files, and messages across different computer networks. Networks highlighted include ARPA Internet; BITNET; USENET; FidoNet; MCI Mail; and CompuServe. Examples of the successful use of networks in higher education are given. (Six references) (LRW)

Hazari, Sunil

1990-01-01

225

76 FR 76619 - International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes-Mailing Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes--Mailing Services AGENCY...Individual Country Listings (ICLs) to reflect price adjustments for First-Class Mail International...Service filed a notice of mailing services price adjustments with the Postal...

2011-12-08

226

Trap E-mail Address for Combating E-mail Viruses Boldizsar Bencsath Istvan Vajda  

E-print Network

the identification of infected computers after an attack by e-mail viruses. Our approach uses trap e-mail addresses. 1. INTRODUCTION Computer viruses have evolved in the last decade. In the beginning, viruses wereTrap E-mail Address for Combating E-mail Viruses Boldizs´ar Bencs´ath Istv´an Vajda Laboratory

Bencsáth, Boldizsár

227

MailMinder: taming DHCP's mailman interface.  

PubMed

While the Department of Veteran's Affairs Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP) is one of the most widely disseminated and successful hospital information systems in existence, it currently is accessed through a user interface which is not as mature as the rest of the system. This interface is a VT-100 compatible, character oriented interface using menus accessed by typed commands for feature access. This project demonstrated that a mature graphical user interface (MailMinder) can be successfully used as a "front-end" to DHCP. MailMinder is completely compatible with the existing unmodified DHCP electronic mail program, Mailman. MailMinder allows the user to be more efficient than the current interface and offers additional features over the current mail system. The program has undergone evaluation and limited deployment at five separate sites. The feature set of this program and its operation will be shown at this demonstration. The demonstration has implications for all current hospital information systems. PMID:1482995

Shultz, E K; Brown, R; Kotta, G

1992-01-01

228

A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Sending Binary Vector Plasmid DNA by Mail  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe a simple cost-effective technique for the transport of plasmid DNA by mail. Our results demonstrate that common multipurpose printing paper is a satisfactory substrate and superior to the more absorbent 3MM chromatography paper for the transport of plasmid DNA through the U.S. first clas...

229

The Cosmic Distance Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource gives an impression of how immense our Universe is by employing a method used many times in "Power of 10" films - that is, starting with an image of the Earth and then zooming out towards the furthest visible reaches of our Universe. This is not, however, an exercise in "powers of 10" - on the contrary, the goal is to show astronomical distances without scientific notation. It focuses on the large number of zeros that are in astronomical distances which are then measured with a familiar unit like the kilometer. The number of zeros increase with each zoom, though not at a constant rate. This resource was written because many people do not realize how spectacularly far away the "nearest" astronomical objects are.

Maggie Masetti

2010-01-01

230

Distance between images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.

Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.

1992-01-01

231

Geodetic distance measuring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mode locked laser system including a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized for deriving two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. Preferably the optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide a measure of the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal is used to provide a measure of the wet or water vapor density of the air. From these measurements is computed in means of the distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry and water vapor densities in the measurement path.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1983-01-01

232

Going the Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper and pencil activity, students are provided with a map of the U.S. and use it to measure and calculate distance. Access to a globe will enhance the activity. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

233

Novae as distance indicators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nova shells are characteristically prolate with equatorial bands and polar caps. Failure to account for the geometry can lead to large errors in expansion parallaxes for individual novae. When simple prescriptions are used for deriving expansion parallaxes from an ensemble of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, the average distance will be too small by factors of 10 to 15 percent. The absolute magnitudes of the novae will be underestimated and the resulting distance scale will be too small by the same factors. If observations of partially resolved nova shells select for large inclinations, the systematic error in the resulting distance scale could easily be 20 to 30 percent. Extinction by dust in the bulge of M31 may broaden and shift the intrinsic distribution of maximum nova magnitudes versus decay rates. We investigated this possibility by projecting Arp's and Rosino's novae onto a composite B - 6200A color map of M31's bulge. Thirty two of the 86 novae projected onto a smooth background with no underlying structure due to the presence of a dust cloud along the line of sight. The distribution of maximum magnitudes versus fade rates for these unreddened novae is indistinguishable from the distribution for the entire set of novae. It is concluded that novae suffer very little extinction from the filamentary and patchy distribution of dust seen in the bulge of M31. Time average B and H alpha nova luminosity functions are potentially powerful new ways to use novae as standard candles. Modern CCD observations and the photographic light curves of M31 novae found during the last 60 years were analyzed to show that these functions are power laws. Consequently, unless the eruption times for novae are known, the data cannot be used to obtain distances.

Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin

1988-01-01

234

Information Dissemination by Mail. Implications for CME.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two evaluation approaches were used to assess the impact of a continuing medical education manual that was distributed by mail. Implications for development of materials and for information dissemination strategies in continuing medical education are discussed. (Author/CT)

Scott, Craig S.; And Others

1986-01-01

235

28 CFR 540.11 - Mail depositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence...in a mail depository must contain a return address (see § 540.12(d)). [50 FR...

2010-07-01

236

77 FR 74032 - International Mail Contract  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...concerning modification of a mail contract with Singapore Post Limited. This notice informs the public...Agreement) for inbound market dominant services with Singapore Post Limited (Singapore Post).\\1\\ It asks that the Commission...

2012-12-12

237

7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.32 Mailed...

2014-01-01

238

7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted Organisms § 322.17 Mailed...

2010-01-01

239

7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted Organisms § 322.17 Mailed...

2013-01-01

240

7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.32 Mailed...

2011-01-01

241

7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.32 Mailed...

2010-01-01

242

7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted Organisms § 322.17 Mailed...

2014-01-01

243

7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.32 Mailed...

2013-01-01

244

7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.32 Mailed...

2012-01-01

245

7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted Organisms § 322.17 Mailed...

2011-01-01

246

7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted Organisms § 322.17 Mailed...

2012-01-01

247

E-mail on the Move  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PocketScience, Inc. was a member of the NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center. Their PocketMail product is an email service that brings email capabilities to new hand-held devices. The PocketMail service uses technology originally developed at JPL. Through its involvement with the ATCC, PocketScience, Inc. was able to use this space probe communications technology and adapt it for advanced signal processing on Earth.

1999-01-01

248

Geodesics for a class of distances in the space of probability measures  

E-print Network

. Keywords: dynamical transport distances, power mobility, geodesics in the space of probability measures nonlinear mobility function m. As- suming that 0 = 0Ld and 1 = 1Ld, the corresponding squared distance transportation with a momentum constraint. In this paper, we will focus on the case of a concave power mobility

Carlier, Guillaume

249

Comparison of headlamp visibility distance and stopping distance.  

PubMed

This report compares experimentally-obtained headlamp visibility distances with stopping distances from 88 km/hr. The results indicate that low-beam headlamps are inadequate for safely revealing low-contrast objects at legal driving speeds. PMID:6664795

Olson, P L; Sivak, M

1983-12-01

250

Distance to Dark Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception.

Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies.

Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness.

A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is.

To determine OGLE-2005-SMC-001's distance, astronomers measured the microlensing event over several months with both Spitzer in space and the Earth-based telescopes. Careful analysis of the data revealed the time of the peak brightness differed slightly between the two locations.

Because astronomers knew the exact distance between Earth and Spitzer and the time lag between the peak-observed brightness, they could determine OGLE-2005-SMC-001's speed. Using trigonometric equations and graphs to do the 'brain's' job, scientists then inferred the dark body's location to be in the outer portion, or halo, of our galaxy.

The picture of the Small Magellanic Cloud in this concept is a two-color image from two Digitized Sky Survey 2 observations The Digitized Sky Survey is based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md.

2007-01-01

251

W-mail: an electronic mail system for wearable computing environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an e-mail system for wearable computing environments. In this system, we extend the conventional mail format and the server\\/client(browser) architecture by considering the specific features of wearable computing environments, i.e., full time operation, hands-free use of computer, and close relationship to our daily life. A mail author can specify the behavior of his\\/her mail by embedding several

Hirotaka Ueda; Masahiko Tsukamoto; Shojiro Nishio

2000-01-01

252

49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531 Section 236.531 Transportation...531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop...height above the plane of the tops of the rails, and at a horizontal distance from...

2010-10-01

253

49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531 Section 236.531 Transportation...531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop...height above the plane of the tops of the rails, and at a horizontal distance from...

2011-10-01

254

Books-By-Mail Using a Mail Order Book Catalog. A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Silas Bronson Library in Waterbury, Connecticut received a state grant in 1976 to provide increased accessibility to their services through a books-by-mail program. In 1975, 9,750 catalogs listing the books-by-mail collection were mailed to local households. Newspaper publicity requested that households that received the catalogs share them…

Warshasky, Stanford

255

Did You Get My E-Mail? Moving E-Mails beyond the Inbox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…

Ellis, Susan J.

2011-01-01

256

Time-Distance Helioseismology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-distance helioseismology is a method of ambient noise imaging using the solar oscillations. The basic realization that led to time-distance helioseismology was that the temporal cross correlation of the signals at two 'surface' (or photospheric) locations should show a feature at the time lag corresponding to the subsurface travel time between the locations. The temporal cross correlation, as a function of the location separation, is the Fourier transform of the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the solar oscillations, a commonly used function in helioseismology. It is therefore likely the characteristic ridge structure of the correlation function had been seen before without appreciation of its significance. Travel times are measured from the cross correlations. The times are sensitive to a number of important subsurface solar phenomena. These include sound speed variations, flows, and magnetic fields. There has been much interesting progress in the 17 years since the first paper on this subject (Duvall et al., Nature, 1993, 362, 430-432). This progress will be reviewed in this paper.

Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.

2010-01-01

257

Distance collaborations with industry  

SciTech Connect

The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

1998-06-01

258

Distance Versus Time Graphs 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be used before students learn about velocity and distance versus time graphs. Students will discover how the slope of a distance versus time graph is related to the speed of the object.

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

259

49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172...transport index for all packages does not exceed...

2010-10-01

260

49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172...transport index for all packages does not exceed...

2014-10-01

261

49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172...transport index for all packages does not exceed...

2011-10-01

262

49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172...transport index for all packages does not exceed...

2013-10-01

263

49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...distance requirements for packages containing Class 7...in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172...transport index for all packages does not exceed...

2012-10-01

264

49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive...package marked as containing underdeveloped film. Transport index Minimum...

2012-10-01

265

49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive...package marked as containing underdeveloped film. Transport index Minimum...

2013-10-01

266

49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive...package marked as containing underdeveloped film. Transport index Minimum...

2010-10-01

267

49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive...package marked as containing underdeveloped film. Transport index Minimum...

2011-10-01

268

49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive... Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive...package marked as containing underdeveloped film. Transport index Minimum...

2014-10-01

269

MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

Harris, D. K.

1979-01-01

270

Spectral distance on the circle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A building block of non-commutative geometry is the observation that most of the geometric information of a compact Riemannian spin manifold M is encoded within its Dirac operator D. Especially via Connes' distance formula one is able to extract from the spectral properties of D the geodesic distance on M. In this paper we investigate the distance d encoded within

Pierre Martinetti

2008-01-01

271

Spectral distance on the circle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A building block of noncommutative geometry is the observation that most of the geometric information of a compact riemannian spin manifold M is encoded within its Dirac operator D. Especially via Connes' distance formula one is able to extract from the spectral properties of D the geodesic distance on M. In this paper we investigate the distance d encoded within

Pierre Martinetti

2007-01-01

272

Using Parallax to Determine Distances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to give students a better understanding of what parallax is and to gain some experience in using it. They will devise a method to calculate the distance of objects using observational data, describe how our eyes use parallax to determine the distance of objects, and make estimates of distances using parallax.

273

Continuing Education for Distance Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

2012-01-01

274

Reconsidering Moore's Transactional Distance Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…

Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas

2009-01-01

275

Distance measures for speech processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties and interrelationships among four measures of distance in speech processing are theoretically and experimentally discussed. The root mean square (rms) log spectral distance, cepstral distance, likelihood ratio (minimum residual principle or delta coding (DELCO) algorithm), and a cosh measure (based upon two nonsymmetrical likelihood ratios) are considered. It is shown that the cepstral measure bounds the rms log

J. Markel

1976-01-01

276

Verifying Success in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appalachian State University (ASU) is a participating institution in the North Carolina Consortium for Distance Education in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). This Consortium initiated a successful distance education masters program in 1997. The distance education program at ASU is actually a hybrid program, providing the opportunity for…

Barber, William D.; Clark, Heather M.; McIntyre, M. Elaine

277

DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES  

SciTech Connect

We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Benjamin, Robert A., E-mail: jbfoster@bu.edu, E-mail: jackson@bu.edu, E-mail: J.J.Stead@leeds.ac.uk, E-mail: mgh@ast.leeds.ac.uk, E-mail: benjamin@astro.wisc.edu [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States)

2012-06-01

278

COSEE Mid-Atlantic Mailing List Signup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this site to sign up for the COSEE Mid-Atlantic mailing list. COSEE-MA offers a variety of instructional tools, workshops and classes to bay and coastal ocean educators. This list will inform subscribers of materials and workshops as they are developed.

279

Synchronous Internet Training - Synctrain Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new mailing list sponsored by InSync Training Synergy and moderated by Jennifer Hofmann, a Virtual Classroom Designer, is designed to serve "trainers, educators, and other people interested in Live Online Learning." Discussions on training techniques, Internet pedagogy, supporting multimedia, new products, and relevant jobs, conferences, and classes are welcome. Users can view the list archives and subscribe at this site.

280

VIA ELECTRONIC MAIL July 17, 2009  

E-print Network

VIA ELECTRONIC MAIL MEMORANDUM July 17, 2009 TO: Athletics Directors, Conference Commissioners Moratorium. This correspondence is being sent on behalf of the Baseball Rules Committee, alerting the college the integrity of the game and to enhance the safety of the student-athletes. Before the committee's recent

Russell, Daniel A.

281

Address block location on complex mail pieces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike simple letter envelopes which have a high degree of global spatial structure among a limited number of entities, many mail pieces such as magazines usually have an address block printed on a label which can be pasted in an arbitrary position and orientation among text, graphics and images on a magazine cover, which is often shrink wrapped. This work

B. Yu; A.K. Jain; M. Mohiuddin

1997-01-01

282

Veterans' and Dependents' Educational Benefits Mailing Address  

E-print Network

1 Veterans' and Dependents' Educational Benefits Mailing Address The University of Texas at Austin Office of the Registrar Veteran Certification P. O. Box 7216 Austin, Texas 78713-7216 Phone: (512) 475://www.utexas.edu/business/accounting/sar/il.html Where is my check?: https://utdirect.utexas.edu/acct/checks/index.WBX Veteran Services at UT Austin

Johnston, Daniel

283

Dynamic Sublists: Scaling Unmoderated Mailing Lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmoderated electronic mailing lists suffer from the paradox that the more successful they are, the more difficult they are to use and administer because of the increasing number of users and discussions. Traditional solutions to this problem, such as creating static sublists or providing a Web interface, are not always desirable. We discuss the problems with traditional solutions and present

Ellen Spertus; Robin Jeffries; Kiem Sie

2001-01-01

284

Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational technique for combatting junk mail, in particular, and controlling access to a shared resource, in general. The main idea is to require a user to compute a moderately hard, but not intractable, function in order to gain access to the resource, thus preventing frivolous use. To this end we suggest several pricing functions, based on, respectively,

Cynthia Dwork; Moni Naor

1992-01-01

285

Who Owns Your E-mail?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent findings that could influence the use of e-mail on university campuses. National privacy legislation and the inviolability of student records are discussed. It is concluded that more effective safeguards are necessary, and that the current steps are inadequate for the protection of students' rights. (Author/LRW)

Panepinto, Joe

1995-01-01

286

IJAS Region V Winter Mailing February 2012  

E-print Network

will be coordinating the paper session this year. (Essays will be judged later.) Region V Project Science Fair Mailing February 2012 Dear Sponsors: I hope your science fairs have gone, or are going, well! Our region and Science Academy ­ March 16 (tentative) - Deadline for Project Session Registration ­ March 3, 2013

Kostic, Milivoje M.

287

IJAS Region V Winter Mailing February 2013  

E-print Network

60506. Region V Project Science Fair This year the 2013 Northern Illinois Regional Science Fair Mailing February 2013 Dear Sponsors: I hope your science fairs have gone, or are going, well! Once again Mathematics and Science Academy ­ March 9, 2013 - Deadline for Project Session Registration ­ March 4, 2013

Karonis, Nicholas T.

288

Subscribe to GAO E-Mail Alerts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. General Accounting Office, Congress' Watchdog agency, now has a mailing list service for a daily electronic posting of the General Accounting Office (GAO) Daybook. The GAO Daybook is the daily listing of released GAO reports and testimony.

1969-12-31

289

sai-irish-studies Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new mailing list is intended to serve as a networking and discussion forum for sociology and social policy researchers focusing on the Republic of Ireland and/or Northern Ireland or anyone engaged in "the systematic study of Irish society." Subscription information and message archives are available at the site.

290

ATTENDING DENTIST'S STATEMENT UCI MAIL ORIGINAL TO  

E-print Network

ATTENDING DENTIST'S STATEMENT UCI MAIL ORIGINAL TO: SF 4400-DEN (6-2004) Supersedes (8-2002) issue INFORMATION SEE NEXT PAGE FOR INSTRUCTIONS Protect this form as sensitive when information is entered. DENTIST'S STATEMENT OF ACTUAL SERVICES DENTIST'S PRE-DETERMINATION REQUEST PATIENT & SUBSCRIBER INFORMATION 1. Patient

Fuerschbach, Phillip

291

Algebraic distance on graphs.  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

Chen, J.; Safro, I. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Minnesota)

2011-01-01

292

"You've got mail!": the role of e-mail in clinical breast surgical practice.  

PubMed

Easy Internet access is changing the practice of medicine in the US. At least 137 million Americans have access to the World Wide Web, and up to one-half would like to communicate with their physicians by e-mail. The membership of the American Society of Breast Surgeons was surveyed to evaluate the current role of e-mail in patient-doctor relationships. Due to the extensive discussions often involved in the evaluation of breast disease, and the elective nature of most surgical procedures, this specialty may be particularly well-suited to using e-mail communication as an extension of discussions during traditional office visits. A questionnaire was e-mailed to all members of the ASBS who had provided an e-mail address. About 1236 questionnaires were sent, and 285 surgeons responded, a 23% response rate. About 130 (46%) responders were female; 209 responders (73%) did not use e-mail to communicate with patients (76% of responding females, 70% of males). The oldest and youngest surgeons were least likely to use e-mail to communicate with patients. There was no gender-related difference in e-mail use. There was no difference in e-mail use between surgeons who limit their practice to breast disease and those who do not. Urban and university-based surgeons were more likely to use e-mail. Medical-legal liability concerns and confidentiality issues were the most common reasons for not using e-mail. Among those surgeons who did use e-mail, ability to answer at one's own discretion, and the ability to provide an organized response were the major reasons for using e-mail. Overall, the membership expressed a preference for personal interaction over electronic communication. PMID:16603358

Guth, Amber A; Diflo, Thomas

2006-12-01

293

Mitigating E-Mail Requests in Teenagers' First and Second Language Academic Cyber-Consultation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study analyses teenagers' e-mail requests during academic cyber-consultation, exploring how the performance of request modifiers is influenced by participants' perceptions of the degree of imposition of the speech act and social distance with the recipient. A total of 295 e-mail requests, 145 produced by British English speakers…

Alcón Soler, Eva

2013-01-01

294

Direct Distance, Route Distance, and Implied Temporal Distance: Effects on the Accessibility of Situation Model Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated whether the spatial distance effect in situation models (Rinck & Bower, 1995) is based on direct distance or on route distance. In all experiments, participants learned the layout of a building before they read narratives about a protagonist's motions and actions in this building. Reading times for target sentences…

Dutke, Stephan; Ribback, Sabine; Wagner, Birgit

2003-01-01

295

The Whole Internet... By E-Mail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Dr. Bob" Rankin has recently updated "The Whole Internet... By E-Mail," a comprehensive guide for using email to access all types of Internet sites. The guide provides examples of email access to information available on FTP, Gopher, WWW, Usenet, WAIS, Listserv, Finger, and "Directory Assistance" (Whois and Netfind) sites. If a user lacks full Internet connectivity but wishes to take advantage of the complete array of Internet resources, this guide is for them. It also provides instructions for accessing several miscellaneous Internet information sources via email, including dictionary lookup, sending a fax, sources of U.S. government information, Internet patent news service, currency conversion, virus protection software, and Internet Service Providers by area code. "The Whole Internet...By E-Mail" has been translated into over 25 languages. Foreign language access instructions are in the guide.

296

School Grade E-mail Phone  

E-print Network

) in all pairs the girl is taller than the boy; (b) in 9 pairs out of 10 the girl is taller than the boy? 5GRADES 7-9 Name School Grade E-mail Phone Home address 1. A straight line is painted in two colors at the midpoint of the interval bounded by the other two. 2. Find all positive integral solutions x, y

297

Voice Mail System Guide Initial Setup  

E-print Network

-0004. VoIP users, dial 8-0200. Enter 0000 for the passcode, then press the # key. Enter a new passcode when the Voice Mail System From Your On-Campus Phone Dial 7-0004. VoIP users, dial 8-0200. Enter your passcode, then press the # key. Proceed with the prompts. Dial 847.0004 or 979.847.0004. VoIP users, dial 458

298

Tolman's Luminosity-Distance, Poincare's Light-Distance and Cayley-Klein's Hyperbolic Distance  

E-print Network

We deduce Tolman's formula of luminosity-distance in Cosmology from Poincare's definition of light-distance with Lorentz Transformation (LT).In Minkowskian metric, if distance is proper time (as it is often argued) then light-distance must be also the shortest distance, like proper duration (unlike Einstein's longest length within rest system). By introducing Poincare's proper light-distance in Einstein's basic synchronization we deduce a dilated distance between observer and receding mirror (with relativistic Doppler factor). Such a distance corresponds not to an Euclidean distance (Einstein's rigid rod) but to an Hyperbolic distance (Cayley-Klein) with a Lobatchevskian Horizon. From a basic proportionality hyperbolic distance-velocity, we deduce the law of Hubble. By following Penrose's Lobatchevskian representation of LT, we transform Special Relativity (SR) into an Hyperbolic Cosmological Relativity (HCR). by using only the LT but the whole LT. In Hyperbolic Rotation motion (basic active LT or Einstein's boost), Hubble constant (hyperbolic angular velocity) is coupled with a minimal Milgrom's basic proper acceleration (hyperbolic centrifugal acceleration).

Yves Pierseaux

2009-07-28

299

New distances to RAVE stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probability density functions (pdfs) are determined from new stellar parameters for the distance moduli of stars for which the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) has obtained spectra with S/N ? 10. Single-Gaussian fits to the pdf in distance modulus suffice for roughly half the stars, with most of the other half having satisfactory two-Gaussian representations. As expected, early-type stars rarely require more than one Gaussian. The expectation value of distance is larger than the distance implied by the expectation of distance modulus; the latter is itself larger than the distance implied by the expectation value of the parallax. Our parallaxes of Hipparcos stars agree well with the values measured by Hipparcos, so the expectation of parallax is the most reliable distance indicator. The latter are improved by taking extinction into account. The effective temperature-absolute magnitude diagram of our stars is significantly improved when these pdfs are used to make the diagram. We use the method of kinematic corrections devised by Schönrich, Binney and Asplund to check for systematic errors for general stars and confirm that the most reliable distance indicator is the expectation of parallax. For cool dwarfs and low-gravity giants, tends to be larger than the true distance by up to 30 per cent. The most satisfactory distances are for dwarfs hotter than 5500 K. We compare our distances to stars in 13 open clusters with cluster distances from the literature and find excellent agreement for the dwarfs and indications that we are overestimating distances to giants, especially in young clusters.

Binney, J.; Burnett, B.; Kordopatis, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Sharma, S.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Williams, M. E. K.; Navarro, J.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.

2014-01-01

300

All materials will be mailed to you at the "Mailing Address" you list on the  

E-print Network

Address All materials will be mailed to you at the "Mailing Address" you list on the application for establishing your password. Once you have successfully set your password, you will be able to access campusPanther password to register online at paws.uwm.edu. SCHEdULE OF CLASSES See schedule.uwm.edu for up-to-date course

Saldin, Dilano

301

All materials will be mailed to you at the "Mailing Address" you list on the  

E-print Network

address All materials will be mailed to you at the "Mailing Address" you list on the application and directions for establishing your password. Once you have successfully set your password, you will be able them sent to the address list- ed below. if this is your first college experience or you have been out

Saldin, Dilano

302

Competencies for distance education professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the roles and competencies of distance education professionals within the United\\u000a States and Canada. A population of 103 distance education experts was identified, and their perceptions regarding this information\\u000a were sought in a modified two-round Delphi process. The results of the study include a competency model for distance education.\\u000a It illustrates the

Elizabeth C. Thach; Karen L. Murphy

1995-01-01

303

HEPROC-Learning-Contracts mailing list  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Moderated by a panel of three, the HEPROC-Learning-Contracts mailing list studies the relationship between students and faculty in higher (or tertiary) education. The list will cover explicit and implicit aspects of that relationship, methods of customizing content and learning experiences, and ways to enhance students' definition of and commitment to course content and materials. Learning contracts, also referred to as learning agreements, will be the basis for a significant portion of list discussion topics. Participation from around the world is welcome.

304

Lorentzian Connes Distance, Spectral Graph Distance and Loop Gravity  

E-print Network

Connes' formula defines a distance in loop quantum gravity, via the spinfoam Dirac operator. A simple notion of spectral distance on a graph can be extended do the discrete Lorentzian context, providing a physically natural example of Lorentzian spectral geometry, with a neat space of Dirac operators. The Hilbert structure of the fermion space is Lorentz covariant rather than invariant.

Carlo Rovelli

2014-09-09

305

HP Distance Via Double Cut and Join Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic distance problem in the Hannenhalli-Pevzner theory is the following: Given two genomes whose chromosomes are lin- ear, calculate the minimum number of inversions and translocations that transform one genome into the other. This paper presents a new distance formula based on a simple tree structure that captures all the delicate features of this problem in a unifying way.

Anne Bergeron; Julia Mixtacki; Jens Stoye

2008-01-01

306

Lifelong Learning & Distance Higher Education. Perspectives on Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…

McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.

2005-01-01

307

The Psychological Importance of "Distance" in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This between-subjects experiment was designed to examine the impact of physical distance on affect and cognition in a distance education situation. Participants were 48 undergraduate students enrolled in communications classes. All subjects were exposed to identical instructional material, but half of the students were told that the material was…

Uppal, Charu; Sundar, S. Shyam

308

eMailing Browsing Internet safety Internet applications Searching S  

E-print Network

eMailing Browsing Internet safety Internet applications Searching S eMailing Browsing Internet sa Internet applications Searchi eMailing Browsing Intern Internet applications Sea eMailing Browsing Inter Internet applications Se eMailing Browsing Inter Internet applications Searching eMailing Browsing Internet

Iyer, Sridhar

309

Computer Conferencing and Mass Distance Education. CITE Report No. 98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly reviews the first large-scale use of computer mediated communication (CMC) at the Open University (OU) in Milton Keynes, England, including computer conferencing and electronic mail, in an adjunct mode on a multimedia distance education course with 1,500 students. The first part of the paper outlines the rationale for…

Kaye, Anthony R.

310

SyncDecor: Communication Appliances for Couples Separated by Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that various means of communication such as mobile phones, instant messenger and e-mail are now widespread; many romantic couples separated by long distances worry about the health of their relationships. Likewise, these couples have a greater desire to feel a sense of connection, synchronization or \\

Hitomi Tsujita; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio

2008-01-01

311

Touching from a distance.  

PubMed

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the sole mediator of bidirectional nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and is also an important scaffold for chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation. Proteomic studies of numerous diverse eukaryotic species initially characterized the NPC as built with a number of remarkably similar structural features, suggesting its status as an ancient and conserved eukaryotic cell component. However, further detailed analyses now suggest that several key specific NPC features have a more convoluted evolutionary history than initially assumed. Recently we reported on TbNup92, a component in trypanosomes of one such conserved structural feature, a basket-like structure on the nuclear face of the NPC. We showed that TbNup92 has similar roles to nuclear basket proteins from yeasts and animals (Mlp and Tpr, respectively) in interacting with both the NPC and the mitotic spindle. However, comparative genomics suggests that TbNup92 and Mlp/Tpr may be products of distinct evolutionary histories, raising the possibility that these gene products are analogs rather than direct orthologs. Taken together with recent evidence for divergence in the nuclear lamina and kinetochores, it is apparent that the trypanosome nucleus functions by employing several novel or highly divergent protein complexes in parallel with conserved elements. These findings have major implications for how the trypanosomatid nucleus operates and the evolution of hierarchical nuclear organization. PMID:25482119

Holden, Jennifer M; Koreny, Ludek; Kelly, Steven; Chait, Brian T; Rout, Michael P; Field, Mark C; Obado, Samson O

2014-01-01

312

Screening mail for powders using terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2001 Anthrax letter attacks in the USA, there has been a continuing interest in techniques that can detect or identify so-called 'white powder' concealed in envelopes. Electromagnetic waves (wavelengths 100-500 ?m) in the terahertz frequency range penetrate paper and have short enough wavelengths to provide good resolution images; some materials also have spectroscopic signatures in the terahertz region. We report on an experimental study into the use of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for mail screening. Spectroscopic signatures of target powders were measured and, using a specially designed test rig, a number of imaging methods based on reflection, transmission and scattering were investigated. It was found that, contrary to some previous reports, bacterial spores do not appear to have any strong spectroscopic signatures which would enable them to be identified. Imaging techniques based on reflection imaging and scattering are ineffective in this application, due to the similarities in optical properties between powders of interest and paper. However, transmission imaging using time-of-flight of terahertz pulses was found to be a very simple and sensitive method of detecting small quantities (25 mg) of powder, even in quite thick envelopes. An initial feasibility study indicates that this method could be used as the basis of a practical mail screening system.

Kemp, Mike

2011-11-01

313

76 FR 17787 - Market Dominant Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standard Mail is based on the combined total revenue of First-Class Mail automation letters, Standard Mail automation letters, and Standard Mail carrier route barcoded automation-compatible letters. Background The 3-year agreement is...

2011-03-31

314

Connes' Distance of One-Dimensional Lattices: General Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connes' distance formula is applied to endow linear metric to three 1D lattices of different topology, with a generalization of lattice Dirac operator written down by Dimakis et al to contain a non-unitary link-variable. Geometric interpretation of this link-variable is lattice spacing and parallel transport.

Jian Dai; Xing-Chang Song

2001-01-01

315

Distance Education: A Systems View  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents a review of the second edition of Distance Education: A Systems View by Michael Moore and Greg Kearsley (Thomas\\/Wadsworth, 2005). This second edition reflects a view of current applications of distance education, based on the vantage of instructional systems design. The strengths of the book are reflected in the uniqueness of its consideration of online courses, in

Michael Moore; Greg Kearsley

1996-01-01

316

Distance Education and Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to give those who work in distance education a better awareness of the factors at work in developing nations and to help those whose profession is national development gain a fuller understanding of distance education. It begins with a discussion of the process of national development which focuses on the factors that…

Daniel, John S.

317

"Distance Education", 2000-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the articles published in the journal "Distance Education" from 2000-2010. The researchers analyzed these articles to determine the primary topics, research methods, key phrases in article titles, authorship, and most highly cited pieces. The development of new approaches to engage in distance education is a recurring theme…

Oviatt, Darin; Burdis, Jacob; West, Richard E.

2012-01-01

318

Distance Learning: The Essential Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for individuals engaged in open and distance learning activities, this guide is designed with an applications focus that provides a "quick start" for immediate work needs. Built on an intuitive set of "How do I" questions, the book presents the foundation needed to teach from a distance. The format is a multimodel approach, combining…

Williams, Marcia L.; Paprock, Kenneth; Covington, Barbara

319

Distance Education for Continuing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of distance education as a vehicle for delivering continuing education in Asia was examined from the following standpoints: facilitating development amidst poverty; making human resource development the prime strategy; overcoming the stagnation of education amidst wrenching change; and using distance education to accomplish those…

Sharma, Motilal

320

Errors In Short Distance Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The errors involved in the short-distance photometry of projectors are evaluated and the same conclusions have been shown to apply to general purpose luminaires. The mathematical analysis from which the equations were derived has been published in Lighting Research and Technology (1981). The illuminance at a short distance from the projector does not follow the inverse square law; the errors depend on the angular subtense of the aperture of the projector relative to the divergence of the beam, and on the distribution of luminance across the aperture of the projector. At any particular distance, the errors are least in directions in which the curvature of the intensity distribution curve is least; the errors may therefore be greatest in the axial direction or in the direction of a shoulder on the curve, and they may change sign where the intensity distribution curve changes from convex to concave. In any particular direction, the error is greater if the outer zones of the projector have higher luminance or give a narrower relative spread; the worst case is a ring-shaped luminaire. If the relative error is less than 10 per cent, it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of measurement. For general guidance, a nomogram relates the maximum likely percentage error to the beam divergence and to the relative distance of measurement; an empirical reference distance, to be known as the Beam Cross-over Distance, is suggested to replace the traditional 'cross-over distance' of a projector.

Holmes, J. G.; Moermann, J. J. B.

1982-02-01

321

Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

2004-01-01

322

Television, Learning and Distance Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

’High quality’ television is a valuable part of open and distance education, as exemplified in its use by The Open University. Television has a unique role to play in distance education because of its distinctive delivery, presentational, and control characteristics. The ways in which these characteristics could be exploited are discussed in depth, and related to different kinds of learner.

A. W. Bates

1988-01-01

323

Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account some…

Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja

2006-01-01

324

Rao Distances Charles A. Micchelli  

E-print Network

Rao Distances Charles A. Micchelli Department of Mathematics and Statistics State University of New introduced by C.R.Rao in [12]. Generally speaking, the Rao method puts a Riemannian structure distances have been computed are multivariate normals with a non- Rao Riemannian metric [8], and elliptical

Noakes, Lyle

325

Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances  

PubMed Central

Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

2015-01-01

326

Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances.  

PubMed

Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

2015-01-01

327

The American Distance Education Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interest in distance education within institutions of higher learning dates as far back as the correspondence programs first offered by the University of Chicago and Columbia University in the late 19th century. There are a host of organizations currently involved in disseminating and promoting the cause of distance education, the American Distance Education Consortium (ADEC), is one of the most notable. The ADEC is composed of approximately 65 state university and land grant colleges and as an organization is primarily concerned with creating a model of distance education that will provide instructional delivery and access anywhere and anytime. On their site, visitors can learn about a host of distance learning delivery technologies, read up on best practices developed by ADEC member institutions and individuals, and federal programs and grants designed to assist those with an interest in the subject.

2004-01-01

328

Learning Materials at a Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United Kingdom Centre for Materials Education offers its 12 Guides for Lecturers free online, and this is one of them. The guide is a "distillation of the essential elements of distance education and a succinct guide to how to produce effective distance learning materials." The guide is broken into sections, including definitions and concepts of distance education, learner support, and online learning. The guide also discusses how to define the purpose of a distance education course or module, as well as suggestions on how to structure and pace the learning environment while engaging students. This is a helpful guide for teachers and administrators considering creating new distance education courses, or adding an online component to a traditional course.

Endean, Mark

329

Angioplasty simulation using ChainMail method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tackling transluminal angioplasty planning, the aim of our work is to bring, in a patient specific way, solutions to clinical problems. This work focuses on realization of simple simulation scenarios taking into account macroscopic behaviors of stenosis. It means simulating geometrical and physical data from the inflation of a balloon while integrating data from tissues analysis and parameters from virtual tool-tissues interactions. In this context, three main behaviors has been identified: soft tissues crush completely under the effect of the balloon, calcified plaques, do not admit any deformation but could move in deformable structures, the blood vessel wall undergoes consequences from compression phenomenon and tries to find its original form. We investigated the use of Chain-Mail which is based on elements linked with the others thanks to geometric constraints. Compared with time consuming methods or low realism ones, Chain-Mail methods provide a good compromise between physical and geometrical approaches. In this study, constraints are defined from pixel density from angio-CT images. The 2D method, proposed in this paper, first initializes the balloon in the blood vessel lumen. Then the balloon inflates and the moving propagation, gives an approximate reaction of tissues. Finally, a minimal energy level is calculated to locally adjust element positions, throughout elastic relaxation stage. Preliminary experimental results obtained on 2D computed tomography (CT) images (100x100 pixels) show that the method is fast enough to handle a great number of linked-element. The simulation is able to verify real-time and realistic interactions, particularly for hard and soft plaques.

Le Fol, Tanguy; Acosta-Tamayo, Oscar; Lucas, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal

2007-03-01

330

Spectral distance on the circle  

E-print Network

A building block of noncommutative geometry is the observation that most of the geometric information of a compact riemannian spin manifold M is encoded within its Dirac operator D. Especially via Connes' distance formula one is able to extract from the spectral properties of D the geodesic distance on M. In this paper we investigate the distance d encoded within a covariant Dirac operator on a trivial U(n)-fiber bundle over the circle with arbitrary connection. It turns out that the connected components of d are tori whose dimension is given by the holonomy of the connection. For n=2 we explicitly compute d on all the connected components. For n>2 we restrict to a given fiber and find that the distance is given by the trace of the module of a matrix. The latest is defined by the holonomy and the coordinates of the points under consideration. This paper extends to arbitrary n and arbitrary connection the results obtained in hep-th/0506147 for U(2)-bundle with constant connection. It confirms interesting properties of the spectral distance with respect to another distance naturally associated to connection, namely the horizontal or Carnot-Caratheodory distance d_H. Especially in case the connection has irrational components, the connected components for d are the closure of the connected components of d_H within the euclidean topology on the torus.

Pierre Martinetti

2008-09-10

331

Genealogical trees from genetic distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a population with haploid reproduction any individual has a single parent in the previous generation. If all genealogical distances among pairs of individuals (generations from the closest common ancestor) are known it is possible to exactly reconstruct their genealogical tree. Unfortunately, in most cases, genealogical distances are unknown and only genetic distances are available. The genetic distance between two individuals is measurable from differences in mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) since in the case of humans or other complex organisms mtDNA is transmitted in a haploid manner. An analogous distance can be also computed for languages where it may be measured from lexical differences, in this case, nevertheless, haploid reproduction is only a raw approximation. Assuming a constant rate of mutation, these genetic distances are random and proportional only on average to genealogical ones. The reconstruction of the genealogical tree from the available genetic distances is forceful imprecise. In this paper we try to quantify the error one may commit in the reconstruction of the tree for different degrees of randomness. The errors may concern both topology of the tree (the branching hierarchy) and, in case of correct topology, the proportions of the tree (length of various branches).

Prignano, L.; Serva, M.

2009-06-01

332

Language distance and tree reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

2008-08-01

333

Distance still matters. The hard reality of global expansion.  

PubMed

Companies routinely overestimate the attractiveness of foreign markets. Dazzled by the sheer size of untapped markets, they lose sight of the difficulties of pioneering new, often very different territories. The problem is rooted in the analytic tools (the most prominent being country portfolio analysis, or CPA) that managers use to judge international investments. By focusing on national wealth, consumer income, and people's propensity to consume, CPA emphasizes potential sales, ignoring the costs and risks of doing business in a new market. Most of these costs and risks result from the barriers created by distance. "Distance," however, does not refer only to geography; its other dimensions can make foreign markets considerably more or less attractive. The CAGE framework of distance presented here considers four attributes: cultural distance (religious beliefs, race, social norms, and language that are different for the target country and the country of the company considering expansion); administrative or political distance (colony-colonizer links, common currency, and trade arrangements); geographic distance (the physical distance between the two countries, the size of the target country, access to waterways and the ocean, internal topography, and transportation and communications infrastructures); and economic distance (disparities in the two countries' wealth or consumer income and variations in the cost and quality of financial and other resources). This framework can help to identify the ways in which potential markets may be distant from existing ones. The article explores how (and by how much) various types of distance can affect different types of industries and shows how dramatically an explicit consideration of distance can change a company's picture of its strategic options. PMID:11550630

Ghemawat, P

2001-09-01

334

URMC/Strong Health PATIENT E-MAIL CONSENT FORM  

E-print Network

.rochester.edu Patient UHS MR #: 1. RISK OF USING E-MAIL Transmitting patient information by E-mail has a number of risksURMC/Strong Health PATIENT E-MAIL CONSENT FORM Items marked with an asterisk (*) are required. * Patient Name: * Patient Date of Birth: * Patient E-mail: Provider: Provider E-mail: @uhs

Mahon, Bradford Z.

335

Hotels e-mail for reservations & website Phone number Single room  

E-print Network

Hotels e-mail for reservations & website Phone number Single room (SFr) Double room (SFr) Including.youthhostel.ch/lausanne +41 (0)21.626.02.22 CHF 85.- CHF 115.80.- VAT & Breakfast + city pass for public transportation City * For late check-in, please contact the hotel as you might need a code to access the front desk of the hotel

Thévenaz, Jacques

336

Hotels e-mail for reservations & website Phone number Single room  

E-print Network

Hotels e-mail for reservations & website Phone number Single room (CHF) Double room (CHF) Including.youthhostel.ch/lausanne +41 (0)21.626.02.22 CHF 82.10.- not available City Taxes, VAT & Breakfast + city pass for public & Breakfast + city pass for public transportation * For late check-in, please contact the hotel as you might

Thévenaz, Jacques

337

Great Republic: a historical and archaeological analysis of a Pacific mail steamship  

E-print Network

................................................................................. ..20 The Panama Years?????????????????...29 III TO THE EASTERN SHORES ......................................................... ..35 The China Trade....................................................................... ..35 America..., 1199. 9 possibilities available to the government at the time: the mail could be transported around Cape Horn on sailing vessels, overland from the Missouri River, or over the Panama Isthmus by means of steam vessel or sailing ship (Figure 1). 7...

Roberts, Andrew Philip

2009-05-15

338

Transportation Futuristics: Visionary Designs in Transportation Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The human imagination would seem to recognize few boundaries when thinking about interesting forms of transportation, especially some of the rather creative ideas (both proposed and realized) that are contained within this novel and compelling online exhibit created by the staff at the Harmer E. Davis Transportation Library at the University of California at Berkeley. Many of the futuristic designs highlighted within this exhibit were envisioned as ways to overcome existing transportation problems, such as distance, space considerations, and other key factors. The pieces of material culture (such as advertisements, design renderings, and the like) contained here are divided into several sections, such as automotive, helicopter, monorails, and the aptly named "Oddities" area. For transportation buffs or those with an interest in the history of technology, the "Oddities" area should not be missed. Here visitors will find an illustration of the proposed "flying saucer bus" and the intriguing "transplanetary subway", which was supposed to have stretched from New York to Los Angeles.

339

The development of an instrument to assess student opinions of the quality of distance education  

E-print Network

education would not be possible (Peters, 1988). ?Duplicating machines and transport systems are prerequisite, and later forms of distance learning have the additional facilities of modern means of communication and electronic data processing...

Chaney, Elizabeth Hensleigh

2009-05-15

340

75 FR 29893 - Business Reply Mail Online Application Option  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Business Reply Mail Online Application...eliminate the option to obtain a Business Reply Mail[supreg...online. Additionally, the electronic version of PS Form 6805, Qualified Business Reply Mail (QBRM)...

2010-05-28

341

76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 649] Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal...test involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document...the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www...market dominant product, Marketing Mail Made Easy...

2011-01-20

342

31 CFR 560.508 - Telecommunications and mail transactions authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunications and mail transactions authorized...Licensing Policy § 560.508 Telecommunications and mail transactions authorized...to the receipt or transmission of telecommunications and mail between the United...

2010-07-01

343

Distance Versus Time Graphs 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be performed before students have learned about acceleration but after they have learned about speed. Students should have already completed distance versus time graphs for objects traveling at constant speed (see Lab 1). Some

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

344

The distance geometry of music  

E-print Network

We demonstrate relationships between the classic Euclidean algorithm and many other fields of study, particularly in the context of music and distance geometry. Specifically, we show how the structure of the Euclidean ...

Demaine, Erik D.

345

OHIO STATE DISTANCE EDUCATION DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

of the classroom and is particularly suited to distance learning and other technology-empowered learning models, such as Hybrid, Flipped, and HyFlex. #12;SIS Instruction Mode Labels Instruction Mode Description Percentage

346

Distance Learning for Special Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

Bates, Rodger A.

2012-01-01

347

Analysis of land bridge transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land bridge transportation means transportation from one seaport to another by railway across continents instead of by ocean\\u000a ship. At present, there are two common routes for using land bridge transportation in the world. One is Asia—America—Europe\\u000a land bridge, the other is Europe—Asia land bridge.\\u000a \\u000a Eurasia land bridge has obvious advantages over Asia—America—Europe land bridge due to its shorter distance,

Yong Qi; Yan Wang

1991-01-01

348

An RFID Distance Bounding Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-frequency identification tokens, such as contactless smartcards, are vulnerable to relay attacks if they are used for proximity authentication. Attackers can circumvent the limited range of the radio channel using transponders that forward exchanged signals over larger distances. Cryptographic distance-bounding protocols that measure accurately the round-trip delay of the radio signal provide a possible countermeasure. They infer an upper bound

Gerhard P. Hancke; Markus G. Kuhn

2005-01-01

349

On distances between phylogenetic trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different phylogenetic trees for the same group of species are often produced either by proceduresthat use diverse optimality criteria [18] or from different genes [12] in the study of molecularevolution. Comparing these trees to find their similarities (e.g. agreement or consensus) anddissimilarities, i.e. distance, is thus an important issue in computational molecular biology.The nearest neighbor interchange (nni) distance [26, 24,

B. DasGupta; X. He; T. Jiang; M. Li; J. T. Tromp; L. Zhang

1997-01-01

350

Measuring Distance with Sound Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about sound waves and use them to measure distances between objects. They explore how engineers incorporate ultrasound waves into medical sonogram devices and ocean sonar equipment. Students learn about properties, sources and applications of three types of sound waves, known as the infra-, audible- and ultra-sound frequency ranges. They use ultrasound waves to measure distances and understand how ultrasonic sensors are engineered.

2014-09-18

351

Distance Education: The Technology--What You Need To Know To Succeed, An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores distance-education evolution and research concerning distance-learning formats. Outlines nine mechanisms (electronic-mail, discussion lists/limited conferencing, telnet, FTP/Gopher, WWW, SLIP/PPP, advanced conferencing software, proprietary software vs. open standards, virtual reality) of the Internet which provide for fundamental changes…

Riedling, Ann M.

1999-01-01

352

Distance Education in the United States: From Correspondence Courses to the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning is a descendant of distance education. Online education has a shared history with correspondence learning. In 1873, Anna Eliot Ticknor founded the Society to Encourage Studies at Home. Ticknor's Society established one of America's first correspondence schools, a distance learning option conducted through the mail. This…

Caruth, Gail D.; Caruth, Donald L.

2013-01-01

353

PERTURBATION AND SCALED COOK'S DISTANCE.  

PubMed

Cook's (Cook, 1977) distance is one of the most important diagnostic tools for detecting influential individual or subsets of observations in linear regression for cross-sectional data. However, for many complex data structures (e.g., longitudinal data), no rigorous approach has been developed to address a fundamental issue: deleting subsets with different numbers of observations introduces different degrees of perturbation to the current model fitted to the data and the magnitude of Cook's distance is associated with the degree of the perturbation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue in general parametric models with complex data structures. We propose a new quantity for measuring the degree of the perturbation introduced by deleting a subset. We use stochastic ordering to quantify the stochastic relationship between the degree of the perturbation and the magnitude of Cook's distance. We develop several scaled Cook's distances to resolve the comparison of Cook's distance for different subset deletions. Theoretical and numerical examples are examined to highlight the broad spectrum of applications of these scaled Cook's distances in a formal influence analysis. PMID:23152646

Zhu, Hongtu; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Cho, Hyunsoon

2012-01-01

354

A normalized Levenshtein distance metric.  

PubMed

Although a number of normalized edit distances presented so far may offer good performance in some applications, none of them can be regarded as a genuine metric between strings because they do not satisfy the triangle inequality. Given two strings X and Y over a finite alphabet, this paper defines a new normalized edit distance between X and Y as a simple function of their lengths (|X| and |Y|) and the Generalized Levenshtein Distance (GLD) between them. The new distance can be easily computed through GLD with a complexity of O(|X|.|Y|) and it is a metric valued in [0, 1] under the condition that the weight function is a metric over the set of elementary edit operations with all costs of insertions/deletions having the same weight. Experiments using the AESA algorithm in handwritten digit recognition show that the new distance can generally provide similar results to some other normalized edit distances and may perform slightly better if the triangle inequality is violated in a particular data set. PMID:17431306

Yujian, Li; Bo, Liu

2007-06-01

355

78 FR 63915 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the mail, except under 4.2a2 and 4.3ad below. * * * * * [Revise item 4.3k as follows:] k. Death of honeybees, crickets, and harmless live animals not the fault of the USPS (mailability is subject to 601.9.0). * * * * * [Revise item...

2013-10-25

356

78 FR 76533 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the mail, except under 4.2a2 and 4.3ad below. * * * * * [Revise item 4.3k as follows:] k. Death of honeybees, crickets, and harmless live animals not the fault of the USPS (mailability is subject to 601.9.0). * * * * * [Revise item...

2013-12-18

357

49 CFR 236.529 - Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...element inductor; height and distance from rail. 236.529 Section 236.529 Transportation...element inductor; height and distance from rail. Inductor of the inert roadway element...height above the plane of the tops of the rails, and with its inner edge at a...

2014-10-01

358

49 CFR 236.529 - Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...element inductor; height and distance from rail. 236.529 Section 236.529 Transportation...element inductor; height and distance from rail. Inductor of the inert roadway element...height above the plane of the tops of the rails, and with its inner edge at a...

2012-10-01

359

49 CFR 236.529 - Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...element inductor; height and distance from rail. 236.529 Section 236.529 Transportation...element inductor; height and distance from rail. Inductor of the inert roadway element...height above the plane of the tops of the rails, and with its inner edge at a...

2010-10-01

360

Maritime Transport Costs and Port Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport costs have increased their relative importance as a barrier to trade. Distance, containerization, volume exported, and, most important, the level of seaport efficiency, are important determinants of transport costs. Port efficiency is not only associated with infrastructure, but also with the existence of organized crime and excessive regulation.Recent literature has emphasized the importance of transport costs and infrastructure in

David Dollar; Ximena Clark; Alejandro Micco

2002-01-01

361

1. From the Mail Services website, (www.princeton.edu/mail) click on Metered Mail to access the Meter Request Form.  

E-print Network

1. From the Mail Services website, (www.princeton.edu/mail) click on Metered Mail to access the Meter Request Form. 2. Log in using your Princeton NetID and password. The system will pre the drop-down menu. To enter a new chartstring, click "Create New." Online Meter Request Form A step

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

362

FirstClass Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the potential of a FirstClass server in audioconferencing courses at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks using telecommunications, e-mail, student-to-student interaction, submission of assignments, e-mail, timely instructor feedback, and the transfer of files and multimedia documents. Student surveys indicated some positive aspects of…

Schall, Dennis G.

1998-01-01

363

Measures for improving the zeppelin airships for long distance transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors to be considered in the construction of dirigibles include the design and weight of support structures, static and aerodynamic loads on the main ring, the annealing of support materials, and the dynamic gas pressure. Adaptations made for using helium as the lifting gas, and a method for extracting ballast are described.

Duerr, L. F.

1980-01-01

364

Introduction to Apple Mail with IMAP Version 4 October 2008  

E-print Network

Introduction to Apple Mail with IMAP Version 4 ­ October 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology #12;Apple Mail Quick Start Guide Page 2 Getting Started This Quick Start class assumes that: 1. Apple Mail is configured for use at MIT. If you need help with configuration please see Apple Mail at MIT

Gabrieli, John

365

Montage: An X-Based Multimedia Electronic Mail System  

E-print Network

@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes an extensible multimedia electronic mail system called Montage which is basedMontage: An X-Based Multimedia Electronic Mail System W. Keith Edwards Graphics, Visualization formats. KEYWORDS: Multimedia, electronic mail, X Window System. INTRODUCTION: WHY MULTIMEDIA MAIL

Edwards, Keith

366

Resistance distances in composite graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resistance distance between any two vertices of a connected graph is defined as the effective resistance between them in the electrical network constructed from the graph by replacing each edge with a (unit) resistor. Let G+H, G × H, G[H], G\\otimes H, G\\;\\boxtimes \\;H, G\\circ H and G\\{H\\} be the join, product, composition, direct product, strong product, corona and rooted product of two graphs G and H, respectively. In this paper, formulae for resistance distances of these composite graphs are given in terms of parameters of the parent graphs, and some properties are established. Explicit formulae are obtained for resistance distances of some classes of graphs, including rook graphs, diagonal mesh graphs and generalized double graphs.

Yang, Yujun; Klein, Douglas J.

2014-09-01

367

Picking the Lesser Evil--Reducing Transportation Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information for student transportation system budgetary decisions that can reduce costs and yet maintain an adequate transportation system. Suggestions include establishing staggered school opening and closing times, extending walking distances, and eliminating or charging for extracurricular activities. (MLF)

Johnson, Glenn J.

1994-01-01

368

Long working distance interference microscope  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

2004-04-13

369

Galaxy Distances via Rotational Parallaxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate distances to stars and galaxies allow for significant tests of\\u000astellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution and cosmology. NASA's Space\\u000aInterferometry Mission (SIM) will obtain precision [1-30 microarcsec]\\u000aastrometry for 10-20k objects brighter than V=20 mag.\\u000a In this paper we discuss a method to determine the distance of nearby spiral\\u000agalaxies using the technique of rotational parallaxes, and show

Rob P. Olling; D. M. Peterson

2000-01-01

370

Entropy distance: New quantum phenomena  

SciTech Connect

We study a curve of Gibbsian families of complex 3 Multiplication-Sign 3-matrices and point out new features, absent in commutative finite-dimensional algebras: a discontinuous maximum-entropy inference, a discontinuous entropy distance, and non-exposed faces of the mean value set. We analyze these problems from various aspects including convex geometry, topology, and information geometry. This research is motivated by a theory of infomax principles, where we contribute by computing first order optimality conditions of the entropy distance.

Weis, Stephan [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstr. 22, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Knauf, Andreas [Department of Mathematics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 11, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2012-10-15

371

electrifyingthefuture transportation  

E-print Network

for transportation stresses the need for decarbonising transport as an essential part of building a low carbon futureelectrifyingthefuture transportation The UK Government's carbon reduction strategy programme of electrification and the potential introduction of diesel hybrids. The Department for Transport

Birmingham, University of

372

39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual... Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES...Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail...

2010-07-01

373

39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual... Section 111.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES...Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail...

2010-07-01

374

Interaction in Distance Nursing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

2012-01-01

375

Going the Distance. On Assignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iowa has the only state-owned and operated telecommunications network in the nation. The fiber-optic network allows schools both Internet access and true interactive televised communication. The network's many advantages to rural schools include the course-sharing league in western Iowa, which has worked through various difficulties of distance…

Trotter, Andrew

1999-01-01

376

The Distance Geometry of Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate relationships between the classical Euclidean algorithm and many other fields of study, particularly in the context of music and distance geometry. Specifically, we show how the structure of the Euclidean algorithm defines a family of rhythms that encompass over forty timelines (ostinatos) from traditional world music. We prove that these Euclidean rhythms have the mathematical property that their

Erik D. Demaine; Francisco Gomez-Martin; Henk Meijer; David Rappaport; Perouz Taslakian; Godfried T. Toussaint; Terry Winograd; David R. Wood

2007-01-01

377

International Cooperation in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

John, Magnus

378

A Distance Learning Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address diminishing resources and increased training demands, the Operational Training Unit (OTU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation has saved almost $2 million by developing a distance education course to replace one full week of training at the FBI Academy. Discussion focuses on major issues faced by OTU in designing/delivering this…

Boord, Patricia M.

1998-01-01

379

Lessons in Developing Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of video teletraining (VTT) for distance learning in the Department of Defense. Topics include planning and organizing the VTT facility, staff development, site facilitators, the necessity of protocol, instructional design and development strategies, student involvement and interactivity, and evaluation and assessment. (LRW)

Gant, Lenora Peters

1996-01-01

380

Group Velocity Measurement Distance Travelled  

E-print Network

velocity Plot group velocity vs. frequency Dispersion: dependence of wave speed on frequency #12;Group.html #12;Phase Velocity Measurement earthquake station distance Earthquake time d Phase Velocity: speed station method not reliable #12;Phase Velocity Measurement time Phase Velocity: speed at which phase

Shearer, Peter

381

Distance Learning: Untried and Untrue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

G. K. Chesterton famously once said: "Christianity has not been tried and found wanting; it has been found difficult and not tried." This, the author believes, applies to distance learning as well. There is far too much self-congratulatory hyperbole about the growth and pervasiveness of online learning--which exaggerates reality and overlooks the…

Halfond, Jay A.

2010-01-01

382

Teaching Marketing at a Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983 Strathclyde University (Scotland) launched an MBA (Masters of Business Administration) degree course by distance learning. This paper considers the subsequent progress of marketing, one of the six foundation classes. After examining the issues and problems involved in teaching marketing, this paper discusses some evidence resulting from…

Kinsey, Joanna

1986-01-01

383

Distance Education: Professional Staff Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relevance and cost-effectiveness of the use of mass media for spreading education and the dissemination of information needed to sustain growth and technological progress in developing countries. An overview of experiments with the use of radio and television for educational purposes provides brief descriptions of distance…

Sharma, Motilal

384

Distance Education and Organizational Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As distance education models in social work education continue to grow, this study addresses prevalence and type of models in graduate social work programs and the perceptions of deans about the future of e-learning models of curriculum delivery. The study was an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design including a national survey of 121…

East, Jean F.; LaMendola, Walter; Alter, Catherine

2014-01-01

385

Distance Learning and Technology Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brevard Community College (BCC), in Florida, undertook a review of enrollment, social and workplace trends, and institutional capabilities to determine opportunities, barriers, and implications for the institution in implementing distance education (DE) and instructional technology. Trends analyzed included enrollment shifts toward older students,…

King, Maxwell C.

386

Overhauling Chile's Long Distance Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Chile modernized its system of long distance telephone communications, it found it had to do the same for training practices. To do so it relied heavily on United States and Canadian training technology. Three charts (training system, budgets 1966-68, course design). (LY)

Holden, Eric; Amestica, Fernando H.

1970-01-01

387

Measuring Distances Using Digital Cameras  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a generic method of calculating accurate horizontal and vertical object distances from digital images taken with any digital camera and lens combination, where the object plane is parallel to the image plane or tilted in the vertical plane. This method was developed for a project investigating the size, density and spatial…

Kendal, Dave

2007-01-01

388

Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

2005-01-01

389

Twelve Views from the Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Views from the Distance, published in 1970, is the memoir of Mutsuo Takahashi, one of the most prominent poets of contemporary Japan. This book about Takahashi’s childhood and adolescence in rural southern Japan, uses powerful language to describe how Takahashi and his family’s fate intersected with events on the international stage, namely the rise of the Japanese empire and

Jeffrey Angles

2012-01-01

390

Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

391

Smart vehicular transportation systems  

SciTech Connect

This work builds upon established Sandia intelligent systems technology to develop a unique approach for the integration of intelligent system control into the US Highway and urban transportation systems. The Sandia developed concept of the COPILOT controller integrates a human driver with computer control to increase human performance while reducing reliance on detailed driver attention. This research extends Sandia expertise in sensor based, real-time control of robotics systems to high speed transportation systems. Knowledge in the form of maps and performance characteristics of vehicles provides the automatic decision making intelligence needed to plan optimum routes, maintain safe driving speeds and distances, avoid collisions, and conserve fuel.

Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

1997-05-01

392

ml-owners: Mailing List Owner's Discussion Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mailing list focuses on the exchange of useful information between owners and moderators of mailing lists. Topics covered include such areas as reducing time spent on list administration, whether advertising is appropriate, and dealing with problem subscribers, among others.

393

77 FR 64724 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The International Mail Manual was issued on...of April 17, 2011. The International Mail Manual is available...in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations; Incorporation by reference...Page 64725

2012-10-23

394

77 FR 31615 - Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sequence 3] Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities AGENCY...GSA) has issued Federal Management Regulation (FMR) Bulletin...agencies for improving mail management policies, procedures, and activities....

2012-05-29

395

76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with recent amendments...subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

2011-08-25

396

77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO...that prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when...

2012-11-15

397

Distance join queries on spatial networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The result of a distance join operation on two sets of objects R, S on a spatial network G is a set P of object pairs pq, p É R, q É S such that the distance of an object pair pq is the shortest distance from p to q in G. Several variations to the distance join operation such

Jagan Sankaranarayanan; Houman Alborzi; Hanan Samet

2006-01-01

398

Distance Education in Papua New Guinea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this special double serial issue is "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea." The following articles are featured: (1) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea" (John Lynch); (2) "Distance Education in Papua New Guinea: Context, Issues and Prospects" (Michael Crossley and Richard Guy); (3) "Distance Education at the University of Papua…

Avalos, Beatrice, Ed.

1991-01-01

399

Distance Education Training for Distance Education Trainers: The "Roadmap to Effective Distance Education Instructional Design" Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of a 6-university collaborative project, "Roadmap to Effective Distance Education Instructional Design." This project developed instructional materials and innovative approaches to better prepare instructional designers at land-grant universities and other universities with agricultural academic programs to…

Telg, Ricky W.; Lundy, Lisa; Irani, Tracy; Bielema, Cheryl; Dooley, Kim E.; Anderson, Erik; Raulerson, Rebekah

2005-01-01

400

IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Rezentralisierung von E-Mail-Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Das Teilprojekt E-Mail hatte ursprünglich die Aufgabe einen zentralen Mailservice mit verteilter Administration der Mailadressen für die TUM aufzubauen und diesen durch Anti-Spam- und Anti-Viren-Maßnahmen zu schützen. Auf diesen Mailservice sollten sowohl die am LRZ gehosteten Maildomains als auch die vielen lokal betriebenen Mailserver - soweit von deren Betreibern gewünscht - migriert werden. Neben einigen Rückschlägen und Hindernissen kam es im Laufe des Projektes auch zu einer Änderung der Anforderungen, sodass zum Ende des Projektes statt eines reinen Mailsystems ein Doppelsystem mit "shared SMTP address space" bestehend aus einem klassischen Message-Store mit POP/IMAP-Zugriff auf Basis von Postfix + Dovecot und einem Groupware-System auf Basis von Microsoft Exchange in Produktion ging, wobei jeder Mitarbeiter und Student der TUM wählen kann, auf welchem der beiden Systeme sich seine Mailbox befindet.

Diehn, Max; Haarer, Ado; Schreiner, Alexander; Storz, Michael

401

Understanding relationships among teleworkers' e-mail usage, e-mail richness perceptions, and e-mail productivity perceptions under a software engineering environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the use of e-mail and its implications under a telework environment for distributed software engineering. For this, the relative strength between a social influence and individual attributes in affecting teleworkers' e-mail use was studied. Management support was used as the representative social influence, and age, status, and ease of use represented individual attributes. An

Kunihiko Higa; Olivia R. Liu Sheng; Bongsik Shin; Aurelio Jose Figueredo

2000-01-01

402

E-mail interviewing in qualitative research: A methodological discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes findings from studies that employed electronic mail (e-mail) for conducting in- depth interviewing. It discusses the benefits of, and the challenges associated with, using e-mail interviewing in qualitative research. The article concludes that while a mixed mode interviewing strategy should be considered when possible, e-mail interviewing can be in many cases a viable alternative to face-to-face and

Lokman I. Meho

2006-01-01

403

Prevent Spam Filters from Blocking Legitimate E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's no question about it: Spam is a scourge. This ever-increasing torrent of unsolicited commercial mass e-mail saps productivity and, for some, threatens the very viability of e-mail. The battle against spam, unfortunately, is creating problems of its own, with people sometimes unable to send legitimate e-mail and other times unable to…

Goldsborough, Reid

2004-01-01

404

Generating Goodwill with Direct Mail and Specialty Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports findings from the application of a specialty advertising and direct mail promotion to the problem of generating goodwill among potential customers in a business-to- business setting. Specifically, this study examines whether the use of direct mail alone or direct mail coupled with a specialty advertising gift can elicit differential goodwill responses from college and uni- versity professors,

Marjorie J. Cooper

1994-01-01

405

[Project EXCEL. Curriculum Ace Mailing: Modules 1-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six curriculum modules for Ace Mailing, a San Francisco communications and mass mailing firm, are presented. Ace Mailing was one of four small businesses involved in Project EXCEL, a workplace literacy project that focused on literacy and basic skills training for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. The modules are as follows: (1) Ace…

Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

406

78 FR 68868 - First-Class Mail Postage Payment Option  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prices for any existing First-Class Mail price categories...alter the degree to which First-Class Mail prices already...additional costs, will help First-Class Mail cover attributable...5). Interested persons may express views and offer comments...

2013-11-15

407

MENTORING PAIRINGS Graduate students and e-mails  

E-print Network

MENTORING PAIRINGS APPRENTICE Graduate students and e-mails Name @math.uchicago.edu Mohammed Undergraduate students, e-mails, and mentors. Name (18) @uchicago.edu mentor(s) Padraic James Bartlett padraic jonathan Ben Lee and Wei Ren 1 #12;2 MENTORING PAIRINGS YSP Graduate students and e-mails Name @math

May, J. Peter

408

MENTORING PAIRINGS Graduate students and e-mails  

E-print Network

MENTORING PAIRINGS APPRENTICE Graduate students and e-mails Name @math.uchicago.edu Kate Ponto-mails, and mentors. Name (24) e-mail mentor(s) Bargar, Emily ebargar@uchicago.edu Booth Behr, Piotr S. pbehr-INS Norton, Emily brntnrtn@uchicago.edu Ponto Rezvi, Sara arsinoe@uchicago.edu Ponto #12;2 MENTORING PAIRINGS

May, J. Peter

409

7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351...PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The...shall be followed in the treatment of packages containing plants or plant...

2011-01-01

410

7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351...PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The...shall be followed in the treatment of packages containing plants or plant...

2012-01-01

411

7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351...PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The...shall be followed in the treatment of packages containing plants or plant...

2013-01-01

412

7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351...PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The...shall be followed in the treatment of packages containing plants or plant...

2010-01-01

413

7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packages in closed mail dispatches. 351...PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6 Packages in closed mail dispatches. The...shall be followed in the treatment of packages containing plants or plant...

2014-01-01

414

Electronic Mail Reference Services in the Public Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although more and more libraries are offering electronic mail reference services, little information about these services has been reported. We conducted an exploratory survey to examine public library e-mail reference services and the patrons who use them. Data collection techniques included a questionnaire mailed to participating libraries and a Web-based questionnaire completed by library patrons. Data gathered included: (1) information

Beth A. Garnsey; Ronald R. Powell

2000-01-01

415

Evolutionary Freight Transportation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the freight transportation planning component of the INWEST project. This system utilizes an evolutionary algorithm with intelligent search operations in order to achieve a high utilization\\u000a of resources and a minimization of the distance travelled by freight carriers in real-world scenarios. We test our planner\\u000a rigorously with real-world data and obtain substantial improvements when compared

Thomas Weise; Alexander Podlich; Kai Reinhard; Christian Gorldt; Kurt Geihs

2009-01-01

416

The Distance Between Classical and Quantum Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper, a “distance” function,\\u000a\\u000a, was defined which measures the distance between pure classical and quantum systems. In this work, we present a new definition of a “distance”, D, which measures the distance between either pure or impure classical and quantum states. We also compare the new distance formula with the previous formula, when the latter is

Deanna Abernethy; John R. Klauder

2005-01-01

417

Distance probes of dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

2015-03-01

418

Planetary distance law and resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between the planetary distance law and the resonant structures in the solar system and in the satellite systems\\u000a is shown, in that, the resonance relation has been expressed in terms of Roche’s (Bode’s) constant defined in the text. This\\u000a brings forth a coherent, elegant and unified picture of the formation and structure of the solar system and the

J. J. Rawal; Nehru Planetarium

1989-01-01

419

Long distance laser communications demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

AOptix demonstrated a simulated air-to-air laser communications (laser-com) system over a 147Km distance by establishing a laser communication link between the islands of Hawaii and Maui. We expect the atmospheric conditions encountered during this demonstration to be representative of the worst seeing conditions that could be expected for an actual air to air link. AOptix utilized laser-com terminal incorporating Adaptive

Malcolm J. Northcott; A. McClaren; J. E. Graves; John Phillips; Don Driver; David Abelson; David W. Young; Joseph E. Sluz; Juan C. Juarez; Marc B. Airola; Raymond M. Sova; Harry Hurt; James Foshee

2007-01-01

420

The Zero Exemplar Distance Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given two genomes with duplicate genes, Zero Exemplar Distance is the problem of deciding whether the two genomes can be reduced to the same genome without duplicate genes by deleting all but one copy of each gene in each genome. Blin, Fertin, Sikora, and Vialette recently proved that Zero Exemplar Distance for monochromosomal genomes is NP-hard even if each gene appears at most two times in each genome, thereby settling an important open question on genome rearrangement in the exemplar model. In this paper, we give a very simple alternative proof of this result. We also study the problem Zero Exemplar Distance for multichromosomal genomes without gene order: from one direction, we show that this problem is NP-hard even if each gene appears at most two times in each genome; from the other direction, we show that this problem admits a polynomial-time algorithm if only one of the two genomes has duplicate genes, and is fixed-parameter tractable if the parameter is the maximum number of chromosomes in each genome.

Jiang, Minghui

421

An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation  

PubMed Central

A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

2014-01-01

422

Distance education for tobacco reduction with Inuit frontline health workers  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. Objective To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from all Inuit regions of Canada. Design Promising practices globally were assessed in a literature survey. The National Inuit Tobacco Task Group guided the project. Participants were selected from across Inuit Nunangat. They chose a focus from a “menu” of 6 course options, completed a pre-test to assess individual learning needs and chose which community project(s) to complete. Course materials were mailed, and trainers provided intensive, individualized support through telephone, fax and e-mail. The course ended with an open-book post-test. Follow-up support continued for several months post-training. Results Of the 30 participants, 27 (90%) completed the course. The mean pre-test score was 72% (range: 38–98%). As the post-test was done using open books, everyone scored 100%, with a mean improvement of 28% (range: 2–62%). Conclusions Although it was often challenging to contact participants through phone, a distance education approach was very practical in a northern context. Learning is more concrete when it happens in a real-life context. As long as adequate support is provided, we recommend individualized distance education to others working in circumpolar regions. PMID:23984270

Collins, Rob; Hammond, Merryl; Carry, Catherine L.; Kinnon, Dianne; Killulark, Joan; Nevala, Janet

2013-01-01

423

Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the size or density of biological populations. Many distance sampling designs and most analyses use the software Distance. 2. We briefly review distance sampling and its assumptions, outline the history, structure and capabilities of Distance, and provide hints on its use. 3. Good survey design is a crucial prerequisite

Len Thomas; Stephen T. Buckland; Eric A. Rexstad; Jeff L. Laake; Samantha Strindberg; Sharon L. Hedley; Jon R. B. Bishop; Tiago A. Marques; Kenneth P. Burnham

2009-01-01

424

Ambipolar acoustic transport in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the ambipolar transport of electrons and holes by electrically generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on silicon wafers coated with a piezoelectric ZnO film. The transport experiments were carried out by using a focused laser beam to optically excite carriers. The carriers are then captured by the moving SAW piezoelectric field and then transported towards a lateral p-i-n junction, where they are electrically detected. The piezoelectric modulation modifies the current vs. voltage characteristics of the lateral p-i-n junction. This behavior is accounted for by a simple model for the change of the junction potential by the SAW fields. We demonstrate that electrons and holes can be acoustically transported over distances approaching 100 ?m, the transport efficiency being limited by the low mobility of holes in the material. These results open the way for silicon-based acousto-electric devices using ambipolar transport such as photo-detectors and solar cells.

Barros, A. D.; Batista, P. D.; Tahraoui, A.; Diniz, J. A.; Santos, P. V.

2012-07-01

425

Rail vs truck transport of biomass.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the economics of transshipping biomass from truck to train in a North American setting. Transshipment will only be economic when the cost per unit distance of a second transportation mode is less than the original mode. There is an optimum number of transshipment terminals which is related to biomass yield. Transshipment incurs incremental fixed costs, and hence there is a minimum shipping distance for rail transport above which lower costs/km offset the incremental fixed costs. For transport by dedicated unit train with an optimum number of terminals, the minimum economic rail shipping distance for straw is 170 km, and for boreal forest harvest residue wood chips is 145 km. The minimum economic shipping distance for straw exceeds the biomass draw distance for economically sized centrally located power plants, and hence the prospects for rail transport are limited to cases in which traffic congestion from truck transport would otherwise preclude project development. Ideally, wood chip transport costs would be lowered by rail transshipment for an economically sized centrally located power plant, but in a specific case in Alberta, Canada, the layout of existing rail lines precludes a centrally located plant supplied by rail, whereas a more versatile road system enables it by truck. Hence for wood chips as well as straw the economic incentive for rail transport to centrally located processing plants is limited. Rail transshipment may still be preferred in cases in which road congestion precludes truck delivery, for example as result of community objections. PMID:16915633

Mahmudi, Hamed; Flynn, Peter C

2006-01-01

426

Unicity Distance of Quantum Encryption Protocols  

E-print Network

Shannon's concept of the unicity distance is present for classical encryption protocols, we attempt to develop it into the quantum context. Firstly we present a classification of the private key encryption protocols, there are five kinds of them. Then we present the definition of the unicity distance of encryption protocols whose plaintext space and key space are both set by classical bits and the algorithm is a quantum algorithm, we call this CCQ-unicity distance. Based on this definition we show two quantum encryption protocols whose CCQ-unicity distance is finite but much bigger than Shannon's unicity distance, and show a quantum encryption protocol with infinite CCQ-unicity distance.

Xiang, Chong

2012-01-01

427

Minimum distance classification in remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1972-01-01

428

Cosmic distance duality and cosmic transparency  

SciTech Connect

We compare distance measurements obtained from two distance indicators, Supernovae observations (standard candles) and Baryon acoustic oscillation data (standard rulers). The Union2 sample of supernovae with BAO data from SDSS, 6dFGS and the latest BOSS and WiggleZ surveys is used in search for deviations from the distance duality relation. We find that the supernovae are brighter than expected from BAO measurements. The luminosity distances tend to be smaller then expected from angular diameter distance estimates as also found in earlier works on distance duality, but the trend is not statistically significant. This further constrains the cosmic transparency.

Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Jain, Deepak, E-mail: remya_phy@yahoo.com, E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110015 (India)

2012-12-01

429

Measuring Angular Size and Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about measuring angular size and understanding the solar and lunar proportions that result in solar eclipses. Learners will use triangles and proportions to create a shoebox eclipse simulator. They will then apply what they learn about angular size to predict the diameter and distance of one object that can be eclipsed by another. They will also complete three journal assignments to record observations and conceptual understanding. This activity derives from those demonstrated in the NASA CONNECT television series episode, titled Path of Totality.

430

Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

431

7.NS Differences and Distances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Conner and Aaron are working on their homework together to find the distance between two numbers, $a$ and $b$, on a number line. Conner count the units...

432

A-REI Braking Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose that a particular model of car has a braking distance that can be computed as follows: When the car is traveling at $v$ miles per hour, its bra...

433

A hybrid brain-computer interface-based mail client.  

PubMed

Brain-computer interface-based communication plays an important role in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications; electronic mail is one of the most common communication tools. In this study, we propose a hybrid BCI-based mail client that implements electronic mail communication by means of real-time classification of multimodal features extracted from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write, and attach files to their mail. Using a BCI mouse that utilizes hybrid brain signals, that is, motor imagery and P300 potential, the user can select and activate the function keys and links on the mail client graphical user interface (GUI). An adaptive P300 speller is employed for text input. The system has been tested with 6 subjects, and the experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:23690880

Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Li, Feng

2013-01-01

434

MailRank: using ranking for spam detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can we use social networks to combat spam? This paper investigates the feasibility of MailRank, a new email ranking and classification scheme exploiting the social communication network created via email interactions. The underlying email network data is collected from the email contacts of all MailRank users and updated automatically based on their email activities to achieve an easy maintenance. MailRank

Paul-Alexandru Chirita; Jörg Diederich; Wolfgang Nejdl

2005-01-01

435

Stochastic models of intracellular transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures.

Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

2013-01-01

436

Keeping the ball in the air: contact in long-distance friendships.  

PubMed

As people continue to be more mobile, maintenance behaviors for long-distance friendships will continue to be a part of the relocation experience. In this qualitative study, 25 women age 45 and over, who had relocated a number of times, were asked to talk about how their friendships had transitioned to being long-distance relationships and what current maintenance behaviors entailed. Communication was a major theme involving electronic mail (e-mail), Christmas cards, telephone calls, and visits. Results from the current study suggest that maintaining the perception of the existence of a well-connected social support system could be accomplished with a single, annual contact. Further, the long-distance friendship biographies explored in this study provided characteristics of friendship maintenance behavior that could be grouped into three main categories forming a proposed typology of long-distance friendship maintenance. PMID:16186097

Finchum, Tanya D

2005-01-01

437

Break the Chain: Stop Junk E-Mail and Misinformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

False virus alerts, hoaxes, and chain letters sent through e-mail are becoming almost commonplace, which makes them more annoying than ever. This is why Break the Chain tries to educate people to stop forwarding junk e-mail to their entire contacts list. The site offers some good guidelines for e-mail etiquette and how to research chain letters. It also has a searchable database of over 300 chain letters and hoaxes currently in circulation. A fun part of the site is the Yanking the Chain Awards, which is a monthly award given out to a particularly effective (and usually humorous) response to junk e-mail.

Ratliff, John R.

438

Address block features for image-based automated mail orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When mixed mail enters a postal facility, it must first be faced and oriented so that the address is readable by automated mail processing machinery. Existing US Postal Service (USPS) automated systems face and orient domestic mail by searching for fluorescing stamps on each mail piece. However, misplaced or partially fluorescing postage causes a significant fraction of mail to be rejected. Previously, rejected mail had to be faced and oriented by hand, thus increasing mail processing cost and time. Our earlier work successfully demonstrated the utility of machine-vision-based extraction of postal delimiters-such as cancellation marks and barcodes-for camera-based mail facing and orientation. Arguably, of all the localized information sources on the envelope image, the destination address block is the richest in content and the most structured in its form and layout. This paper focuses exclusively on the destination address block image and describes new vision-based features that can be extracted and used for mail orientation. Our results on real USPS datasets indicate robust performance. The algorithms described herein will be deployed nationwide on USPS hardware in the near future.

Khan, M. Shahab; Aradhye, Hrishikesh B.; Cruz, Wayne T.

2006-01-01

439

Opportunities to enhance patient and physician e-mail contact.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to evaluate how e-mail is currently used between physicians and patients in an integrated delivery system, and to identify developments that might promote increased use of this form of communication. A paper-based survey questionnaire was administered to 94 primary care physicians. We evaluated the role e-mail currently plays in a physician's typical work day, physician views on the impact of e-mail on phone use and the barriers to increasing the use of e-mail with patients. 76% of physicians surveyed responded. All respondents currently use e-mail. Close to 75% of physicians use e-mail with their patients, but the vast majority do so with only 1-5% of those patients. 50% of physicians believe that up to 25% of their patients would send e-mail to them if given the option, with an additional 37% believing that between 25% and 50% of patients would value this option. The main reported barriers to physician-patient e-mail related to workload, security and payment. Our survey findings indicate that with adequate pre-screening, triage, and reimbursement mechanisms physicians would be open to substantially increasing e-mail communication with patients. PMID:12706177

Hobbs, John; Wald, Jonathan; Jagannath, Yamini S; Kittler, Anne; Pizziferri, Lisa; Volk, Lynn A; Middleton, Blackford; Bates, David W

2003-04-01

440

Instructional design for distance learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intrinsic link exists between instructional design (ID) and distance learning (DL). Their inextricability in the real world raises specific problems of interest in the field of ID. In no other teaching/learning situation is ID so essential as in DL. The conditions of DL make it a necessity to have long-term instructional planning, cost analysis, curriculum and course development, instructional materials development and maintenance, delivery plans, and detailed evaluation rules. Without all of these components, DL simply could not happen. It took some time for this neccessity to be acknowledged, as can be seen in the history of DL. However, ID becomes even more critical as increasingly costly and complex means are used. Conditions of learning have special features in DL, such as the role of media, since the professor, teacher or instructor is replaced by media for either transmitting information or for organizing learning activities. In this paper, the term distance learning will be used to mean media-based, remote or asynchronous learning supported by an instructional system. This paper introduces general features of DL and examines essential aspects of ID for DL, with special emphasis on ID methodologies and on media selection.

Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Bates, Anthony

1996-12-01

441

Support for Long-Distance Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

Support for Caregivers Why do I feel so frustrated and guilty? I didn't realize that not being nearby every day ... is happening to your parent, but long-distance caregivers report otherwise. Caregiving, especially from a distance, is ...

442

Metrics and methods for social distance  

E-print Network

Distance measures are important for scientists because they illustrate the dynamics of geospatial topologies for physical and social processes. Two major types of distance are generally used for this purpose: Euclidean ...

Andris, Clio

2011-01-01

443

Abstract Average Distances of Pyramid Networks  

E-print Network

For an interconnection network, calculating average distance of it is in general more difficult than determining its diameter. Diameters of pyramid networks are well known. This study calculates average distances of pyramid networks.

Hsien-jone Hsieh; Dyi-rong Duh

444

EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE MATRIX COMPLETION PROBLEMS June ...  

E-print Network

Jun 6, 2010 ... unspecified entries to make A a Euclidean distance matrix. We survey three ..... For real problems such as protein structure ...... tein structure from distance geometry constraints obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance,. Prog.

2010-06-06

445

Modeling seed dispersal distances: implications for transgenic Pinus taeda.  

PubMed

Predicting forest-tree seed dispersal across a landscape is useful for estimating gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) or transgenic trees. The question of biocontainment has yet to be resolved, although field-trial permits for transgenic forest trees are on the rise. Most current field trials in the United States occur in the Southeast where Pinus taeda L., an indigenous species, is the major timber commodity. Seed dispersal distances were simulated using a model where the major determinants were: (1) forest canopy height at seed release, (2) terminal velocity of the seeds, (3) absolute seed release, and (4) turbulent-flow statistics, all of which were measured or determined within a P. taeda plantation established from seeds collected from wild forest-tree stands at the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina, USA. In plantations aged 16 and 25 years our model results showed that most of the seeds fell within local-neighborhood dispersal distances, with estimates ranging from 0.05 to 0.14 km from the source. A fraction of seeds was uplifted above the forest canopy and moved via the long-distance dispersal (LDD) process as far as 11.9-33.7 km. Out of 10(5) seeds produced per hectare per year, roughly 440 seeds were predicted to be uplifted by vertical eddies above the forest canopy and transported via LDD. Of these, 70 seeds/ha traveled distances in excess of 1 km from the source, a distance too great to serve as a biocontainment zone. The probability of LDD occurrence of transgenic conifer seeds at distances exceeding 1 km approached 100%. PMID:16705965

Williams, Claire G; LaDeau, Shannon L; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel G

2006-02-01

446

Gender Last Name First Name Swim Lengths Swim Distance Bike Distance Run Distance Overall Distance Male Guenter Jim 92.00 lengths 1.394 miles 17.300 miles 4.360 miles 23.054 miles  

E-print Network

Gender Last Name First Name Swim Lengths Swim Distance Bike Distance Run Distance Overall Distance.00 lengths 1.333 miles 17.400 miles 3.320 miles 22.053 miles Gender Last Name First Name Swim Lengths Swim.352 miles Gender Last Name First Name Swim Lengths Swim Distance Bike Distance Run Distance Overall Distance

Amin, S. Massoud

447

Analysis of proton transport experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense 1 MeV proton beams, produced with the GAMBLE 2 generator were transported efficiently over a distance of one meter in a wall stabilized current carrying plasma channel. Ion beams from a pinch reflex diode were ballistically focused in a neutral gas background so that a current neutralized beam was injected into the plasma channel. Channels with diameters of 1.6

F. C. Young; F. L. Sandel; S. J. Stephanakis; P. G. Blauner; G. Cooperstein; S. A. Goldstein; D. Mosher

1980-01-01

448

The method of calculating average skidding distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analyzing the existing average skidding distance formulae and the shape of the landing area, the authors put forward that\\u000a the average skidding distance is the shortest when the ratio of length and width is 1, and the landing collection area is\\u000a in proportion to of average geometrical skidding distance. The new models of calculating average distance are presented.

Zhang Zhixian; Feng Zhili

1997-01-01

449

Distance Formula (length of a segment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach you how to find the length of a segment using the distance formula. Use the following link to learn the distance formula: Distance Formula (Length of a Line Segment) Now for some practice. Do problems 1-4 on the following practice quiz: Distance Formula Practice OK! You are set for the homework! Assignment #4 on the following link: Class Zone Geometry Textbook ...

Mrs. Neubert

2011-08-24

450

Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

451

Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

1992-01-01

452

Data Processing Procedures and Methodology for Estimating Trip Distances for the 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS)  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS) collected information from approximately 80,000 U.S. households about their long distance travel (one-way trips of 100 miles or more) during the year of 1995. It is the most comprehensive survey of where, why, and how U.S. residents travel since 1977. ATS is a joint effort by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Census (Census); BTS provided the funding and supervision of the project, and Census selected the samples, conducted interviews, and processed the data. This report documents the technical support for the ATS provided by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which included the estimation of trip distances as well as data quality editing and checking of variables required for the distance calculations.

Hwang, H.-L.; Rollow, J.

2000-05-01

453

Global continuation for distance geometry problems  

SciTech Connect

Distance geometry problems arise in the interpretation of NMR data and in the determination of protein structure. The authors formulate the distance geometry problem as a global minimization problem with special structure, and show the global smoothing techniques and a continuation approach for global optimization can be used to determine solutions of distance geometry problems with a nearly 100% probability of success.

More, J.J.; Wu, Zhijun

1995-03-01

454

Some Psychological Aspects of Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The constituting elements of distance education are the course and the interaction between students and supporting organizations. Compared with students at traditional universities, distance students are generally older, have jobs, and often have families. In distance education, learners are usually isolated and want to broaden their education,…

Schuemer, Rudolf

455

Distance Education: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative training technologies are being evaluated with increasing interest in distance education and online training. Evaluations show the benefit of distance education because of limited staffing, shrinking budget dollars for travel to short schools and conferences, and the convenience, availability, and quality of online training selections. In many industries today, distance education has become the staple for training new employees

William W. Edgar

456

Effectiveness of Mobile Learning in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this research is to better understand and measure students' attitudes and perceptions towards the importance of mobile learning in distance education. Results of this survey clearly indicate that facilitating mobile learning can improve the entire distance education by enhancing ways of communication among distance learners, tutors…

Yousuf, Muhammad Imran

2007-01-01

457

Learning at a Distance: Engaged or Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, Pu-Shih Chen, Robert Gonyea, and George Kuh compare the engagement of distance learners in educationally effective activities with that of their campus-based counterparts and compare the engagement of older distance learners relative to younger online students. Although distance learning is the fastest growing segment of…

Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel; Gonyea, Robert; Kuh, George

2008-01-01

458

The Development of Distance Learning Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of distance education, traditionally a peripheral university activity, is chronicled, beginning with the advent of the British Open University and through developments in technology that are rapidly blurring the distinction between traditional and distance education. Distance-learning techniques are described that will change students'…

Prewitt, Timothy

1998-01-01

459

Quality Assurance in Distance Learning Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to study how the present distance learning libraries can improve upon their existing services and introduce new ones to enhance quality of services to distance learners. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review of literature on quality assurance in open and distance education in general and student support…

Tripathi, Manorama; Jeevan, V. K. J.

2009-01-01

460

Information Work in Distance Education: International Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the range and types of distance education on which information is potentially available. Different types of institutions involved in distance education are identified, and the major concerns of distance teaching institutions worldwide are briefly examined. Information users and their information needs are identified, and types…

Harry, Keith; Ismail, Nazira

461

2007-08 Distance Education Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on distance education within the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) for the 2007-08 academic year and provides documentation of the substantial growth of distance education within all colleges and universities. Distance education is a field of continuous improvement and change, and NSHE institutions are constantly…

Nevada System of Higher Education, 2008

2008-01-01

462

Biharmonic Distance , R. M. Rustamov2  

E-print Network

and commute-time distances, but applies different (inverse squared) weighting to the eigenvaluesBiharmonic Distance Y. Lipman1 , R. M. Rustamov2 , T. A. Funkhouser1 1 Princeton University 2 Drew University Measuring distances between pairs of points on a 3D surface is a fundamen- tal problem in computer

Kazhdan, Michael

463

Least cost distance analysis for spatial interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial interpolation allows creation of continuous raster surfaces from a subsample of point-based measurements. Most interpolation approaches use Euclidean distance measurements between data points to generate predictions of values at unknown locations. However, there are many spatially distributed data sets that are not properly represented by Euclidean distances and require distance measures which represent their complex geographic connectivity. The problem

Jonathan A. Greenberg; Carlos Rueda; Erin L. Hestir; Maria J. Santos; Susan L. Ustin

2011-01-01

464

2, 18931923, 2005 Distance in spatial  

E-print Network

the inverse distance weighting interpolation is applied and the test data is daily precipitation observedHESSD 2, 1893­1923, 2005 Distance in spatial interpolation of daily rain gauge data B. Ahrens Title-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Distance in spatial interpolation of daily

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

The Distancing Question in Online Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intellectuals in many fields have long argued that, as the distance between people increases, the possibility for genuine empathy between them decreases. In this article, the author argues that distancing has as-yet unexplored pragmatic consequences in online education. As he has argued elsewhere (Russell 2004), distancing can be understood as "a…

Russell, Glenn

2005-01-01

466

ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

2000-01-01

467

Classification with Kernel Mahalanobis Distance Classifiers  

E-print Network

Classification with Kernel Mahalanobis Distance Classifiers Bernard Haasdonk1 and Elzbieta Pekalska on the Mahalanobis distance. Two ap- proaches are distinguished here. The first one assumes an invertible covariance and quadratic discriminants in the dissimilarity space built by the kernel Mahalanobis distances. Experiments

Haasdonk, Bernard

468

A generalized Mahalanobis distance for mixed data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distance for mixed nominal, ordinal and continuous data is developed by applying the Kullback–Leibler divergence to the general mixed-data model, an extension of the general location model that allows for ordinal variables to be incorporated in the model. The distance obtained can be considered as a generalization of the Mahalanobis distance to data with a mixture of nominal, ordinal

A. R. de Leon; K. C. Carrière

2005-01-01

469

Perception Multimodale de la Distance dans un  

E-print Network

Perception Multimodale de la Distance dans un Environnement Virtuel Rapport d'activités Nicolas,version1-13Jul2011 #12;Nicolas Côté TABLE DES MATI�RES Acronymes iii Introduction v 1 Perception multimodale de la distance 1 1.1 Perception de la distance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

470

Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

2007-01-01

471

Student and Faculty Issues in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Occupational safety and health faculty and occupational safety and health professionals (i.e., the potential audience for graduate level distance education programs) were surveyed to determine the considerations for a distance education-based graduate occupational safety and health program. Findings are reported related to the demand for distance…

Fender, David L.

472

Applying Leadership Theories to Distance Education Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The instructional delivery mode in distance education has been transitioning from the context of a physical classroom environment to a virtual learning environment or maintaining a hybrid of the two. However, most distance education programs in dual mode institutions are situated in traditional face-to-face instructional settings. Distance…

Nworie, John

2012-01-01

473

VISUAL DISCRIMINATION OF DISTANCE BY OCTOPUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary If two stimuli are presented to an octopus simultaneously, but at different distances from the animal, the nearer of the two is usually attacked. This preference was used to test the ability of octopuses to discriminate distance. White discs, 37 mm in diameter, were used as stimuli, and two parameters were varied: the distance of the farther stimulus from

W. R. A. MUNTZ; J. GWYTHER

1988-01-01

474

Rough Way for Academics: Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to compare the academics' perceptions about face to face and distance education, beside finding out the contributions of distance education to them, difficulties they experience in synchronous and asynchronous distance education environments and suggestions for possible solutions of the existing problems. The sample consists…

Gursul, Fatih

2010-01-01

475

School Transportation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special section on student transportation offers a case study of a school system that recycles buses for safety drills; articles on fuel-saving strategies, the pros and cons of contracting for transportation services or operating a publicly owned bus fleet, and advice on full cost accounting for transportation costs; and a transportation…

Executive Educator, 1990

1990-01-01

476

Convex Optimizations for Distance Metric Learning and Pattern Classification  

E-print Network

Euclidean distances by so-called Mahalanobis distances. A Mahalanobis distance metric1 computes the distance semidefinite. Mahalanobis distances play an im- portant role in multivariate statistics, where the matrix M

Weinberger, Kilian

477

Dynamics of long-distance signaling via plant vascular tissues  

PubMed Central

Plant vascular systems are constructed by specific cell wall modifications through which cells are highly specialized to make conduits for water and nutrients. Xylem vessels are formed by thickened cell walls that remain after programmed cell death, and serve as water conduits from the root to the shoot. In contrast, phloem tissues consist of a complex of living cells, including sieve tube elements and their neighboring companion cells, and translocate photosynthetic assimilates from mature leaves to developing young tissues. Intensive studies on the content of vascular flow fluids have unveiled that plant vascular tissues transport various types of gene product, and the transport of some provides the molecular basis for the long-distance communications. Analysis of xylem sap has demonstrated the presence of proteins in the xylem transpiration stream. Recent studies have revealed that CLE and CEP peptides secreted in the roots are transported to above ground via the xylem in response to plant–microbe interaction and soil nitrogen starvation, respectively. Their leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptors localized in the shoot phloem are required for relaying the signal from the shoot to the root. These findings well-fit to the current scenario of root-to-shoot-to-root feedback signaling, where peptide transport achieves the root-to-shoot signaling, the first half of the signaling process. Meanwhile, it is now well-evidenced that proteins and a range of RNAs are transported via the phloem translocation system, and some of those can exert their physiological functions at their destinations, including roots. Thus, plant vascular systems may serve not only as conduits for the translocation of essential substances but also as long-distance communication pathways that allow plants to adapt to changes in internal and external environments at the whole plant level. PMID:25852714

Notaguchi, Michitaka; Okamoto, Satoru

2015-01-01

478

75 FR 70128 - 2011 Changes for Domestic Mailing Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...current flexibility test will remain as described in DMM 301.1.3. Parcels Parcel Post[supreg], Bound Printed Matter (BPM), Media Mail[supreg], and Library Mail single-piece parcel weights will be calculated by rounding off to two...

2010-11-17

479

Handle Specialized Mail. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting performance objective 61 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on handling specialized mail are included in this packet. (The packet is the seventh in a set of eight on performing mail activities--CE 016 912-919.) The student…

Bostian, Nancy

480

Prepaid monetary incentive effects on mail survey response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing mail survey response using monetary incentives is a proven, but not always cost-effective, method in every population. This paper tackles the questions of whether it is worth using monetary incentives and the size of the inducement by testing a regression model of the impact of prepaid monetary incentives on response rates in consumer and organizational mail surveys. The results

David Jobber; John Saunders; Vince-Wayne Mitchell

2004-01-01

481

Physicians slow to e-mail routinely with patients.  

PubMed

Some experts view e-mail between physicians and patients as a potential tool to improve physician-patient communication and, ultimately, patient care. Despite indications that many patients want to e-mail their physicians, physician adoption and use of e-mail with patients remains uncommon--only 6.7 percent of office-based physicians routinely e-mailed patients in 2008, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Overall, about one-third of office-based physicians reported that information technology (IT) was available in their practice for e-mailing patients about clinical issues. Of those, fewer than one in five reported using e-mail with patients routinely; the remaining physicians were roughly evenly split between occasional users and non-users. Physicians in practices with access to electronic medical records and those working in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) or medical school settings were more likely to adopt and use e-mail to communicate with patients compared with other physicians. However, even among the highest users--physicians in group/staff-model HMOs--only 50.6 percent reported routinely e-mailing patients. PMID:20939158

Boukus, Ellyn R; Grossman, Joy M; O'Malley, Ann S

2010-10-01

482

E-mail security. An overview of threats and safeguards.  

PubMed

Not everyone in the organization needs to know how to secure the e-mail service, but anyone who handles patient information must understand e-mail's vulnerabilities and recognize when a system is secure enough to transmit sensitive information. PMID:20437800

Stine, Kevin; Scholl, Matthew

2010-04-01

483

Changing Technology and the U.S. Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changes in technology that have affected mail delivery are a dynamic way to encourage students to think critically and make meaningful connections across historical eras. In the classroom, personal communication through the mail can become the "thematic glue" used across historical units to highlight the changes in everyday life caused by…

Gandy, S. Kay; Resor, Cynthia Williams

2012-01-01

484

How E-mail Can Give You Back Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests the use of e-mail in the place of writing comments on individual papers. Notes the importance of using e-mail and the listserv in a student's writing experience. Considers some of the implications for professional benefit by exploring the relationship between online communication and oral discussion and between private and public…

Monroe, Barbara

2003-01-01

485

Characteristics of Parent-Teacher E-Mail Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, the use of computer-mediated communication such as e-mail has reportedly increased the level of parental involvement and parent-teacher communication at the elementary and secondary level. However, research has not yet examined the characteristics of parent-teacher e-mail communication. Thirty parent and 30 teacher interviews…

Thompson, Blair

2008-01-01

486

Electronic Mail: An Examination of High-End Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined what high-end users (those who use e-mail many times during the day) do with e-mail and how they feel about it. The sample consisted of 12 students and faculty in the Instructional Systems Technology (IST) department at Indiana University. Participants were divided into three groups: faculty, non-first year students, and first…

Hawley, Chandra; And Others

487

Target Marketing and Direct Mail: A Smart Campaign Combination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that helps identify and classify a camp's product or service and determine the needs of a targeted market for the purpose of allocating marketing resources. Offers strategies for defining a target market and discusses the benefits of direct mail, deriving a mailing list, and suggestions for using a…

Brostoff, Mark J.

1994-01-01

488

A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

2011-01-01

489

Differences between Males and Females Concerning Perceived Electronic Mail Appropriateness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic mail is one of the most successfully diffused modern communication technologies. Yet, few researchers have investigated whether gender differences exist in perceptions of the types of appropriateness embedded within electronic mail messages. A framework originally created by Wiemann and Backlund (1980) served as the basis for the…

Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

2008-01-01

490

Gender Differences in Perceived Gratifications Obtained through Electronic Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic mail provides users with unique positive psychological consequences that differentiate it from other media. These consequences or gratifications have been mentioned separately across the electronic mail literature, yet there is no specific measure for these gratifications. The study found that females (M = 7.7; SD = 1.8) achieve higher…

Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.

2010-01-01

491

Using E-mail as an Official Means of Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 90% of all University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC) students and staff are regular users of e-mail. The University has taken advantage of this widespread use and replaced many paper distributions--payroll earnings statements, unofficial transcripts, degree audits, adviser grade reports, bills, et cetera--with distribution via e-mail

Ritland, Marian; Moore, Sue Shelton

492

76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or APO, FPO or DPO...equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October...

2011-09-09

493

39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), disaggregated by mail subject...variance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place) for mail delivered within...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), provided at the Postal...

2012-07-01

494

39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), disaggregated by mail subject...variance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place) for mail delivered within...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), provided at the Postal...

2014-07-01

495

39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), disaggregated by mail subject...variance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place) for mail delivered within...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), provided at the Postal...

2011-07-01

496

39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), disaggregated by mail subject...variance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place) for mail delivered within...performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place), provided at the Postal...

2013-07-01

497

Handleiding Exchange Mail (NUWD) op Android 4.1.2  

E-print Network

Handleiding Exchange Mail (NUWD) op Android 4.1.2 Version: 1.0 Exchange Mail Date: 11-04-2013 #12 een Android device. Aan het einde van deze handleiding staat uitgelegd hoe u het Exchange account kan verwijderen van uw Android device. Onderstaande screenshots kunnen per device afwijken. Let ook op dat veel

Galis, Frietson

498

Magnetic Resonance at Short Distances  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic interactions between a fermion and an antifermion of opposite electric or color charges in the $^{1}S_{0}^{-+}$ and $^{3}P_{0}^{++}$ states with $J=0$ are very attractive and singular near the origin and may allow the formation of new bound and resonance states at short distances. In the two body Dirac equations formulated in constraint dynamics, the short-distance attraction for these states for point particles leads to a quasipotential that behaves near the origin as $-\\alpha ^{2}/r^{2}$, where $ \\alpha $ is the coupling constant. Representing this quasipotential at short distances as $\\lambda (\\lambda +1)/r^{2}$ with $\\lambda =(-1+\\sqrt{1-4\\alpha ^{2}})/2$, both $^{1}S_{0}^{-+}$ and $^{3}P_{0}^{++}$ states admit two types of eigenstates with drastically different behaviors for the radial wave function $u=r\\psi $. One type of states, with $u$ growing as $r^{\\lambda +1}$ at small $r$, will be called usual states. The other type of states with $u$ growing as $r^{-\\lambda }$ will be called peculiar states. Both of the usual and peculiar eigenstates have admissible behaviors at short distances. Remarkably, the solutions for both sets of $^{1}S_{0}$ states can be written out analytically. The usual bound $^{1}S_{0}$ states possess attributes the same as those one usually encounters in QED and QCD, with bound state energies explicitly agreeing with the standard perturbative results through order $\\alpha ^{4}$. In contrast, the peculiar bound $^{1}S_{0}$ states, yet to be observed, not only have different behaviors at the origin, but also distinctly different bound state properties (and scattering phase shifts). For the peculiar $^{1}S_{0}$ ground state of fermion-antifermion pair with fermion rest mass $m$, the root-mean-square radius is approximately $1/m$, binding energy is approximately $(2-\\sqrt{2})m$, and rest mass approximately $\\sqrt{2}m$. On the other hand, the $(n+1)$${}^{1}S_{0}$ peculiar state with principal quantum number $(n+1)$ is nearly degenerate in energy and approximately equal in size with the $n$$^{1}S_{0}$ usual states. For the $ {}^{3}P_{0}$ states, the usual solutions lead to the standard bound state energies and no resonance, but resonances have been found for the peculiar states whose energies depend on the description of the internal structure of the charges, the mass of the constituent, and the coupling constant. The existence of both usual and peculiar eigenstates in the same system leads to the non-self-adjoint property of the mass operator and two non-orthogonal complete sets. As both sets of states are physically admissible, the mass operator can be made self-adjoint with a single complete set of admissible states by introducing a new peculiarity quantum number and an enlarged Hilbert space that contains both the usual and peculiar states in different peculiarity sectors. Whether or not these newly-uncovered quantum-mechanically acceptable peculiar $^{1}S_{0}$ bound states and $^{3}P_{0}$ resonances for point fermion-antifermion systems correspond to physical states remains to be further investigated.

Crater, H. W. [University of Tennessee Space Institute; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL

2012-01-01

499

Distance majorization and its applications  

PubMed Central

The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton’s method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

2014-01-01

500

Distance nursing education in Micronesia.  

PubMed

Distance education courses have been offered by the University of Guam for the past ten years, however there were no programs developed for the students of the region. In 1994, the College of Nursing and Health Sciences began teaching courses over PEACESAT (Pan Pacific Education and Communications Experiment by Satellite) every semester. The first course was written to serve Palau, the Commonwealth of the Marianas, Pohnpei, and the Marshall Islands. These jurisdictions have large community colleges. An overview of this program is given. In 1997 the courses were extended to include Palau, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, and the Marshall islands. The organisational structure and training of the site operators and training coordinators is described. Two courses were taught in the first year. The first was 'Nutrition for Health Professionals and the second Leadership/Management for nurses. These are described, evaluated and discussed. PMID:11588932

Fochtman, M M

2000-09-01