Sample records for distancia entre plantas

  1. PSC 424: Kingdom Plantae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Webb

    2011-10-12

    A 12th grade lesson on the characteristics of Kingdom Plantae, photosynthesis and cellular respiration Kingdom Plantae Plantae Unit PowerPoint Use these fun songs to review plant processes! Cell Respiration - Cellular Respiration Song Photosynthesis Rap

    PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  2. UN ENFOQUE CONSTRUCTIVISTA PARA USO DE MAPAS CONCEPTUALES EN EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA DE PROFESORES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lea Fagundes; Alberto J. Cañas

    Resumen. Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de utilización de los mapas conceptuales en la formación de profesores a distancia usando el software CmapTools del Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, dentro de un paradigma constructivista. Nuestra propuesta utiliza como base teórica la Epistemología Genética de Jean Piaget y, en especial, la teoría de las Implicaciones Significantes para la construcción de

  3. Ineficiencia en la Distribución de Energía Eléctrica: Una Aplicación de las Funciones de Distancia Estocástica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligia Melo B; Nestor Espinosa

    Este documento evalúa el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía durante el periodo 1999-2003, utilizando la metodología de funciones de distancia estocástica, la cual a través de la estimación de las desviaciones de una función ideal de producción, permite medir los niveles de eficiencia técnica de las diferentes empresas. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas en el desempeño

  4. Ineficiencia en la distribución de energía eléctrica: una aplicación de las funciones de distancia estocástica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligia Melo; Néstor Espinosa

    2005-01-01

    En este documento se evalúa el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía durante el período 1999-2003, utilizando la metodología de funciones de distancia estocástica, la cual, a través de la estimación de las desviaciones de una función ideal de producción, permite medir los niveles de eficiencia técnica de las diferentes empresas. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas en

  5. In planta gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Fauser, Friedrich; Roth, Nadine; Pacher, Michael; Ilg, Gabriele; Sánchez-Fernández, Rocío; Biesgen, Christian; Puchta, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The development of designed site-specific endonucleases boosted the establishment of gene targeting (GT) techniques in a row of different species. However, the methods described in plants require a highly efficient transformation and regeneration procedure and, therefore, can be applied to very few species. Here, we describe a highly efficient GT system that is suitable for all transformable plants regardless of transformation efficiency. Efficient in planta GT was achieved in Arabidopsis thaliana by expression of a site-specific endonuclease that not only cuts within the target but also the chromosomal transgenic donor, leading to an excised targeting vector. Progeny clonal for the targeted allele could be obtained directly by harvesting seeds. Targeted events could be identified up to approximately once per 100 seeds depending on the target donor combination. Molecular analysis demonstrated that, in almost all events, homologous recombination occurred at both ends of the break. No ectopic integration of the GT vector was found. PMID:22529367

  6. Anlisis de la medida de distancia entre documentos y consultas en el modelo lgico de Recuperacin de

    E-print Network

    Barreiro, Alvaro

    con cambio mínimo. Palabras claves: ranking; similaridad; mo- delos; lógica; revisión de creencias. 1 (RI) basado en Lógica Clási- ca Proposicional y Revisión de Creencias (RC) [8][9][11]. En los modelos Creencias con el objeto de obtener revisión en tiempo polinomial [4]. En nuestro caso el objetivo es obtener

  7. MAPAS CONCEPTUALES PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA BOTÁNICA. UNA PROPUESTA ORGANIZATIVA EN UN ENTORNO EDUCATIVO A DISTANCIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel José Linares Alvaro; Mateo Lezcano Brito

    Resumen . En cursos anteriores, quedó establecido en varias carreras universitarias, como la de Ingeniero Agrónomo, la aplicación del plan de estudios D, caracterizado por una marcada disposición a la educación constructivista, a distancia y significativa; también fueron creadas las sedes universitarias, donde la modalidad del proceso docente, posee características similares. Algunas carreras tienen en su plan de estudio asignaturas

  8. Plantas crucíferas y la prevención del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume los resultados de estudios sobre las plantas crucíferas y el cáncer. Incluye una lista de plantas crucíferas y las guías alimenticias recomendadas para el consumo de verduras.

  9. Abono para la planta medicinal Cobra fuerza en la Isla el estudio del valor teraputico de la flora tropical.

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    que "muchas plantas americanas (como el tabaco, que se preparaba de diferentes maneras), eran de a otros colegas e investigadores de la Escuela de Farmacia. Entre ellos, figuran Ana Vélez, Ricardo pasos para que este logre la acreditación de la Asociación Americana de Museos. Jardín con historia A su

  10. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  11. Behavior competence development through e-learning: experience at the undergraduate level in the context of Aula a Distancia Abierta (ADA) Madrid, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio de los Ríos Carmenado; José María Díaz-Puente; Francisca Gómez Gajardo

    2011-01-01

    This communication presents the results of an innovative approach for competence development suggesting a new methodology for the integration of these elements in professional development within the ADA initiative (Aula a Distancia Abierta, Distance and Open Classroom) of the Community of Madrid. The main objective of this initiative is to promote the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for

  12. La calidad en la educación a distancia continúa siendo un tema muy complejo. Quality in Distance Education is Still a Very Complex Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Fainholc

    RESUMEN: Existe una extensa producción de programas de Educación a Distancia, incluyendo TICs o en propuestas híbridas. Es extensa y no intensa, lo que supone ser reflexiva o de análisis evaluativo profundo de sus intentos. Es necesario conocerlas más de cerca por lo tanto es necesario establecer criterios para arribar a propuestas educativas confiables y de calidad. Se está lejos

  13. Algoritmo Tabú para un problema de distribución de espacios = Tabu Search Algorithm for a Room Allocation Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo G. Hernández-Díaz; Flor M. Guerrero Casas; Rafael Caballero Fernández; Julián Molina Luque

    2006-01-01

    La distribución de espacios es un problema que habitualmente se presenta en situaciones reales cuando se deben asignar simultáneamente diferentes conjuntos de espacios (despachos, habitaciones, salas, etc.) distribuidos entre edificios y\\/o plantas entre varios grupos de personas de tal forma que se minimicen las distancias entre los espacios asignados a cada grupo y la sede de dicho grupo. Esta situación

  14. CRYOPRESERVATION OF SYNCHYTRIUM SOLSTITIALE IN PLANTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Synchytrium solstitiale is a candidate for use as a biocontrol agent against Centaurea solstitialis. Although this obligate parasite can be propagated in planta under laboratory conditions, a method was needed to preserve cultures for longer periods of time for routine biological studies...

  15. Non-random sharing of Plantae genes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cheong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions. PMID:21980581

  16. Non-random sharing of Plantae genes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2011-05-01

    The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions. PMID:21980581

  17. Endostatin (EntreMed).

    PubMed

    Grosios, K

    2000-07-01

    EntreMed has licensed the worldwide rights to the angiogenesis inhibitor Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, from the Children's Hospital of Boston, a teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School. It is being developed as a potential cancer treatment and may also be useful in certain types of blindness and arthritis [227427]. EntreMed filed an IND for Endostatin in June 1999 [334125] and as of September 1999, phase I trials were underway [341462]. As of April 2000, the company had initiated plans for testing low doses of Endostatin in cancer patients using continuous infusion and sc administration in a further phase I study to be conducted in Europe [361594]. A phase I trial of Endostatin which will evaluate the safety and efficacy of Endostatin at a range of doses in no more than 100 cancer patients has been initiated. The trial will take place at the University of Texas MD Anderson Medical Center and the University of Wisconsin Cancer Center in Madison. The National Cancer Center will be sponsoring the trial, which is expected to be completed in late 2000. As of March 2000, there had been no serious adverse events attributable to Endostatin administration. The first report from this trial is expected in autumn 2000 [341462], [366312]. The mechanism of action for Endostatin remains unclear, although reports from the 91st AACR Meeting in April 2000 showed that recombinant human endostatin bound to a number of tropomyosin cDNAs in a library screen [362039]. In preclinical studies, repeated administration of Endostatin consistently shrank primary tumors and did not produce any drug resistance. In mice, a variety of tumors which had progressed to 1 to 2% of total body weight, regressed to microscopic, dormant lesions following Endostatin treatment [231418], [231470], [270673]. Types of cancers which respond to Endostatin include lung, skin, vascular and fibrosarcomas. Toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys showed that bolus injections of human endostatin at doses up to 300 mg/kg produced no toxic effects [317916]. Research presented at the 91st Annual Meeting of the AACR (San Francisco, April 2000), demonstrated that peritumoral administration of Endostatin, at concentrations 2000-fold less than that required to inhibit tumor progression in previously published reports using systemic dosing, significantly deters the development of a variety of tumors in mice [361584]. Other research presented at the meeting demonstrated a role for tropomysin as a molecular target for Endostatin [361680]. In August 1997, EntreMed and the NCI signed letters of intent to commence research collaborations for developing anti-angiogenic therapies, including Endostatin, in preclinical and clinical studies [258354], while in August 1998, EntreMed entered into an agreement with Covance Biotechnology Services for the production of Endostatin [304919]. In August 1999, Entremed and Cell Genesys entered a collaboration to combine Entremed's Endostatin genes with Cell Genesys's gene delivery system as a possible treatment for cancer [336909]. In December 1999, EntreMed signed an agreement with Chiron for the production of bulk Endostatin for phase II clinical trials [350397]. In April 1999, analysts at First Security Van Kasper predicted a US launch for Endostatin in 2004, with first-year revenues of US 320 million dollars, including 70 million dollars in royalties to EntreMed. European launch was predicted for 2005, with total revenues from Europe and the US for that year of US 760 milion dollars (160 million dollars royalties to EntreMed), rising to 1600 million dollars (335 million dollars royalties to EntreMed) in 2007 [370813]. PMID:16080055

  18. PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PATHOLOGIE V�G�TALE SYNTH�SE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs satellites chez un 84140 Montfavet R�SUM� Deux ou plusieurs virus, apparentés ou non, peuvent se multiplier ensemble dans une même plante et également dans une même cellule. Les interactions entre virus qui en résultent

  19. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade ?-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  1. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  2. Influencia de la fecha de siembra y distancia entre surcos sobre el establecimiento de asociaciones de desmanthus y el pasto klein Influence of row-spacing and planting date on the establishment of bundleflower-kleingrass mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo A. González Valenzuela; Mark A. Hussey

    Understanding factors that affect the establishment of pastures is important to the management of persistent grass-legume mixtures. The objective of this study was to evaluate kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.)-bundeflower (Desmanthus sp.) associations during the establishment year in terms of plant density and yield. The study was carried out at Brazos County, TX. (near College Station). Plots were drilled at a

  3. In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. PMID:24268175

  4. Real-time PCR for the quantification of fungi in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods enabling quantification of fungi in planta can be useful for a variety of applications. In combination with information on plant disease severity, indirect quantification of fungi in planta offers an additional tool in the screening of plants that are resistant to fungal diseases. In this ch...

  5. Bases morfofisiológicas para maior tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a altas densidades de plantas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís Sangoi; Milton Luiz de Almeida; Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva; Gilber Argenta

    2002-01-01

    RESUMO O lançamento de híbridos de milho tolerantes ao aumento da densidade de plantas contribuiu para o incremento do potencial produtivo da cultura na segunda metade do século XX. Objetiva-se com esta revisão de literatura discutir características morfológicas, fisiológicas, fenológicas e alométricas que contribuíram para maior adaptação do milho a elevadas densidades de plantas. Os processos de seleção utilizados pelos

  6. Método de Prueba GAED: Tiempo Óptimo para el Reemplazo de CAG en Plantas de Tratamiento de Agua Potable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Por Henry Nowicki; H. George Nowicki; Wayne Schuliger; Barbara Sherman

    l carbón activado granular (CAG) no dura para siempre en una planta de tratamiento de agua (PTA), su rendimiento no necesita ser monitoreado periódicamente, y deberá ser reemplazado con CAG fresco, no usado o reactivado. El CAG usado, que se remueve, puede ser reactivado en plantas dedicadas a carbones de agua potable para ser retornado a la planta. Los reactivadores

  7. Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

  8. La Transpiración - Movimiento del Agua a Través de las Plantas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    La transpiración es la pérdida de agua en forma de vapor por las plantas. El agua es absorbida del suelo por las raíces y transportada en forma líquida por el xilema hacia las hojas. En las hojas, unos pequeños poros permiten que el agua (H2O) escape a la atmósfera en forma de vapor, al tiempo que se permite la entrada de bióxido de carbono (CO2) para la fotosíntesis. De toda el agua absorbida por las plantas, menos del 5% es retenida y utilizada para crecimiento y almacenamiento. En esta lección se explicará porque las plantas pierden tanta agua, la ruta que ésta sigue dentro de la planta, como pudieran las plantas controlar la pérdida excesiva de agua y como las condiciones ambientales influyen en la pérdida de agua por las plantas.

  9. In Planta Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The amounts of IAA produced per fungal biomass were highest during the biotrophic phase. IAA production by this plant pathogen might be important during early stages of plant colonization. PMID:15006816

  10. Captulo 1 Redes complejas de interacciones mutualistas planta-animal 17

    E-print Network

    Jordano, Pedro

    #12;Capítulo 1 Redes complejas de interacciones mutualistas planta-animal 17 CAPÍTULO 1 Redes aproximación transdisciplinaria de redes complejas ( Jordano, 1987; Müller et al., 1999; Memmott y Waser, 2002; Montoya et al., 2006; Bascompte y Jordano, 2007). El enfoque de redes complejas al estudio de

  11. REGENERAÇÃO IN VITRO DE PLANTAS DE TOMATEIROS 'SANTA CLARA' E SEU MUTANTE NATURAL 'FIRME'1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FÁBIO TEBALDI; SILVEIRA NOGUEIRA; MARCIO GILBERTO COSTA; MAÍRA LIMA FIGUEIRA; WAGNER CAMPOS OTONI; FERNANDO LUIZ FINGER

    RESUMO - Visando à otimização de um protocolo de regeneração para plantas de tomateiro 'Santa Clara' e mutante 'Firme', foram realizados experimentos de morfogênese in vitro , avaliando -se cinco diferentes meios de indução de gemas e a posição (proximal e distal) dos cotilédones. Os cotilédone s foram seccionados transversalmente e inoculados com a face abaxial em meio de cultivo

  12. Planta (2008) 228:989998 DOI 10.1007/s00425-008-0798-x

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    expression and nitrate uptake levels, precluding us from suggesting that nitrate acts on root hydraulicPlanta (2008) 228:989­998 DOI 10.1007/s00425-008-0798-x 123 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrate induction of water from the soil to the root surface in response to the appearance of nitrate in the rhizosphere

  13. Planta (2007) 226:9891005 DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0545-8

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    pathways. Keywords Citrus sinensis · Juice sac cell · LC-MS/MS · Sugar metabolism · Vesicle traPlanta (2007) 226:989­1005 DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0545-8 123 ORIGINAL ARTICLE The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism E. Katz · M. Fon · Y. J. Lee · B. S. Phinney · A. Sadka · E

  14. IN PLANTA AGRIONFECTION BY CANADIAN AND GERMAN POTATO LEAFROLL VIRUS FULL-LENGTH CDNAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full-length infectious cDNA clones of Canadain (PLRV-flc)and German (PLRV-flg) Potato leafroll virus isolates were constructed and their biological activities examined in planta. For both constructs, agroinfection by PLRV cDNA resulted in virus mulitplication in the primary leaf followed by systemi...

  15. ENTR 406: SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Syllabus Fall, 2013

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    ENTR 406: SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Syllabus ­ Fall, 2013 Class meets: MWF: 11:00-11:50; BCTR 212 COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course explores issues in not-for-profit entrepreneurship such as ways social to explore these and related issues. TEXT: Bornstein, David and Susan Davis (2010), Social Entrepreneurship

  16. Article original Entre neurosciences et neurophilosophie

    E-print Network

    Dominey, Peter F.

    essential to clearly situ- ate its contribution to the origin and the development of the cognitive sciencesArticle original Entre neurosciences et neurophilosophie : la psychologie cognitive et les sciences cognitives Between neuroscience and neurophilosophy: cognitive psychology and cognitive science G. Tiberghien

  17. Ion-mediated changes of xylem hydraulic resistance in planta: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    van Ieperen, Wim

    2007-04-01

    Although xylem provides an efficient transport pathway for water in plants, the hydraulic conductivity of xylem (K(h)) can still influence plant water status. For decades, the K(h) of functional xylem has been assumed to be constant in the short term because xylem consists of a network of dead interconnected capillary elements (conduits). Recent research has shown that K(h) can change in response to the cation content of the xylem fluid. Volume changes of pectin gel in nanometer-sized pores at inter-conduit connections are hypothesized to be the cause, and implications for xylem transport in planta are suggested. However, it seems too early to be conclusive about this phenomenon because the phenomenon has not been measured in planta with xylem fluids that realistically mimic natural xylem sap and the applied methods used to measure ion-mediated changes in K(h) have drawbacks. PMID:17368079

  18. Expression of pathogenicity-related genes of Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Alessandra A; Takita, Marco A; Pereira, Eridan O; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A

    2005-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for several economically important plant diseases. It is currently assumed that the symptoms are caused by vascular occlusion due to biofilm formation. Microarray technology was previously used to examine the global gene expression profile of X. fastidiosa freshly isolated from symptomatic plants or after several passages by axenic culture medium, and different pathogenicity profiles have been obtained. In the present study the expression of some pathogenicity-related genes was evaluated in vitro and in planta by RT-PCR. The results suggest that adhesion is important at the beginning of biofilm formation, while the genes related to adaptation are essential for the organism's maintenance in planta. Similar results were observed in vitro mainly for the adhesion genes. The pattern of expression observed suggests that adhesion modulates biofilm formation whereas the expression of some adaptation genes may be related to the environment in which the organism is living. PMID:15902471

  19. In planta anthocyanin degradation by a vacuolar class III peroxidase in Brunfelsia calycina flowers.

    PubMed

    Zipor, Gadi; Duarte, Patrícia; Carqueijeiro, Inês; Shahar, Liat; Ovadia, Rinat; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Eshel, Dani; Levin, Yishai; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Sottomayor, Mariana; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to detailed knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, the largest group of plant pigments, little is known about their in planta degradation. It has been suggested that anthocyanin degradation is enzymatically controlled and induced when beneficial to the plant. Here we investigated the enzymatic process in Brunfelsia calycina flowers, as they changed color from purple to white. We characterized the enzymatic process by which B. calycina protein extracts degrade anthocyanins. A candidate peroxidase was partially purified and characterized and its intracellular localization was determined. The transcript sequence of this peroxidase was fully identified. A basic peroxidase, BcPrx01, is responsible for the in planta degradation of anthocyanins in B. calycina flowers. BcPrx01 has the ability to degrade complex anthocyanins, it co-localizes with these pigments in the vacuoles of petals, and both the mRNA and protein levels of BcPrx01 are greatly induced parallel to the degradation of anthocyanins. Both isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel analysis and 3D structure prediction indicated that BcPrx01 is cationic. Identification of BcPrx01 is a significant breakthrough both in the understanding of anthocyanin catabolism in plants and in the field of peroxidases, where such a consistent relationship between expression levels, in planta subcellular localization and activity has seldom been demonstrated. PMID:25256351

  20. Discovery of Phytophthora infestans Genes Expressed in Planta through Mining of cDNA Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Diego; Pinzón, Andrés; Grajales, Alejandro; Rojas, Alejandro; Mutis, Gabriel; Cárdenas, Martha; Burbano, Daniel; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causes late blight of potato and tomato, and has a broad host range within the Solanaceae family. Most studies of the Phytophthora – Solanum pathosystem have focused on gene expression in the host and have not analyzed pathogen gene expression in planta. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe in detail an in silico approach to mine ESTs from inoculated host plants deposited in a database in order to identify particular pathogen sequences associated with disease. We identified candidate effector genes through mining of 22,795 ESTs corresponding to P. infestans cDNA libraries in compatible and incompatible interactions with hosts from the Solanaceae family. Conclusions/Significance We annotated genes of P. infestans expressed in planta associated with late blight using different approaches and assigned putative functions to 373 out of the 501 sequences found in the P. infestans genome draft, including putative secreted proteins, domains associated with pathogenicity and poorly characterized proteins ideal for further experimental studies. Our study provides a methodology for analyzing cDNA libraries and provides an understanding of the plant – oomycete pathosystems that is independent of the host, condition, or type of sample by identifying genes of the pathogen expressed in planta. PMID:20352100

  1. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Berendzen, Kenneth Wayne; Böhmer, Maik; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Peter, Sébastien; Vesi?, Marko; Zhou, Ying; Tiesler, Franziska Katharina Elisabeth; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Harter, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed. PMID:22789293

  2. Efeito do tamanho das sementes de trigo no desenvolvimento inicial das plantas e no rendimento de grãos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Bredemeier; Claudio Mario Mundstock; Daniel Büttenbender

    2001-01-01

    . Os†tratamentos constaram de diferentes tamanhos de semente, classificadas confor- me o di‚metro (menor que 3,0†mm a maior que 3,75†mm). Sob condiÁies controladas, as plantas origi- nadas de sementes maiores apresentaram maior taxa de emissªo de folhas; as primeiras folhas do colmo principal apresentaram maior massa seca e maior comprimento. Estas plantas tambØm foram superio- res na freq¸Œncia de emissªo

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO INDOL-3-BUTÍRICO NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE PLANTAS DE CONFREI (Symphytum officinale L.)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FONSÊCA CASTRO; AMAURI ALVES DE ALVARENGA

    RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição

  4. EntreWorld: Resources for Entrepreneurs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Looking to make that first million? Then EntreWorld, provided by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, is an excellent place to begin. The site is highlighted by four sections: starting your business, running your business, rapid growth, and supporting entrepreneurship. The first two sections allow users to select from an interactive search box of several topics, and retrieve annotated articles from various Internet sources. The fourth contains a potpourri of information including annotated pointers to other Internet resources in six major subject areas (pointers are also available from the Business Center area of each major section). The number of article pointers, and the annotation of each, make this site worth a visit.

  5. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  6. Dynamic root exudation of sorgoleone and its in planta mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Howell, J'Lynn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    The oily droplets exuded from the root hairs of sorghum are composed of a 1:1 ratio of sorgoleone and its lipid resorcinol analogue. The production of these droplets appears to be suppressed when c. 20 ?g of exudate mg?1 root dry weight accumulates at the tip of the root hairs. However, more exudate is produced following gentle washing of the roots with water, suggesting that the biosynthesis of lipid benzoquinones and resorcinols is a dynamic process. Sorgoleone interferes with several molecular target sites, including photosynthetic electron transport, in in vitro assays. However, the in planta mechanism of action of sorgoleone remains controversial because it is not clear whether this lipid benzoquinone exuding from the roots of sorghum is taken up by roots of the receiving plants and translocated to their foliage where it must enter the chloroplast and inhibit PSII in the thylakoid membrane. Experiments designed to test the in planta mode of action of sorgoleone demonstrated that it has no effect on the photosynthesis of older plants, but inhibits photosynthesis in germinating seedlings. Sorgoleone is not translocated acropetally in older plants, but can be absorbed through the hypocotyl and cotyledonary tissues. Therefore, the mode of action of sorgoleone may be the result of inhibition of photosynthesis in young seedlings in concert with inhibition of its other molecular target sites in older plants. PMID:19357432

  7. Linking ex planta fungi with their endophytic stages: Perisporiopsis, a common leaf litter and soil fungus, is a frequent endophyte of Hevea spp. and other plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priscila Chaverri; Romina O. Gazis

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that endophytic fungi originate from local environmental sources, and endophyte identity and composition can be predicted based on surrounding ex planta fungi. As part of a pilot study to characterize endophytes and ex planta fungi (e.g. saprotrophs) of wild Hevea trees, endophytes were isolated with almost identical ITS sequences, but these were unidentifiable using GenBank database.

  8. Optimisation des relations entre transpiration et photosynthse. Observations propos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimisation des relations entre transpiration et photosynthèse. Observations à propos des 1977 une théorie d'optimisation des relations entre transpiration et photosynthèse chez les végétaux transpiration, F! le taux de photosynthèse nette et g, la conductance stomatiquc pour le CO2. Les études

  9. L'IDENTIT EUROPENNE, ENTRE SCIENCE POLITIQUE ET SCIENCE Introduction

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L'IDENTIT� EUROP�ENNE, ENTRE SCIENCE POLITIQUE ET SCIENCE FICTION. Introduction Sophie Duchesne L : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Duchesne Sophie, « L'identité européenne, entre science politique et science fiction. » Introduction SCIENCE FICTION. INTRODUCTION L'usage scientifique de la notion d'« identité européenne » a rapi- dement

  10. DIFERENCIAS SALARIALES ENTRE EL EMPLEO A TIEMPO COMPLETO Y PARCIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICARDO PAGÁN RODRÍGUEZ

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo es estimar las diferencias salariales entre los trabajadores a tiempo completo y a tiempo parcial, descompo- niendo dichas diferencias entre los factores que más contribuyen a expli- carlas. A partir de los microdatos del Panel de Hogares de la Unión Eu- ropea y utilizando una muestra ampliada para el año 2000 y otra para

  11. An efficient method for visualization and growth of fluorescent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in planta

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Wook; Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Ronald, Pamela C

    2008-01-01

    Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease, is a serious pathogen of rice. Here we describe a fluorescent marker system to study virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Results A fluorescent X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (PXO99GFP) was generated using the gfp gene under the control of the neomycin promoter in the vector, pPneo-gfp. The PXO99GFPstrain displayed identical virulence and avirulence properties as the wild type control strain, PXO99. Using fluorescent microscopy, bacterial multiplication and colonization were directly observed in rice xylem vessels. Accurate and rapid determination of bacterial growth was assessed using fluoremetry and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA). Conclusion Our results indicate that the fluorescent marker system is useful for assessing bacterial infection and monitoring bacterial multiplication in planta. PMID:18826644

  12. G. Leubner-Metzger et al.: -1,3-Glucanase and tobacco seed germination Planta (1996) 199: 282-288

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    G. Leubner-Metzger et al.: ß-1,3-Glucanase and tobacco seed germination - 1 - Planta (1996) 199,3-glucanase induction in tobacco seed germination Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Corinne Fründt, Frederick Meins, Jr I ß-1,3- glucanases are induced by GA4 in the dark in association with germination. As in the light

  13. Biologia floral, microsporogênese e número cromossômico em cinco espécies de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no Rio Grande do Sul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. PEREIRA; DA SILVA

    2006-01-01

    RESUMO: Onze populações de cinco espécies de plantas medicinais utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul, foram observadas quanto ao período de floração, durante três anos e estudadas citogeneticamente. Discaria americana e Matricharia chamomilla, florescem preferencialmente no inverno, Foeniculun vulgare e Symphytum officinale, nas estações mais quentes e Plectranthus barbatus floresce em estações mais amenas. Na meiose da microsporogênese, formaram-se 11

  14. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely-related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viro...

  15. AVALIAÇÕES BIOFÍSICAS E BIOQUÍMICAS EM PLANTAS DE MOGNO (SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA KING) SOB DOIS PERIODOS, SECO E CHUVOSO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoel Tavares de Paula; Benedito Gomes dos Santos Filho; Yvens Ely Martins Cordeiro; Orlando Shigueo Ohashi; Raimundo Amaro Conde; Heriberto Wagner Amanajás Pena

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o desenvolvimento do mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King), sob arranjo de sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs), através de análises ecofisiológicas no município de Santa Bárbara-PA. As avaliações ecofisiológicas (biofísicas e bioquímicas) nas plantas de mogno foram realizadas às 13:00 h, em dois períodos: chuvoso (maio) e seco (novembro), no ano de 2007. Durante o período seco

  16. Intron distribution in Plantae: 500 million years of stasis during land plant evolution.

    PubMed

    Teich, René; Grauvogel, Carina; Petersen, Jörn

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the evolution of the intron-exon organization in the more primitive groups of land plants, and the intron distribution among Plantae (glauco-, rhodo-, chloro- and streptophytes) has not been investigated so far. The present study is focused on some key species such as the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, representing the most ancient lineage of land plants, and the streptophycean green alga Mesostigma viride, branching prior to charophycean green algae and terrestrial plants. The intron distribution of six genes for sugar phosphate metabolism was analyzed including four different glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH), the sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBP) and the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). We established 15 new sequences including three cDNA and twelve genomic clones with up to 24 introns per gene, which were identified in the GPI of Marchantia. The intron patterns of all six genes are completely conserved among seed plants, lycopods, mosses and even liverworts. This intron stasis without any gain of novel introns seem to last for nearly 500 million years and may be characteristic for land plants in general. Some unique intron positions in Mesostigma document that a uniform distribution is no common trait of all streptophytes, but it may correlate with the transition to terrestrial habitats. However, the respective genes of chlorophycean green algae display largely different patterns, thus indicating at least one phase of massive intron rearrangement in the green lineage. We moreover included rhodophyte and glaucophyte reference sequences in our analyses and, even if the well documented monophyly of Plantae is not reflected by a uniform intron distribution, at least one GPI intron is strictly conserved for 1.5 billion years. PMID:17400407

  17. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  18. Large-scale gene discovery in the septoria tritici blotch fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola with a focus on in planta expression.

    PubMed

    Kema, Gert H J; van der Lee, Theo A J; Mendes, Odette; Verstappen, Els C P; Lankhorst, René Klein; Sandbrink, Hans; van der Burgt, Ate; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Csukai, Michael; Waalwijk, Cees

    2008-09-01

    The foliar disease septoria tritici blotch, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, is currently the most important wheat disease in Europe. Gene expression was examined under highly different conditions, using 10 expressed sequence tag libraries generated from M. graminicola isolate IPO323 using seven in vitro and three in planta growth conditions. To identify fungal clones in the interaction libraries, we developed a selection method based on hybridization with the entire genomic DNA of M. graminicola, to selectively enrich these libraries for fungal genes. Assembly of the 27,007 expressed sequence tags resulted in 9,190 unigenes, representing 5.2 Mb of the estimated 39-Mb genome size of M. graminicola. All libraries contributed significantly to the number of unigenes, especially the in planta libraries representing different stages of pathogenesis, which covered 15% of the library-specific unigenes. Even under presymptomatic conditions (5 days postinoculation), when fungal biomass is less than 5%, this method enabled us to efficiently capture fungal genes expressed during pathogenesis. Many of these genes were uniquely expressed in planta, indicating that in planta gene expression significantly differed from in vitro expression. Examples of gene discovery included a number of cell wall-degrading enzymes, a broad set of genes involved in signal transduction (n=11) and a range of ATP-binding cassette (n=20) and major facilitator superfamily transporter genes (n=12) potentially involved in protection against antifungal compounds or the secretion of pathogenicity factors. In addition, evidence is provided for a mycovirus in M. graminicola that is highly expressed under various stress conditions, in particular, under nitrogen starvation. Our analyses provide a unique window on in vitro and in planta gene expression of M. graminicola. PMID:18700829

  19. Parler en famille : les échanges entre parents et enfants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Galland

    1997-01-01

    [fre] Parler en famille : les échanges entre parents et enfants . L'étendue des sujets abordés par les discussions entre parents et enfants parvenus à l'âge adulte est un indicateur de l'intensité de leurs rapports. Il montre que davantage que l'âge, l'installation en couple tend à amenuiser ces liens : une rupture plus nette se manifeste chez les jeunes femmes,

  20. Pathologie vgtale Relation entre le pH des sols

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale Relation entre le pH des sols et leur niveau de réceptivité à Fusarium solani pH des sols et leur niveau de réceptivité à Fusarium roseum var sambu- cinum et à F solani var sols de culture dont les pH s'échelonnent de 5,1 à 6,2, un lien direct existe entre les faibles valeurs

  1. Analysis of in planta Expressed Orphan Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sadat, Abu; Jeon, Junhyun; Mir, Albely Afifa; Kim, Seongbeom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Genomes contain a large number of unique genes which have not been found in other species. Although the origin of such “orphan” genes remains unclear, they are thought to be involved in species-specific adaptive processes. Here, we analyzed seven orphan genes (MoSPC1 to MoSPC7) prioritized based on in planta expressed sequence tag data in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Expression analysis using qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of four genes (MoSPC1, MoSPC2, MoSPC3 and MoSPC7) during plant infection. However, individual deletion mutants of these four genes did not differ from the wild-type strain for all phenotypes examined, including pathogenicity. The length, GC contents, codon adaptation index and expression during mycelial growth of the four genes suggest that these genes formed during the evolutionary history of M. oryzae. Synteny analyses using closely related fungal species corroborated the notion that these genes evolved de novo in the M. oryzae genome. In this report, we discuss our inability to detect phenotypic changes in the four deletion mutants. Based on these results, the four orphan genes may be products of de novo gene birth processes, and their adaptive potential is in the course of being tested for retention or extinction through natural selection. PMID:25506301

  2. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzik, R. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Bandurska, K. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Deka, D. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Golovkin, M. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Koprowski, H. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)]. E-mail: h_koprowski@jefferson.edu

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

  3. The production of synthetic chemodisruptive peptides in planta disrupts the establishment of cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Hibbard, Jennifer K; Urwin, Peter Edward; Atkinson, Howard J

    2005-09-01

    Root exudates from transgenic potato plants expressing a chemoreception-disruptive peptide inhibit acetylcholinesterase by up to 63 +/- 3%. This inhibition correlates strongly with the efficacy of the exudates as a presoak solution for infective juveniles of Heterodera glycines that leads to reduced root invasion. The establishment of developing Globodera pallida at 21 days post-infection in these transgenic plants was also suppressed in containment trials. Relative to controls, the best line showed a 47 +/- 5% reduction in developing females and had 188 +/- 25% more undeveloped infective juveniles. This suggests that disorientation of chemoreception occurs after initial root invasion. Line (e) showed the highest level of resistance with 61 +/- 4% in glasshouse trials conducted over a 9-week period. This result represents the combined effect on the number of cysts produced and the number of eggs each cyst contains. The level of control shown to saccate females was consistent in both the 21-day and 9-week post-infection studies. Another chemoreception-disruptive peptide, that binds to nematode nicotinic receptors in cholinergic neurones, provided a 52.6 +/- 1% reduction in the number of nematodes able to establish in transgenic hairy roots that expressed the peptide. This confirms that both chemoreception-disruptive peptides have efficacy in suppressing parasitism by cyst nematodes when expressed in planta at low concentrations. PMID:17173635

  4. Rad54 is not essential for any geminiviral replication mode in planta.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kathrin S; Ende, Lukas; Jeske, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The circular single-stranded DNA of phytopathogenic geminiviruses is propagated by three modes: complementary strand replication (CSR), rolling circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR), which need host plant factors to be carried out. In addition to necessary host polymerases, proteins of the homologous recombination repair pathway may be considered essential, since geminiviruses are particularly prone to recombination. Among several others, Rad54 was suggested to be necessary for the RCR of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. This enzyme is a double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and chromatin remodeller and was found to bind and modulate the viral replication-initiator protein in vitro and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the previous report, we scrutinized the requirement of Rad54 in planta for two distinct fully infectious geminiviruses with respect to the three replication modes. Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus and Cleome leaf crumple virus were inoculated into Rad54-deficient and wildtype Arabidopsis thaliana plant lines to compare the occurrence of viral DNA forms. Replication intermediates were displayed in the time course of infection by one and two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization. The experiments showed that Rad54 was neither essential for CSR, RCR nor RDR, and it had no significant influence on virus titers during systemic infection. PMID:25492528

  5. Phytomonitoring of chlorinated ethenes in trees: a four-year study of seasonal chemodynamics in planta.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Matt A; Holmes, Amanda J; Burken, Joel G

    2014-09-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater remedial projects is costly and time-consuming, particularly when using phytoremediation, a long-term remedial approach. The use of trees as sensors of groundwater contamination (i.e., phytoscreening) has been widely described, although the use of trees to provide long-term monitoring of such plumes (phytomonitoring) has been more limited due to unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess this variability, we developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of chlorinated ethenes in oak (Quercus rubra) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees growing above a contaminated plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) sapwood concentrations an order of magnitude higher in late summer as compared to winter. Heartwood PCE and TCE concentrations were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events. Modeling evapotranspiration potential from meteorological data and comparing the modeled uptake and transport with the 4 years of high frequency data provides a foundation to advance the implementation of phytomonitoring and improved understanding of plant contaminant interactions. PMID:25140854

  6. Detection and visualization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2007-11-01

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. PMID:17827325

  7. In planta Production of Flock House Virus Transencapsidated RNA and Its Potential Use as a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiyang; Maharaj, Payal D; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; McCormick, Alison A; Kearney, Christopher M

    2014-11-29

    We have developed a transencapsidated vaccine delivery system based on the insect virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is attractive due to its small genome size, simple organization, and nonpathogenic characteristics. With the insertion of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) origin of assembly (Oa), the independently replicating FHV RNA1 can be transencapsidated by TMV coat protein. In this study, we demonstrated that the Oa-adapted FHV RNA1 transencapsidation process can take place in planta, by using a bipartite plant expression vector system, where TMV coat protein is expressed by another plant virus vector, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV). Dual infection in the same cell by both FHV and FoMV was observed. Though an apparent classical coat protein-mediated resistance repressed FHV expression, this was overcome by delaying inoculation of the TMV coat protein vector by 3 days after FHV vector inoculation. Expression of the transgene marker in animals by these in vivo-generated transencapsidated nanoparticles was confirmed by mouse vaccination, which also showed an improved vaccine response compared to similar in vitro-produced vaccines. PMID:25432792

  8. Detection and Visualization of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by Xylella fastidiosa In Vitro and In Planta ?

    E-print Network

    M. Caroline Roper; L. Carl Greve; John M. Labavitch; Bruce C. Kirkpatrick

    2007-01-01

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevine and many other economically important diseases (21). This gram-negative bacterium lives in plant xylem vessels as well as the foregut and mouthparts of its xylem-feeding

  9. EFEITOS DE HERBICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DO FEIJÃO-MUNGO-VERDE (Vigna radiata (L.) WILCZEK)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSÉ ROBERTO ANTONIOL FONTES; GERALDO ANTÔNIO DE ANDRADE ARAÚJO; ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA SILVA; ANTÔNIO AMÉRICO CARDOSO

    RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos de campo com o feijão -mungo-verde (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), variedade Ouro Verde: um no verão-outono e outro na primavera-verão, em Coimbra -MG, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes herbicidas sobre o control e de plantas daninhas e sobre a cultura. Foi usado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com

  10. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 ?M acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days). PMID:23852797

  11. An efficient in planta transformation of Jatropha curcas (L.) and multiplication of transformed plants through in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Balusamy; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mayavan, Subramanian; Karthik, Sivabalan; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Udayakumar, Rajangam; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2014-05-01

    An efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation was developed in Jatropha curcas. The various factors affecting J. curcas in planta transformation were optimized, including decapitation, Agrobacterium strain, pin-pricking, vacuum infiltration duration and vacuum pressure. Simple vegetative in vivo cleft grafting method was adopted in the multiplication of transformants without the aid of tissue culture. Among the various parameters evaluated, decapitated plants on pin-pricking and vacuum infiltrated at 250 mmHg for 3 min with the Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 harbouring the binary vector pGA 492 was proved to be efficient in all terms with a transformation efficiency of 62.66%. Transgene integration was evinced by the GUS histochemical analysis, and the GUS positive plants were subjected to grafting. Putatively transformed J. curcas served as "Scion" and the wild type J. curcas plant severed as "Stock". There was no occurrence of graft rejection and the plants were then confirmed by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Genetic stability of the grafted plants was evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), marker which showed 100% genetic stability between mother and grafted plants. Thus, an efficient in planta transformation and grafting based multiplication of J. curcas was established. PMID:24150424

  12. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed Central

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng??g?1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g?1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har2] nodularin, which contains ?-homoarginine instead of ?-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml?1 (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har2] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har2] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

  13. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates. PMID:15946712

  14. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a 'lost-wax' technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the 'ray cell' structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  15. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng ?g-1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g-1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har(2)] nodularin, which contains L-homoarginine instead of L-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml(-1) (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har(2)] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har(2)] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

  16. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures

    PubMed Central

    Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  17. A real-time fluorogenic assay for the visualization of glycoside hydrolase activity in planta.

    PubMed

    Ibatullin, Farid M; Banasiak, Alicja; Baumann, Martin J; Greffe, Lionel; Takahashi, Junko; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Brumer, Harry

    2009-12-01

    There currently exists a diverse array of molecular probes for the in situ localization of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins in plant cells, including reporter enzyme strategies (e.g. protein-glucuronidase fusions). In contrast, however, there is a paucity of methods for the direct analysis of endogenous glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases responsible for cell wall remodeling. To exemplify the potential of fluorogenic resorufin glycosides to address this issue, a resorufin beta-glycoside of a xylogluco-oligosaccharide (XXXG-beta-Res) was synthesized as a specific substrate for in planta analysis of XEH activity. The resorufin aglycone is particularly distinguished for high sensitivity in muro assays due to a low pK(a) (5.8) and large extinction coefficient (epsilon 62,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), long-wavelength fluorescence (excitation 571 nm/emission 585 nm), and high quantum yield (0.74) of the corresponding anion. In vitro analyses demonstrated that XXXG-beta-Res is hydrolyzed by the archetypal plant XEH, nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) NXG1, with classical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation kinetics and a linear dependence on both enzyme concentration and incubation time. Further, XEH activity could be visualized in real time by observing the localized increase in fluorescence in germinating nasturtium seeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescent stems by confocal microscopy. Importantly, this new in situ XEH assay provides an essential complement to the in situ xyloglucan endotransglycosylase assay, thus allowing delineation of the disparate activities encoded by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes directly in plant tissues. The observation that XXXG-beta-Res is also hydrolyzed by diverse microbial XEHs indicates that this substrate, and resorufin glycosides in general, may find broad applicability for the analysis of wall restructuring by polysaccharide hydrolases during morphogenesis and plant-microbe interactions. PMID:19783642

  18. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism. PMID:24270514

  19. In planta xylanase activity and pathogenicity on wheat-Mycosphaerella graminicola pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Siah; Deweer, C; Duyme, F; Sanssené, J; Durand, R; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

    2009-01-01

    A total of twenty four French strains and two reference strains IPO323 and IPO94269 of the hemibiotrophic fungus Mycosphoerella graminicola were investigated in planta to examine the association of the cell-wall degrading enzyme endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) with pathogenicity. The French strains were selected from a collection of 363 strains previously genotyped using microsatellites, actine and beta-tubutine markers. Disease level assessments as well as enzyme quantifications were carried out at 20 days post inoculation from the third leaves of inoculated whole plants of the susceptible wheat cv. Scorpion. Great variability of both pathogenicity levels and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity patterns was obtained among strains. Only 15 out of the 26 assessed strains including the reference strain IPO323 were able to induce lesions bearing pycnidia. The percentages of diseased leaf areas bearing pycnidia ranged from 6.2% to 77%, while amounts of endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity ranged from 0 to 399.15 mU/microg of total proteins. A Pearson correlation test revealed very high linkage between endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity level and lesions bearing pycnidia production within strains (r = 0.94). Additional cytological and enzymatic investigations on two strains exhibiting different pathogenicity levels highlighted that successful disease induction by M. graminicola is not explained by either spore germination or direct and stomatal penetration rates of the host, but by the ability of the fungus to colonize the mesophyll and to secrete the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity during necrotrophic phase. This study strongly suggests the importance of both mesophyll colonisation and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity during the infection process of M. graminicola. PMID:20222552

  20. Relación entre institucionalidad y gobernabilidad en los procesos de integración, coexistencia institucional local-global, del Estado-Nación al Estado-Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Baisotti

    En la organización social posmoderna el hombre es elevado a la categoría de “ciudadano del mundo”. Las distancias se acortan, los brazos se alargan, la verdad se conoce y los hombres tienen ahora más espacios comunes, menos fronteras. La integración de la ciudadanía ampliada de los hombres, que en los “Estados Unidos de Europa” la han logrado para 400 millones

  1. Mobilité professionnelle et salaire : des différences entre hommes et femmes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Véronique Simonnet

    1996-01-01

    [fre] Mobilité professionnelle et salaire : des différences entre hommes et femmes . Les dix à quinze premières années de carrière ne présentent pas la même rentabilité, sur le plan du salaire, pour les hommes et pour les femmes. Même quand leurs diplômes sont comparables, leurs débuts de carrière le sont rarement - carrière étant entendue comme la succession d'épisodes

  2. Article original Relations entre les teneurs en bio-lments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Relations entre les teneurs en bio-éléments chez divers végétaux méditerranéens teneurs des principaux bio-éléments (C, N, Ca, P, K), contenus dans les feuilles de quelques espèces milieux différents peuvent avoir des concentrations en bio-éléments identiques. bio-éléments / types

  3. Três camadas da relação entre quadrinhos e jornal1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antônio Aristides; Corrêa Dutra

    RESUMO: Joe Sacco é um autor de histórias em quadrinhos que são verdadeiras reportagens. Elas levaram a mídia a cunhar o termo 'jornalismo em quadrinhos'. Mas Sacco forma apenas a camada mais visível das relações entre os quadrinhos e o jornalismo, que são bastante anti- gas e profundas. Numa segunda camada, aprofundando o universo temático, encontrare- mos diversos outros autores,

  4. O casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. Sobre \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIGUEL VALE DE ALMEIDA

    2006-01-01

    O artigo constitui uma primeira reflexão sobre dados de uma pesquisa realizada em Barcelona. O debate público sobre o casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo revela as tensões sociais em torno do género, da sexualidade, da conjugalidade, da procriação e da parentalidade. As representações simbólicas e os discursos ideológicos sobre estes campos vêem revelado o seu carácter construído no momento

  5. La relación entre Propiedad Intelectual y Comercio Internacional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vargas C. Beatriz; García S. Arturo; Mora B. Angel

    La relación entre la propiedad intelectual y el comercio internacional, puede presentarse tanto de forma positiva como negativa, ya que puede favorecer a ciertos países aumentando su comercio exterior, especialmente a aquellos dotados de mayor capacidad tecnológica, y constituirse al mismo tiempo en una barrera al comercio a través del abuso de su ejercicio. El estudio aborda la situación de

  6. Significant reduction of BiFC non-specific assembly facilitates in planta assessment of heterotrimeric G-protein interactors.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Timothy E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-11-01

    Protein networks and signaling cascades are key mechanisms for intra- and intercellular signal transduction. Identifying the interacting partners of a protein can provide vital clues regarding its physiological role. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has become a routine tool for in vivo analysis of protein-protein interactions and their subcellular location. Although the BiFC system has improved since its inception, the available options for in planta analysis are still subject to very low signal-to-noise ratios, and a systematic comparison of BiFC confounding background signals has been lacking. Background signals can obscure weak interactions, provide false positives, and decrease confidence in true positives. To overcome these problems, we performed an extensive in planta analysis of published BiFC fragments used in metazoa and plants, and then developed an optimized single vector BiFC system which utilizes monomeric Venus (mVenus) split at residue 210, and contains an integrated mTurquoise2 marker to precisely identify transformed cells in order to distinguish true negatives. Here we provide our streamlined double ORF expression (pDOE) BiFC system, and show that our advance in BiFC methodology functions even with an internally fused mVenus210 fragment. We illustrate the efficacy of the system by providing direct visualization of Arabidopsis MLO1 interacting with a calmodulin-like (CML) protein, and by showing that heterotrimeric G-protein subunits G? (GPA1) and G? (AGB1) interact in plant cells. We further demonstrate that GPA1 and AGB1 each physically interact with PLD?1 in planta, and that mutation of the so-called PLD?1 'DRY' motif abolishes both of these interactions. PMID:25187041

  7. The In Planta Transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: Conserved Physiological and Virulence Strategies during Bacterial Wilt of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109 CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 108 CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. PMID:22807564

  8. Significant reduction of BiFC non-specific assembly facilitates in planta assessment of heterotrimeric G-protein interactors

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Timothy E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Protein networks and signaling cascades are key mechanisms for intra- and intercellular signal transduction. Identifying the interacting partners of a protein can provide vital clues regarding its physiological role. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has become a routine tool for in vivo analysis of protein–protein interactions and their subcellular location. Although the BiFC system has improved since its inception, the available options for in planta analysis are still subject to very low signal-to-noise ratios, and a systematic comparison of BiFC confounding background signals has been lacking. Background signals can obscure weak interactions, provide false positives, and decrease confidence in true positives. To overcome these problems, we performed an extensive in planta analysis of published BiFC fragments used in metazoa and plants, and then developed an optimized single vector BiFC system which utilizes monomeric Venus (mVenus) split at residue 210, and contains an integrated mTurquoise2 marker to precisely identify transformed cells in order to distinguish true negatives. Here we provide our streamlined double ORF expression (pDOE) BiFC system, and show that our advance in BiFC methodology functions even with an internally fused mVenus210 fragment. We illustrate the efficacy of the system by providing direct visualization of Arabidopsis MLO1 interacting with a calmodulin-like (CML) protein, and by showing that heterotrimeric G-protein subunits G? (GPA1) and G? (AGB1) interact in plant cells. We further demonstrate that GPA1 and AGB1 each physically interact with PLD?1 in planta, and that mutation of the so-called PLD?1 ‘DRY’ motif abolishes both of these interactions. PMID:25187041

  9. (NOTE PRLIMINAIRE) RELATIONS ENTRE L'HYPERTROPHIE MUSCULAIRE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (NOTE PR�LIMINAIRE) RELATIONS ENTRE L'HYPERTROPHIE MUSCULAIRE DES BOVINS CULARDS ET LE M�TABOLISME manifestations typiques d'hypertrophie musculaire chez les bovins ont été décrites dans différentes races et dans par des signes d'hypertrophie musculaire; les animaux présentent souvent des déformations osseuses ou

  10. Identification and characterization of in planta-expressed secreted effector proteins from Magnaporthe oryzae that induce cell death in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songbiao; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Venu, R C; Gowda, Malali; Bellizzi, Maria; Hu, Jinnan; Liu, Wende; Ebbole, Daniel; Meyers, Blake; Mitchell, Thomas; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between rice and Magnaporthe oryzae involve the recognition of cellular components and the exchange of complex molecular signals from both partners. How these interactions occur in rice cells is still elusive. We employed robust-long serial analysis of gene expression, massively parallel signature sequencing, and sequencing by synthesis to examine transcriptome profiles of infected rice leaves. A total of 6,413 in planta-expressed fungal genes, including 851 genes encoding predicted effector proteins, were identified. We used a protoplast transient expression system to assess 42 of the predicted effector proteins for the ability to induce plant cell death. Ectopic expression assays identified five novel effectors that induced host cell death only when they contained the signal peptide for secretion to the extracellular space. Four of them induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Although the five effectors are highly diverse in their sequences, the physiological basis of cell death induced by each was similar. This study demonstrates that our integrative genomic approach is effective for the identification of in planta-expressed cell death-inducing effectors from M. oryzae that may play an important role facilitating colonization and fungal growth during infection. PMID:23035914

  11. El teatro en Oaxaca: Entre lo efímero y lo perenne

    E-print Network

    Tenorio, Miguel Angel

    1997-10-01

    Independencia de los Estados Unidos y al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico libre y la democracia ha puesto el acento en la libertad del hombre. En nuestras culturas indígenas el pensamiento comunitario es el dominante. Si el teatro es, entre otras cosas, un... la otra al mismo tiempo. "Cómo puede ser esto asi? Veamos. Al llegar a Oaxaca, la primera impresión es que estamos ante un lugar lleno de cultura. Es un cofre cargado de tesoros, con cielos maravillosos. No es extraño que aquí abunden los pintores...

  12. La evaluación de materiales didácticos para la educación a distancia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN RAMÓN BAUTISTA; RINA MARTÍNEZ ROMERO; MILA SAINZ IBAÑEZ

    The evaluation of teaching malerials for dista nce education is requi red by both tite accountabilfty process and tite need of professional development. lite particulorities associated to distance education imply that tite models usually applied to otiter models of education cannot be used without tite appropriate attjusttnent. Vais article presents a double theoretical frame both on evaluation and on distance

  13. Le design comme dispositif communicationnel entre l'art et l'industrie / Universit Rennes 2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Le design comme dispositif communicationnel entre l'art et l'industrie / Université Rennes 2 sous Université Rennes 2 Le design comme dispositif communicationnel entre l'art et l'industrie Thèse soutenue le, peinture sur toile par étiou, 2008. Fichaux, Etienne. Le design comme dispositif communicationnel entre l'art

  14. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M.; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process. PMID:15753300

  15. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P E

    2005-03-15

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process. PMID:15753300

  16. Development of fiber optic spectroscopy for in-vitro and in-planta detection of fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to apply photonics technology to bio-safety management of genetically modified (GM) plants. The conventional method for screening GM plants is through selection using antibiotic resistance markers. There is public concern with such approaches and these are associated with food safety issues, escape of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms and interference with antibiotic therapy. Thus, the strategy taken in this project is to replace antibiotic resistance markers with fluorescent protein markers that allow for rapid and non-invasive optical screening of genetically modified plants. In this paper, fibre optic spectroscopy was developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in planta. In vitro detection was first carried out to optimize the sensitivity of the optical system. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fibre optic spectroscopy using different light sources, namely, blue LED (475 nm), tungsten halogen (350 - 1000 nm) and double frequency Nd:YAG green laser (532 nm). Fluorescence near the expected emission wavelengths could be detected up to 320X dilution for EGFP and DsRED with blue LED and 532 nm green laser, respectively, as the excitation source. Tungsten halogen was found to be unsuitable for excitation of both EGFP and DsRED. EGFP was successfully purified by size separation under non-denaturing electrophoretic conditions and quantified. The minimum concentration of EGFP detectable with blue LED excitation was 5 mg/ml. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in planta, transgenic potato hairy roots and whole modified plant lines expressing the fluorescent markers were regenerated. T

  17. Roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites in Penicillium ser. Corymbifera: in planta production and implications for competitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Overy, D P; Nielsen, K F; Smedsgaard, J

    2005-10-01

    Three strains of each of the seven taxa comprising the Penicillium series Corymbifera were surveyed by direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS for the production of terrestric acid and roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites when cultured upon macerated tissue agars prepared from Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, and Tulipa gesneriana, and on the defined medium Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA). A novel solid-phase extraction methodology was applied for the rapid purification of roquefortine metabolites from a complex matrix. Penicillium hordei and P. venetum produced roquefortine D and C, whereas P. hirsutum produced roquefortine D and C and glandicolines A and B. P. albocoremium, P. allii, and P. radicicola carried the pathway through to meleagrin, producing roquefortine D and C, glandicolines A and B, and meleagrin. P. tulipae produced all previously mentioned metabolites yet carried the pathway through to an end product recognized as epi-neoxaline, prompting the proposal of a roquefortine/epi-neoxaline biogenesis pathway. Terrestric acid production was stimulated by all Corymbifera strains on plant-derived media compared to CYA controls. In planta, production of terrestric acid, roquefortine C, glandicolines A and B, meleagrin, epi-neoxaline, and several other species-related secondary metabolites were confirmed from A. cepa bulbs infected with Corymbifera strains. The deposition of roquefortine/oxaline pathway metabolites as an extracellular nitrogen reserve for uptake and metabolism into growing mycelia and the synergistic role of terrestric acid and other Corymbifera secondary metabolites in enhancing the competitive fitness of Corymbifera species in planta are proposed. PMID:16195849

  18. Donnees experimentales sur la diffusion des elements majeurs entre verres ou liquides de compositions basaltique, rhyolitique et phonolitique, entre 900°C et 1300°C, a pression ordinaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal Alibert; Jean-Paul Carron

    1980-01-01

    Un processus expérimental de diffusion entre cylindres coaxiaux a permis d'analyser à la microsonde électronique les profils de diffusion des éléments Si, Ti, Al, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe entre trois couples de matériaux provenant de la fusion de roches naturelles de compositions basaltique, rhyolitique et phonolitique. Les coefficients de diffusion calculés sont très voisins pour tous les cations et

  19. MORFOLOGÍA DE PLANTA Y FENOLOGÍA DE GENOTIPOS DE CHILE HABANERO (CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.) COLECTADOS EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Jorge Gerardo Trujillo-Aguirre; Omar Gutiérrez-Alonso; Capullo del Rocio Perez-Llanes

    RESUMEN El cultivo de Chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) en el estado de Yucatán ocupa el segundo lugar de importancia en cuanto a la superficie de siembra de hortalizas, después del tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), debido a que en la actualidad se establecen entre 800 y 1000 has. Esta ha propiciado la introducción de semilla de regiones ajenas al estado

  20. The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jonathan M; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 10(8) CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. IMPORTANCE Ralstonia solanacearum is a widespread plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease. It inflicts serious crop losses on tropical farmers, with major economic and human consequences. It is also a model for the many destructive microbes that colonize the water-conducting plant xylem tissue, which is low in nutrients and oxygen. We extracted bacteria from infected tomato plants and globally identified the biological functions that R. solanacearum expresses during plant pathogenesis. This revealed the unexpected presence of sucrose in tomato xylem fluid and the pathogen's dependence on host sucrose for virulence on tomato, potato, and the common weed bittersweet nightshade. Further, R. solanacearum was highly responsive to the plant environment, expressing several metabolic and virulence functions quite differently in the plant than in pure culture. These results reinforce the utility of studying pathogens in interaction with hosts and suggest that selecting for reduced sucrose levels could generate wilt-resistant crops. PMID:22807564

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lay-Sun; Hachani, Abderrahman; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Filloux, Alain; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Summary The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization. PMID:24981331

  2. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  3. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  4. An optimized mRFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation system for the detection of protein-protein interactions in planta.

    PubMed

    Zilian, Eva; Maiss, Edgar

    2011-06-01

    An existing bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system, based on a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP), has been optimized for the investigation of protein-protein interactions in planta. The expression plasmids, encoding the N-terminal amino acids (aa) 1-168 and the C-terminal aa 169-225 of the mRFP, allow N- or C-terminal fusion of a split mRFP, with the genes of interest. Two major improvements over the original vectors have been made. Firstly, the coding sequence of a GGGSGGG-linker has been integrated between mRFP sequences and the genes of interest. Secondly, a modified mini binary vector (?3.5 kb) was introduced as the backbone for the plant expression plasmids. Based on the results of yeast two-hybrid studies with plant viral proteins, interaction of viral proteins was tested in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Plum pox virus coat protein and mutants thereof served as controls. The system was validated using the N-protein of Capsicum chlorosis virus for which a self-interaction was shown for the first time, the Tobacco mosaic virus coat protein and BC1 and BV1 of the Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus. This optimized BiFC system provides a convenient alternative to other BiFC, as well as yeast two-hybrid assays, for detecting protein-protein interactions. PMID:21473882

  5. Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

    2012-04-01

    Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus for phytoremediation, crop biofortification and food security research. Recent advances in X-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential to use synchrotron techniques in plant science research. With use of methods such as micro X-ray fluorescence mapping, micro computed tomography and micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, metal(loids) can be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at submicron resolution, and laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined under physiologically relevant conditions. This article focuses on the benefits of combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein production in combination with laterally resolved synchrotron techniques, one can effectively and efficiently assign functional information to specific genes. A review of the state of the art in this field is presented, together with examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. The article concludes with a summary of the technical challenges still remaining for synchrotron-based hard X-ray plant science research, particularly those relating to subcellular level research. PMID:22200921

  6. Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

    1999-02-01

    A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

  7. The maternal chromosome set is the target of the T-DNA in the in planta transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, N; Jaudeau, B; Jolivet, S; Maba, B; Vezon, D; Voisin, R; Pelletier, G

    2000-01-01

    In planta transformation methods are now commonly used to transform Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The origin of transformants obtained by these methods has been studied by inoculating different floral stages and examining gametophytic expression of an introduced beta-glucuronidase marker gene encoding GUS. We observed that transformation can still occur after treating flowers where embryo sacs have reached the stage of the third division. No GUS expression was observed in embryo sacs or pollen of plants infiltrated with an Agrobacterium strain bearing a GUS gene under the control of a gametophyte-specific promoter. To identify the genetic target we used an insertion mutant in which a gene essential for male gametophytic development has been disrupted by a T-DNA bearing a Basta resistance gene (B(R)). In this mutant the B(R) marker is transferred to the progeny only by the female gametes. This mutant was retransformed with a hygromycin resistance marker and doubly resistant plants were selected. The study of 193 progeny of these transformants revealed 25 plants in which the two resistance markers were linked in coupling and only one plant where they were linked in repulsion. These results point to the chromosome set of the female gametophyte as the main target for the T-DNA. PMID:10924482

  8. Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. PMID:22200921

  9. Detection of plum pox potyviral protein-protein interactions in planta using an optimized mRFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation system.

    PubMed

    Zilian, Eva; Maiss, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    In previous studies, protein interaction maps of different potyviruses have been generated using yeast two-hybrid (YTH) systems, and these maps have demonstrated a high diversity of interactions of potyviral proteins. Using an optimized bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system, a complete interaction matrix for proteins of a potyvirus was developed for the first time under in planta conditions with ten proteins from plum pox virus (PPV). In total, 52 of 100 possible interactions were detected, including the self-interactions of CI, 6K2, VPg, NIa-Pro, NIb and CP, which is more interactions than have ever been detected for any other potyvirus in a YTH approach. Moreover, the BiFC system was shown to be able to localize the protein interactions, which was typified for the protein self-interactions indicated above. Additionally, experiments were carried out with the P3N-PIPO protein, revealing an interaction with CI but not with CP and supporting the involvement of P3N-PIPO in the cell-to-cell movement of potyviruses. No self-interaction of the PPV helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) was detected using BiFC in planta. Therefore, additional experiments with turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) HC-Pro, PPV_HC-Pro and their mutants were conducted. The self-interaction of TuMV_HCpro, as recently demonstrated, and the self-interaction of the TuMV_ and PPV_HC-Pro mutants were shown by BiFC in planta, indicating that HC-Pro self-interactions may be species-specific. BiFC is a very useful and reliable method for the detection and localization of protein interactions in planta, thus enabling investigations under more natural conditions than studies in yeast cells. PMID:21880839

  10. In Planta Regulation of Extension of an Endophytic Fungus and Maintenance of High Metabolic Rates in Its Mycelium in the Absence of Apical Extension

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong Y.; Spiering, Martin J.; Scott, Vicki; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Christensen, Michael J.; Schmid, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The fungus Neotyphodium lolii is an endophytic symbiont. It grows in the intercellular spaces of the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne, producing secondary metabolites which enhance the fitness of the association over that of uninfected L. perenne. We report that the average number of hyphal strands in a given section of a leaf remains constant during the life of a leaf, indicating synchrony of leaf and hyphal extension, including cessation of hyphal extension when leaf extension ceases. We used a constitutively expressed reporter gene as an indicator of the mycelium's metabolic activity during and after hyphal extension. Reporter gene activity decreased when the mycelium stopped extending in liquid culture but not in planta. This indicates that in planta endophyte hyphae remain metabolically highly active when extension has ceased and throughout the life of the leaf they are colonizing. The behavior of the fungus in planta indicates the existence of signaling pathways which (i) synchronize the extension of leaf and hypha by regulating hyphal extension, (ii) suppress hyphal branching, and (iii) stop apical extension of fungal hyphae, without reducing the mycelium's metabolic activity. These signals may be crucial for the symbiosis, by allowing the endophyte to switch the focus of its metabolic activity from extension to the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:11722882

  11. INTERACTIONS ENTRE GRAVITON ET LECTRON EN THORIE FONCTIONNELLE Par PHAM XUAN YEM,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    165 INTERACTIONS ENTRE GRAVITON ET �LECTRON EN TH�ORIE FONCTIONNELLE Par PHAM XUAN YEM, Physique mathématique, Institut Henri-Poincaré, Paris. Résumé. 2014 Les interactions entre un électron et un graviton se de gravitationassociés au graviton agissent sur le mouvement de l'électron. Abstract. 2014

  12. L'analyse des relations dynamiques entre variables : une application au taux du marché monétaire français

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Colletaz; William Marois

    1981-01-01

    [fre] La détection des relations dynamiques existant entre des variables pose un problème important en économie. Des procédures statistiques, fondées sur l'étude des résidus issus de filtres ARIMA de Box et Jenkins, ont été récemment développées. Ce texte présente ces méthodes statistiques : détermination des filtres ARIMA, étude des corrélogrammes entre résidus, estimation de fonctions de transfert. Celles-ci sont ensuite

  13. Entre aporie savante et invention populaire : nommer les grands ensembles d'habitation en polonais

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Entre aporie savante et invention populaire : nommer les grands ensembles d'habitation en succédé, empruntant à des registres éloignés, savants ou au contraire familiers. Les hésitations sémantiques du polonais se traduisent par des emprunts et transferts de mots entre les registres savant et

  14. Relation entre temprature, teneur en glucides et respiration de la plante entire chez la tomate en

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Relation entre température, teneur en glucides et respiration de la plante entière chez la tomate dans les racines. La fraction glucidique la plus limitante serait le saccharose. La respiration de la tomate au froid se traduit par une rupture de pente de la relation d'Arrhenius entre respiration maximale

  15. Identification of Epichloë Endophytes In Planta by a Microsatellite-Based PCR Fingerprinting Assay with Automated Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christina D.; Tapper, Brian A.; Scott, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3? untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed. PMID:10049893

  16. Bikinin-like inhibitors targeting GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases: characterisation of novel compounds and elucidation of their catabolism in planta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases are key players in brassinosteroid (BR) signalling which impact on plant development and participate in response to wounding, pathogens and salt stress. Bikinin was previously identified in a chemical genetics screen as an inhibitor targeting these kinases. To dissect the structural elements crucial for inhibition of GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases by bikinin and to isolate more potent compounds we synthesised a number of related substances and tested their inhibitory activity in vitro and in vivo using Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A pyridine ring with an amido succinic acid residue in position 2 and a halogen in position 5 were crucial for inhibitory activity. The compound with an iodine substituent in position 5, denoted iodobikinin, was most active in inhibiting BIN2 activity in vitro and efficiently induced brassinosteroid-like responses in vivo. Its methyl ester, methyliodobikinin, showed improved cell permeability, making it highly potent in vivo although it had lower activity in vitro. HPLC analysis revealed that the methyl residue was rapidly cleaved off in planta liberating active iodobikinin. In addition, we provide evidence that iodobikinin and bikinin are inactivated in planta by conjugation with glutamic acid or malic acid and that the latter process is catalysed by the malate transferase SNG1. Conclusion Brassinosteroids participate in regulation of many aspects of plant development and in responses to environmental cues. Thus compounds modulating their action are valuable tools to study such processes and may be an interesting opportunity to modify plant growth and performance in horticulture and agronomy. Here we report the development of bikinin derivatives with increased potency that can activate BR signalling and mimic BR action. Methyliodobikinin was 3.4 times more active in vivo than bikinin. The main reason for the superior activity of methyliodobikinin, the most potent compound, is its enhanced plant tissue permeability. Inactivation of bikinin and its derivatives in planta involves SNG1, which constitutes a novel pathway for modification of xenobiotic compounds. PMID:24947596

  17. Detecting source code reuse across programming languages Deteccion de reutilizacion de codigo fuente entre lenguajes de

    E-print Network

    Rosso, Paolo

    ´odigo fuente entre lenguajes de programaci´on Enrique Flores, Alberto Barr´on-Cede~no, Paolo Rosso and Lidia asignada la misma tarea. Un progra- mador puede obtener un c´odigo en un lenguaje de programaci´on en el, incluso tratandose entre c´odigos escritos en distintos lenguajes de programaci´on. Ambos modelos abordan

  18. Effects of Soil-Use Intensity on Selected Properties of Mollisols in Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Wilson; Jorge Paz-Ferreiro

    2012-01-01

    In the province of Entre Ríos (Argentina), land-use changes have been noticeable in recent years, because the portion of land devoted to pasture decreased whereas the proportion and length of crops in the rotation increased. We evaluated soil-use intensity effects on selected physical and chemical properties of a Mollisol in a crop–pasture rotation experiment located in Entre Rios. Treatments included

  19. Science et frontire en quation : le terrain de la mission Tilho entre Niger et Tchad

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CHAPITRE 8 Science et frontière en équation : le terrain de la mission Tilho entre Niger et Tchad accord sur la limite de leurs possessions entre Niger et Tchad et ont signé le 19 mai 1906 un nouveau-403 ; G. Fourage, La frontière méridionale du Niger, de la ligne Say Barroua à la frontière actuelle

  20. ASSOCIAÇÃO ENTRE COEFICIENTE DE PARENTESCO E TÉCNICAS MULTIVARIADAS COMO MEDIDAS DE DIVERGÊNCIA GENÉTICA DE CULTIVARES DE TRIGO1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WAGNER PEREIRA REIS; NATAL ANTONIO VELLO; DANIEL FURTADO FERREIRA; MAGNO ANTONIO PATTO

    RESUMO - Entre as principais decisões que os melho- ristas de trigo tomam constantemente, está a escolha dos genitores que darão origem às populações segre- gantes, nas quais é efetuada a seleção com o intuito de se obter linhagens mais produtivas. Entre as metodol o- gias disponíveis, aquelas que avaliam a divergência g e- nética entre diferentes cultivares possibilitam obter

  1. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion por quienes promueven estas practicas. A partir de los resultados, la investigadora concluye que la problematica sobre la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia esta influenciada por unos procesos de ensenanza enfocados en una vision distorsionada de la ciencia, producto de la no integracion de los aspectos filosoficos, historicos y sociales de la misma.

  2. L'art contemporain entre Le temps et L'histoire

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    L'art contemporain entre Le temps et L'histoire Cycle de conférences et de conversations Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal 16 janvier ­ 23 mai 2013 entrée gratuite Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal 185, rue Sainte-Catherine Ouest Métro Place-des-Arts www.macm.org Depuis la fin des années 1980, l'art

  3. Characterization of a highly repeated DNA sequence (SC1) from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Scutellospora castanea and its detection in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Zeze, A; Hosny, M; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V; Dulieu, H

    1996-01-01

    A highly repeated DNA sequence from the genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus has been isolated and characterized. This 1,202-bp sequence (SC1) represents about 0.24% of the Scutellospora castanea genome, estimated to be 1 pg by flow cytometry. The sequence was shown to be a Scutellospora-specific probe in Southern blots and dot blot hybridizations. After complete sequencing of SC1, PCR primers were generated and used to amplify a 907-bp fragment from spores of S. castanea or from colonized Allium porrum roots. No amplification products were obtained with DNA from either spores or mycorrhizal root of other species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These primers were sufficiently specific for unequivocal detection of S. castanea in planta. PMID:8779584

  4. DISTÚRBIOS NUTRICIONAIS INDUZIDOS PELA ADUBAÇÃO DE FÓSFORO E FERRO EM PLANTAS JOVENS DE GRÁPIA (Apuleia leiocarpa) NUTRITIONAL DISTURBANCE INDUCED BY PHOSPHORUS AND IRON FERTILIZATION ON YOUNG PLANTS OF GRÁPIA (Apuleia leiocarpa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evandro Luiz Missio; Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2005-01-01

    A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de grande interesse madeireiro, encontrando-se, atualmente, bastante dizimada. Em trabalhos anteriores, foi observado que as folhas novas de plantas jovens de grápia apresentaram sintomas visuais indicativos de deficiência de Fe na presença de doses crescentes de P. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os efeitos da interação da

  5. ( IRD / B. Le Ru) Campos de maz en Kenia cerca de Kilimanjaro (en el fondo). Al igual que muchas otras plantas transgnicas, el maz denominado Bt sintetiza su propio

    E-print Network

    otras plantas transgénicas, el maíz denominado «Bt» sintetiza su propio pesticida: una proteína tóxica contra la toxina Bt en Sudáfrica. Una resistencia genéticamente dominante, contrario al mecanismo clásico fue introducido el maíz Bt , estas pérdidas regresaron a su nivel inicial desde el inicio del siglo

  6. Forward genetic in planta screen for identification of plant-protective traits of Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-08-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions. PMID:22660707

  7. Croisements interspcifiques entre quelques Brassicae et Brassica napus L. Analyse gnomique des hybrides et

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Croisements interspécifiques entre quelques Brassicae et Brassica napus L. Analyse génomique des quatre séries de croisements Stérilité mâle, interspécifiques : Cytogénétique, Brassica nigra Koch. x B Interspecific crosses between some Brassica species and Brassica napus L. Genome analysis ofthe Male sterility

  8. Anlisis de textos sobre interacciones entre protenas1 Protein-Protein Interaction text analysis

    E-print Network

    Pla, Ferran

    entre proteínas (PPI) es una de las áreas de investigación más importantes en el campo de las celular, conocida la aparición de determinadas proteínas. La descripción de experimentos sobre PPI es el

  9. Entre justesse et justice : les ONG dans les politiques du rgime de la

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Variations #12;#12;Entre justesse et justice : les ONG dans les politiques du régime de la-gouvernementales (ONG) sont considérées pour certains auteurs comme des groupes de pression qui font la promotion d'on considère les ONG dans leur ensemble, ces trois formes d'action représentent des catégories irréductibles

  10. Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de toxicit et rponses physiologiques

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de principaux types de phycotoxines peuvent contaminer les mollusques bivalves : les toxines diarrhéiques (DSP nécessite de connaître au préalable les conditions initiales de contamination des mollusques ainsi que les

  11. La no neutralidad del dinero en el largo plazo. Un debate entre Chicago & Viena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián O. Ravier

    2010-01-01

    Existen numerosos consensos entre los economistas de Chicago y Viena en lo que concierne a la comprensión del funcionamiento de los mercados y las políticas públicas, y en el rechazo al intervencionismo, el socialismo y el totalitarismo. Sin embargo, en lo referente a temas macroeconómicos, y en particular a la política monetaria y a la neutralidad o no neutralidad de

  12. CORRELACION ENTRE METODOS DE ANALISIS DE Zn DISPONIBLE EN CUATRO ORDENES DE SUELOS DE COSTA RICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eloy Molina; Elemer Bomemisza

    Se realizo una comparacion entre metodos Evaluation of methods for available de analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Zn in four soil orders in Costa Rica. Analyti- los de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles cal methods for available Zn determination we- e Inceptisoles, 25 de c\\/u), utilizando las siguientes re evaluated on four soil orders in Costa

  13. Confrontos e confluências entre a sociologia da lin guagem de Bourdieu e teorias lingüísticas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Vieira de Camargo

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: Discussão das relações polêmicas que se estabelecer am entre a sociologia da linguagem de Bourdieu e lingüistas franceses, em to rno das noções de língua, comunicação e gramaticalidade. Palavras-chave: sociologia da linguagem, lingüística, língua, discu rso. Abstract: Discussion of the polemics relations between Bourdi eu's sociology of language and french linguists about the concepts of langue , communication and

  14. Sur les relations entre syntaxe et discours : dispositifs de la rection et dispositifs macrosyntaxiques

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sur les relations entre syntaxe et discours : dispositifs de la rection et dispositifs macrosyntaxiques Frédéric Sabio1 & Christophe Benzitoun2 Abstract : On the relationship between syntax seem to operate at a macrosyntactic, or discursive level. Key Words. syntax, spoken French, dependency

  15. Analyse exprimentale de trois niveaux d'interactions entre Drosophila melanogaster

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analyse expérimentale de trois niveaux d'interactions entre Drosophila melanogaster et le parasite Drosophila melanogaster a permis d'analyser plusieurs paliers évolutifs correspondant à des temps de contact. Summary Experimental analysis of interactions between Drosophila melanogaster and parasitic wasp

  16. Le rééquilibrage entre le secteur public et le secteur privé : Le cas du Mexique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles-Albert Michalet

    1989-01-01

    La politique de rééquilibrage entre le secteur public et le secteur privé au Mexique s'inscrit dans une redéfinition du modèle de développement qui le ferait passer de la priorité traditionnellement donnée à la substitution aux importations à la priorité de la compétitivité internationale. Les changements structurels qui en découlent comportent deux volets. D'une part, ils visent à redimensionner le secteur

  17. Sobre as afinidades entre a filosofia de Francis Bacon e o ceticismo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz A. A. Eva

    2006-01-01

    reSumo Este texto se ocupa de um exame, em caráter introdutório, das relações entre a reflexão de Bacon acerca das limitações de nossas faculdades e o ceticismo filosófico — um tema pouco considerado pela literatura mais re- cente, a despeito das muitas referências a tal filosofia. Ainda que, à primeira vista, tais referências possam parecer vagas e imprecisas, pensamos que

  18. Ecole Doctorale : Sciences et Vie, Sant, Agronomie, Environnement un simulateur pour tudier les compromis entre perf

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ecole Doctorale : Sciences et Vie, Santé, Agronomie, Environnement un simulateur pour étudier les, Agronomie, Environnement N° d'ordre 586 THESE Pour l'obtention du grade de Docteur d'université Spécialité : Agronomie Dynamilk : un simulateur pour étudier les compromis entre performances animales, utilisation des

  19. Interaction entre diffrentes souches de Rhizobium lupini et les espces ou cultivars de lupin (Lupinus albus,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interaction entre différentes souches de Rhizobium lupini et les espèces ou cultivars de lupin'efficacité fixatrice de souches de Rhizobium lupini a été mesurée en serre sur Lupinus albus, luteus et mutabilis. De : Fixation d'azote, inoculum, inoculation, symbiose. SUMMARY Interaction between Rhizobium lupini strains

  20. Interaction entre IDE, capital humain et croissance dans les pays emergents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Abdallah; R. Meddeb

    2000-01-01

    Notre reflexion dans ce papier concerne la relation entre les IDE, le capital humain et la croissance dans les pays en cours d'industrialisation. Ces pays hotes multiplient les politiques incitatives d'investissements, afin de beneficier le plus possibles des retombees positives des \\

  1. FIRME INTENSIVE EN CAPITAL HUMAIN ET COORDINATION : VERS UNE REDFINITION DU RAPPORT ENTRE INTGRATION ET

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 FIRME INTENSIVE EN CAPITAL HUMAIN ET COORDINATION : VERS UNE REDÉFINITION DU RAPPORT ENTRE 23, L 22, L 23 Mots clés: Intégration, dé-intégration, coordination, capital humain, théorie de la la firme. Cet article se focalise sur les firmes intensives en capital humain. Le rôle coordinateur

  2. Taille des particules alimentaires dans le canal et entre les lames du feuillet,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Taille des particules alimentaires dans le canal et entre les lames du feuillet, et dans les between the omasal leaves, in the omasal canal, in the reticulum and in the abomasum in steers of small particles in the interlaminal space of the omasum and in the duodenum than in the omasal canal

  3. Partage de ressources pdagogiques numriques entre enseignants : une enqute au Vietnam

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    125 Partage de ressources pédagogiques numériques entre enseignants : une enquête au Vietnam Thi'Éducation au Vietnam durant l'été 2010. Nous avons fait passer un questionnaire aux participants (N = 905) et résultats obtenus et fournit quelques explications liées au contexte culturel et social du Vietnam. MOTS

  4. LA COLABORACIÓN ENTRE PEDIATRAS Y PSICÓLOGOS EN EL DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DE NIÑOS CON TDAH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Kapalka

    En los Estados Unidos, está aumentando la carencia de psiquiatras, y pacientes con necesidad de medicación psicotrópica a menudo se enfrentan a largas esperas y servicios limitados. Para disminuir la brecha creciente entre la oferta y la demanda, están incorporán- dose personas con capacidad para prescribir, formadas fuera de los escenarios médicos tradicionales. A pesar de que tradicional- mente los

  5. La competencia entre las unidades capitalistas campesinas en la producción agraria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Maya Muñoz

    1991-01-01

    En este corto ensayo se parte del presupuesto de que los precios de producción expresan las condiciones de la reproducción capitalista y por lo tanto de la competencia. Obviamente la utilización de esta categoría para plantear la competencia entre las unidades capitalistas y campesinas en la producción agraria no deja de ser problemático, pues estamos confrontando dos racionalidades y dos

  6. La représentation des habitants de leur quartier : entre bien-être et repli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Louis Pan Ké Shon

    2005-01-01

    [spa] Cómo perciben los habitantes su propio barrio: entre bienestar y aislamiento . . A partir de unas respuestas a la pregunta «¿ Puede decir en pocos palabras lo que representa su barrio para usted?», este artículo trata de caracterizar los modos de residir de la población. Se destacan unos seis tipos de habitantes. Los «favorecidos» interesados en las ofertas

  7. Relación entre la producción industrial y el comercio exterior: el caso de Caldas, 1970-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Franco Vásquez; Bernardo Taborda Figueroa

    2005-01-01

    El siguiente estudio tiene como propósito fundamental evaluar la relación existente entre las exportaciones industriales y el desempeño de la actividad económica del departamento de Caldas, en el período 1970-2000. Los resultados del estudio muestran una relación positiva de las exportaciones y la producción de la industria. Igualmente, se observa como el nivel de encadenamiento juega un papel relevante dentro

  8. Variabilit des phnomnes d'interfrence entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.. I. Dynamique

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomie Variabilité des phénomènes d'interférence entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.. I; Variability of the phenomena of interferences between Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. I. Growth dynamics

  9. Variabilit des phnomnes d'interfrences entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomie Variabilité des phénomènes d'interférences entre Vicia sativa L. et Avena sativa L. : II of the phenomena of interferences between Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.: II. Nitro- gen nutrition

  10. Le droit de l'Union europenne des OGM : entre harmonisation et re-nationalisation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Le droit de l'Union européenne des OGM : entre harmonisation et re-nationalisation Estelle BROSSET'Union européenne des OGM se situe incontestablement au milieu du gué. Deux courants contraires peuvent l

  11. EL POST-ACONDICIONAMIENTO EN CORAZÓN. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE LA ENERGÍA Y LA CARDIOPROTECCIÓN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Correa F

    La reperfusión arterial coronaria es el tratamiento indicado para reducir el tamaño del infarto en la patología isquémica cardiaca. Paradójicamente, el restablecimiento del flujo coronario produce daños adicionales sobre el miocardio isquémico, condición a la que se conoce como daño letal por reperfusión. Entre las muchas estrategias que se han desarrollado para evitar el daño por reperfusión, destaca la propuesta

  12. La région parisienne entre 1975 et 1999 : une mutation géographique et économique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Gilli

    2005-01-01

    [fre] Entre 1975 et 1999, la région urbaine de Paris a gagné plus de 500 000 emplois, mais sa géographie économique s'est recomposée à la faveur d'une transformation des lieux et secteurs les plus dynamiques. Si l'emploi a crû en proche couronne, la zone dense (coeur et couronne), perd des emplois du fait de la forte baisse de l'emploi parisien.

  13. VOLUTION DES PROPRITS MCANIQUES DU NIOBIUM DE DIFFRENTES PURETS ENTRE 20 C ET 850 C

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    371 �VOLUTION DES PROPRI�T�S M�CANIQUES DU NIOBIUM DE DIFF�RENTES PURET�S ENTRE 20 °C ET 850 °C J. F. FRIES, C. CIZERON et P. LACOMBE Résumé. 2014 La déformation plastique du niobium dans le domaine of niobium containing varying interstitial and substitutional impurity concentrations were inves- tigated

  14. DFORMATION ET MODES DE RUPTURE DU NIOBIUM ENTRE 2014196 C ET 20 C

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    467 D�FORMATION ET MODES DE RUPTURE DU NIOBIUM ENTRE 2014196 °C ET 20 °C B. HOUSSIN, J. F. FRIES, C déformation plastique du niobium aux températures inférieures à + 20 °C a été étudiée sur trois types de of three distinct lots of niobium containing different interstitial and substitutional impurity

  15. RELATIONS ENTRE LES PROPRITS OPTIQUES ET DILECTRIQUES POLARISATION IONIQUE DANS LES SOLIDES (1)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    RELATIONS ENTRE LES PROPRI�T�S OPTIQUES ET DI�LECTRIQUES POLARISATION IONIQUE DANS LES SOLIDES (1 électromagnétique, elle varie avec la fréquence de celle-ci; c'est ce qui caractérise la dispersion. En effet disparaissent à leur tour, et seuls les effets des électrons extérieurs se font sentir=(3). Dans un solide loin

  16. Anlise Comparativa entre rvores de Deciso e TRISS na Predio de Sobrevida de Pacientes Traumatizados

    E-print Network

    Baranauskas, José Augusto

    , Afonso Dinis Costa Passos2 , Domingos Alves2 , José Augusto Baranauskas1 1 Departamento de Física eAnálise Comparativa entre Árvores de Decisão e TRISS na Predição de Sobrevida de Pacientes Matemática Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo (USP

  17. Apprentissage de relations entre termes MedDRA dans UMLS pour la dtection du signal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pharmacovigilance Iulian ALECU1 , Cédric BOUSQUET1 , Marie-Christine JAULENT1 1 INSERM U729, Paris, F-75006, France la problématique de recherche d'informations spécifiques au domaine de la pharmacovigilance. Un signal de pharmacovigilance est la relation détectée statistiquement entre un médicament et un groupe d

  18. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  19. L'intervenant face aux objectifs de mission: entre tensions vécues et régulations tentées

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Verstraeten

    2006-01-01

    Lorsqu’on s’intéresse aux récits de missions de conseil, on constate que les objectifs de mission qui sont proposés à l’intervenant suscitent souvent chez lui des questions délicates :faut-il poursuivre ce travail avec lequel je ne me sens pas en accord ?dans quelle voie faut-il s'engager face à une incompatibilité entre les souhaits du commanditaire et les objectifs contractualisés ?faut-il aller

  20. Contrle structural du partage de Rb entre fluide et micas potassiques dans les pegmatites du Brsil

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Contrôle structural du partage de Rb entre fluide et micas potassiques dans les pegmatites du Brésil Structural control of the Rb distribution between K- micas and fluid in Brazil pegmatites Joël Résumé L'étude géochimique des micas de pegmatites de l'état de Minas Gerais au Brésil a été effectuée à

  1. VRIFICATION EXPRIMENTALEDES RELATIONS DE KRAMERS-KRONIG ENTRE INDICES DE RFRACTION ET D'EXTINCTION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and k have been conducted with a highly performing photoelectric refractometer and a commercially fréquemment fait appel aux relations de Kramers- Kronig. Celles-ci sont en effet très générales puis- qu celle de Kramers-Kronig, entre les indices. Etant donné les difficultés expérimentales rencontrées lors

  2. Les variations des revenus individuels entre périodes de chômage et d'emploi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Breuil-Genier

    2001-01-01

    [fre] Les personnes qui ont connu à la fois le chômage et l’emploi entre 1993 et 1995 ont eu un revenu individuel lors des mois de chômage inférieur de moitié environ à leur revenu lors des mois d’emploi. Cette estimation, tirée des trois premières vagues du Panel européen (1994-1996), retient un concept de revenu individuel assez large, incluant les revenus

  3. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  4. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions. PMID:15947906

  5. Involvement of Pinus taeda MYB1 and MYB8 in phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biogenesis: a comparative in planta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bomal, Claude; Bedon, Frank; Caron, Sébastien; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Levasseur, Caroline; Cooke, Janice E. K.; Blais, Sylvie; Tremblay, Laurence; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pavy, Nathalie; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of two R2R3-MYB genes from Pinus taeda L., PtMYB1 and PtMYB8, in phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biogenesis was investigated in planta. These pine MYBs were constitutively overexpressed (OE) in Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, used as a heterologous conifer expression system. Morphological, histological, chemical (lignin and soluble phenols), and transcriptional analyses, i.e. microarray and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used for extensive phenotyping of MYB-overexpressing spruce plantlets. Upon germination of somatic embryos, root growth was reduced in both transgenics. Enhanced lignin deposition was also a common feature but ectopic secondary cell wall deposition was more strongly associated with PtMYB8-OE. Microarray and RT-qPCR data showed that overexpression of each MYB led to an overlapping up-regulation of many genes encoding phenylpropanoid enzymes involved in lignin monomer synthesis, while misregulation of several cell wall-related genes and other MYB transcription factors was specifically associated with PtMYB8-OE. Together, the results suggest that MYB1 and MYB8 may be part of a conserved transcriptional network involved in secondary cell wall deposition in conifers. PMID:18805909

  6. In planta expression screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR effectors reveal diverse phenotypes, including activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum disease resistance protein Rpi-blb2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I B; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A G; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-09-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD36(45-1), suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34-amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  7. Activation of an Arabidopsis Resistance Protein Is Specified by the in Planta Association of Its Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain with the Cognate Oomycete Effector[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Krasileva, Ksenia V.; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of plant immunity relies on recognition of pathogen effectors by several classes of plant resistance proteins. To discover the underlying molecular mechanisms of effector recognition by the Arabidopsis thaliana RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1) resistance protein, we adopted an Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated transient protein expression system in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which allowed us to perform coimmunoprecipitation experiments and mutational analyses. Herein, we demonstrate that RPP1 associates with its cognate effector ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RECOGNIZED1 (ATR1) in a recognition-specific manner and that this association is a prerequisite step in the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response of host tissue. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP1 mediates the interaction with ATR1, while the Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR) domain facilitates the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutations in the TIR and nucleotide binding site domains, which exhibit loss of function for the induction of the hypersensitive response, are still able to associate with the effector in planta. Thus, our data suggest molecular epistasis between signaling activity of the TIR domain and the recognition function of the LRR and allow us to propose a model for ATR1 recognition by RPP1. PMID:20601497

  8. In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

  9. Reflexos das deficiŒncias de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento de plantas, produÁªo e qualidade de Ûleo essencial em Eucalyptus citriodora Macronutrients and boron deficiencies reflexes on plant growth, production and essential oil in Eucalyptus citriodora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata Maffeis; Ronaldo Luiz; Vaz de Arruda Silveira

    RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influŒncia das deficiŒncias nutricionais sobre a biomassa de folhas e a produÁªo e qualidade do Ûleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos de 10 L contendo sÌlica moÌda, em condiÁªo de casa de vegetaÁªo. Nos trŒs primeiros meses apÛs plantio, as mudas cresceram em solu- Áªo nutritiva

  10. Le golfe d'Arguin est un territoire de rencontres, tout d'abord entre le dsert et la mer, entre le Sahara et l'ocan Atlantique. Des dunes de sable, blanches ou ocre, se jettent dans

    E-print Network

    Le golfe d'Arguin est un territoire de rencontres, tout d'abord entre le désert et la mer, entre le vertes du golfe. Les formes et couleurs des paysages du golfe sont de ce fait très contrastées. Le golfe Canaries en hiver ; d'autre part, un courant chaud qui remonte de Guinée en été. Il y alors dans le golfe

  11. CALCUL DES PROBABILITS DES TRANSFERTS D'NERGIE ENTRE IONS DE TERRES RARES. II. TRANSFERTS' Ho3+ ~ Ho3+

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    833 CALCUL DES PROBABILIT�S DES TRANSFERTS D'�NERGIE ENTRE IONS DE TERRES RARES. II. TRANSFERTS' Ho3+ ~ Ho3+ DANS LE FLUORURE MIXTE HoxY1-xF3 J. F. POURADIER et F. E. AUZEL Centre National d, développée dans un article précédent (I), est appliquée aux transferts entre ions Ho3+, ayant lieu dans le

  12. Post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of Digitalis purpurea remain in a developmental state that is not terminated by desiccation ex planta

    PubMed Central

    Butler, L. H.; Hay, F. R.; Ellis, R. H.; Smith, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed quality may be compromised if seeds are harvested before natural dispersal (shedding). It has been shown previously that slow or delayed drying can increase potential quality compared with immediate rapid drying. This study set out to investigate whether or not there is a critical moisture content, below which drying terminates maturation events for seeds harvested after mass maturity but before dispersal. Methods Seeds of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in the post-abscission pre-dispersal phase were held at between 15 and 95 % RH for 4 or 8 d, with or without re-hydration to 95 % RH for a further 4 d, before drying to equilibrium at 15 % RH. In addition, dry seeds were primed for 48 h at ?1 MPa. Subsequent seed longevity was assessed at 60 % RH and 45 °C. Key Results Rate of germination and longevity were improved by holding seeds at a wide range of humidities after harvest. Longevity was further improved by re-hydration at 95 % RH. Priming improved the longevity of the seeds dried immediately after harvest, but not of those first held at 95 % RH for 8 d prior to drying. Conclusions Maturation continued ex planta in these post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of D. purpurea dried at 15–80 % RH at a rate correlated positively with RH (cf. ageing of mature seeds). Subsequent re-hydration at 95 % RH enabled a further improvement in quality. Priming seeds initially stored air-dry for 3 months also allowed maturation events to resume. However, once individual seeds within the population had reached maximum longevity, priming had a negative impact on their subsequent survival. PMID:19136494

  13. Boosting In Planta Production of Antigens Derived from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Subsequent Evaluation of Their Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) ‘Fragment crystallizable’ (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs. PMID:24614617

  14. In planta assessment of the role of thioredoxin h proteins in the regulation of S-locus receptor kinase signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Nasrallah, June B

    2013-11-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae is mediated by allele-specific interaction between the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, the pollen coat-localized S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Based on work in Brassica spp., the thioredoxin h-like proteins THL1 and THL2, which interact with SRK, have been proposed to function as oxidoreductases that negatively regulate SRK catalytic activity. By preventing the spontaneous activation of SRK in the absence of SCR ligand, these thioredoxins are thought to be essential for the success of cross pollinations in self-incompatible plants. However, the in planta role of thioredoxins in the regulation of SI signaling has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we addressed this issue using Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the SRKb-SCRb gene pair isolated from self-incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata. These plants express an intense SI response, allowing us to exploit the extensive tools and resources available in A. thaliana for analysis of SI signaling. To test the hypothesis that SRK is redox regulated by thioredoxin h, we expressed a mutant form of SRKb lacking a transmembrane-localized cysteine residue thought to be essential for the SRK-thioredoxin h interaction. We also analyzed transfer DNA insertion mutants in the A. thaliana orthologs of THL1 and THL2. In neither case did we observe an effect on the pollination responses of SRKb-expressing stigmas toward incompatible or compatible pollen. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that, contrary to their proposed role, thioredoxin h proteins are not required to prevent the spontaneous activation of SRK in the A. thaliana stigma. PMID:24077073

  15. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  16. Kingdom Plantae Douglas firs (left);

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    -living and photosynthetic #12;5 Clockwise from upper left: a fern; a club moss; a whisk fern; a horsetail Fern Life Cycle major groups... True mosses (~14,000 species) Liverworts (~8500 species) Hornworts (~200 species) Group I: Non-Vascular Plants Examples of Mosses #12;4 Liverworts and Hornworts Sporophytes of a moss Group

  17. New insights on the barrel medic MtOGG1 and MtFPG functions in relation to oxidative stress response in planta and during seed imbibition.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Balestrazzi, Alma; Confalonieri, Massimo; Faé, Matteo; Carbonera, Daniela

    2011-09-01

    In plants, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase/lyase (OGG1) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG) play similar roles within the base excision repair (BER) pathway involved in the removal of oxidized bases, e.g. 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-dG) and formamidopyrimidine (FAPy) lesions. To date, it is not clear why plants have retained both the OGG1 and FPG functions. In the present work, we have investigated the possible roles played in planta by MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes from Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic). Bioinformatic investigation revealed the presence of putative mitochondrial and nuclear localization signals in the MtOGG1 and MtFPG amino acid sequences, respectively, thus suggesting for different subcellular fates. The expression profiles of both genes were evaluated by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) in barrel medic plantlets grown in vitro under oxidative stress conditions induced by copper (CuCl(2), 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, 50, 100 and 150 g L(-1)). The MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes were up-regulated in response to stress agents, at different levels, depending on treatment and tissue. As for copper, MtOGG1 showed significant up-regulation (up to 1.2- and 1.7-fold) only in roots while the MtFPG mRNA significantly increased (up to 1.3- and 2.8-fold, respectively) in roots and aerial parts. In response to PEG, the MtOGG1 expression was significantly enhanced in aerial parts (up to 1.3-fold) while the MtFPG showed significant (1.2-fold) up-regulation in roots. The expression profiles of MtOGG1 and MtFPG genes were also evaluated during seed imbibition, a physiological process which is characterized by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation and requires active DNA repair. PMID:21696973

  18. El problema de la distancia en la venta por Internet. Un sentido de la perspectiva geográfica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Lázaro Sevilla

    2007-01-01

    El comercio electrónico se perfila como una nueva forma de intercambio comercial que podría dar lugar a unos resultados geográficamente positivos, como una mayor distribución de la riqueza y el empleo. Hay ciertos productos y servicios que son extremadamente susceptibles a la distribución electrónica como los servicios financieros, la música, o la programas informáticos, pero cuando se trata de mercancías

  19. Elaboracion de cursos a distancia para la formacion profesional basica en Ingenier´õa Biomedica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Jatziri; Gaitan Gonzalez; Juan Ramon Jimenez Alaniz; Alfonso Mart ´ õnez Mart ´ õnez; Raquel Valdes Cristerna; Oscar Yanez Suarez

    We present the achievements of the project to ella- borate on line courses and virtual libraries with sup- port resources for the autonomous learning of stu- dents; we use characteristic methodologies of distan- ce education and information technologies to sup- port courses with high disapproval index in biome- dical engineering. Resumen

  20. Monitoreo a distancia de los dispositivos automáticos implantables cardiovasculares (marcapasos, desfibriladores automáticos implantables y resincronizadores cardiacos)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton E Guevara-Valdivia

    2010-01-01

    In the era of communication technology, new options are available to monitor patients with Automatic Implantable Cardiovascular Devices (AICD) implanted pacemaker (PM) and Automa- tic Implantable Defibrillators (AID) and Cardiac resynchronization system (CRS). Most compa- nies offer devices with wireless capabilities to communicate automatically with transmitters, allowing remote monitoring device. These systems are being widely used in USA for remote

  1. Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Coordinacin de Universidad Abierta y Educacin a Distancia

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    afecta la productividad de los individuos y su capacidad de generar ingresos originando un mayor consumo de servicios sociales y de salud de alto costo. De aquí surge el modelo de promoción de la salud en servicios de salud influyen en la calidad de vida entendida como esa integración e independencia funcional

  2. State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis nigra as the dominant tree species. Although the successional forests were not the most frequent, they occupied the greater area of the basin (30.8%), being low and open forest the dominant type. The regeneration forest dominated by Acacia caven, represents 18.71% of the basin area. Weed shrub species growth was the most frequent disturbance. We determined a severe weed shrub growth in 41% of the sampling points, with Baccharis punctulata and Eupatorium buniifolium as the dominant species. According to state of conservation of native forest, 7,797.03 ha have a high conservation value, while 21,272.17 ha and 13,657.71 ha have a medium and low conservation value, respectively.

  3. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance. PMID:25184200

  4. On acoplamento mecânico entre a antena e o transdutor no detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J. L.; Aguiar, O. D.; Velloso, W. F., Jr.; Lucena, A. U.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais MARIO SCHENBERG consistirá de uma massa esférica de cobre-alumínio de 1150kg resfriada a 4K, sobre a qual serão instalados 6 transdutores de nióbio. Com estes trandutores pretende-se converter um possível sinal de onda gravitacional detectado em sinal elétrico, para tanto é necessário que o acoplamento mecânico entre os transdutores e a massa ressonante seja o maior possível. Isto significa que o transdutor deve ser ressonante na mesma freqüência que a antena (aproximadamente 3200Hz). Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma geometria para a estrutura mecânica do trandutor. Isto foi feito criando-se modelos em elementos finitos usando-se o "software" MSC/Nastran. Estes modelos criados foram analisados estaticamente (cálculo de tensões) e dinamicamente (cálculo das freqüências de ressonâncias e seus respectivos modos normais) de maneira a se obter o primeiro modo normal do transdutor em 3200Hz. A partir destes cálculos escolheu-se a melhor geometria para o transdutor. Os próximos passos do trabalho serão: usinar este transdutor em uma barra de nióbio e testá-lo à temperatura ambiente e à baixa temperatura. Após isto, pretende-se testá-lo na própria antena resfriada.

  5. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  6. Cristallisation, syncristallisation, et alliages moléculaires entre le lorazépam et l'oxazépam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascherpa-Corral, D.; Mascherpa, G.; Chauvet, A.

    1993-04-01

    Le polymorphisme et pseudopolymorphisme du lorazépam et oxazépam ont été étudiés par analyse thermique, calorimétrie différentielle à balayage et diffraction de rayons X. Deux formes polymorphes du lorazépam et plusieurs mono et hemisolvates ont été isolés à partir de recristallisation dans divers soivants. Aucun polymorphisme ni solvate n'a été mis en évidence avec l'oxazépam. Les paramètres cristallographiques des phases isolées ont été déterminées. A 160 et 203°C, le lorazépam et l'oxazépam perdent respectivement une molécule d'eau pour donner après réarrangement la quinazolinecarboxaldéhyde correspondante. La syncristallisation des deux benzodiazépines dans le benzène conduit à des alliages moléculaires à miscibilité totale à l'état solide dans tout le domaine de concentration entre l'exazépam el la forme ? du lorazépam, elle n'est que partielle avec la forme ?. Thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to study the polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism of lorazepam and oxazepam. Two polymorphic forms of lorazepam and several mono- or hemisolvates were obtained after recrystallization from various solvents. No polymorphic form or solvate has been found for oxazepam. The crystallographic parameters of these new phases were determined. Lorazepam and oxazepam can lose a molecule of water at 160 and 203°C, respectively, and rearrange to quinazolinecarboxaldehyde. Mixed crystals of the two benzodiazepines, after recrystallization from benzene, lead to molecular alloys with complete solid solubility between oxazepam and the ?-form of lorazepam over the whole range of composition but only to partial solubility with the ?-form of lorazepam.

  7. L'homologie entre l'Homme et les autres Mammifres pour les loci de coloration du pelage

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'homologie entre l'Homme et les autres Mammifères pour les loci de coloration du pelage J les loci de coloration du pelage bien connus chez ces derniers : A, B, C, D, E et P en particulier. Ce savanes inter- tropicales, en altitude. Pour une telle protection mélanique épidermique des variants peu

  8. Construction de la plante de lupin blanc : rela-tions entre la quantit de matire sche forme

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    entre l'émis- sion des axes apicaux et la mise en place du nombre de grains sur l'inflorescence emergence of lateral branches and seed setting on the main inflorescence. Partitioning was related AI). Ces axes portent, comme l'axe principal, une inflorescence terminale. Ils peu- vent donner eux

  9. Le citadin et la nature : entre reprsentations et pratiques sociales de la nature sauvage et domestique Grenoble

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Le citadin et la nature : entre représentations et pratiques sociales de la nature sauvage et domestique à Grenoble The city dweller and the nature : between representations and social habits of the natural and urban environments in Grenoble Anthony TCHEKEMIAN Institut de Géographie Alpine - Grenoble I

  10. GUYOT S., 2003, Les conflits environnementaux St Lucia (Afrique du Sud), entre protection et exclusion , Annales de Gographie, n634, pp 608-627, Armand Colin.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    GUYOT S., 2003, « Les conflits environnementaux à St Lucia (Afrique du Sud), entre protection et.guyot@unilim.fr ARTICLE LES CONFLITS ENVIRONNEMENTAUX A ST LUCIA (AFRIQUE DU SUD), ENTRE PROTECTION ET EXCLUSION Mots-clefs: Afrique du Sud, St Lucia, groupes d'acteurs sociaux, parc naturel, conflits environnementaux Résumé: L

  11. Utilidad diagnóstica del Cuestionario TDAH y del Perfil de Atención para discriminar entre niños con tratorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad, trastornos del aprendizaje y controles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Antonio Amador; Maria Forns; Joan Guàrdia Olmos; Maribel Peró

    2005-01-01

    Se analiza la convergencia entre la información recogida de padres y profesores, mediante escalas de valoración, y el diagnóstico clínico en una muestra de 126 niños: 42 con Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) tipo combinado, 21 con Trastornos del aprendizaje (TA) y 63 controles, con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 12 años. El grupo de

  12. Loisirs et santé mentale: les relations entre la motivation pour la pratique des loisirs et le bien-être psychologique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUC G. PELLETIER; ROBERT J. VALLERAND; ISABELLE GREEN-DEMERS; NATHALIE M. BRIÈRE; MARC R. BLAIS

    1995-01-01

    L'objectif principal de cet article est d'érudier les relations entre les différentes formes de régularisation de la motivation envers les loisirs et le bien-être psychologique. La thébrie de l'autodétermination proposée par Deci et Ryan (1985) constitue un cadre d'analyse unique permettant la réalisation de cet objectif. Selon Deci et Ryan (1985), il existerait différents types de motivation qui se distingueraient

  13. L'ANTHROPOLOGIE ET LE POLITIQUE, LES PREMISSES. LES RELATIONS ENTRE FRANZ BOAS ET PAUL RIVET (1919-1942)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    historiens de l'anthropologie états-uniens, la vie et l'oeuvre de Franz Boas (1858-1942) comportent très peu1 L'ANTHROPOLOGIE ET LE POLITIQUE, LES PREMISSES. LES RELATIONS ENTRE FRANZ BOAS ET PAUL RIVET-IIAC) ______________________________________________________________________ Résumé : Nouée au retour à la vie civile, en 1919, la correspondance Franz Boas/Paul Rivet (129 lettres

  14. Presencia de Walt Whitman en la poesia de Pablo Neruda: la relacion entre Hojas de Hierba y Canto General

    E-print Network

    Rios, David Joel

    1999-01-01

    Joel Rios, B. A. , Texas A&M University Director del Comite: Dr. Eduardo Espina Esta investigacion propone analizar la relacion de intertextualidad entre Hoj as de hierba de Walt Whitman y Canto general de pablo Neruda. Mediante una comparacion del... ascendiente literario mediante las discusiones que realiza a traves de sus correspondencias personales y profesionales; o tal vez se la conceda en algun prologo o prefacio, en un articulo, discurso, o entrevista. Las huellas de influencia tambien se pueden...

  15. Relação entre diferentes índices de atividade física e preditores de adiposidade em adolescentes de ambos os sexos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas; Fabiano de Macedo Salgueirosa; Gabriel Ferreira Nunes; Paulo Ângelo Martins; Antonio Stabelini Neto; Wagner de Campos

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre diferentes índices de ativi- dade física e preditores de adiposidade em adolescentes de am- bos os sexos. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 111 crianças (57 meni- nos e 54 meninas), com idade média de 11,62 ± 0,72. Como preditores de adiposidade foram determinados o IMC, percenta- gem de gordura corporal e a relação cintura\\/quadril (RCQ). Quanto

  16. Amlioration de la qualit pastire du bl dur (Triticum durum Desf.) : tude des relations entre les diagrammes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    viscoélasticité du gluten des 2 types sont significativement différentes ; - il existe une corrélation hautement significative (rz=0,76) entre les notes de viscoélasticité du gluten et les résultats du test de sédimentation milieu sodium dodécylsulfate, viscoélasticité du gluten, viscoélasticité de la pâte. SUMMARY Improvement

  17. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  18. Xavier Landrin, `Droite', `gauche', `juste-milieu' : la formalisation politique de l'entre-deux sous la Monarchie de Juillet , communication au colloque Gauche-droite : usages et enjeux d'un clivage

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'entre-deux sous la Monarchie de Juillet », communication au colloque « Gauche-droite : usages et enjeux d-milieu » : la formalisation politique de l'entre- deux sous la Monarchie de Juillet Xavier LANDRIN Université-milieu' : la formalisation politique de l'entre-deux sous la Monarchie de Juillet », communication au colloque

  19. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  20. In Planta Processing and Glycosylation of a Nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-Like Effector and Its Interaction with a Host CLAVATA2-Like Receptor to Promote Parasitism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  1. Identification of a novel pelD gene expressed uniquely in planta by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Nectria haematococca, mating type VI) and characterization of its protein product as an endo-pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; González-Candelas, L; Kolattukudy, P E

    1996-08-15

    Antibodies prepared against a pectin-inducible pectate lyase (PLA) produced by a phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Nectria haematococca, mating type VI) were previously found to protect the host from infection. The gene (pelA) and two of its homologs were cloned and sequenced. Here we report the isolation of a new pectate lyase gene, pelD, from a genomic library of F. solani pisi. A 1.5-kb DNA fragment containing pelD and its flanking regions was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of pelD would encode a protein of 24.5 kDa which shares 49, 44, and 65% amino acid sequence identity with PLA, PLB, and PLC, respectively, from the same fungus. Because the first 19 amino acid residues appeared to be a signal peptide, the mature enzyme could be a 22.7-kDa protein. pelD transcripts and PLD protein could not be detected in fungus cultured in glucose, pectin, pea epicotyl extract, or a pea cell wall preparation. However, pelD transcripts were readily found by RT-PCR with RNA isolated from infected pea tissues. The cDNA of pelD, thus obtained, was expressed in Pichia pastoris with the putative pelD signal sequence. The secreted PLD was purified and characterized to be an endopectate lyase, and its lyase activity could be inhibited by anti-PLA IgG. Thus, protection of the host observed with the anti-PLA antibodies could reflect inhibition of immunologically related pectate lyases including PLD which is expressed uniquely in planta. PMID:8806739

  2. In planta processing and glycosylation of a nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-like effector and its interaction with a host CLAVATA2-like receptor to promote parasitism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S; Mitchum, Melissa G; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  3. Soil Quality Indicators to Define Land Use in the Area of Native Forest of Entre Ríos, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. G.; Tasi, H. A.; Paz González, A.; Díaz, E. L.; Sasal, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The main economic activity in the area of native forest of the province of Entre Ríos (Argentina) has long been the agricultural and/or livestock production, especially cattle breeding. In recent years, the proportion of agricultural crops in the rotations, especially that of soybean, has increased, thus leading to an increase in the need for land clearing to incorporate new lands for agricultural use. Most of these lands are considered marginal for agricultural use. In addition rice farming with irrigation is a critical part of the Entre Ríos economy. Defining and assessing soil quality indicators (SQI) that show the evolution of the soil with different uses and management systems is a way to contribute to the knowledge of soil quality. The aims of this study were to characterize the current land use and land tenure in the area of native forest of Entre Ríos, as well as to identify and select variables sensitive to agricultural and/or livestock use of the most representative soils of this area (indicators of the dynamic quality of the soil) and define the most appropriate land use according to land suitability and behavior of these indicators. We identified the most representative soil subgroups (corresponding to the orders Vertisols, Mollisols and Alfisols) and defined the production systems livestock-agricultural, agricultural-livestock, agricultural without irrigation, and rice crop irrigated with water from groundwater and surface reservoirs. We also determined the physical, physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological variables of the soil, and characterized the quality of the water for irrigation. We selected the SQI using Principal Components Analysis, to form a minimum data set (MDS). The change in the use of the land responded to a favorable economic situation for agriculture that started in the 1990's. The leasing and sharecropping schemes and the incidental contracts have become increasingly important, predominating over the undivided property. We obtained the MDS for twelve combinations of soil subgroups and production systems. The MDS for each of them presented between six and nine SQI. The indicators showed greater variation in the MDS by production system than by unit of land. Total organic carbon content (TOC) and the structural stability index (Is) were included in all the MDS. The rice systems showed high dependence on the quality of the irrigation water. We also found high fragility of some soil subgroups. The results suggest that rotations including pastures in a high proportion should be considered, especially in Alfisols and Vertisols. The native forest is considered as the basis of sustainable production systems for the study area. Thus, the land that has already been cleared or is about to be cleared should consider an agricultural and/or livestock use according to its productive capacity and its limitations.

  4. Estudio de la precipitación máxima diaria anual en la Región Hidrológica No. 10 (Sinaloa), con base en Distancias Euclidianas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Francisco Campos Aranda

    Firstly the importance of pluviometric records as the base flood estimation design is pointed out, this when pluviografic and hydrometric information are not available. Next the study objectives are cited and the annual maximum daily rainfall information is described. This is utilized in 67 stations of the Hydrologic Region No. 10, whose record extension varied from 23 to 38 years.

  5. Género y niveles de adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo en el personal de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza; Julián Monge-Nájera

    Gender and levels of adherence to antihypertensive treatment in personnel of the Costa Rican Distance Education University. Among chronic diseases, hypertension is one of the top causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Until now, health efforts have focused on decreasing this condition but the treatments have been ineffective and costly, and hypertension is one the least controlled diseases. Several studies

  6. EL PORTAFOLIO VIRTUAL COMO ESTRATEGIA DIDACTICO-METODOLÓGICA Y DE EVALUACIÓN EN LA ENSEÑANZA UNIVERSITARIA SEMIPRESENCIAL Y A DISTANCIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Pérez Pérez

    Resumo: Na atualidade a educação superior se vê submetida a numerosos processos de mudança que vêm determinados por múltiplas variáveis que a fazem mais complexa, adicionando assim complexidade os processo que devem acontecer no sala de aula com relação ao que cabe esperar tanto do corpo discente como do próprio professorado. A globalização, a competitividade, as exigências dos sistemas de

  7. Una Comunidad Virtual como herramienta de Difusión de la Educación a Distancia en una Institución de Educación Superior tradicional venezolana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertrudis López

    Abstract Índice , 1 Introducción,Investigación experimental con preprueba- postprueba ,y grupo ,control que se ,propuso estudiar los efectos de una,Comunidad Virtual de Aprendizaje (CVA) sobre EaD con el uso de las TICs como estrategia de ,difusión de ,esta innovación en profesores, de ,la institución ,en estudio,así como para propiciar actitudes positivas hacia esta. Los resultados obtenidos comprenden la obtención ,de

  8. Magnetotellurics applied to the study of the Guaraní aquifer in Entre Ríos Province, N-E Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favetto, Alicia; Curcio, Ana; Pomposiello, Cristina

    2011-07-01

    The South American Guaraní Aquifer System covers the entire Parana basin and part of the Chaco-Parana basin. This system is one of the most important groundwater reservoirs; it is shared by four neighboring countries covering an area larger than one million square kilometers. The geological units closely related to the Guaraní Aquifer are the Piramboia and Botucatu Formations that consist of Triassic-Jurassic aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine sandstones, and the Serra Geral basalts with clastic intercalations. Serra Geral, an effusive Cretaceous complex, covers the sandstones and provides a high degree of confinement to the system. This paper presents the interpretation of magnetotelluric (MT) data collected during 2007-2008 in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. These data, recorded in three profiles, mainly provide the depth to the crystalline basement, determinant for the presence of aquifer-related sediments. Models showed that the discrimination of the basalts strongly depends on local electrical characteristics. Model information is quite consistent with the information from oil and thermal wells located close to the profiles.

  9. La investigación cualitativa en el estudio de las relaciones entre movilidad cotidiana y pobreza en el contexto latinoamericano : un caso aplicado en la Lima metropolitana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pau G. Avellaneda

    2009-01-01

    Els estudis sobre les relacions entre mobilitat quotidiana i pobresa i els efectes que produeix sobre els processos d’exclusió social a les ciutats llatinoamericanes són molt escassos. És per això que no existeix encara un corpus teòric prou ampli sobre aquesta matèria. Aquesta és la raó fonamental per la qual l’autor del treball que aquí es presenta va optar per

  10. TILBESHAR, AU CARREFOUR D'ECHANGES ENTRE LA VALLEE DE L'EUPHRATE ET LA COTE MEDITERRANEENNE A L'AGE DU BRONZE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : With a maximum area of 56 hectares, Tilbeshar is a major city of Southeast Anatolia in the Bronze Age, Bronze Age, exchanges, Euphrates, Mediterranean sea, North Mesopotamia halshs-00718902,version1-19Jul2012TILBESHAR, AU CARREFOUR D'ECHANGES ENTRE LA VALLEE DE L'EUPHRATE ET LA COTE MEDITERRANEENNE A L'AGE

  11. Absence de corrlation entre la masse et l'activit enzymatique de deux enzymes majori-taires (lipase et trypsine) de diffrents sucs pancratiques humains. Incidence sur les

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Absence de corrélation entre la masse et l'activité enzymatique de deux enzymes majori- taires, Grossman et Ivy (1 ) le phénomène d'adapta- tion des enzymes pancréatiques au régime a été clairement méthodologie pré- cise et jusqu'à présent les variations des enzymes pancréatiques sous l'influence de divers

  12. ETNOECOLOGIA DOS CÁGADOS-D'ÁGUA PHRYNOPS SPP. (TESTUDINOMORPHA: CHELIDAE) ENTRE PESCADORES ARTESANAIS NO AÇUDE BODOCONGÓ, CAMPINA GRANDE, PARAÍBA, NORDESTE DO BRASIL 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ÂNGELO G. C. ALVES; FRANCISCO JOSÉ B. SOUTO; ARACÉLIA M. LEITE

    4 Professora da Rede Particular de Ensino no estado do Maranhão. (Etnoecologia dos cágados-d'água Phrynops spp. (Testudinomorpha: Chelidae) entre pescadores artesanais no Açude Bodocongó, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil) - Bodocongó é um açude urbano localizado em Campina Grande, Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil (07°13'11\\

  13. LA CAPTACIÓN DE RECURSOS PRIVADOS ENTRE LAS ONGD ESPAÑOLAS: UNA APROXIMACIÓN PROBABILÍSTICA \\/ PRIVATE RESOURCES CAPTATION AMONG SPANISH ONGD: A PROBABILÍSTIC APPROXIMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Gutiérrez Villar; R. A. Araque Padilla; M. J Montero Simó

    2009-01-01

    La necesidad de recursos privados entre las ENL, tanto para su sostenimiento como para la realización de su labor requiere de estrategias organizativas cada vez más eficaces, por lo que el estudio del fundraising y su eficacia suscita un gran interés. En este trabajo, y basándonos en las conclusiones de estudios previos, pretendemos analizar la relación e influencia de una

  14. Bancos de Genes de Plantas: Seguridad Alimenticia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; )

    2003-04-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of plant species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.

  15. Plantae: Fossil Record and First Appearances

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Speer Brian

    This University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site provides an interactive geologic timescale that illustrates the temporal distribution of several important plant groups. First appearances of major plant groups are plotted on a colorful timescale and each group is linked to references, text, images, and further information. Key Cretaceous plant groups featured include Anthocerotophyta, Anthophyta and Gnetales. The site might be a useful resource for constructing introductory level lectures concerned with paleobotany and paleoecology of the Cretaceous Period.

  16. Simple quantification of in planta fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Lagudah, Evans; Pryor, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the disease resistance status of plants to fungal pathogens is an essential requirement for the development of resistant crop plants. Many disease resistance phenotypes are partial rather than obvious immunity and are frequently scored using subjective qualitative estimates of pathogen development or plant disease symptoms. Here we report a method for the accurate comparison of total fungal biomass in plant tissues. This method, called the WAC assay, is based upon the specific binding of the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin to fungal chitin. The assay is simple, high-throughput, and sensitive enough to discriminate between single Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici infection sites on a wheat leaf segment. It greatly lends itself to replication as large volumes of tissue can be pooled from independent experiments and assayed to provide truly representative quantification, or, alternatively, fungal growth on a single, small leaf segment can be quantified. In addition, as the assay is based upon a microscopic technique, pathogen infection sites can also be examined at high magnification prior to quantification if desired and average infection site areas are determined. Previously, we have demonstrated the application of the WAC assay for quantifying the growth of several different pathogen species in both glasshouse grown material and large-scale field plots. Details of this method are provided within. PMID:24643560

  17. Characterization of copy numbers of 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and the implication in detection in planta using quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-soon; Wang, Nian

    2009-01-01

    Background Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection. Results We investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of the HLB pathogen and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using Quantitative PCR. We compared the detection of HLB with different Quantitative PCR based methods with primers/probe targeting either 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, or beta-operon RNA. The 16S rDNA copy number of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus was estimated to be three times of that of the beta-operon region, thus allowing detection of lower titer of Ca. L. asiaticus. Quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR) indicated that the 16S rRNA averaged 7.83 times more than that of 16S rDNA for the same samples. Dilution analysis also indicates that QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA is 10 time more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Thus QRT-PCR was able to increase the sensitivity of detection by targeting 16S rRNA. Conclusion Our result indicates that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Ca. L. asiaticus in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA for the same set of samples tested in this study. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA. PMID:19284534

  18. L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrsistible envie de

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrésistible envie de mesurer l'étendue des enjeux qui y pratique alimentaire des fast-foods est de manière incontournable liée à une certaine culture de la

  19. SPECTRES DE RFLEXION ET CONSTANTES OPTIQUES DE LA PROUSTITE (Ag3AsS3) ENTRE 14 ET 600 cm-1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-95 SPECTRES DE R�FLEXION ET CONSTANTES OPTIQUES DE LA PROUSTITE (Ag3AsS3) ENTRE 14 ET 600 cm-1, accepte le 6 janvier 1977) Résumé. 2014 Les constantes optiques de la proustite (Ag3AsS3), à 300 K et à 80 Optical constants of proustite (Ag3AsS3) are determined from 18 to 700 03BCm by Kra- mers-Kronig analysis

  20. FINEZ Jean et COMET Catherine (2011), Solidarits patronales et formation des interlocks entre les principaux administrateurs du CAC40 , Terrains & Travaux, n 19,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 FINEZ Jean et COMET Catherine (2011), « Solidarités patronales et formation des interlocks entre Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex Courriel : jean.finez@ed.univ-lille1.fr Tél. : 03 20 33 62 99 Catherine Comet Maître 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex Courriel : catherine.comet@univ-lille1.fr Tél. : 03 20 43 46 87

  1. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  2. Conv^enio IMPA-Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie (Jussieu, Paris) Foi assinado recentemente um conv^enio entre o IMPA e a Universidade Pierre et Marie Curie

    E-print Network

    Solodov, Mikhail V.

    Conv^enio IMPA-Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie (Jussieu, Paris) Foi assinado recentemente um conv^enio entre o IMPA e a Universidade Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC, Jussieu, Paris). Est~ao previstas atividades

  3. PRODUCCIN DE PLANTAS EN VIVEROS FORESTALES Produccin de plantas grandes usando

    E-print Network

    luego trasplantaban en primavera, a canteros de raíz desnuda para un año adicional de crecimiento bajo trasplantados a canteros de raíz desnuda. Un cultivo sembrado en primavera era trasplantado a canteros al aire

  4. Etude théorique de l'interaction de van der Waals entre une sonde métallique et une surface diélectrique : application à la microscopie par mesure de forces atomiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghezzi, S.; Girard, C.; van Labeke, D.

    1991-02-01

    The van der Waals interaction force between a metallic tip and a non planar dielectric is derived from a non local formalism. A general formulation is given for a spherical tip of nanometric size and for surfaces of arbitrary shape (monocrystal adsorbed on planar surfaces). The dispersion part of the attractive force is obtained from a non local theory expressed in terms of generalized electric susceptibilities of the two partners. Implications for atomic force microscopy in attractive mode are also discussed. La force d'interaction de van der Waals entre une pointe métallique et une surface diélectrique est calculée à partir d'une théorie non-locale. Plus précisément, on considère comme point de départ que l'interaction sonde-surface est due au couplage entre les fluctuations des densités de charges des solides en présence. De plus, dans cette approche la force de van der Waals est calculée dans le cadre de la théorie de la réponse linéaire en utilisant pour chacun des milieux la fonction réponse non-locale correspondante. En particulier la sonde, de nature métallique, est caractérisée par un jeu de susceptibilités du champ décrites par un formalisme auto-cohérent. On effectue enfin une étude numérique de la force sur des surfaces présentant des corrugations de dimensions nanométriques.

  5. In planta mutagenesis of Src homology 3 domain-like fold of NdhS, a ferredoxin-binding subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex in Arabidopsis: a conserved Arg-193 plays a critical role in ferredoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2013-12-20

    Chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex mediates cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and chlororespiration in angiosperms. The Src homology 3 domain (SH3)-like fold protein NdhS/CRR31 is an NDH subunit that is necessary for high affinity binding of ferredoxin, indicating that chloroplast NDH functions as a ferredoxin:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. However, the mechanism of the interaction between NdhS and ferredoxin is unclear. In this study, we analyzed their interaction in planta by using site-directed mutagenesis of NdhS. In general, binding of ferredoxin to its target proteins depends on electrostatic interaction. In silico analysis predicted the presence of a positively charged pocket in the SH3-like domain of NdhS, where nine charged residues are highly conserved among plants. Systematic alteration of these sites with neutral glutamine revealed that only arginine 193 was required for high NDH activity in vivo. Further replacement of arginine 193 with negatively charged aspartate or glutamate or hydrophobic alanine significantly decreased the efficiency of ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction by NDH in ruptured chloroplasts. Similar results were obtained in in vivo analyses of NDH activity and electron transport. From these results, we propose that the positive charge of arginine 193 in the SH3-like domain of NdhS is critical for electrostatic interaction with ferredoxin in vivo. PMID:24225949

  6. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  7. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  8. L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale : Une relation de confiance à construire entre les parents, le personnel paramédical et les médecins

    PubMed Central

    Pelchat, Diane; Lefebvre, Hélène; Bouchard, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ : L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale et des incapacités qui en découlent est une situation difficile à vivre pour les parents et les dispensateurs de soins (personnel paramédical et médecins). Un examen de la documentation médicale démontre que depuis vingt ans, le nombre de parents insatisfaits n’a pas changé. L’étude de type qualitatif et exploratoire, effectuée à la demande de milieux de réadaptation, vise à décrire le processus d’annonce d’un diagnostic de déficience motrice cérébrale (DMC) à partir de l’expérience des différents acteurs en cause et à déterminer les facteurs qui facilitent ou compliquent la relation de confiance. Les résultats indiquent que les parents et les dispensateurs de soins vivent dans deux mondes de perception différents au moment de l’annonce, lesquels se rejoignent difficilement. Les parents sont envahis par le drame qu’ils vivent, tandis que les médecins sont concentrés sur le contenu à transmettre aux parents. Cette annonce provoque une importante incertitude qui bloque la communication entre les partenaires, mais elle pourrait devenir un stimulant à de nouvelles stratégies d’adaptation. PMID:20084263

  9. Un modelo para el control de calidad academica de los textos de instruccion a distancia (A Model for Controlling the Academic Quality of Distance Education Texts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolanos-Mora, Guiselle; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In response to the need for a system of control over the academic quality of distance education texts, this article proposes a methodological model based on criteria that evaluate written materials based on their instructional quality, design, and production. A discussion and figures evaluate educational aspects of content, communication,…

  10. EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA DEL PROFESORADO DE CIENCIAS EN EL DESARROLLO DE LABORATORIOS VIRTUALES (DISTANCE EDUCATION ON VIRTUAL-LAB IMPLEMENTATION FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Martín Villalba; Alfonso Urquía Moraleda; Sebastián Dormido Bencomo

    2008-01-01

    Two distance courses on the implementation of interactive virtual-labs are presented in this manuscript. Their audience is Science teachers who wish to make efficient use of interactive simulation in their classes. The first course, entitled \\

  11. 1/ Achetez un smartphone BlackBerry CurveTM 9320 sur mobile.free.fr entre le 26 aot et le 30 septembre 2013 inclus. 2/ Rassemblez les pices justificatives suivantes

    E-print Network

    Fouquet, Yannick

    1/ Achetez un smartphone BlackBerry® CurveTM 9320 sur mobile.free.fr entre le 26 août et le 30'achat de votre smartphone BlackBerry® CurveTM 9320. · L'original de l'étiquette comportant le numéro IMEI du smartphone (à découper sur l'emballage, aucun autre code barre ni copie ne seront acceptés) · Le

  12. In : Un ethnologue entre Sahara, Kabylie et Ymen. Hommage Marceau Gast (sous la dir. de Salem CHAKER et Hlne CLAUDOT-HAWAD), Peeters, Louvain/Paris, 2013, 187-204

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 In : Un ethnologue entre Sahara, Kabylie et Yémen. Hommage à Marceau Gast (sous la dir. de Salem, partager est, au Sahara, une véritable règle de vie. De ce comportement, Marceau a lui-même fait un art de travers Marceau, je découvrais deux univers : d'un côté, celui du Sahara, des Berbères, de l'Afrique de l

  13. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos estudantes.

  14. Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Manzano, David; Tani?, Nikola; Pesic, Milica; Bankovic, Jasna; Pateraki, Irini; Ricard, Lea; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric; van de Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-05-01

    Parthenolide, the main bioactive compound of the medicinal plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), is a promising anti-cancer drug. However, the biosynthetic pathway of parthenolide has not been elucidated yet. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of all the genes from feverfew that are required for the biosynthesis of parthenolide, using a combination of 454 sequencing of a feverfew glandular trichome cDNA library, co-expression analysis and metabolomics. When parthenolide biosynthesis was reconstituted by transient co-expression of all pathway genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, up to 1.4?gg(-1) parthenolide was produced, mostly present as cysteine and glutathione conjugates. These relatively polar conjugates were highly active against colon cancer cells, with only slightly lower activity than free parthenolide. In addition to these biosynthetic genes, another gene encoding a costunolide and parthenolide 3?-hydroxylase was identified opening up further options to improve the water solubility of parthenolide and therefore its potential as a drug. PMID:24704560

  15. se: Rostliny Plantae (= Archaeplastida) spolecn znaky rostlinnch skupin

    E-print Network

    ;Nozaki et al., 2009, 53: 872­880. vztah ,,super-autotrofní supeíse" a excavát jsou ale ,,rostliny kokální stélka, ale zbytky bicík a pulsující vakuola tradicn ­ 6 druh, ale pouze ikonotypy... dále pak. tetracyanea (z pdy, kmen v NIESu) ale opravdu dobrý druh? #12;Cyanophora biloba (vs. C. paradoxa) Kugrens et

  16. In Planta mutagenesis determines the functional regions of puroindoline proteins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PINA and PINB functionally comprise the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Ha locus which controls grain texture and many wheat end-use properties. PINs in their functional forms impart soft texture and a mutation in either PIN is found in all hard wheats. Studies of the PINs mode of action is limited ...

  17. In planta modification of the potato tuber cell wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. F. J. Oomen

    2003-01-01

    Apart from its well known uses in the human diet a large amount of the grown potatoes (about one third in the Netherlands) is used for the isolation of starch which is used in several food and non-food applications. The cell wall fibres comprise a large portion of the waste material remaining after the starch isolation process. While cell wall

  18. Structure and Expression In planta of Botrytis cinerea Ubiquitin Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo W. Prins; Lia Wagemakers; Jan A. L. van Kan

    2000-01-01

    To identify genes of the necrotrophic pathogenic fungus Botrytiscinerea that are expressed during infection of tomato leaves, a differential screening of a genomic library with radioactively labelled cDNA was performed. This resulted in the identification of a B. cinerea gene, denominated Bcubi4, which encodes a precursor protein consisting of four identical head-to-tail repeats of a 76?aa ubiquitin unit. Subsequently a

  19. Structure and expression in planta of Botrytis cinerea ubiquitin genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo W. Prins; Lia Wagemakers; Kan van J. A. L

    2000-01-01

    To identify genes of the necrotrophic pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinereathat are expressed during infection of tomato leaves, a differential screening of a genomic library with radioactively labelled cDNA was performed. This resulted in the identification of a B. cinerea gene, denominated Bcubi4, which encodes a precursor protein consisting of four identical head-to-tail repeats of a 76 aa ubiquitin unit. Subsequently

  20. Nós e as plantas: ontem e hoje1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTONIO SALATINO

    The plants and us: past and present). Green areas in cities and trees growing on streets and squares of urban sites are features that only recently acquired relevance in the western world. It seems that formerly urban inhabitants did not value a close proximity with plants. In the present paper it is suggested that this is a consequence of a

  1. PS-GRADUAO EM BIOLOGIA DE FUNGOS, ALGAS E PLANTAS

    E-print Network

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    Pereira Dias UFSC ­ Florianópolis Anatomia vegetal 6. Genivaldo Alves da Silva UNIC ­ Primavera do Leste ­ Primavera do Leste Micologia 12. Luis Adriano Funez UFSC ­ Florianópolis Sistemática vegetal 13. Maria Luiza ­ Primavera do Leste Micologia 21. Thais Favero Massocato UFSC ­ Florianópolis Ficologia 22. Thais Silva Costa

  2. Short communication Phylogeny of Calvin cycle enzymes supports Plantae monophyly

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    phylogenetic analyses suggest that land plants (Martin and Schnarrenberger, 1997) and red algae acquired the captured cyano- bacterium prior to the divergence of green and red algae (Matsuzaki et al., 2004). However, it is well known that some CC enzymes in land plants and red algae have a non-cyanobacterial origin (Martin

  3. BiotecnologBiotecnologaa dede PlantasPlantas DesafDesafosos para lapara la expresiexpresinn de genesde genes introducidosintroducidos

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    tejidostejidos GENGEN GENGEN DesarrollosBiotecnológicos GMOs - Organismos Geneticamente modificados · GMO - Un Roundup El gen viene de Bacteria Wheat Rye Triticale X Cruce interespecífico Nueva especie, pero NO un

  4. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d'analyse qualitative et adaptee de la litterature (Thouin, 1995). Une seconde serie d'analyses permettant de categoriser les reponses selon la typologie des connaissances declaratives, procedurales et conditionnelles complete la prise de donnees. Nos resultats indiquent que les sujets sont tres influences par des elements de surface, principalement lorsqu'il s'agit de problemes auxquels ils ne sont pas habitues. En l'absence de connaissances de base, plusieurs sujets vont tendre vers des propositions de solution "pratico-pratique" provenant de leur vecu: cela nous apparait d'importance d'un point de vue didactique et en matiere de transfert. Lors des entretiens realises un mois plus tard, les sujets ont eprouve de la difficulte a se rappeler le contenu de l'epreuve. Et lorsqu'il y avait un rappel, celui-ci etait superficiel et surtout axe sur le contenu ou le contexte d'un probleme. La plupart des sujets ne pouvait nommer que deux ou trois elements (des problemes en mathematiques, en sciences physiques, le probleme de la fenetre, le probleme du laser, etc.). Nos resultats confirment ce que plusieurs chercheurs (Julo, 1995, Jonnaert et Vander Borght, 1999; Richard et al., 1990) qui s'interessent aux questions de l'apprentissage admettent aujourd'hui: l'eleve ne travaille jamais sur la situation proposee par l'enseignant, mais bien sur la representation qu'il s'en est construite. Au plan methodologique, cette recherche est interessante par la variete des sources de collecte de donnees utilisees, par l'application d'outils methodologiques et d'analyses originaux tires de la recherche et de la pratique. Du cote theorique, il resulte de cette etude une meilleure comprehension du processus de transfert des connaissances mathematiques vers les sciences physiques. Finalement, aux plans didactique et pedagogique, cette recherche alimente la reflexion sur l'apprentissage et l'enseignement des sciences au secondaire. Elle fait ressortir que les mathematiques sont importantes dans la mobilisation de certaines connaissances scientifiques et que l'enseignant peut et devrait jouer un

  5. de dviation. Mais il n'y a pas symtrie entre les rayons qui ont tra-vers le prisme prs de l'arte et ceux qui l'ont travers prs de la

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    diélec- triques peu éloignées de 2,5. Tels sont le carbonate acide de sodium, le sulfate acide de sodium'éthylène dibromé de 2,72 à 2,98 :: celle du chlorure de sodium à 10 0/0, de 2,87 à 65,60 entre - 198, et 92°; celle approximativement égale des hydrates de potassium, sodium, rubidium ou des oxydes de cuivre, de fer ou de plomb

  6. Pouvoirs locaux : entre transparence et refinancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélien Accaputo; Laurent Bosquillon; Giuseppe Pagano

    2009-01-01

    The control and the funding of cities, communes and provinces is one of the major stakes ahead of the regional election of June 2009. The following sections discuss four topics : the Communes Fund, the control regulations, the role of provinces, and the possible introduction of ESA standards on local level. The Walloon Region decree of July 15, 2008 reshapes

  7. "LA IGUALDAD ENTRE MUJERES Y HOMBRES

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    sexual y por razón de sexo en las Universidades 5 13 17 23 37 49 53 57 #12;#12;5 1.1. NORMATIVA ESTATAL producir discriminación por razón de sexo y la responsabilidad de los poderes públicos en el logro de la

  8. Las TIC en un entorno latinoamericano de educación a distancia: la experiencia de la UNED de Costa Rica ICTs in a Latin American distance education environment: the experience of the Costa Rican UNED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Contemporary distance education adds, to the traditional printing technologies, more recent information and communication technologies (ICT), which in the case of the Costa Rican Distance Education University are unified in \\

  9. Teaching Reading Comprehension in English in a Distance Web-Based Course: New Roles for Teachers (La enseñanza de la comprensión de lectura en inglés en un curso a distancia en la red: nuevos roles para los docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz Marín, Jorge Hugo; González Moncada, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Distance web-based learning is a popular strategy in ELT teaching in Colombia. Despite of the growth of experiences, there are very few studies regarding teachers' participation in these courses. This paper reports preliminary findings of an on-going study aiming at exploring the roles that a teach er plays in an EFL reading comprehension…

  10. Comunicacin entre ProcesosComunicacin entre Procesos por pase de mensajespor pase de mensajes

    E-print Network

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    librerías especiales Las primitivas principales son: send(destination, this_msg, msg_length) receive(source, a_msg, &how_long) #12;IntroducciónIntroducción Sistemas donde la comunicación por memoria enlaces pueden ser unidireccionales o bidireccionales send(tothisprocess, this_msg, msg_length) receive

  11. Características físicas e produção de palmito de palmeira real australiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilene L. A. Bovi; Gentil Godoy Júnior; Matheus A. R. Cembranelli; Sandra H. Spiering; C. Postal

    RESUMO Características relacionadas ao crescimento e a produção do palmito de famílias de meios -irmãos de palmeiras do gênero Archontophoenix foram estudadas num experimento a campo, em Ubatuba, SP, visando identificar se há variação entre e dentro de espécies. A colheita, realizada três anos após o plantio, produziu, em média, de 231,06 a 465,63 g planta -1 de resíduo basal

  12. La fragUA es un servicio que ofrece la Biblioteca Universitaria, en colaboracin con el Servicio de Informtica, orientado a la promocin del uso de las tecnologas de la informacin y la comunicacin en la docencia

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    , de entre 2 y 4 horas, que se imparten en el aula de formación de la fragUA, situada en la planta baja intención de dar a conocer las actividades que allí se pueden realizar: Realidad virtual Captura de

  13. INICIATIVAS CONCERTADAS PARA EL DESARROLLO LOCAL EN ASENTAMIENTOS AISLADOS DE DIFÍCIL ACCESO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Llanes Robaina; Pedro Rafael Pretel Olite

    2011-01-01

    La intervención se realizó en tres asentamientos agrícolas del macizo montañoso de Guamuhaya en la provincia de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Los principales problemas socio económico que afectan dichos asentamientos abarcan entre otros: Dependencia económica del cultivo del café; Suelos erosionados por causas naturales y antrópicas; Proliferación de especies de plantas invasoras en las áreas de cafetales; Deforestación de patios, parcelas y

  14. Glycine clock: Eubacteria first, Archaea next, Protoctista, Fungi, Planta and Animalia at last

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward N. Trifonov

    1999-01-01

    One may expect that in the composition of the ancient proteins the earliest amino acids would dominate. Indeed, when homologous prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein sequences are aligned, the most frequent residue amongst matching amino acids (presumably, what remains of the common ancestor sequence) is glycine that makes about 14% vs. glycine content of 6-7% in modern proteins. The glycine content

  15. An open-source system for in planta gene stacking by Bxb1 and Cre recombinases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lili; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Wei, Junjie; Han, Zhiguo; Dong, Zhicheng; Ow, David W

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of crops with multiple transgenic traits arouses the need for an efficient system for creating stacked cultivars. Most major crops rely on classical breeding to introgress the transgene from a laboratory variety to the numerous cultivars adapted to different growing regions. Even with vegetative propagated crops, genetic crosses are conducted during varietal improvement prior to vegetative cloning. The probability to assort the 'x' number of transgenic loci into a single genome may seem trivial, (¼) (x) for a diploid species, but given the 'y' number of other nontransgenic traits that breeders also need to assemble into the same genome, the (¼) (x+y) probability for a 'breeding stack' could quickly make the line conversion process unmanageable. Adding new transgenes onto existing transgenic varieties without creating a new segregating locus would require site-specific integration of new DNA at the existing transgenic locus. Here, we tested a recombinase-mediated gene-stacking scheme in tobacco. Sequential site-specific integration was mediated by the mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrase-catalyzed recombination between attP and attB sites. Transgenic DNA no longer needed after integration was excised by Cre recombinase-mediated recombination of lox sites. Site-specific integration occurred in ~10% of the integration events, with half of those events usable as substrates for a next round of gene stacking. Among the site-specific integrants, however, a third experienced gene silencing. Overall, precise structure and reproducible expression of the sequentially added triple traits were obtained at an overall rate of ~3% of the transformed clones--a workable frequency for the development of commercial cultivars. Moreover, since neither the Bxb1-att nor the Cre-lox system is under patent, there is freedom to operate. PMID:25281665

  16. Auxin transport sites are visualized in planta using fluorescent auxin analogs

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura, Shouichi; Fukunaga, Shiho; Nishimura, Takeshi; Jenness, Mark K.; Murphy, Angus S.; Motose, Hiroyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Furutani, Masahiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a key morphogenetic signal that controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Cellular auxin levels are coordinately regulated by multiple processes, including auxin biosynthesis and the polar transport and metabolic pathways. The auxin concentration gradient determines plant organ positioning and growth responses to environmental cues. Auxin transport systems play crucial roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of the auxin gradient. This auxin gradient has been analyzed using SCF-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex-based auxin biosensors in synthetic auxin-responsive reporter lines. However, the contributions of auxin biosynthesis and metabolism to the auxin gradient have been largely elusive. Additionally, the available information on subcellular auxin localization is still limited. Here we designed fluorescently labeled auxin analogs that remain active for auxin transport but are inactive for auxin signaling and metabolism. Fluorescent auxin analogs enable the selective visualization of the distribution of auxin by the auxin transport system. Together with auxin biosynthesis inhibitors and an auxin biosensor, these analogs indicated a substantial contribution of local auxin biosynthesis to the formation of auxin maxima at the root apex. Moreover, fluorescent auxin analogs mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in cultured cells and roots, implying the presence of a subcellular auxin gradient in the cells. Our work not only provides a useful tool for the plant chemical biology field but also demonstrates a new strategy for imaging the distribution of small-molecule hormones. PMID:25049419

  17. POPULAÇÃO DE PLANTAS NO CONSORCIO MAMONEIRA\\/MILHO. I. PRODUÇÃO E COMPONENTES DA PRODUÇÃO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEMÓSTENES MARCOS PEDROSA DE AZEVED; DOS SANTOS; NAPOLEÃO ESBERARD DE MACÊDO; FERNANDO ANTÔNIO; SOUTO BATISTA; LAUDEMIRO BALDOfNO DA NÓBREGA; DIRCEU JUSTINIANO VIEIRA; JOSÉ RODRIGUES

    RESUMO: Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Monteiro, Paraíba, Brasil, nos anos agrícola de 1994 e 1995, com o objetivo de se investigar o efeito de população de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.) e de milho (Zea mays L.) no rendimento e nos componentes da produção dessas culturas em consórcio. Os resultados mais expressivos foram: 1) o rendimento das culturas

  18. EFEITO DE POPULAÇÃO DE PLANTAS NO CONSÓRCIO MAMONEIRA\\/MILHO. II. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FERNANDO ANTÔNIO; SOUTO BATISTA; DIRCEU JUSTINIANO VIEIRA; RODRIGUES PEREIRA; LAUDEMIRO BALDOíNO DA NÓBREGA

    4 RESUMO- Um experimento de campo foi conduzido no município de Monteiro, Paraíba, nos anos agrícolas de 1994 e 1995, com o objetivo de se investigar o efeito de população na eficiência agronômica do consórcio da mamoneira (Riccinus communis L.) e do milho (Zea mays L.) Os resultados mais expressivos, foram: i) os índices de UET proporcional da mamoneira e

  19. Carotenoid In Planta Development, Storage, and Bioaccessibility: A Comprehensive Approach to Nutrient Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jeffery, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-14

    ........................................................................... 58 Results and Discussion ................................................................... 59 Butternut Squash (Cucurbita moschata Poir) ......................... 59 Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Sativus... micrographs of butternut squash and yogurt meal fractions. ....... 63 Figure 16. TEM micrographs of butternut squash digesta fraction. ....................... 63 Figure 17. Light micrographs of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Sativus) parenchyma cells...

  20. Planta (2007) 226:839851 DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0530-2

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    or other known plant hormones reg- ulate auxin homeostasis and cell expansion provides a new paradigm-growth promotion by PGPR include bacterial synthe- sis of plant hormones (Loper and Schroth 1986; Timmusk et al / Published online: 12 May 2007 © Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

  1. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2014-12-26

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 ?m. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ?100 ?m, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12-0.16 ?g h(-1) g(-1) fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

  2. CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTAS INJERTADAS JÓVENES DE DOS CULTIVARES DE NÍSPERO DESPUÉS DEL PRENDIMIENTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norkys Mez; Dámaso Bautista

    Growth of young grafted plants of two cultivars of sapodilla after the healing The grafting, growth and branching of the main axis of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota van Royen) was studied in the cvs. Santiago and Delfina. The trial was carried out in the experimental field of the Graduate School of Horticulture, in Tarabana, Lara State (10º 01' N, 500 masl),

  3. Planta (1995)196:674-682 P l m a t ~ 9 Springer-Verlag1995

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    - in intact non-mycor- rhizal roots of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. seedlings. Three compartments were defined) - Nitrogen-13 - Picea Abbreviations and symbols: [NO3]cyt = cytoplasmicNO3 concen- tration; [NO3]freespace

  4. Planta (1995)196:691-698 P l a n t ~ 9 Springer-Verlag 1995

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    -mycorrhizal roots of intact Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. seedlings at four different concentration regimes - Compartmental analysis - Ni- trogen-13 - Picea Abbreviations and symbol: [NH+]cyt = cytoplasmic NH,~ concen

  5. Chemical compounds effective against the citrus huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. The new antibiotic combination of penicillin and streptomycin (...

  6. Planta (1994)192:372-378 P l ~ n t ~ 9 Springer-Verlag1994

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    1994-01-01

    with GA3, we consistently detected increases and decreases in the abundance of 14 and 20 in-vitro. In vegetative gibl shoots, the abundance of 13 in-vitro translation products decreased within 6-24 h after GA 3 treatment. However, no in-vitro translation products that increased in abundance after GA 3treatment were

  7. Complete Genome Sequence and In Planta Subcellular Localization of Maize Fine Streak Virus Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Wei Tsai; Margaret G. Redinbaugh; Kristen J. Willie; Sharon Reed; Michael Goodin; Saskia A. Hogenhout

    2005-01-01

    The genome of the nucleorhabdovirus maize fine streak virus (MFSV) consists of 13,782 nucleotides of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. The antigenomic strand consisted of seven open reading frames (ORFs), and transcripts of all ORFs were detected in infected plants. ORF1, ORF6, and ORF7 had significant similarities to the nucleocapsid protein (N), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L) genes of other rhabdoviruses,

  8. DISEÑO DE UNA PLANTA PILOTO PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DEL RESIDUAL DE UNA SALINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Estela Colombat Rodríguez; Amada Lissett Colombat Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En el proceso de extracción de cloruro de sodio a partir de agua de mar queda una salmuera residual rica en sales de sodio y magnesio que al ser tratadas químicamente y al ser evaporada permite recuperar aproximadamente el 75% del cloruro de sodio que queda en dicho residual, lo que puede reducir la contaminación ambiental del litoral y generar

  9. SCIENTIFIC NOTE Plantas Hospedantes de Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Acari: Tarsonemidae) en Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PEDRO DE LA TORRE; LÉRIDA ALMAGUEL; ELEAZAR BOTTA; E IDALIA CÁCERES

    Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon is a well-known phytophagous tarsonemid mite commonly found on coconut. Little is known about its host range. This note brings a list of plants from which the mite was collected in Cuba. Brachiaria plantaginea (L.) Hitch, Digitaria decumbens Stewt., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop, Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Panicum fasciculatum

  10. Patrones en el conocimiento, uso y manejo de plantas en pueblos indígenas de México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAVIER CABALLERO; ALEJANDRO CASAS; LAURA CORTÉS; Y CRISTINA MAPES

    1998-01-01

    An overview of ethnobiological information obtained among Indian peoples of Mexico is presented, analyzing patterns and tendencies in the forms of perceiving, using, and manipulating plant resources. The plant classification folk systems studied are highly complex. Although in general they follow the general principles formulated by Brent Berlin and other scholars, some significant variations are observed. Subsistence has been based

  11. Identification of Alternaria brassicicola genes expressed in planta during pathogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert A; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2004-02-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes black spot disease on cruciferous plants including economically important Brassica species. The purpose of this study was to identify fungal genes expressed during infection of Arabidopsis. In order to identify candidate genes involved in pathogenicity, we employed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between RNA isolated from A. brassicicola spores incubated in water and on the leaf surface of the Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg. Two populations of cDNA were created from total RNA extracted after 24h when approximately 80% of the spores had germinated either on the leaf surface or in water. Following SSH, expression of clones was examined using dot-blot macro-arrays and virtual Northern blots. 47 cDNA clones differentially expressed between Alternaria infected Arabidopsis leaves and spore germination in water were selected for sequencing. Seventy-seven percent (36) of the cDNAs had significant homology to fungal sequences from databases examined, including available fungal genomes, while 13% (11) had no homology to sequences in the databases. All 36 genes had significant matches with genes of fungal origin, while 11 genes did not have significant hits in the databases examined. Five sequences were expressed on the plant leaf surface but not during spore germination in water according to virtual Northern blots. These five cDNAs were predicted to encode a cyanide hydratase, arsenic ATPase, formate dehydrogenase, major Alternaria allergen, and one unknown. RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of these five genes during infection of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata (cabbage), in vitro growth in nutrient rich media, and infection of Arabidopsis thaliana. Four of these genes are expressed in the nutrient rich medium, while the unknown gene P3F2 was only expressed during plant infection. The results of this study provide the first insight into genes expressed during A. brassicicola infection of Brassica species that may be involved in fungal pathogenesis. PMID:14732258

  12. ISOLATION, IN PLANTA DETECTION, AND USES OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FOR PLANT PROTECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytic bacteria are defined as those that dwell intercellularly in association with plants for most, if not all of their life cycles. These organisms are therefore symbiotic and are further distinguished in that the bacterium lives within the plant or portions of it as a nonpathogen although sl...

  13. IN PLANTA INTERACTIONS OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES WITH CORN AND MECHANISMS OF FUMONISIN PYHTOTOXICITY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticilliodes, the causative agent of ear rot in corn, can produce the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). FB1 inhibits a key eukaryotic enzyme necessary for sphingolipid metabolism, ceramide synthase. Such inhibition causes a number of species-specific animal diseases and may contribute to ca...

  14. Centro de Biotecnologa y Genmica de Plantas Departamentos de Biotecnologa UPM-INIA

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    seminarios 2014/15 - Primer cuatrimestre 19 de septiembre Evolution of dominant and recessive virus resistance genes in wild plant populations Nils Poulicard - CBGP, Madrid, España 3 de octubre Sequence and molybdate transport genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus Bernd Masepohl - Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, Germany 19 de

  15. Transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens TI Plasmid to Avirulent Agrobacteria and to Rhizobium ex planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. J. Hooykaas; P. M. Klapwijk; M. P. Nuti; R. A. Schiliperoort

    1977-01-01

    SUMMARY A mutant of A. tumefaciens strain ~6~3, carrying the R factor RP4, was able to transfer its TI plasmid to various avirulent Agrobacterium strains and to a strain of Rhizobium. Strains carrying the TI(~6s3) plasmid were selected by their ability to utilize octopine. The isolates were able to induce tumours and exclude phage API . The tumours induced on

  16. Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)

    PubMed Central

    Hanikenne, Marc; Baurain, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium, and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialization into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterized in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. PMID:24575101

  17. Quantification of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa overwintering in planta and detection in commercial seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dollar spot is the most economically important disease of amenity turf grasses in the United States, yet little is known about the source of primary inoculum for this disease. With the exception of a few isolates from the United Kingdom, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot, does...

  18. MONITOREO DE UNA PLANTA SOLAR A PARTIR DE SISTEMAS DE ADQUISICIÓN DESARROLLADOS CON INSTRUMENTACIÓN VIRTUAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Forero; L. M. Caicedo; J. Hernández

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a system that allows monitoring, using Virtual Instrumentation, electricity generating Plants formed by photovoltaic modules. The acquisition and statistical processing of the collected data are made through Virtual Instruments developed based on I\\/O modular high precision Field Point type electronic systems and special programs developed with LabVIEW graphic programming software. The system has facilities

  19. EFEITO DE EXTRATOS AQUOSOS DE PLANTAS NA OVIPOSIÇÃO DA TRAÇA-DAS-CRUCÍFERAS, EM COUVE (1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CESAR AUGUSTO; MANFRÉ MEDEIROS; ARLINDO LEAL

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum

  20. Ecologa y Evolucin dE intEraccionEs planta-animal

    E-print Network

    Traveset, Anna

    of Charles Darwin Online (http:/darwin-online.org.uk/) Fotografía interacción. Bomarea salsilla nacimiento de chArles dArwin. w w w. u n i v e r s i t a r i a . c l ImprESO EN CHILE / prINtED IN CHILE 577,5 x 27 cm. -­ (Bicentenario Charles Darwin) Incluye glosario e índice de términos. Bibliografía: p.343

  1. Efeito da homeopatia Arnica montana, nas potências centesimais, sobre plantas de artemísia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Carvalho; S. P. Lisboa; M. A. Souza

    Effect of homeopathy Arnica montana, centesimal potencies, on plants of artemísia. Forty five days after the transplant to pots, plants of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz- Bip. gotten from seeds, received homeopathics solutions of Arnica montana, centesimal potencies (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4 and CH5). The applications, weekly, were done in the same schedule, in the soil, after dilutions in deionized water.

  2. "In planta" regulation of the "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter CAX1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vacuolar localized Ca(2+)/H(+) exchangers such as "Arabidopsis thaliana" cation exchanger 1 (CAX1) play important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, CAX1 is regulated via an N-terminal autoinhibitory domain. In yeast expression assays, a 36 amino acid N-terminal truncation of CAX1...

  3. Planta (2009) 230:795805 DOI 10.1007/s00425-009-0985-4

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    -Verlag 2009 Abstract It has been suggested that LeFRK2, the major fructose-phosphorylating enzyme in tomato · Fructokinase · Fructose · Phloem · Sucrose · Xylem Abbreviations FRK Fructokinase HXK Hexokinase SuSy Sucrose, into UDP-glucose and fructose, or by invertase into glucose and fructose (Koch 2004). Consequently

  4. Planta (2014) 239:591603 DOI 10.1007/s00425-013-1998-6

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components Yufang Lu · Yingru Zhou/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifi methyl esters · Nitrogen-removal stimulants · Non-nutrient compounds · Duckweed · Root exudates

  5. NOTA TÉCNICA PREVENCIÓN DEL CÓLERA AVIAR, CON EXTRACTOS ACUOSOS DE PLANTAS, EN POLLOS DE ENGORDE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Toledo

    The prevention of fowl cholerra with the aqueous ex- tract of epacine (Petiveria alliacea), stinkwood (Centrum lanatum), Quina (Coutarea hexandra), and tempate (Jatropha curcas) in poultry production. This research was conducted from October to De.cember, 1992, based upon the aqueous extracts from plants, at the Chemical, Agricultural and Pharmacy laboratories, by producing anphitochemicals and rnicrobiological tests on the bacterium Pasteurella

  6. Soil bacteria augment Arabidopsis photosynthesis by decreasing glucose sensing and abscisic acid levels in planta

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    , including hypocotyl elongation and seed germination, with exposure to GB03. Compared with wild-type plants the phloem, and subsequently sub- stantially reduces soil respiration (Hogberg et al., 2001; Johnsen et al

  7. Planta (2008) 228:411425 DOI 10.1007/s00425-008-0746-9

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis Abhijit Karve · Bradley L. Rauh · Xiaoxia Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (HXK1) is a moon- lighting protein that has separable functions in glucose signaling of numerous existing changes. Sliding windows analyses of coding sequences in A. thaliana and A. lyrata ssp

  8. Floral Benzenoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases: From in Vitro to in Planta Function

    SciTech Connect

    Effmert,U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.; Noel, J.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates.

  9. Planta (2009) 230:111 DOI 10.1007/s00425-009-0921-7

    E-print Network

    Tholl, Dorothea

    -induced volatile formation in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea, a perennial, outcrossing relative of A. thaliana AlCarS Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea (E)- -caryophyllene synthase AtTPS21 A. thaliana terpene. The self-pollinating annual, Arabidopsis thaliana, and its relative, the outcrossing perennial, Arabidopsis

  10. Pharma-Planta: road testing the developing regulatory guidelines for plant-made pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope Amelia Claire Sparrow; Judith A. Irwin; Phil J. Dale; Richard M. Twyman; Julian K. C. Ma

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances over the last few years have seen plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) move from the exploratory research\\u000a phase towards clinical trials, with the first commercial products for human use expected to reach the market by 2009. Europe\\u000a has yet to witness the commercial application of PMP technology, although at least one product has begun phase II clinical\\u000a trials with others

  11. L'OLEICULTURE GRECQUE, ENTRE COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL ET CIRCUITS COURTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    producteur mondial d'huile d'olive) et culturel (premier consommateur mondial par habitant). Pour autant, l proximité géographique de la ville est essentiellement interprétée, du point de vue de l'activité agricole

  12. Sincretismo entre usabilidad y la búsqueda del placer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iván León Trujillo

    Overestimate or sub estimate the average person's familiarity with Digital's computing interfaces, its one of the most today's common digital interfaces design problem. By other side, the technological advances are allowing that the media communications turns day by day into a hyper-multimedia-TV were every human been will have to face and use these multimedia interfaces. This paper focuses on stimulate

  13. LAS INTERACCIONES ENTRE CINE Y CORRIENTES ARTÍSTICAS CONTEMPORÁNEAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MONIKA KESKA

    The relationship between art and plastic arts should be studied from two different points of view: the influence of the contemporary art movements in the cinema and the impact of the cinema in the evolution of all the visual arts. In the first half of the XX Century we can observe a big number of elements with cinematographic origin in

  14. El teatro en Panamá: Entre problemas, excepciones y esperanzas

    E-print Network

    Domí nguez, Daniel

    1992-04-01

    propaganda al régimen "popular" y "nacionalista." Esta fue una época en la que muchos intelectuales se vendieron al mejor postor. Si bien tenemos una Escuela Nacional de Teatro, ella trabaja con bajos presupuestos, con pocos profesores y escasos alumnos... años después de fundada, con la obra La casamentera de Thorton Wilder, dirigida por Frank McMullan de la Universidad de Yale. En el medio teatral, otro aspecto que no permite que el teatro tome fuerzas es la ausencia de salas adecuadas para la...

  15. PROPOSTA DE COLABORACIN ENTRE ADEAC/FEE E UNIVERSIDADES ESPAOLAS

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    máis antiga, extensa, recoñecida e con maior capacidade de crecemento a nivel mundial. Así mesmo a aqueles centros que alcanzan os estándares esixidos. II. XUSTIFICACI�N DE MOTIVOS O éxito mundial de universidades encóntrase hoxe a poboación que en pouco máis de cinco anos ocupará os postos de

  16. Article original Paramtres du croisement entre 3 souches

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    portée #12;Summary - Crossbreeding parameters between 3 rabbit strains and analysis of the response to selection for litter size: litter traits at birth and weaning. A crossbreeding experiment involved3 INRA

  17. Lien entre le dferlement des ondes de Rossby en haute

    E-print Network

    atmosphérique sur l'Atlantique Nord. Orientation du courant-jet propre à chaque régime type de temps déf. C est le plus fréquent le jet passe au sud. si le déf. A est le plus fréquent le jet passe au fréquences de déf. sont plus élevées à lag -3 qu'à lag +3 renforcement du régime par les déferlements d

  18. Association entre anxiété et hyperlaxité articulaire : revue de la littérature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Baeza Velasco; A. Bulbena Vilarrasa

    2010-01-01

    Joint hypermobility is an exaggerate increase of the joint's mobility due to an inherited alteration in the collagen fibres. For decades, it has been observed that people with this condition show very often symptoms of anxiety. Empirical studies corroborate these clinical observations and associate the joint hypermobility principally with the endogenous anxiety, which suggest that is a biological base shared

  19. DINNER MENU 5 (Limit 1 Hot or 1 Cold Entre)

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Vegetarian Chili From the Grill: Grilled Chicken Sandwich Cheeseburger Hamburger Turkey Burger Grilled Cheese: Diet Coke, Diet Sprite, Diet Gingerale CONDIMENTS: Pepper/Herb Seasoning Sugar Sub/ Lowfat Mayo Omelet made to order: your choice of ­ Onions, peppers, mushroom, tomato, cheese Egg & Cheese Breakfast

  20. Las personas con diabetes deben lograr un balance entre los

    E-print Network

    en un lado del plato y los alimentos bajos en carbohidratos al otro lado. Karen Halderson, MPH, RD bajos en carbohidratos, manteniendo cada uno en su propio lado del plato o de la mesa. Comer vegetales en diferentes lados de su plato y ver si su plato está "balanceado". Sin embargo, muchas veces

  1. La UPF, entre les millors universitats d'Espanya

    E-print Network

    Geffner, Hector

    intensiva de coneixement en l'àmbit de la biomedicina i les ciències de la salut, que està cridat a ser un institucions i centres de recerca independents, tots ells enfocats en diferents aspectes de la biomedicina

  2. El teatro argentino actual: Entre la modernidad y la tradición

    E-print Network

    de Toro, Fernando

    1991-04-01

    piensa que dejarse penetrar por otras prácticas teatrales de alguna manera lleva contaminaciones poco deseables, sin detenerse a pensar que el tener una competencia (en el sentido chomskiano) teatral universal para nada impide la propia y genuina...

  3. A la Carte Entres and Sandwiches Chicken Dijon 55

    E-print Network

    Chocolate Fondant Cake 77 Cheesecake Combo 77 Cupcakes 22 Decorated Cakes Full Sheet Cake 55 1/2 Sheet Cake 34 1/4 Sheet Cake 22 Beverages Soft Drinks (six pack) 6.50 Coke Sprite Diet Coke Dasani Water Juices

  4. Armando Discépolo: Entre el grotesco italiano y el grotesco criollo

    E-print Network

    Pellettieri, Osvaldo

    1988-10-01

    divierte en desenmascararlas; no se indigna: ¡es así!" Ensayos (Ma drid: Guadarrama, 1968) 190-1. 14. Marcos Victoria afirma que lo sentimental "no aspira sino a conmovernos, a exitar nuestra compasión, o nuestra piedad, nos destila una fugaz ironía...

  5. Primero Segundo Tercero Cuarto Diagrama de Dependencias Entre Asignaturas

    E-print Network

    Shafti, Leila

    Arquitectura de Ordenadores II (OP) IS2 = Ingeniería del Software II SI2 = Sistemas Informáticos II GRAF Tecnología de Computadores I Tercero: ARQ = Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Computadores IA = Inteligencia III (OP) TAA1 = Temas Avanzados en Arquitectura de Ordenadores I (OP) CC2 = Computación Científica II

  6. GPS, punto de contacto entre la Astronomía y otras disciplinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, R.

    En los primeros años de la pasada década, un grupo de Astrónomos de La Plata iniciaron trabajos de investigación en Geodesia Satelital. En esta presentación se propone repasar sus principales logros y situarlos en el contexto del desarrollo de la disciplina a nivel mundial. Por entonces las aplicaciones prácticas de la disciplina eran indirectas y solo evidentes para los especialistas. Los errores del Posicionamiento Satelital eran de varios metros y en posicionamiento relativo, del orden de medio metro. Estos resultados se lograban al cabo de varios días de medición continuada. En los años siguientes, el sistema GPS alcanzó su nivel operacional y produjo una revolución tanto en lo relacionado con los tiempos de medición como con las precisiones. El grupo de La Plata se desarrolló simultáneamente con GPS, lo que posibilitó su participación actual en diversos temas vigentes: aplicaciones de alta precisión para la materialización de sistemas terrestres de referencia, monitoreo de movimientos de la corteza, contribución con servicios internacionales para la determinación de movimientos tectónicos globales y regionales, monitoreo de la ionósfera a partir de la propagación de las señales, determinación de la ondulación del geoide a escala local, etc. También se generaron muchas aplicaciones prácticas algunas en tiempo real: navegación, apoyo a imágenes aéreas o satelitales, aplicaciones a la agricultura, catastro y ordenamiento territorial, apoyo a relevamientos geofísicos, etc.

  7. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  8. ESEARCH ENTRE Canadian Medical Hall of Fame (CMHF) Youth Symposium

    E-print Network

    Manitoba, University of

    ! The Spinal Cord Workshop Basic research has provided promising new avenues for repair of spinal cord injury studies (Ms. Ria Creswell, Undergrad, U. Wales; Lab of Dr. Larry Jordan) NRC IBD (Institute showing some of her work. Dr. Larry M. Jordan, Director of SCRC, invites you to learn more about SCRC

  9. O TDAH: entre as funções, disfunções e otimização da atenção

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Vieira Caliman

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of the diagnostic category of Attentio n Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its controversies is investigated. Since the 1980s, the ADHD diagnosis has been interpreted as a neuropsychiatric dysfunction that appears in childhood and persists into adultho od. ADHD diagnosis is described by international medical authorities as a public health issue. Although ADHD medical and biological legitimacy has

  10. Article original Les relations entre le rythme d'excrtion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    rythme de récolte de ces miellats par l'abeille domestique Apis mellifica L A Bloc H Montagner Université'abeille domestique. Cinara / puceron / miellat / rythme d'excrétion / rythme de récolte / Apis mellifica INTRODUCTION'abord, d'observations prélimi- naires sur le déroulement d'une miellée de sapin (Abies alba Mill) et sur le

  11. Propagation d'vnements entre passerelles OSGi Didier Donsez

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nouvelles applications flexibles orientées message dont la liste, non exhaustive, est : · Médiateurs M2M [1][2][7][16] (RFID, Capteurs) dont les événements RFID sont collectés, agrégés, corrélés depuis les capteurs

  12. El cáncer entre las minorías con VIH y sida

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer and HIV/AIDS has always been “a tale of two diseases,” according to researchers at the NCI. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system, leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. This Spanish-language Lifelines articles explains how HIV/AIDS affects cancer risk.

  13. AS INTERFACES ENTRE O MEIO AMBIENTE E O COMÉRCIO INTERNACIONAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janis Elisa Ruppenthal; Nilton José Zanini Junior; Alessandro de Franceschi

    The globalization and the commercial liberalism impose reflection and actions of companies and nations about the possible effects of international trading in the environment degradation, as well as about the manger on which the adoption of national environment policies interferes in the equity of international commercial relations. The subjects related to international trading and to the direct foreign investment dominated

  14. HI en la dirección de la denominada ``Ventana de Puppis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.; Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.

    Analizando los datos combinados de los relevamientos de HI de Hartmann & Burton (1997) y Arnal et.al (2000), hemos detectado la presencia de una estructura en forma de ``shell" en la denominada ``ventana de Puppis". Esta estructura, cuyo centro se encuentra en la dirección (l = 245 deg, b = -5 deg) tiene un diámetro angular de ˜ 18 deg y es detectada en el rango de velocidades (LSR) entre -9 y +6 km/seg. El análisis de los datos sugiere que esta estructura puede haberse originado en una perturbación en el denominado ``Feature A" de Lindblad (1973), a una distancia de 150-200 pc del Sol. Se determinaron parámetros tales como Masa y Energía Cinética del Shell y se analiza un posible origen del mismo.

  15. Characterization of a Strong, Constitutive Mung Bean ( Vigna radiata L.) Promoter with a Complex Mode of Regulation in planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher I. Cazzonelli; Emily J. McCallum; Rebecca Lee; José Ramón Botella

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization in tobacco and Arabidopsis of a Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) promoter that controls the expression of VR-ACS1, an auxin-inducible ACC synthase gene. The VR-ACS1 promoter exhibits a very unusual behavior when studied in plants different from its original host, mung bean. GUS and luciferase in situ assays of transgenic plants containing VR-ACS1 promoter

  16. In planta AKT2 subunits constitute a pH and Ca 2+ -sensitive inward rectifying K + channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Latz; Natalya Ivashikina; Susanne Fischer; Peter Ache; Toshio Sano; Dirk Becker; Rosalia Deeken; Rainer Hedrich

    2007-01-01

    Heterologous expression of plant genes in yeast and animal cells represents a common approach to study plant ion channels.\\u000a When expressed in Xenopus oocytes and COS cells the Arabidopsis Shaker-like K+ channel, AKT2 forms a weakly voltage-dependent channel, blocked by Ca2+ and protons. Channels with these characteristics, however, were not found in AKT2-expressing Arabidopsis cell types. To understand this phenomenon,

  17. A report on a comprehensive series of experiments, both in vitro and in planta, to develop treatments for Phytophthora

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    in the U.S. since Dutch Elm Disease. Although it was first observed around the San Francisco Bay Area the cambium of main stems, while on a wide range of other hosts it simply causes leaf spots , leaf blight

  18. Exploiting plant virus-derived components to achieve in planta expression and for templates for synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Keith; Lomonossoff, George P

    2013-10-01

    This review discusses the varying roles that have been played by many plant-viral regulatory sequences and proteins in the creation of plant-based expression systems and virus particles for use in nanotechnology. Essentially, there are two ways of expressing an exogenous protein: the creation of transgenic plants possessing a stably integrated gene construction, or the transient expression of the desired gene following the infiltration of the gene construct. Both depend on disarmed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to deliver the created gene construction into cell nuclei, usually through the deployment of virus-derived components. The importance of efficient mRNA translation in the latter process is highlighted. Plant viruses replicate to sustain an infection to promote their survival. The major product of this, the virus particle, is finding increasing roles in the emerging field of bionanotechnology. One of the major products of plant-viral expression is the virus-like particle (VLP). These are increasingly playing a role in vaccine development. Similarly, many VLPs are suitable for the investigation of the many facets of the emerging field of synthetic biology, which encompasses the design and construction of new biological functions and systems not found in nature. Genetic and chemical modifications to plant-generated VLPs serve as ideal starter templates for many downstream synthetic biology applications. PMID:23452220

  19. In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando A. M.; Liu C.; Pan, Z.; Polashock, J. J.; Dayan, F. E., Mizuno, C. S.; Snook, M. E.; Baerson, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites.

  20. ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR EN PLANTAS JÓVENES DE NÍSPERO (Manilkara achras (Miller) Fosberg) SOMETIDAS A DOS AMBIENTES DE LUZ1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norkys Meza

    Leaf area determination on sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Miller) Fosberg) young seedlings at two light environments Leaf area was determined for two groups of 15 young seedlings of sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Miller) Fosberg). The first group was located under a lath-house and the second one under a rain-shelter with transparent roof. The length width and leaf area were measured in each

  1. Planta (1995)196:683-690 P l a n t a (62)Springer-Verlag1995

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    by externally supplied nitrate was moni- tored in roots of intact Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. seedlings over a 5 - Nitrate (induction of uptake) - Nitrate reductase - Nitrogen-13 - Picea Abbreviations and symbol: [NO3 ]cy

  2. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant--a case study.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Intini, Gianluca; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Stellacci, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health risk values for air inhalation, dermal contact, soil and food ingestion have been calculated based on a combination of these concentrations and a matrix of environmental exposure factors. Exposure of the surrounding population has been addressed for different release scenarios based on four pollutants, four exposure pathways and two receptor groups (children and adults). Spatial risk distribution and cancer excess cases projected from plant emissions have been compared with background mortality records. Estimated results based on the MSWI emissions show: (1) individual risks well below maximum acceptable levels, (2) very small incremental cancer risk compared with background level. PMID:17611096

  3. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy Mark

    2013-01-01

    Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable. PMID:24723777

  4. A RAPID INFECTION ASSAY FOR ARMILLARIA AND REAL-TIME PCR QUANTITATION OF THE FUNGAL BIOMASS IN PLANTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slow and unreliable infection in the greenhouse has been a barrier to research on Armillaria root disease. The existing infection assay takes 7-18 months for detectable infection, during which time the inoculum often dies, resulting in unequal challenge among plants. As symptom expression and mort...

  5. Rendimento de grãos de aveia branca (Avena sativa l.) em densidades de plantas e doses de nitrogênio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gessi Ceccon; Hélio Grassi Filho; Sílvio José Bicudo

    2004-01-01

    This work had the aim to evaluate white oat grain yield as influenced by different plant densities and nitrogen levels. The experiment was carried out in the Lageado experimental farm at UNESP in the county of Botucatu in São Paulo state, Brazil. White oat was sown directly over corn residues in a Rhodic kanhapludalf soil. The experimental design was a

  6. VARIACIÓN EN EL ÍNDICE Y DENSIDAD ESTOMÁTICA EN PLANTAS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS SALINOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A. Salas; María E. Sanabria; Reinaldo Pire

    2001-01-01

    Modification of stomatal index and density in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) submitted to saline treatments Field grown tomato plants cv. Missouri were irrigated with water containing four different levels of NaCl (EC of approximately 0.5, 2.3, 3.1 and 5.0 dS\\/m). At harvest, stomatal index (SI) and stomatal density (SD) were determined on the middle portions of randomly selected leaflets.

  7. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000??g/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  8. An in planta-expressed polyketide synthase produces (R)-mellein in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Krill, Christian; Barrow, Russell A; Chen, Shasha; Trengove, Robert; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Parastagonospora nodorum is a pathogen of wheat that affects yields globally. Previous transcriptional analysis identified a partially reducing polyketide synthase (PR-PKS) gene, SNOG_00477 (SN477), in P. nodorum that is highly upregulated during infection of wheat leaves. Disruption of the corresponding SN477 gene resulted in the loss of production of two compounds, which we identified as (R)-mellein and (R)-O-methylmellein. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast heterologous expression system, we successfully demonstrated that SN477 is the only enzyme required for the production of (R)-mellein. This is the first identification of a fungal PKS that is responsible for the synthesis of (R)-mellein. The P. nodorum ?SN477 mutant did not show any significant difference from the wild-type strain in its virulence against wheat. However, (R)-mellein at 200 ?g/ml inhibited the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) seeds. Comparative sequence analysis identified the presence of mellein synthase (MLNS) homologues in several Dothideomycetes and two sodariomycete genera. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the MLNSs in fungi and bacteria evolved convergently from fungal and bacterial 6-methylsalicylic acid synthases. PMID:25326302

  9. In planta expression of a protein encoded by the extrachromosomal DNA of a phytoplasma and related to geminivirus replication proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisashi Nishigawa; Shin-ichi Miyata; Kenro Oshima; Toshimi Sawayanagi; Akihiro Komoto; Tsutomu Kuboyama; Izumi Matsuda; Tsuneo Tsuchizaki; Shigetou Namba

    A new extrachromosomal DNA, EcOYW1, was cloned from the onion yellows phytoplasma (OY-W). Southern blot and PCR analysis showed that EcOYW1 is not present in the OY-M, a mild symptom line derived from OY-W. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of EcOYW1; it is a circular dsDNA of 7<0 kbp in length, which contains seven ORFs. ORF1 encoded a homologue

  10. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  11. SÍNTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES ZEOLÍTICOS A PARTIR DE EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DEL TALLO DE LA PLANTA EQUISETUM GIGANTEUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. López; S. Márquez; O. González; A. Mora; J. G. Lanza

    Zeolite-type microporous materials have been synthesized using structure directing agents (SDA) present in the ethanolic extracts of the stem as well as the stem itself of the plant Equisetum giganteum. Materials crystallized in the interstices of the stem of the plant were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Si\\/Al ratio of the synthesized solids was determined

  12. Production and characterization of in planta transiently produced polygalacturanase from Aspergillus niger and its fusions with hydrophobin or ELP tags

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pectinases play an important role in plant cell wall deconstruction and have potential in diverse industries such as food, wine, animal feed, textile, paper, fuel, and others. The demand for such enzymes is increasing exponentially, as are the efforts to improve their production and to implement their use in several industrial processes. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of producing polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger in plants and to investigate the effects of subcellular compartmentalization and protein fusions on its accumulation and activity. Results Polygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger (AnPGI) was transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana by targeting it to five different cellular compartments: apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuole, chloroplast and cytosol. Accumulation levels of 2.5%, 3.0%, and 1.9% of total soluble protein (TSP) were observed in the apoplast, ER, and vacuole, respectively, and specific activity was significantly higher in vacuole-targeted AnPGI compared to the same enzyme targeted to the ER or apoplast. No accumulation was found for AnPGI when targeted to the chloroplast or cytosol. Analysis of AnPGI fused with elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) revealed a significant increase in the protein accumulation level, especially when targeted to the vacuole where the protein doubles its accumulation to 3.6% of TSP, while the hydrophobin (HFBI) fusion impaired AnPGI accumulation and both tags impaired activity, albeit to different extents. The recombinant protein showed activity against polygalacturonic acid with optimum conditions at pH 5.0 and temperature from 30 to 50°C, depending on its fusion. In vivo analysis of reducing sugar content revealed a higher release of reducing sugars in plant tissue expressing recombinant AnPGI compared to wild type N. benthamiana leaves. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes has an impact on both the target protein accumulation and its activity, especially in the case of proteins that undergo post-translational modifications, and should be taken into consideration when protein production strategies are designed. Using plants to produce heterologous enzymes for the degradation of a key component of the plant cell wall could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment for the production of cellulosic biofuels. PMID:24970673

  13. Cdigos UNESCO: 241712 241714 2407 Frecuencia del curso: Anual BIOLOGA DE LA REPRODUCCIN EN PLANTAS SUPERIORES. IMPLICACIONES AGRONMICAS Y

    E-print Network

    meristemo: genes homeóticos. Mutantes de la inducción floral. Determinación del sexo. Flores hermafroditas, monoicas y dioicas. Mecanismos para evitar la endogamia. Mecanismos genéticos de determinación del sexo. II

  14. Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiarido (Argentina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUSTAVO F. SCARPA

    Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value

  15. Plantas con Flores: Claves para la Evolución de la Tierra y Para el Bienestar Humano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Soltis (University of Florida, Gainesville; )

    2006-03-01

    The issue-focused interview discusses how angiosperms, or flowering plants, are important because they hold clues to the evolutionary history of our planet, provide sources of food, medicine, and shelter to humans, and serve as food and habitat for many other organisms.

  16. In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stilbenoid phytoalexins such as resveratrol, play an important defense role in several plant species against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea. In addition to their antimicrobial properties, resveratrol and related stilbenes have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals, due to their...

  17. Development of a Fusarium graminearum Affymetrix Genechip for Profiling Fungal Gene Expression in Vitro and in Planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi have become available, providing the opportunity for large-scale functional analysis including genome wide expression analysis. We report the design and validation of the first Affymetrix GeneChip microarray based on the entire genome of a f...

  18. PATHOGENICITY AND IN PLANTA MYCOTOXIN ACCUMULATION AMONG MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SPECIES COMPLEX ON WHEAT AND RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, is a destructive disease of small grains caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum (Fg) species complex, comprised of at least nine distinct, cryptic species. Members of this complex are known to produce mycotoxins including the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol ...

  19. The DNA Damage Response Signaling Cascade Regulates Proliferation of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydis in Planta[W

    PubMed Central

    de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Holloman, William K.; Pérez-Martín, José

    2011-01-01

    In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the dikaryotic state dominates the period of growth occurring during the infectious phase. Dikaryons are cells in which two nuclei, one from each parent cell, share a single cytoplasm for a period of time without undergoing nuclear fusion. In fungal cells, maintenance of the dikaryotic state requires an intricate cell division process that often involves the formation of a structure known as the clamp connection as well as the sorting of one of the nuclei to this structure to ensure that each daughter dikaryon inherits a balance of each parental genome. Here, we describe an atypical role of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Atr1 during pathogenic growth of U. maydis. We found that Chk1 and Atr1 collaborate to control cell cycle arrest during the induction of the virulence program in U. maydis and that Chk1 and Atr1 work together to control the dikaryon formation. These findings uncover a link between a widely conserved signaling cascade and the virulence program in a phytopathogen. We propose a model in which adjustment of the cell cycle by the Atr1-Chk1 axis controls fidelity in dikaryon formation. Therefore, Chk1 and Atr1 emerge as critical cell type regulators in addition to their roles in the DNA damage response. PMID:21478441

  20. Infección\\/colonización nosocomial de las vías respiratorias por Acinetobacter baumannii en una planta de Medicina Interna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Salas Coronas; T. Cabezas Fernández; R. Álvarez-Ossorio García de Soria; M. C. Rogado González; M. Delgado Fernández; F. Díez García

    2002-01-01

    Background: To present the epidemiology of the outbreak and the description of patients with infection or colonization of the respiratory tract caused by A. baumannii in an Internal Medicine ward. Methods: 20 consecutively patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine ward were studied during 18 months with isolation of multire- sistant A. baumanni in respiratory tract specimens with or without clini-

  1. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable. PMID:24723777

  2. A straightforward and reliable method for bacterial in planta transcriptomics: application to the Dickeya dadantii/Arabidopsis thaliana pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Emilie; Alunni, Benoît; Malfatti, Pierrette; Solier, Lucie; Pédron, Jacques; Kraepiel, Yvan; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bacterial pathogens is a powerful approach to identify and study the expression patterns of genes during host infection. However, analysis of the early stages of bacterial virulence at the genome scale is lacking with respect to understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and diseases, especially during foliar infection. This is mainly due to both the low ratio of bacterial cells to plant material at the beginning of infection, and the high contamination by chloroplastic material. Here we describe a reliable and straightforward method for bacterial cell purification from infected leaf tissues, effective even if only a small amount of bacteria is present relative to plant material. The efficiency of this method for transcriptomic analysis was validated by analysing the expression profiles of the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Dickeya dadantii, a soft rot disease-causing agent, during the first hours of infection of the model host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcriptome profiles of epiphytic bacteria and bacteria colonizing host tissues were compared, allowing identification of approximately 100 differentially expressed genes. Requiring no specific equipment, cost-friendly and easily transferable to other pathosystems, this method should be of great interest for many other plant-bacteria interaction studies. PMID:25740271

  3. PLANTAS CULTIVADAS Y SILVESTRES HOSPEDERAS DE Thrips tabaci Y Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) EN QUÍBOR, ESTADO LARA, VENEZUELA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Salas

    2003-01-01

    Cultivated and wild plants hosting Thrips tabaci and Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) in Quíbor valley, Lara State, Venezuela The presence of the bean yellow trips Thrips palmi Karny, and the onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different cultivated and wild plants in rainy and dry seasons was recorded in several places of Quíbor valley, Lara State, Venezuela. Adults of

  4. Expression of Pisum sativum SAD polypeptides in production hosts and in planta: tetrameric organization of the protein.

    PubMed

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Brosché, Mikael; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Strid, Hilja; Ohrfelt, Annika; Nilsson, Fredrik; Strid, Ake

    2009-01-01

    In Pisum sativum, the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) gene family consists of at least three members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). Expression of two of these genes (SAD-A and -C) in Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris resulted in full-length soluble proteins. Purified SAD-A was used as antigen for antibody production in rabbits. With these antibodies the recombinant SAD-C protein (which was most highly expressed of the two isoforms) was shown to be a tetramer consisting of a dimer of dimers. The SAD genes are transiently expressed in plants by short exposures to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), as judged by northern blotting. In turn, mRNA accumulation leads to formation of SAD protein in leaf and stem tissue upon prolonged UV-B irradiation. PMID:18814850

  5. Allelic differences in Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD mutants correlate with their encoded proteins’ transport activities in planta

    PubMed Central

    Salehin, Mohammad; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Bagchi, Rammyani; Sherrier, D. Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD gene, required for symbiotic nitrogen fixing nodule and root architecture development, encodes a member of the NRT1(PTR) family that demonstrates high-affinity nitrate transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Of three Mtnip/latd mutant proteins, one retains high-affinity nitrate transport in oocytes, while the other two are nitrate-transport defective. To further examine the mutant proteins’ transport properties, the missense Mtnip/latd alleles were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana chl1-5, resistant to the herbicide chlorate because of a deletion spanning the nitrate transporter AtNRT1.1(CHL1) gene. Mtnip-3 expression restored chlorate sensitivity in the Atchl1-5 mutant, similar to wild type MtNIP/LATD, while Mtnip-1 expression did not. The high-affinity nitrate transporter AtNRT2.1 gene was expressed in Mtnip-1 mutant roots; it did not complement, which could be caused by several factors. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that MtNIP/LATD may have another biochemical activity. PMID:23154505

  6. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Samuels; Adnan Ismaiel; Ade Rosmana; Muhammad Junaid; David Guest; Peter Mcmahon; Philip Keane; Agus Purwantara; Smilja Lambert; Marianela Rodriguez-Carres; Marc A. Cubeta

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex,

  7. DESARROLLO A DISTANCIA DE LA MAESTRÍA EN DOCENCIA PARA LA EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR (MADEMS) DE LA UNIVESIDAD NACIONAL AUTÓNOMA DE MÉXICO (UNAM) (DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR A MASTERS DEGREE ON TEACHERS EDUCATION AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL ORGANIZED BY UNAM (NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MEXICO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Javier Sierra Vázquez; Jorge Barojas Weber; Ofelia Contreras Gutiérrez

    The general characteristics of the Master's degree program MADEMS and the strategic actions required to organize the distance education program are described. The possibilities for generalization and collaboration with high schools and colleges in Mexico and in other countries are examined. Furthermore, the implications of this program in the context of educational spaces in which our institution is involved are

  8. Entre el juego y violencia Un estudio de caso sobre la agresin entre los jvenes de las "barras bravas" de Bogot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    etnográfico que desarrollé con los jóvenes hinchas de los equipos de futbol de Bogotá (Colombia) durante los conflicto. Palabras clave: Identidad juvenil, masculinidad, violencia, barras bravas, futbol. 1 Esta futbol, quienes pasan de ser simples asistentes a ser organizaciones de jóvenes reconocidas por la

  9. Les relations entre les mcanismes de gouvernement et l'indice de divulgation volontaire d'informations LES RELATIONS ENTRE LES MECANISMES DE GOUVERNEMENT ET

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with « directorships » - audit quality. The empirical study is conducted on two Tunisians firms. The results emphasises conseil, la participation des administrateurs à d'autres conseils d'administration et la qualité d'audit - role duality ­ board participation in the capital of the firm - presence of directors

  10. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  11. UNIVERSIDAD SIMN BOLVAR CONSEJO ACADMICO

    E-print Network

    Vásquez, Carlos

    Universidad Central de Venezuela y los de la Universidad del Zulia. Generaciones posteriores comprenden laUNIVERSIDAD SIMÓN BOLÍVAR CONSEJO ACADÉMICO Políticas de Educación a Distancia en la Universidad EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD SIMÓN BOLÍVAR (Aprobado en sesión del Consejo Académico 2009-17 del

  12. The Auk 119(1):149165, 2002 ANNUAL SURVIVAL RATES OF WINTERING SPARROWS: ASSESSING

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Spar- row [Melospiza melodia gouldii]), one short-distance migrant (``Puget Sound'' White residente (Melospiza melodia), una especie migratoria de corta distancia (Zonotrichia leu- cophrys de Puget Sound), dos especies migratorias de distancia moderada (Melospiza lincolnii y Passerella iliaca) y dos

  13. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria (Costa Rica); Eberhard, W. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Costa Rica); Vilardi, J. [Dpto. de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cayol, J.-P. [Technical Cooperation Division, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100 A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Shelly, T. [A. C. , D. , E. USDA/APHIS/CPHST, 41-650 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

  14. La formation a Bukavu au Zaire: une course entre l'education et la catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balegamire, Bazilashe Juvénal

    1996-11-01

    A description of the socio-educational situation in Bukavu since the colonial era clearly shows why the population has sought means of overcoming the gradual abandonment by the Zairean State of its responsibilities, which has been aggravated by the large-scale influx into Kivu, in Eastern Zaire, of refugees from Rwanda and Burundi and of Zaireans who has been living in those countries for some years. These means are principally trade occupations, small-time selling, short-term vocational training and higher and university education at private institutions which are financed locally and/or by funds from the North. A new approach has been deveoped, that of training the trainers working for non-governmental development organisations. Trainers of trainers have been recruited locally among the many graduates of the Higher Institutes of Education and Rural Development, which have been affected by unemployment and the miserable salaries which the State offers to its employees. The trainers of trainers could be trained by the Higher Institute of Rural Development, making the largest possible use of local skills. However, such training should be one of a set of reforms of the Zairean education system. All of this only makes sense if Zaire and its neighbours urgently defuse present socio-political tensions so that all of our populations can peacefully and resolutely engage in the healthy transformation of our societies.

  15. La Communicacion entre los Centros de Investigacion en Educacion (Communication among Educational Research Centers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1972-01-01

    In Latin America there is a lack of communication concerning educational research. This lack has been underlined in many regional meetings, but no action has been taken. Possible steps that would lead to improvement include circulation of research summaries, both for completed and current works, efforts by research centers to organize meetings,…

  16. Jacques de Saint-Luc Entre la France et le Saint-Empire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tafel in den Oraniensaal gedeckt, und bei derselben nur mit einer stillen Musik aufgewartet : nehmlich'auteur du Neues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler [...] extrapole (Saint-Luc est musicien

  17. Les ERP entre mythe et ralits : les stratgies d'intgration fonctionnelle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'enquête Changements Organisationnels et Informatisation (COI) de 2006, les auteurs dressent un bilan statistique de la- organisationnels. Mots-clefs : ERP, intégration, changement organisationnel, stratégies des firmes, statistiques statistique disponible. L'enquête Changements Organisationnels et Informatisation (COI- TIC) de 2006 a permis

  18. ANÁLISIS DEL DISCURSO DE UN ENTRENADOR DE FÚTBOL. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE DOS SITUACIONES DIFERENTES DE COMPETICIÓN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Viciana

    We show the analysis of the speech of a soccer trainer during 2 different situations in competition: On one hand, we study the instructions offered before a situation of favorable competition (opposing classified in an inferior position), and on the other hand, a situation of adverse competition (adversary classified in a superior position). We expose categories of analyses used in

  19. Relation entre l'activit fixatrice d'azote non symbiotique et quelques proprits physico-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - chimiques du sol Manuel TENA Miguel MAGALLANES Càtedra de Bioquimica y Quimica Agricola, Escuela Técnica dans le domaine de la bio- chimie du sol. Cependant, on a mis en évidence que, dans certains cas, la

  20. ABSORPTION OPTIQUE DU TELLURURE ET DU SELENIURE DE MERCURE ENTRE 3 ET 15 MICRONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gap : HgSe, 0.10 eV ; HgTe, 0.01 eV. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM TOME 23, F�VRIER 1962, 1 électrons libres ; HgTe, type p : de 8,6 à 9,3.1018 cm-3 trous libres. Les échantillons ont été polis

  1. PROGRAMA COMPARTE Este programa xurde do convenio de colaboracin entre o Concello de Ferrol e a

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    ningún tipo de adición. Ter ausencia de grave trastorno de conducta e ter un grao de autonomía conducta e ter un grao de autonomía suficiente para as actividades diarias. o contar coa sensibilidade e

  2. El origen colonial de las diferencias del desarrollo entre países: el neoinstitucionalismo e Hispanoamérica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro Albán Moreno

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the hypothesis and results of Acemoglu and his colleagues, regarding the colonial origin of development, and reviews the main historical facts of that period to show the scope and limitations of his theory regarding Spanish-America. When the correlation European settlements-initial institutions-present institutions-present performance is framed in the political, economic and cultural facts of the colonial

  3. Constructions d'un stigmate sanitaire : la drpanocytose, entre situations locales et globales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that affect social relationships (Goffman, 1963). Sickle-cell anemia, a serious genetic disease originally disease, sickle cell disease and trait, social history of health, globalization, stigmata, twentieth

  4. 1/4 CBEB 2008 COMPARAES ENTRE DOIS MTODOS DE OBTENO DE CURVA

    E-print Network

    Alencar, Adriano Mesquita

    respiratória, em avaliações clínicas à beira do leito de pacientes ou em experimentos com animais, é através da outros. As relações quasi-estáticas de pressão e volume vem sendo estudadas de diversas maneiras no campo

  5. Hibridacin entre GRASP y Path relinking para abordar problemas de registrado de imgenes mdicas 3D

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    in- vestigación muy activa dentro del campo de la visión por ordenador. La aproximación del enfoque relinking evolutivo. Los experimentos lle- vados a cabo en este trabajo muestran el buen rendimiento de este

  6. INTERRELATIONS ENTRE DES COMMUNAUTÉS MIXTES DE BACTÉRIES ANAÉROBIES ISOLÉES DE SÉDIMENTS MARINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. MARTY

    The mineralization of cellulose was examined in mono and cocultures of marine anaerobic bacteria (cellulolytic bacteria, fermentative non-cellulolytic bacteria and methane-producing bacteria).Thes e studies displayed interactions between these groups of microorganisms : inhibition relationships (inhibition of metha- nogens during active growth of fermentative bacteria) and syntrophic relationships (growth of fermentative non-cellulolytic bacteria depended on metabolites produced by cellulolytic bacteria ;

  7. Conocimiento del diálogo de interacción entre el microbio y el hospedador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessio Fasano

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl tubo digestivo de los mamíferos es mucho más complejo de lo que se había supuesto. Una capa única de células epiteliales cubre todo el tubo digestivo, proporcionando de este modo la máxima superficie interfacial con el entorno. El epitelio intestinal es un sensor del entorno luminal, que no sólo controla las funciones digestivas, absortivas y secretoras, sino que también

  8. BEMS-Assisted Seasonal Functional Performance Testing in the Initial Commissioning of Kista Entre and Katsan

    E-print Network

    Isakson, P.; Wetterstrom, P.; Carling, P.

    2004-01-01

    commissioning is crucial to achieve the intended functional performance. The conditions vary significantly over the year and thus it is important to ascertain that the system performs well during all seasons. Modern building energy management systems, BEMS...

  9. Entre Nous: A Tutorial Approach to the Teaching of Business French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaisson, Arthur P.

    Suffolk University (Massachusetts) has developed a degree program in international marketing in French and Spanish that links curricula in the economics department and the department of humanities and modern languages. Language tutorials are mandatory for students in the international economics major. The tutorials are taught by native French- and…

  10. ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO CORRELACIONAL ENTRE IRA Y PERSONALIDAD A LA LUZ DE LA TEORÍA DE HANS EYSENCK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemencia Montaña de Barragán; María Alexandra Acosta; Ruby Maritza Gerena

    2002-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical revision regarding the theme of anger , its evaluation and intervention, directly related to aggression and important theories of the personality, focusing -primarily- in Eysenck's theory. Two instruments were used on 200 children of both sexes, within the ages of 9 to 11 years old in three schools in Santafé de Bogotá; one of these

  11. La crise actuelle rvle des tensions fondamentales entre capitalisme et dmocratie. L'orthodoxie occidentale, centre

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    'appuyant sur l'oeuvre singulière de Karl Polanyi (1886- 1964) qui a décelé la dérive totalitaire de la société professeur du Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (Cnam), coordinateur européen du Karl Polanyi Socioéconomie et démocratie L'actualité de Karl Polanyi sous la direction de Vicki Birchfield Jérôme Blanc

  12. Les mandres du dveloppement agricole au Lac Alaotra, Madagascar Entre inconstance politique et innovation technique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , spécialisation et diversification des productions rurales ; enfin enclavement et intégration aux marchés. Mots. This conflict of temporalities shaped an agricultural history which built itself more or less between East bank and West bank of the Lake; rice-field, swamp and hill; control of water and management of spaces; agro

  13. Les mandres du dveloppement agricole au Lac Alaotra, Madagascar Entre inconstance politique et innovation technique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    et agriculture-élevage ; polyvalence, spécialisation et diversification des productions rurales shaped an agricultural history which built itself more or less between East bank and West bank and agriculture-breeding; polyvalence, specialization and diversification of rural productions; at last enclosure

  14. Relación entre las propiedades mecánicas de vidriados cerámicos y su resistencia al desgaste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. ESCARDINO; A. MORENO; M. J. IBáñEZ; A. BARBA

    The mechanical properties were determined of different ceramic tile glazes. Methods based on indentation tests used in other industrial sectors such as the metal and technical ceramics branches were adopted to measure microhardness, modulus of elasticity and toughness. The necessary modifications were made in these methods to allow them to be applied to ceramic tile glazes. Wear resistance was determined

  15. U~IIVERSIDADE DA CORUA ACORDO ENTRE O REITOR DA UNIVERSIDADE DA CORUA E A

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    calquera caso o tope de idade os 70 anos. 4. Entrada en vigor Este acord~ será de aplicación a partir do FUNCIONARIO), PARA O ABOAMENTO DUNHA GRATIFICACi�N POR XUBILACI�N AOS 65 ANOS.(Modificada por acordo de 17 de o aos 65 anos de idade. 2.-Ámbito de aplicación O persoal funcionario de administración e servizos

  16. EntrEprEnEurialism isFlOurisHinGat

    E-print Network

    Lipson, Michal

    Breaker Julius Lucks unlocks the secrets of RNA #12;1 | Cornell engineering2 | Summer 2014 A former John. By Chris Dawson 8 COdE brEakEr Julius luCks unlOCks tHE sECrEts OF rna By applying engineering principles companies. By Robert Emro 16 tHE iCE mEn FOllEtt innOvatiOn manuFaCturEs suCCEss Family business shows how U

  17. ENTR 321-001: New Venture Planning CRN 11765, Fall Semester 2013

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    from the entrepreneur's personal resources, family, or friends. A social enterprise may be able to land. (2003). The successful business plan: Secrets and strategies (5th ed.). Palo Alto, CA: The Planning Shop

  18. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and herbal medicines (Interacciones entre fármacos antiepilépticos y medicinas herbales)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilie JOHANNESSEN LANDMARK; Philip N. PATSALOS

    2008-01-01

    As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been

  19. Un modelo de arquitectura para el aprendizaje y compartición de conocimiento entre sistemas inteligentes autónomos distribuidos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Salvador Ierache; Marcelo R. Naiouf; Ramón García-martínez; Armando De Giusti

    2008-01-01

    It is presented a model of architectures for distributed independent intelligent systems with sharing of knowledge. This one is focused on raising a model so that intelligent independent systems interoperate in distributed surroundings focusing their use in problems of scenes of interaction of virtual, hybrid and real nature. The architecture is provided with a preliminary model of learning and a

  20. N d'ordre : 1151 LES PARASITES DE TRADUCTION : ENTRE ADAPTATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Antoine FRAILE (Examinateur) Professeur, Université d'Angers �ric TARAUD (Examinateur) Expert Directeur de CRILA 5 bis, boulevard Lavoisier 49045 Angers Cedex 01 tel-00972046,version1-3Apr2014 #12;1 tel-00972046

  1. La Controverse Religieuse entre Christophe de Beaumont et Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert K. Amoah

    1969-01-01

    The candidate has examined the religious controversy between Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Archbishop of Paris, Christophe de Beaumont. In his study he has attempted to determine why Rousseau wrote Emile, why the Archbishop criticized and condemned it; and to give his personal appraisal of the controversy.

  2. Porc et sanglier en Gaule septentrionale, entre archozoologie et imaginaire collectif

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -2217MUNIBE (Antropologia-Arkeologia) Homenaje al Prof. Jesús Altuna SAN SEBASTIAN 2005 nº 57 #12;6 PATRICE MÉNIEL Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57, 2005 · Homenaje al Prof. Jesús Altuna S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E

  3. Relations entre la phosphorylation de molcules amines et leur activit sur l'absorption du calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    calcium Sylviane TARDIVEL A. TOURE, Alice DIGAUD, P. FOURNIER EPHE, Physiologie-Métaholisme minéral des the phosphorylation of aminated molecules and their action on calcium absorption. Various amino acids and guanidines in ileal ligated loops, increased intestinal calcium absorption in the rat. L-arginine was effective per os

  4. Association entre anxiété et hyperlaxité articulaire : une revue de la littérature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Baeza Velasco; A. Bulbena Vilarrasa

    Joint hypermobility is an exaggerate increase of the joint's mobility due to an alteration in the collagen fibres. For decades it has been observed that people with this condition very often display symptoms of anxiety. Empirical studies corroborate these clinical observations and associate the joint hypermobility principally with the endogenous anxiety (anxiety with a more demonstrable biologic base), which suggest

  5. Resup Nicole Escourrou -1 -Juin 2008 Le stage : lien privilgi entre formation et emploi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    employment and reducing areas of uncertainty. They are used to verify the choice of profession and occupation permettent de vérifier le choix du métier et de la profession. Des réorientations ont été ainsi rendues

  6. Legume Lectins Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Infection by Interfering with the Entr

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Jun; Koyama, Aoi; Takano, Sayaka; Ura, Yukari; Tanemura, Miho; Kihira, Sahoko; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Kawano, Mitsuo; Tsurudome, Masato; O’Brien, Myles; Komada, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Three lectins with different sugar binding specificities were investigated for anti-viral activity against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). The lectins, concanavalin A (Con A), lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption induced by hPIV-2. Virus nucleoprotein (NP) gene synthesis was largely inhibited, but fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene syntheses were not. An indirect immunofluorescence study showed that Con A inhibited virus NP, F and HN protein syntheses, but LCA did not completely inhibit them, and that PNA inhibited only NP protein synthesis. Using a recombinant green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, without matrix protein (rghPIV-2?M), it was found that virus entry into the cells was not completely prevented. The lectins considerably reduced the number of viruses released compared with that of virus infected cells. The lectins bound to cell surface within 10 min, and many aggregates were observed at 30 min. Con A and LCA slightly disrupted actin microfilaments and microtubules, but PNA had almost no effect on them. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of the lectins were caused mainly by the considerable prevention of virus adsorption to the cells by the lectin binding to their receptors. PMID:22852043

  7. Tea for Two: Performing History and Desire in Sabina Berman's Entre Villa y una mujer desnuda

    E-print Network

    Magnarelli, Sharon

    1996-10-01

    performativity. It would appear that Adrián cannot perform because he and Andrea are citing different scripts; they belong in different plays. Or is the problem that they are citing roles that are too similar?39 Her performance as a direct woman in response.... Adrián explains the problem differently, however: "No ... pude, y creo que, por un rato ... no voy a poder... [. ..]... no voy a poder... olvidarla" (93-94). Let us not forget, however, that earlier in the play, Adrián confessed that he could think...

  8. Penas sin importancia y Tío Vania: Diálogo paródico entre Chejov y Gambaro

    E-print Network

    Morell, Hortensia R.

    1997-10-01

    teatralmente con el tropo escénico romano del contaminatio, la contaminación o entrelace de un drama viejo y uno nuevo, tropo que Harold Bloom rescata para explicar el uso expreso de la influencia dentro del teatro contemporáneo. Bloom considera ese... entrelace como defensa de un autor con respecto a sus precursores (o rivales), o como una forma de su gozoso desprecio de las fuerzas literarias del pasado. Distingue la contaminación de la influencia en que aquélla es voluntaria, y la define como medida...

  9. New York: Les ecoles entre SURR et STAR (New York: Schools between SURR and STAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueberschlag, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Three problems of New York City (New York) schools--overpopulation, low academic standards, violence--are examined, and an effort led by parent and teacher organizations to improve conditions is described. Threatened closings (schools under registration review, SURR) and a program of violence reduction (Straight Talk about Risks, STAR) are noted.…

  10. Partage du nickel entre serpentine et brucite au cours de la serpentinisation du péridot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Perruchot

    1973-01-01

    When nickeliferous peridot is submitted to a serpentinisation reaction with formation of brucite, the peridotic nickel is partitioned between the two minerals (serpentine and brucite) with a distribution coefficient K=[(Ni\\/Mg) brucite]\\/[(Ni\\/Mg)] serpentine=1,63 (at 350°C and 1 kbar), in favour of brucite.

  11. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of…

  12. Relations entre la fertilit pollinique et les gnes de rsistance au Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'aspect normal après coloration au carmin acétique) a été étudiée chez des hybrides hétérozygotes pour le gène I annexe, une observation du pollen après coloration permet en cours de sélection de repérer facilement et to the results, and to the incidence of race 1 of Fusarium, the best hybrid cultivars for protected cultivation

  13. Les incompatibilites entre la theorie standard de l'extinction interstellaire et l'observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Zagury

    2002-01-01

    The standard interpretation of the extinction curve does not agree with some observations. The light we receive from a reddened star must be contaminated by starlight scattered at very small angular distances from the star. The true extinction curve is a straight line from the near infrared to the far-UV. If so, all interstellar dust models must be questionned. A

  14. Relations physiologiques entre le magnsum et l'os A. POINTILLART L. GUEGUEN

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and in calcium renewal. Excess magnesium enhances resorption and magnesium deficiency inhibits it. In all species hypomagnesemia. By decreas- ing the effects of PTH or vitamin D on calcium metabolism, Mg deficiency may increase is a surface ion of hydroxyapatite and is thus very labile, especially when the diet is deficient in magnesium

  15. Liens entre croissance et paramtres hydriques chez les nœuds axillaires d'Hevea brasiliensis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stressés. eau / micropropagation / Hevea Summary — Relations between growth and water parameters symptoms of water stress. water / micropropagation / Hevea INTRODUCTION Les conditions de culture in vitro

  16. Informer le patient en psychiatrie : entre pratique clinique et réflexion anthropologique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Olivero; J. Palazzolo

    2008-01-01

    Social isolation has got to be one of the greatest losses in mental illness. For many authors, people with mental disease can have no friends, no spouse, and sometimes no family. Two thirds of patients with schizophrenia return to their parents’ house when discharged from a hospital after the first psychotic fit. Family members generally receive very little education as

  17. CONVENIO MARCO DE COOPERACIN CIENTFICA Y TECNOLGICA ENTRE La UNIVERSlT DE SHERBROOKE, (Quebec, Canad)

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    de los medios financieros disponibles, una colaboración en los ámbitos de interés comunes para los estudiantes, toma medidas razonables para asegurar que éstos disponen de medios financieros para responder

  18. Cap tulo 9 Conexi on entre la termodin amica y la

    E-print Network

    Colet, Pere

    a priori, ya que indica que la densidad m#19;as probable de #22; M 1 =N 1 de bolas en la primera caja es igual a la densidad total, M=N . El valor m#19;as probable para la segunda caja es #22; M 2 = M #22; M 1

  19. Asociación entre el virus XMRV y enfermedades humanas: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El XMRV es un retrovirus del que se informó por primera vez en 2006 como una causa potencial del cáncer de próstata. Está estrechamente relacionado con los virus de leucemia murina, los cuales causan una amplia variedad de cánceres así como enfermedades inmunológicas y neurológicas en ratones.

  20. Ecologie L'cologie est l'tude des interacons entre

    E-print Network

    Chave, Jérôme

    -1875): du monde staque (créé par Dieu) à un monde dynamique Louis Agassiz (1807-1873): mise en évidence des périodes glaciaires => inié une généraon de découvreurs de l'ordre vivant Carl von Linné 1707-1778 Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707

  1. The Old Curiosity Shop: entre transparence et secret. Isabelle Hervouet-Farrar

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    récit de la mort de Nell, Dickens confie à Forster « Dear Mary died yesterday, when I think of this sad : the Reader in The Old Curiosity Shop », The Reader in the Dickens World, London, 1981, rpt. Michael Hollington (ed.), Charles Dickens, Critical Assessments, Volume II, Helm Information, 1995, 382-392, p.384

  2. La fbrica de la inseguridad en Caracas Una leyenda urbana entre necesidad de gestin y

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    metrópoles latino-americanas ****** Julien Rebotier jrebotier@hotmail.com CREDAL ­ IHEAL VESPA ­ INRS, cidade e política: perspectivas comparativas quatro metrópoles latino-americanas, São Paulo : Brazil la UCV (Roberto Briceño León) *Centro por la Paz y los DDHH de la UCV (Ana María San Juan) *ONG Paz

  3. Algumas contribuições das neurociências para o estudo da relação entre o afeto e a cognição

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Cagnin

    The objective of this article is to analyze pertinent contributions of the Neurosciences to the study of the relationship between affect and cognition. Through a selection of a few clinical and experimental studies that investigates the mind-brain relationship, especially those that point out to functional dissociations in patients with cerebral damages, we intend to discuss the brain systems that are

  4. Le cadre normatif de la RSE, entre soft law et hard law1 Cuzacq nicolas,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    pleinement aux obligations juridiques applicables mais aller au-delà et investir davantage dans le capital humain, l'environnement et les relations avec les parties prenantes »2 . Il est important de prendre

  5. Potentiel Entrepreneurial en Algérie : Entre Capital Humain et Informalité, Quelle Croissance ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nacer-eddine Hammouda; Moundir Lassassi

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of trajectories and positions in the field of economic activity and their joints with individual profiles, especially in terms of human capital, often confined to paid employment and the labour market. But some paths can be explored within this framework strict. Among them, those carried out by individuals who have decided to implement a business project are of

  6. Alliance stratgique entre PME et Grande Firme Internationale : Quel rle pour le middle manager ?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    between Small and Medium-sized enterprises and international large-size company: which role for middle manager? Abstract: The internationalization of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises doesn't any more alliances, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME), middle manager, large-size companies (LSC), corporate

  7. LA TRADUCCIÓN EN LAS RELACIONES ENTRE ORIENTE Y OCCIDENTE: EL CASO DE MAHATMA GANDHI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assumpta Camps

    2009-01-01

    Translation is one of the most important channels in the diffusion of an author and his\\/her work in other cultures and literatures. It is essential when considering his\\/her reception, and specially when dealing between very distant cultures like in Eastern-Western relationships. Translation is always relevant in the image of a certain author abroad, since it is never a neutral and

  8. Estudio Comparativo entre los Convertidores Flyback y Flyback Multifase para Corrección Activa del Factor de Potencia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Alejandro Flores Oropeza; Eleazar Padilla Guardado; Alejandro Román Loer; Luis Enrique; Arámbula Miranda

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase flyback converter for the correction active of power factor as a viable alternative to a single conventional flyback converter. Similarly, there are advantages to be gained by using a multiphase converter front of a single converter for the correction of active power factor. This paper, presents the results in simulation as well as the advantages

  9. Relation entre dilution de l'azote et cintique de croissance chez les gramines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    végétative est étudiée chez des individus isolés de Dactylis glomerata L. cultivés en milieu hydroponique et milieu naturel. Mots clés additionnels : Dactylis glomerata L., phase végétative, teneur en azote, modèle in individual plants of Dactylis glomerata L., grown hydroponically in a controlled environment. The experiments

  10. La encrucijada del temor: redefiniendo la relación entre estado y ciudadanía en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucía Dammert

    2010-01-01

    Fear of crime is a little known phenomenon and has been barely explored within the social sciences. However, it has a profound social, cultural and economic impact and may even help to redefine how the rule of law is structured. Chile is a fearful country. Several analyses have shown the diverse ways in which fear is present in Chileans’ daily

  11. L'eficàcia de l'emplaçament de productes entre els infants: una prova experimental

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MÒNIKA JIMÉNEZ; ASSUMPCIÓ HUERTAS; JOSÉ FERNÀNDEZ CAVIA

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a noticeable increase in the use of non-con- ventional TV advertising has taken place. However, hardly any studies have been carried out to understand how these for- mats influence young viewers. This article presents the find- ings from an experimental study on the influence of product placement on children (aged 8, 10 and 12 years). The con-

  12. RELATION ENTRE LES LOIS CARACTRISTIQUES DES GAZ PARFAITS; Par M. GERRIT BAKKER.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    obéissent approximativement aux troislois suivantes : loi de Mariotte, loi de Gay-Lussac, loi de Joule. Je représente la loi de Gay-Lussac, donne : d'où : D'après la relation(1) modifiée, la loi de Gay-Lussac peut s d'un gaz ; on a : ou :o La loi de Mariotte pv = /î (T) donne : ou La loi de Gay-Lussac v ~ To (p

  13. Medication Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes: The ENTRED Study 2007, a French Population-Based Study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Metabolism and Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Minjoz Hospital, University of Franche-Comte´, Besanc¸on, France Abstract August 2006 and July 2007, and who were randomly selected from the database of the two main National: German Malaga, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru Received August 3, 2011; Accepted January 28

  14. ISSN 0103-1538 3948 ESTUDO DE CORRELAES ENTRE DADOS RADIOMTRICOS

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    de vegetação (NDVI, DI e SAVI) gerados a partir desses dados, utilizando dois métodos de correlação correlação significativa encontrada foi para o NDVI através do método Spearman. Palavras-chave: Correlação the correlations between orbit and field data, as well three vegetation indexes (NDVI, DI and SAVI) generated

  15. ENTR 451-1: Health Sciences Entrepreneurship, CRN 13299 CGS 729-01: Biomedical Commercialization

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    This course examines the process of commercializing research results from medical research laboratories. Topics include drug discovery and development, preclinical and clinical trials, market assessment, the course is co-taught by a research scientist from MUSC and a business professor from the College

  16. Model-Based Functional Performance Testing of AHU in Kista Entre

    E-print Network

    Carling, P.; Isakson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Cooling beam system TEA District heating Outdoor air Supply air Return air Exhaust air TRA TSA MFLL THWTRW TOA ULL UH UFC UC Pre-heating coil Cooling / heating coil Cooling coil Fan Heat exchanger Pump Flow meter Temperature sensor Two-way valve Three... 3 presents simulated versus measured values of the exhaust air temperature (TEA), free cooling valve control signal (UFC) and heating valve control signal (UH). A valve control signal of 100% corresponds to a fully open valve. The right diagrams...

  17. Confrontation entre rsultats exprimentaux et numriques pour la simulation de l'interaction outil/abradable

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,version1-10Apr2014 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 135 width of the blade viscoplastic coefficient flow rule Fi contact force for each contact node fi contact force for each abradable element axial stress within a bar element Y yield limit of the bar

  18. Program in innovation & EntrEPrEnEurshiP (PriE)

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    by Stanford Graduate School of Business faculty and consists of balanced classes in core business skills (i.e. marketing, operations, strategy, account- ing, finance, and economics) and functional skills (i.e. product

  19. RELAÇÕES ENTRE TRANSPIRAÇÃO MÁXIMA, EVAPOTRANSPIRAÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIA E ÁREA FOLIAR EM QUATRO VARIEDADES DE MANGUEIRA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREICE XIMENA; SANTOS OLIVEIRA; MAURÍCIO ANTONIO; COELHO FILHO; FRANCISCO ADRIANO DE CARVALHO; EUGÊNIO FERREIRA COELHO; VITAL PEDRO DA SILVA; MANOEL TEIXEIRA DE CASTRO NETO

    A study relating maximum transpiration (L m-2 leaf day-1) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo) for four mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Palmer, Haden and Van Dyke, with 14 m2, 8 m2, 33 m2 and 12 m2 of leaf area, respectively) was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in the conditions of Cruz da Almas-BA. Plant transpiration (L. day-1) was estimated

  20. Le « Harcèlement Entre Pairs » À L'école élémentaire Tchèque: Une Question D'interprétation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout-Diaz, Magdalena

    2008-07-01

    "PEER BULLYING" IN CZECH PRIMARY SCHOOLS: A QUESTION OF INTERPRETATION—This article questions adults' reports of an alleged increase in peer bullying at Czech primary schools. A survey on the school climate revealed that the pupils see it as a generally positive one and consider their relationships to be good. However, compared to France, their behaviour towards the adults is aggressive and rude. This apparent contradiction is linked to a conflict between the educational norms carried over from the old regime (behavioural control and conformism) and the new socio-economic paradigms (critical thinking and free enterprise). Public opinion, the media and a number of scientifically-questionable studies have drawn attention to the phenomenon of peer bullying ( šikana), and applied an imported concept to describe it ( school bullying). This makes it possible to avoid questioning the part played by the adults, the school and the researchers; justify segregating pupils from socially, culturally or economically disadvantaged backgrounds (Roma); and facilitate the country's socio-economic inclusion in the European Union by highlighting educational problems about whose nature there is general agreement.

  1. Épidémiologie de la tuberculose en Bretagne : les cas déclarés entre 2000 et 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gagnière; D. Le Goff-Mevel; M. Marquis; Y. Guillois-Bécel; C. Mari; A. Le Goas; J. Salomon

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied the reported cases of tuberculosis diseases in Brittany between 2000 and 2007 via the mandatory notification scheme. One thousand nine hundred and seventy-five cases were notified during the study period. The incidence in French Brittany (eight cases per 100,000) was the third highest in France. A statistically significant negative trend was observed later, mainly attributable to a

  2. Etude des interactions entre fourrage et aliment concentr chez le mouton

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    de pellicules de soja, de son de blé, de céréales, de pulpe de betteraves et de lupin. Dans le second pulpe, de lupin et de pellicules de soja. Dans le même temps, pour une proportion faible de concentré

  3. Hibridacion entre Filtros de Particulas y Meta-heuristicas para resolver problemas dinamicos

    E-print Network

    Pantrigo Fernández, Juan José

    optimizaci´on en los cuales la descripci´on del problema y/o los datos relevantes cambian en el tiempo. Para de adaptaci´on a cambios. Los m´etodos metaheur´isticos son procedimientos para explorar de forma´es de la hibridaci´on de los m´etodos anteriores. 1. Introducci´on Muchos problemas de optimizaci´on con

  4. LA GUERRE ENTRE LE LOCAL ET LE GLOBAL : SOCIETES, ETATS, SYSTEMES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the nationalist ­ republican ­ movement fighting against the Dutch colonizer. 3. the "global" level of world countries were ready to get rid of the Sukarno government, and therefore the right wing of the Indonesian government, an authoritarian regime placed under the leadership of Pdt. Suharto and backed by the army and

  5. Um Estudo Comparativo entre Tr^es Geradores de Numeros Aleatorios

    E-print Network

    Endler, Markus

    ´isticos como Simu- lated Annealing, Algoritmos Gen´eticos e GRASP, tornando-se, assim, de suma im- port´atica da PUC-Rio. Os geradores de n´umeros aleat´orios s~ao utilizados em diversos algoritmos probabil´iricos utilizados para avaliar a qualidade dos geradores. Quest~oes pr´aticas como velocidade do algoritmo

  6. LA COMPETENCIA DINÁMICA ENTRE PIONEROS Y SEGUIDORES. APLICACIÓN AL SECTOR DE LA TELEFONÍA MÓVIL EN EUROPA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulima Fernandez

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo las diferencias en la conducta competitiva de las empresas pioneras y seguidores afectan a la ventaja del primer entrante. Se plantea un modelo teórico a partir de la literatura sobre la estrategia basada en acciones y se contrasta empíricamente en el sector de la telefonía móvil en Europa en el período 1997-2000.

  7. A INSTITUIO ENTRE A FENOMENOLOGIA E PSICANLISE: AFETO, TEORIA E HISTORICIDADE

    E-print Network

    between phenomenology and psychoanalysis: affect, theory, and historicity) Thamy Ayouch Université Charles-Ponty, the psychoanalysis could give a more appropriate answer to some contemporary challenges in gender questions without

  8. Au-delà des mots : l'alliance nécessaire entre travailleur social et interprète

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghislaine Roy; Anjali Kapoor-Kohli

    Summary We will be dealing with the professional relationship between a social worker and an interpreter and their interactions with people who are emotionally scarred, extremely distressed, and have completely lost their bearings. What are the barriers to overcome in order to reach out to these people and join them in their suffering? How can we create a feeling of

  9. Relation entre insulinmie et adiposit dans deux lignes de poulets rendus maigres ou gras par slection

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the posthatching period. Glucose tolerance in the FL was slightly accelerated from 4-6 weeks ; it then became refeeding following a fast (after a test meal or forced-feeding), plasma glucose levels were similar in both of a metabolic order. In the F3 generation, plasma glucose levels were similar at hatching and decreased

  10. mes parents, qui furent, entre autres, les mcnes de ce travail Remerciements

    E-print Network

    Gaussent, Stéphane - Institut de Mathématiques Élie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    . Je remercie Messieurs Michel BRION et Dung Trang LE pour avoir accepté d'être les rapporteurs de lecture soigneuse du document et ses remarques critiques, et Monsieur Dung Trang LE pour sa disponibilité

  11. El problema de la vivienda en la prensa: entre contradicciones y falacias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Vara Muñoz; Julio Vinuesa Angulo

    2007-01-01

    El problema de la vivienda se muestra como una preocupación constante, objeto de la atención de la opinión pública a lo largo del tiempo, de tal forma que su repercusión espacial subjetiva es superior a lo meramente cuantificable por la cartografía urbana. El análisis de las valoraciones de diferentes agentes, recogidas en la prensa durante el periodo 2004-2007, pone de

  12. Sustitución entre factores de producción y cambio técnico en la industria manufacturera peruana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Cabezas Vega

    1997-01-01

    This study analysis substitution possibilities among factors of production and technical change in the Peruvian Manufacturing Industry. To explore the effects of prince variations on factors demand, a traslong model following Berndt and Wood (1975) is applied based on a cost function. The cost function is used to derive demand equations for capital, labor, energy and materials inputs, which are

  13. Association entre diabète de type 1 et antécédents familiaux de maladies associées

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bouché

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis  In the era of genome-wide association studies, familial risks are used to estimate disease heritability and success in gene\\u000a identification. We wanted to estimate associations between type 1 diabetes mellitus and 33 autoimmune and related diseases\\u000a in parents, offspring, singleton siblings and twins.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The availability of a Multigeneration Register in Sweden provides reliable access to families throughout the last

  14. Confrence TIA-2005, Rouen, 4 et 5 avril 2005 Synergie entre analyse distributionnelle

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    . Nous observons que 8 à 30 % des termes se retrouvent sous une forme plus ou moins fidèle, suivant la'accès aux connaissances médicales (base de données bibliographique Medline, base de connaissances Vidal sur

  15. disease resistance de 1984 1990 (fvrier) dont 127 rfrences ajoutes entre septembre

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    retenues par les participants à l'AIP. Les bases Medline et Biosis signalent chacune 4 références, Agricola'incidence économi- que la plus importante. Bien que des vaccins (tué, efficace seulement par injection, et vivant a été envisagée depuis plus de 10 ans dans nos laboratoires avec un regain d'intérêt depuis 1984, dans

  16. Une approche hybride pour la dtection automatique des relations smantiques entre entits mdicales

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    /sémantiques du domaine (e.g.[3,4]). Un plus petit groupe d'approches s'est intéressé à la tâche plus complexe d les résumés ou articles indexés par MEDLINE. Cette approche combine : (i) une méthode à base de relations à partir des titres d'articles de Medline. Ils ont exploité les descripteurs MeSH associés à ces

  17. THSE prpare dans le cadre d'une cotutelle entre L' UNIVERSIT DE GRENOBLE et

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /02/2012, devant le jury composé de : Mr, Rocco De Nicola Professeur IMT Lucca, Président Mr, Rocco De Nicola Professeur IMT Lucca, Rapporteur Mr, Iain Phillips Senior Lecturer Imperial College London, Rapporteur Mr

  18. Correspondncia entre els estudis de primer i segon cicle i estudis de grau

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    Fisioteràpia Fisioteràpia Infermeria Infermeria Mestre. Educació Infantil Educació Infantil Mestre. Educació'Art Matemàtiques Matemàtiques Pedagogia Pedagogia Periodisme Periodisme Psicologia Psicologia Química Química

  19. RELATIONS ENTRE LA ?-GLOBULINMIE DU VEAU NOUVEAU-N ET SON TAT DE SANT.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPOSITION DU COLOSTRUM ET DE LA PROTÉINÉMIE DE LA MÈRE Jacqueline DARDILLAT C. FOUCHER Station de 1>hysii, dans un élevage à forte mortalité, 113 plasmas de mères, 13 colostrums et go plasmas de veaux âgés de de colostrum congelé présentent une y-globulinémie plus faible que ceux qui ont têté leur mère. La

  20. Más para ellas - Sugerencias para cerrar la brecha entre géneros en las regiones en desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Magnoli

    2005-01-01

    Según el pensamiento convencional, la salud y la educación son factores esenciales para el desarrollo económico y social: permiten mejorar la distribución del ingreso y la productividad, y además, los más beneficiados son los pobres. Sin embargo, en muchas regiones del mundo no todos los miembros de la sociedad reciben estos servicios equitativamente. En muchos casos las mujeres están excluidas

  1. Calidad, Productividad y Costos: Análisis de Relaciones entre estos Tres Conceptos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rincón de Parra

    The world economy at the present time and particularly the Venezuelan economy, is more and more complex, hard, interdependent and competitive. Inside this scenery, where the difficulties stretch out to be normal conditions of work, the best answer to the economical and production situations is the quality, productivity and the lowering of costs. The purpose of the present work is

  2. Comparação quantitativa e qualitativa entre o Modelo Digital gerado pelo SRTM e por aerofotogrametria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Pimentel Cintra

    Abstract. The present paper reports a qualitative and a quantitative comparison,among,the SRTM DEM and the contours extracted by Photogrammetry. A visual three-dimensional inspection was executed on the,DEM over the stereo models by using a photogrammetric workstation. On the other hand, a referential surface was constructed by the ,contours and other by the ,SRTM DEM. Some analyses were ,executed ,through ,the

  3. Trois bicentenaires : Hume, Condillac, Smith. Adam Smith entre le marginalisme et le marxisme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard R. Pelletier

    1977-01-01

    It is not easy to understand why, and how, orthodox economists who do not believe either in the labor-theory or in the cost-theory of value, continue to favor Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, but forget such economists as Condillac, whose value theory is nearer to theirs and whose bicentenary we also commemorate.

  4. DIFERENCIAS EVOLUTIVAS EN LA ACTITUD ANTE LA MUERTE ENTRE ADULTOS JÓVENES Y ADULTOS MAYORES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANA FERNANDA URIBE-RODRÍGUEZ; LAURA VALDERRAMA; DIANA MARÍA; DURÁN VALLEJO; CÉSAR GALEANO-MONROY; KARINA GAMBOA; SANTIAGO LÓPEZ

    Throughout the years the concept of death has been redefi ned and it currently generates attitudes of fear and anxiety, where death is regarded as a topic that few want to discuss and that many evade. The aim of the present article was to assess the developmental changes in attitude toward death in a sample of 343 persons, composed by

  5. Liens entre la geometrie et la dynamique des ensembles de Jacques Carette

    E-print Network

    Carette, Jacques

    'a aussi laiss´e envahir son bureau a tout moment, bureau d´ej`a surcharg´e, son apartement quand j longues discussions (parfois p´enibles pour un math´ematicien comme lui, vu mon manque chronique de pr

  6. LES ECRIVAINS FRANAIS ENTRE CONSCIENCE ET MILITANTISME EUROPEENS (1919-1945).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    patrie ne tournait pas forcément le dos à l'idéal européen, bien au contraire : Ernest Renan, le « père'Etats réunis par l'idée commune de la civilisation », Ernest RENAN, « Deuxième lettre à M. David Strauss, 15

  7. Velocidades radiales en Collinder 121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se han llevado a cabo observaciones espectroscópicas de unas treinta estrellas que son posibles miembros del cúmulo abierto Collinder 121. Las mismas fueron realizadas con el telescopio de 2.15m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). El análisis de las velocidades radiales derivadas del material obtenido, confirma la realidad de Collinder 121, al menos desde el punto de vista cinemático. La velocidad radial baricentral (LSR) del cúmulo es de +17 ± 3 km.s-1. Esta velocidad coincide, dentro de los errores, con la velocidad radial (LSR) de la nebulosa anillo S308, la cual es de ~20 ± 10 km.s-1. Como S308 se encuentra físicamente asociada a la estrella Wolf-Rayet HD~50896, es muy probable que esta última sea un miembro de Collinder 121. Desde un punto de vista cinemático, la supergigante roja HD~50877 (K3Iab) también pertenecería a Collinder 121. Basándonos en la pertenencia de HD~50896 a Collinder 121, y en la interacción encontrada entre el viento de esta estrella y el medio interestelar circundante a la misma, se estima para este cúmulo una distancia del orden de 1 kpc.

  8. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua: studies in planta and results of a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Patrick R.; Covello, Patrick S.; McMickle, Anthony; Teoh, Keat H.; Reed, Darwin W.

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are of interest as are low cost methods for drug delivery. Here we review our recent studies on artemisinin production in A. annua during development of the plant as it moves from the vegetative to reproductive stage (flower budding and full flower formation), in response to sugars, and in concert with the production of the ROS, hydrogen peroxide. We also provide new data from animal experiments that measured the potential of using the dried plant directly as a therapeutic. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua than previously available. We further suggest an alternative low cost method of drug delivery to treat malaria and other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:21643453

  9. INCIDENCE, AGRESSIVENESS AND IN PLANTA INTERACTIONS OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA ANDOTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI QUIESCENT IN GRAPE BERRIES AND DORMANT BUDS IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recovery of quiescent filamentous fungi from non-symptomatic grape berries and dormant buds demonstrated dominance of Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium and other dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Up to 78% of berries contained fungi prior to harvest. Botrytis cinerea was recovered from 0...

  10. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Differential Interactions of N-Glycan Processing Enzymes across the Golgi Stack in Planta1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schoberer, Jennifer; Liebminger, Eva; Botchway, Stanley W.; Strasser, Richard; Hawes, Chris

    2013-01-01

    N-Glycan processing is one of the most important cellular protein modifications in plants and as such is essential for plant development and defense mechanisms. The accuracy of Golgi-located processing steps is governed by the strict intra-Golgi localization of sequentially acting glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Their differential distribution goes hand in hand with the compartmentalization of the Golgi stack into cis-, medial-, and trans-cisternae, which separate early from late processing steps. The mechanisms that direct differential enzyme concentration are still unknown, but the formation of multienzyme complexes is considered a feasible Golgi protein localization strategy. In this study, we used two-photon excitation-Förster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to determine the interaction of N-glycan processing enzymes with differential intra-Golgi locations. Following the coexpression of fluorescent protein-tagged amino-terminal Golgi-targeting sequences (cytoplasmic-transmembrane-stem [CTS] region) of enzyme pairs in leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), we observed that all tested cis- and medial-Golgi enzymes, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Golgi ?-mannosidase I, Nicotiana tabacum ?1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, Arabidopsis Golgi ?-mannosidase II (GMII), and Arabidopsis ?1,2-xylosyltransferase, form homodimers and heterodimers, whereas among the late-acting enzymes Arabidopsis ?1,3-galactosyltransferase1 (GALT1), Arabidopsis ?1,4-fucosyltransferase, and Rattus norvegicus ?2,6-sialyltransferase (a nonplant Golgi marker), only GALT1 and medial-Golgi GMII were found to form a heterodimer. Furthermore, the efficiency of energy transfer indicating the formation of interactions decreased considerably in a cis-to-trans fashion. The comparative fluorescence lifetime imaging of several full-length cis- and medial-Golgi enzymes and their respective catalytic domain-deleted CTS clones further suggested that the formation of protein-protein interactions can occur through their amino-terminal CTS region. PMID:23400704

  11. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia detection and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus described in a monotypic genus as Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The symptoms of the disease include green-spotted chloro...

  12. Proteins with High Turnover Rate in Barley Leaves Estimated by Proteome Analysis Combined with in Planta Isotope Labeling1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Clark J.; Alexova, Ralitza; Jacoby, Richard P.; Millar, A. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Protein turnover is a key component in cellular homeostasis; however, there is little quantitative information on degradation kinetics for individual plant proteins. We have used 15N labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of free amino acids and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of proteins to track the enrichment of 15N into the amino acid pools in barley leaves and then into tryptic peptides derived from newly synthesized proteins. Using information on the rate of growth of barley leaves combined with the rate of degradation of 14N-labeled proteins, we calculate the turnover rates of 508 different proteins in barley and show that they vary by more than 100-fold. There was approximately a 9-h lag from label application until 15N incorporation could be reliably quantified in extracted peptides. Using this information and assuming constant translation rates for proteins during the time course, we were able to quantify degradation rates for several proteins that exhibit half-lives on the order of hours. Our workflow, involving a stringent series of mass spectrometry filtering steps, demonstrates that 15N labeling can be used for large-scale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of protein turnover in plants. We identify a series of abundant proteins in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and specific subunits of chlorophyll biosynthesis that turn over significantly more rapidly than the average protein involved in these processes. We also highlight a series of proteins that turn over as rapidly as the well-known D1 subunit of photosystem II. While these proteins need further verification for rapid degradation in vivo, they cluster in chlorophyll and thiamine biosynthesis. PMID:25082890

  13. LOS LABORATORIOS DE ANÁLISIS DE SUELOS Y FOLIARES EN COSTA RICA: INFORME DEL COMITÉ DE LABORATORIOS DE ANÁLISIS DE SUELOS, PLANTAS Y AGUAS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Corrales; Floria Bertsch; José Antonio Bejarano

    Soil and foliar analysis laboratories in Costa Rica: a report of the Committee for Laboratories of Analysis of Soils, Plants and Waters. The characteristics and methodologies of each laboratory are described, as well as the results of the National Exchange Programs, which have been implemented among all of them for the last 6 years, and which are denominated as PINAS

  14. Seed development and maturation in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus continues post-shedding with little evidence of maturation in planta

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal. PMID:23478943

  15. Influência da quebra do fruto e tempo de imersão em água na porcentagem de emergência de plantas de coentro (coriandrum sativum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Rodrigues Leal; Eduardo Riller

    Influence of the fruit in addition and time of immersion in water in the percentage of emergency of plants of cilantro (coriandrum sativum L.) The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the time and fruit in addition of immersion in water in the percentage of emergency of plants of cilantro. The experiment was lead in the

  16. In planta protein interactions of three alphacryptoviruses and three betacryptoviruses from White Clover, Red Clover and Dill by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis.

    PubMed

    Lesker, Till; Maiss, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses. PMID:24113719

  17. In planta Protein Interactions of Three Alphacryptoviruses and Three Betacryptoviruses from White Clover, Red Clover and Dill by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lesker, Till; Maiss, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses. PMID:24113719

  18. Use of medicinal plants among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in Morelos, Mexico (Uso de plantas medicinales por pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Morelos, México)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofelia ROMERO-CERECERO; Hortensia REYES-MORALES; Lucía AGUILAR-SANTAMARÍA; Maira HUERTA-REYES; Jaime TORTORIELLO-GARCIA

    The aim of the study was the identification of the most frequently used plants by patients with DM2 with access to public health services in Morelos, Mexico. A questionnaire was employed with 259 patients with DM2 who regularly utilize medicinal plants as a complementary therapy, and another 259 patients who only use the pharmaceutical prescription in primary-care clinics from two

  19. Tissue culture-independent In Planta Transformation s trategy: an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated gene Transfer Method to o vercome recalcitrance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Keshamma; S. Rohini; K. S. Rao; B. Madhusudhan; M. Udaya Kumar

    The major constraint in cotton improvement has been the recalcitrance of cotton varieties to tissue culture. alternate methods that avoid\\/ minimize tissue culture would be beneficial for the improvement of cotton. in this report, trans- genic cotton plants have been produced by a tissue-culture independent Agrobacterium tume- faciens - mediated transformation procedure. Agrobacterium strain lBa4404 harboring the binary vector pKiWi105

  20. Interaction of VPg-Pro of Turnip mosaic virus with the translation initiation factor 4E and the poly(A)-binding protein in planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Leonard; Catherine Viel; Chantal Beauchemin; Nicole Daigneault; Marc G. Fortin; Jean-Francois Laliberte

    2004-01-01

    The viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) interacts in vitro with the translation eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. In the present study, we investigated the consequence of TuMV infection on eIF4E expression. Two isomers are present in plants, namely eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. Expression of the latter was detected in both TuMV-infected and mock-inoculated Brassica

  1. Modular Domain Structure of Arabidopsis COP1. Reconstitution of Activity by Fragment Complementation and Mutational Analysis of a Nuclear Localization Signal in Planta1

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Minviluz G.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kim, Tae-Houn; von Arnim, Albrecht G.

    2000-01-01

    The Arabidopsis COP1 protein functions as a developmental regulator, in part by repressing photomorphogenesis in darkness. Using complementation of a cop1 loss-of-function allele with transgenes expressing fusions of cop1 mutant proteins and ?-glucuronidase, it was confirmed that COP1 consists of two modules, an amino terminal module conferring a basal function during development and a carboxyl terminal module conferring repression of photomorphogenesis. The amino-terminal zinc-binding domain of COP1 was indispensable for COP1 function. In contrast, the debilitating effects of site-directed mutations in the single nuclear localization signal of COP1 were partially compensated by high-level transgene expression. The carboxyl-terminal module of COP1, though unable to substantially ameliorate a cop1 loss-of-function allele on its own, was sufficient for conferring a light-quality-dependent hyperetiolation phenotype in the presence of wild-type COP1. Moreover, partial COP1 activity could be reconstituted in vivo from two non-covalently linked, complementary polypeptides that represent the two functional modules of COP1. Evidence is presented for efficient association of the two sub-fragments of the split COP1 protein in Arabidopsis and in a yeast two-hybrid assay. PMID:11080276

  2. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI. PMID:21954339

  3. PLANTAS MEDICINAIS DE USO CASEIRO - CONHECIMENTO POPULAR E INTERESSE POR CULTIVO COMUNITÁRIO MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DOMESTIC USE - POPULAR KNOWLEDGE AND INTEREST IN A COMMUNITY GARDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hussein Arnous; Antonio Sousa Santos; Rosana Passos Cambraia Beinner

    With the development of technology and interest in confirming knowledge about popular medicine, medicinal plants are having its researched therapeutic value considered by the science. The evaluation of the degree of knowledge of this alternative therapeutics in a typical town of the Brazilian southeast area, shows the interest of the local population to the health promotion with the use of

  4. Species-specific ITS primers for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei and using nested-PCR for detection of P. juniperi in planta.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Samad; Banihashemi, Zia

    2013-10-01

    Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. Also, during their symbiotic phase, these are barely distinguishable morphologically, and molecular probes are needed for their identification. We have developed a PCR-based method for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei based on internal transcribed spacers of rDNA. Two PCR primers specific for P. lefebvrei (FLE/RLE) and two specific for P. juniperi (FJU/RJU) were designed. A collection of samples from different geographical areas representing diversity of these species were examined for unique regions of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA (ITS) compared to other closely related species. Annealing temperatures and extension times were optimized for each set of primers for maximum specificity and efficiency. They proved to be efficient to specifically detect the presence of P. juniperi and P. lefebvrei by PCR and neither set amplified purified DNA from other truffle species as well as some ascomycetous fungi. The partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of P. juniperi were amplified with the genomic DNA extracted from Helianthemum ledifolium var. ledifolium roots by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the universal fungal primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and specific primer pair FTC/RTC, which was designed based on internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA sequences of P juniperi. The nested-PCR was sensitive enough to re-amplify the direct-PCR product, resulting in a DNA fragment of 426 bp. The efficacy of nested-PCR showed that it could re-amplify the direct-PCR product and detect 200 fg genomic DNA. PMID:24065525

  5. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Osusky; Lubica Osuska; William Kay; Santosh Misra

    2005-01-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1–5 ?g\\/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato

  6. In planta production of two peptides of the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of potato virus X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianpiero Marconi; Emidio Albertini; Pierluigi Barone; Francesca De Marchis; Chiara Lico; Carla Marusic; Domenico Rutili; Fabio Veronesi; Andrea Porceddu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical Swine Fever (CSFV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting wild boars and domestic pigs. The etiological agent of the disease is the CSF virus, a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. All preventive measures in domestic pigs have been focused in interrupting the chain of infection and in avoiding the spread

  7. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  8. Comparison of the development in planta of a pyrrolnitrin-resistant mutant of Botrytis cinerea and its sensitive wild-type parent isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakhr Ajouz; Marc Bardin; Philippe C. Nicot; Mohamed El Maâtaoui

    2011-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is able to build-up resistance to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by diverse biocontrol agents, possibly compromising\\u000a the durability of this method of disease control. The development of two near-isogenic lines of B. cinerea differing in their level of resistance to pyrrolnitrin was compared in tomato plants and on PDA medium. In tomato plants,\\u000a significant differences in the percentage

  9. EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN CON Azospirillum sp. EN PLANTAS DE CHILE HABANERO (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) (EFFECT OF Azospirillum sp. INOCULATION IN HABANERO CHILE PLANTS (Capsicum chinense Jacquin))

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Morales Avelino

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY An Azospirillum strain from Cenchrus echinatus roots was isolated, and a pure culture of the strain was used as inoculum to induce root growth in Capsicum chinense seedlings. The inoculum concentration effects were evaluated on seeds germination rate, radicular system, and shoots growth. The inoculated seeds germination occurred a day before non inoculated seeds. An increase (P<0.001) in terciary,

  10. ERGONOMIA INFORMACIONAL APLICADA EM MAPA DE RISCOS E SINALIZAÇÕES EXISTENTES EM UMA PLANTA DE PROCESSAMENTO 1 INFORMATIONAL ERGONOMICS APPLIED ON RISK MAPS AND SIGNS IN A PROCESS PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cássia Vanessa; Albuquerque de Melo; Raul Magalhães Cursino; Vilma Villarouco

    RESUMO: Uma situação de emergência exige um espírito de iniciativa e capacidade de ação rápida do indivíduo. Para que ele possa ter condições de tomar decisões mais rápidas e seguras, é necessário que as sinalizações transmitam mensagens de maneira que não exijam um tempo maior para compreendê-las. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a importância da ergonomia informacional no uso

  11. CHARACTERIZATION, PHYLOGENY AND IN PLANTA EXPRESSION OF A PUTATIVE LIPASE GENE FROM MALAYSIAN PERIWINKLE YELLOWS (MPY) PHYTOPLASMA, A MEMBER OF SUBGROUP 16SRI-B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work revealed gene clusters occurring as multiple, sequence-variable mosaics in the genomes of several phytoplasmas (Jomantiene and Davis. 2006. FEMS Microbiol Letters 255:59-65.) Analysis of such a region, termed genomic sequence-variable mosaic (GSVM), in the genome of MPY phytoplasma reve...

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Downy Mildew Pathogens of Opium Poppy and PCR-Based In Planta and Seed Detection of Peronospora arborescens.

    PubMed

    Landa, Blanca B; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz-Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT Severe downy mildew diseases of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) can be caused by Peronospora arborescens and P. cristata, but differentiating between the two pathogens is difficult because they share morphological features and a similar host range. In Spain, where severe epidemics of downy mildew of opium poppy have occurred recently, the pathogen was identified as P. arborescens on the basis of morphological traits. In this current study, sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were carried out with DNA from P. arborescens and P. cristata from diverse geographic origins, which suggested that only P. arborescens occurs in cultivated Papaver somniferum in Spain. Moreover, analyses of the rDNA ITS region from 27 samples of downy-mildew-affected tissues from all opium-poppy-growing regions in Spain showed that genetic diversity exists within P. arborescens populations in Spain and that these are phylogenetically distinct from P. cristata. P. cristata instead shares a more recent, common ancestor with a range of Peronospora species that includes those found on host plants that are not members of the Papaveraceae. Species-specific primers and a PCR assay protocol were developed that differentiated P. arborescens and P. cristata and proved useful for the detection of P. arborescens in symptomatic and asymptomatic opium poppy plant parts. Use of these primers demonstrated that P. arborescens can be transmitted in seeds and that commercial seed stocks collected from crops with high incidence of the disease were frequently infected. Field experiments conducted in microplots free from P. arborescens using seed stocks harvested from infected capsules further demonstrated that transmission from seedborne P. arborescens to opium poppy plants can occur. Therefore, the specific-PCR detection protocol developed in this study can be of use for epidemiological studies and diagnosing the pathogen in commercial seed stocks; thus facilitating the sanitary control of the disease and avoidance of the pathogen distribution in seeds. PMID:18943506

  13. Ultrastructural evidence of differential changes in transcription, translation, and cortical microtubules during in planta penetration of cells resistant or susceptible to rust infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. R MOULD; M. C HEATH

    1999-01-01

    Resistance to race 1 of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants results from a resistance gene-dependent cell death process (the hypersensitive response), which involves the execution of a defined progression of cytological events. To reveal the cellular changes which occur prior to the commitment to hypersensitive cell death in resistant plants, we performed a stereological

  14. Analysis of two in planta expressed LysM effector homologs from the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals novel functional properties and varying contributions to virulence on wheat.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rosalind; Kombrink, Anja; Motteram, Juliet; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Lucas, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Thomma, Bart P H J; Rudd, Jason J

    2011-06-01

    Secreted effector proteins enable plant pathogenic fungi to manipulate host defenses for successful infection. Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Leaf infection involves a long (approximately 7 d) period of symptomless intercellular colonization prior to the appearance of necrotic disease lesions. Therefore, M. graminicola is considered as a hemibiotrophic (or necrotrophic) pathogen. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of M. graminicola homologs of Ecp6 (for extracellular protein 6), the Lysin (LysM) domain-containing effector from the biotrophic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, which interferes with chitin-triggered immunity in plants. Three LysM effector homologs are present in the M. graminicola genome, referred to as Mg3LysM, Mg1LysM, and MgxLysM. Mg3LysM and Mg1LysM genes were strongly transcriptionally up-regulated specifically during symptomless leaf infection. Both proteins bind chitin; however, only Mg3LysM blocked the elicitation of chitin-induced plant defenses. In contrast to C. fulvum Ecp6, both Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM also protected fungal hyphae against plant-derived hydrolytic enzymes, and both genes show significantly more nucleotide polymorphism giving rise to nonsynonymous amino acid changes. While Mg1LysM deletion mutant strains of M. graminicola were fully pathogenic toward wheat leaves, Mg3LysM mutant strains were severely impaired in leaf colonization, did not trigger lesion formation, and were unable to undergo asexual sporulation. This virulence defect correlated with more rapid and pronounced expression of wheat defense genes during the symptomless phase of leaf colonization. These data highlight different functions for MgLysM effector homologs during plant infection, including novel activities that distinguish these proteins from C. fulvum Ecp6. PMID:21467214

  15. Investigacin Vil M., Bacher S., Hulme P., Kenis M., Kobelt M., Nentwig W., Sol D., Solarz W. 2006. Impactos ecolgicos de las invasiones de plantas y

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    , University of Bern, Baltzerstr. 6, CH 3012 Berna (Suiza). (sven.bacher@zos.unibe.ch) (3) NERC Centre, University of Bern, Baltzerstr. 6, CH 3012 Berna (Suiza). (manuel.kobelt@zos.unibe.ch) (6) Centre De Recerca

  16. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si existen diferencias graduales crecientes o decrecientes, que nos da un indicativo del desplazamiento de la corteza terrestre al rededor del volcan.

  17. The Condor 103:785792 The Cooper Ornithological Society 2001

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    , primarily Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Social factors, including distance to nearest Least Tern and Snowy especie Corvus corax. Factores sociales como distancia al nido ma´s cercano de S. antillarum y C

  18. Alfonso Reyes, Jorge Luis Borges y Nuestra América

    E-print Network

    De Castro, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    Reyes, Borges ve la cultura “sudamericana” como básicamentesudamericana está en una sensación de distancia ante la culturasudamericana están definidas por una lista de íconos culturales, ni siquiera por el desarrollo de una cultura

  19. Acerca de la UNAM Sitios Web UNAM Secretaria Desarrollo Institucional

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    ) Escuela de Extensión en Chicago. Centro de Enseñanza para Extranjeros - Los Angeles. a Distancia Coordinación del Bachillerato a Distancia Centro de Enseñanza para Extranjeros(C.E.P.E.) Escuela Permanente de Extensión en San Antonio, Texas (Cursos de inglés y español). Escuela de Extensión en Canadá

  20. Dimension des minimiseurs d'une nergie d'interaction entre particules Benot Merlet, merlet a cmap.polytechnique.fr

    E-print Network

    Alouges, François

    galaxies) ou en biologie (répartition des oiseaux volant en groupe, . . .). On se donne un potentiel d (à support compact) µ se définissent de la même façon : Vµ(y) := Rd W(y - x) dµ(x), E(µ) := Rd Vµ rigoureusement le potentiel Vµ et l'énergie Eµ associées à une mesure de Radon à support compact. Définition 1

  1. Changements organisationnels et évolution du vécu au travail : une comparaison entre secteur privé et fonction publique d'Etat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maëlezig Bigi; Nathalie Greenan; Sylvie Hamon-Cholet; Joseph Lanfranchi

    2012-01-01

    Au moyen du dispositif d'enquêtes couplées COI, nous avons analysé les effets des changements organisationnels dans le secteur privé et la fonction publique d'Etat, sur des indicateurs d'intensification du travail, d'évolution des compétences et de variation de l'implication des salariés. Les changements organisationnels sont plus intenses dans la fonction publique d'Etat que dans le secteur privé, confirmant l'importance des modifications

  2. L'Universit de Montral a fait son entre au sein du club slect des 30 employeurs de

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    arômes com- posés à partir d'huiles essentielles (pin, gé- raniol, cumin et fromage parmesan). Chaque juxtaposée l'étiquette « Fleurs fraîches » ou « Parfum bas de gamme » ; le cumin était accompagné des étiquet

  3. Radioscopies de la campagne prsidentielle 2012 (III) L'entre en scne du Prsident sortant (5-18 fvrier)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    28 février. Résumé : Les dernières semaines ont été marquées par le discours de N. Sarkozy le 29 différence par rapport à N. Sarkozy dont il a dénoncé les propositions. F. Hollande s'est montré plus pugnace février. Le soir même, ils ont participé ensemble à une émission de France 2 où N. Sarkozy a vanté les

  4. Co-évolution entre capital social et connaissances créées dans les partenariats d’impartition de compétences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Roux

    2008-01-01

    (VF)L’objectif de cette recherche est d’analyser les mécanismes de création de connaissances dans les partenariats d’impartition de compétences. La combinaison des approches théoriques de Kogut et Zander (1996, 2000) et de Nahapiet et Ghoshal (1998) fournit un cadre théorique qui permet de modéliser l’impact du capital social sur la création de connaissances dans les partenariats. La confrontation de ce modèle

  5. Étude de la transition entre le gaz atomique et le gaz moléculaire dans deux cirrus de la boucle céleste nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriault, Léo

    2010-11-01

    The infrared (IR) cirrus clouds observed at high Galactic latitude are excellent candidates to study the transition between the atomic gas and the molecular gas. In this thesis, two potential sites of H2 formation have been discovered in the North Celestial Loop (l = 135°, b = 40°) through examining the far-IR-Hl ratio and looking for an excess over that expected from an atomic medium. I call these sites the Spider and Ursa Major fields. The comparison between the IR excess map and the 12CO (J - 1 - 0) data from the Five College Radio Astronomical Observatory (resolution = 45 arcsec) shows that the IR excess peaks do not coincide with the 12CO peaks. The absence of coincidence is explained by (i) a density too small to allow CO excitation, (ii) insufficient CO self-shielding or (iii) variations of the dust properties. The comparison between 12CO data and Hi data from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (resolution = 1 arcmin) is in agreement with the models! that predict CO formation where large velocity shears and turbulence dissipation are observed. OH observations of 108 locations over the two diffuse clouds from the Green Bank Telescope (resolution = 7 arcmin) are analyzed. OH is a precursor molecule to CO and its formation requires H2. The coincidence between the OH emission peak and the IR excess peak indicates that OH could be a better tracer of H2 than CO in these low-density regions. 12CO (7 = 1-0) and 13CO (J = 1 -0) observations from the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique and 12CO ( J = 2 - 1) observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (resolution = 20 arcsec) are analyzed on a small number of fields in both regions. Using a large velocity gradient model, we found smaller densities at the location of the IR excess peak while self-shielding should be efficient given the computed column densities.

  6. Correlación entre los métodos FIA y SFC para la determinació n de aromáticos en fracciones del petróle o

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Comunicación Técnic

    Aromatics concentration in middle distillates (Straight Ru n Gas Oil, Kerosene and Jet Fuel) and hydrotreated products were me a - sured by ASTM D-1319 (FIA: Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption) an d ASTM D-5186 (SFC: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography) methods . With each method 180 samples were analyzed and with the exper i - mental information a lineal correlation between FIA and

  7. Mouvements actuels des blocs tectoniques dans l'arc Btico-Rifain partir des mesures GPS entre 1999 et 2005

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Present-day movements of tectonic blocks in the Betic­Rif Arc from GPS measurements 1999­2005. GPS) and Eurasian plates. While the Betic Mountains are attached to Iberia, moving toward the southeast with respect; Present-day tectonics Abridged English version The present-day tectonic setting in the western

  8. Geochemical, multi-isotopic and hydrogeological characterization of the mineralized groundwater body of the Entre-deux-Mers area, Gironde

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Congress 2010, KRAKOW : Poland (2010)" #12;For that purpose, combined geochemical analysis (major and trace system are progradational westward, from detrital deposits to carbonates. The Eocene sands and the Eocene

  9. Refinancement et création de valeur : le cas des émissions de covered bonds en zone euro entre 2007 et 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérémy Morvan

    2011-01-01

    Ce papier présente une étude d'événement mesurant l'impact des émissions de covered bonds sur le prix des actions des banques européennes. Ces titres de dette sont garantis par des actifs isolés dans le bilan de l'émetteur mais non déconsolidés à la différence des CDO. Nous montrons que le succès des émissions de covered bonds a une influence positive sur le

  10. La Universidad de Alicante lidera el primer proyecto entre la Unin Europea y Libia en educacin superior

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Superior TEMPUS. El proyecto tiene como objetivo desarrollar un sistema de control de calidad viable y del vicerrector de la Unidad de Control de Calidad de la Omar Al-MokhtarUniversity. La Universidad de superior Alicante, 5 de marzo de 2012 El proyecto fomentará la calidad del sistema educativo universitario

  11. Entre Ciencia e Ingeniera, ISSN 1909-8367 Ao 3. No. 6 Segundo semestre de 2009, pginas 21 -32

    E-print Network

    Alberta, University of

    realizar el control de calidad de las piezas producidas, consiste en hacer una comparación de dichas piezas a cabo el control de calidad de las piezas con gran precisión. Sin embargo, los procesos de inspección of parts to carry out the quality control of the produced pieces consists on making a comparison

  12. Relación entre litología y características hidroquímicas de las aguas subterráneas. Red de Control de la Calidad del Principado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Meléndez; M. L. Rodríguez

    During the years that IGME managed the Groundwater Quality Control Network in North Basin-II (Asturias and Cantabria) two yearly cam- paigns sampling (in springtime, rain period, and in autumn, dry period) and its following chemical analysis were carried out. Hydrochemical studies were performed from these results in order to settle the groundwater quality and its evolution in time. With the

  13. HABEMUS HABERMAS: O UNIVERSALISMO ÉTICO ENTRE O NATURALISMO E A RELIGIÃO HABEMUS HABERMAS: ETHICAL UNIVERSALISM BETWEEN NATURALISM AND RELIGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NYTHAMAR DE OLIVEIRA

    The article revisits Habermas's recasting of moral universalism, so as to avoid the aporias of naturalism and cultural relativism, according to a pragmatic-formal perspective that does justice to the complex phenomenon of religion in a postsecular, pluralist world, where believers, atheists, and agnostics can coexist together and actively participate in the construction of a more tolerant, just society. Key-words: cultural

  14. Les facteurs de risque et le problème de la démarcation entre le normal et le pathologique : une analyse épistémologique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Giroux

    2010-01-01

    The fact that numerous risk factors are continuous raises the problem of the boundary between the normal and the pathological states. Moreover, a risk factor approach to disease deeply calls into question the relevance of these concepts. In this paper, I propose an epistemological analysis of the notion of “continuity” as it is used in the context of “risk factor

  15. Relations entre les expériences dissociatives et la consommation de cannabis chez l'adolescent et le jeune adulte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ducongé; H. Chabrol

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relations between cannabis use and dissociative experiences. A convenient sample of 212 subjects composed of high-school and college students completed questionnaires assessing cannabis use frequency, the symptoms of dependence, dissociative and borderline symptoms using the DES (Dissociative Experience Scale) completed by a sub-scale measuring hyper-personalization\\/ hyper-realization experiences and the BPI (Borderline

  16. Investigation des correlations existant entre la perception de qualite audio et les reactions physiologiques d'un auditeur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudot, Matthias

    Les tests d'ecoute subjectifs permettent d'evaluer la fiabilite de reproduction des systemes de codage audio (codecs). Le projet presente ici vise a evaluer la possibilite d'utiliser les reactions physiologiques (activite electrodermale, cardiaque, musculaire et cerebrale) a la place d'une note donnee par l'auditeur, afin de caracteriser la performance d'un codec. Ceci permettrait d'avoir une methode d'evaluation plus proche de la perception reelle de qualite audio du sujet. Des tests d'ecoute mettant en oeuvre des degradations audio bien connues en concours avec la mesure des reactions physiologiques ont ete realises pour 4 auditeurs. L'analyse des resultats montre que certaines caracteristiques physiologiques permettent d'avoir une information fiable sur la qualite audio percue, et ce de maniere repetable pour pres de 70% des signaux audio testes chez un sujet, et pres de 60% des sequences audio testees chez tous les sujets. Ceci permet de postuler sur la faisabilite d'une telle methode d'evaluation subjective des codecs audio. Mots-cles : test d'ecoute subjectif, evaluation des codecs audio, mesures physiologiques, qualite audio percue, conductance electrodermale, photoplethysmographie, electromyogramme, electroencephalogramme

  17. TUDE DE DEUX TRANSFERTS D'NERGIE NON RADIATIFS ENTRE IONS H03+ DANS LE FLUORURE D'YTTRIUM;

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    les propriétés de fluorescence de Ho3+ dans une matrice HoxY1-xF3 (x de 5 x 10-4 à 1) dans une gamme ~ 0,02 ces propriétés dépendent de transferts d'énergie non radiatifs Ho3 + ~ Ho3 +. On montre l habituellement. Abstract. 2014 Fluorescence properties of Ho3+ in HoxY1-xF3 were x is widely varied from 5 x 10

  18. Sparation et rgime de mobilit entre Isral et la Cisjordanie (2000-2009) : Rglementations, pratiques et acteurs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    », in Joel Beinin et Rebecca L. Stein (éds.) The Struggle for Sovereignty : Palestine and Israel 1993 colloque « Israël-Palestine : état des lieux », organisé le Lundi 6 et mardi 7 avril 2009, Amphithéâtre du in Palestine : Identity Documentation, Dispossession, Repression and Resistance, Ph. D. thesis, Geography

  19. Le loup dans la bergerie. De l'articulation entre l'éducation et les soins aux enfants autistes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Salomé

    2001-01-01

    The history of infant-juvenile psychiatry is marked by the merging of medical and educational fields. According to the time and place, the relationship between therapy, parental education and school education has seen multiple variations: seduction, opposition, collaboration, confrontation, cooperation, separation. We can see those different points of view in the care of autistic children. The conclusion is to propose different

  20. Interaction entre le greffon et le porte-greffe chez la vigne. Application de la mthode des greffages

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -greffes de la vigne (« Riparia », « 101-14 », « Fercal », « S04 », « 140 Ru »), Vigne, ont servi à and petioles. For this purpose, five Reciprocal grafting, grapevine rootstock varieties (« Riparia », « 101