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Fruta Planta label  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... This product has no known side effects. What people are saying? "I have been using Fruta Planta for a little over 90 days and I absolutely love it! ... More results from


Behavior competence development through e-learning: experience at the undergraduate level in the context of Aula a Distancia Abierta (ADA) Madrid, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents the results of an innovative approach for competence development suggesting a new methodology for the integration of these elements in professional development within the ADA initiative (Aula a Distancia Abierta, Distance and Open Classroom) of the Community of Madrid. The main objective of this initiative is to promote the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for

Ignacio de los Ríos Carmenado; José María Díaz-Puente; Francisca Gómez Gajardo



Non-random sharing of Plantae genes  

PubMed Central

The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions.

Chan, Cheong Xin



Influencia de la fecha de siembra y distancia entre surcos sobre el establecimiento de asociaciones de desmanthus y el pasto klein Influence of row-spacing and planting date on the establishment of bundleflower-kleingrass mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding factors that affect the establishment of pastures is important to the management of persistent grass-legume mixtures. The objective of this study was to evaluate kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.)-bundeflower (Desmanthus sp.) associations during the establishment year in terms of plant density and yield. The study was carried out at Brazos County, TX. (near College Station). Plots were drilled at a

Eduardo A. González Valenzuela; Mark A. Hussey


Abordagem etnobotânica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em dermatologia na cidade de João Pessoa-Paraíba, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: As doenças de pele são muito comuns acometendo cerca de 1\\/3 da população mundial e as plantas medicinais, em especial as suas associações, são comumente usadas nas comunidades para o tratamento de micoses, erisipela e outras dermatoses. Todavia, um dos problemas enfrentados pelos profissionais da área de saúde atualmente é justamente a questão do uso concomitante de plantas medicinais

E. O. Lima; R. A. G. Oliveira; M. S. Toledo; João Pessoa


Physiology of Ex Planta Nitrogenase Activity in Rhizobium japonicum.  


Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-derepressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. PMID:16346295

Agarwal, A K; Keister, D L



Programmable Plants: Development of an in planta System for the Remote Monitoring and Control of Plant Function for Life Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Phase I study we explored the revolutionary concept of using genomics and nanotechnology together for the development of plants with traits suitable for human life support in non -Earth environments. This includes the potential for the use of remote monitoring and control devices in planta and ex planta as part of an overall architecture of human and autonomous

Christopher S. Brown


Intron distribution in Plantae: 500 million years of stasis during land plant evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the evolution of the intron–exon organization in the more primitive groups of land plants, and the intron distribution among Plantae (glauco-, rhodo-, chloro- and streptophytes) has not been investigated so far. The present study is focused on some key species such as the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, representing the most ancient lineage of land plants, and the

René Teich; Carina Grauvogel; Jörn Petersen




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Full-length infectious cDNA clones of Canadain (PLRV-flc)and German (PLRV-flg) Potato leafroll virus isolates were constructed and their biological activities examined in planta. For both constructs, agroinfection by PLRV cDNA resulted in virus mulitplication in the primary leaf followed by systemi...


CORRELAÇÕES ENTRE CARACTERES DA PLANTA E DO CACHO EM BANANEIRA ( Musa spp) 1 Correlations among characters of the plant and of the bunch in banana (Musa spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characters observed in a experimental areas has phenotypic nature and their correlations are estimated with the purpose to verify alterations in one character when is altered another. The objectives of this work were to quantify the relationships among characters development and yield attributes in flowering and harvesting periods of 13 banana (Musa spp.) genotypes (varieties and hybrids), in Guanambi

Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato; Sebastião de Oliveira; Orlando Antônio; Lucca Filho; Marcelo Bezerra Lima; Juliana da Silva Alves


Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions  

PubMed Central

Background The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) originated via primary endosymbiosis in which a phagotrophic protist captured and harnessed a cyanobacterium. The plastid was inherited by the common ancestor of the red, green (including land plants), and glaucophyte algae (together, the Plantae). Despite the critical importance of primary plastid endosymbiosis, its ancient derivation has left behind very few “footprints” of early key events in organelle genesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insights into this process, we conducted an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of genomic data (nuclear proteins) from 17 Plantae species to identify genes of a surprising provenance in these taxa, Chlamydiae bacteria. Previous studies show that Chlamydiae contributed many genes (at least 21 in one study) to Plantae that primarily have plastid functions and were postulated to have played a fundamental role in organelle evolution. Using our comprehensive approach, we identify at least 55 Chlamydiae-derived genes in algae and plants, of which 67% (37/55) are putatively plastid targeted and at least 3 have mitochondrial functions. The remainder of the proteins does not contain a bioinformatically predicted organelle import signal although one has an N-terminal extension in comparison to the Chlamydiae homolog. Our data suggest that environmental Chlamydiae were significant contributors to early Plantae genomes that extend beyond plastid metabolism. The chlamydial gene distribution and protein tree topologies provide evidence for both endosymbiotic gene transfer and a horizontal gene transfer ratchet driven by recurrent endoparasitism as explanations for gene origin. Conclusions/Significance Our findings paint a more complex picture of gene origin than can easily be explained by endosymbiotic gene transfer from an organelle-like point source. These data significantly extend the genomic impact of Chlamydiae on Plantae and show that about one-half (30/55) of the transferred genes are most closely related to sequences emanating from the genome of the only environmental isolate that is currently available. This strain, Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25 is an endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba and likely represents the type of endoparasite that contributed the genes to Plantae.

Bhattacharya, Debashish



In vitro and in planta compatibility of insecticides and the endophytic entomopathogen, Lecanicillium lecanii.  


In an attempt to clarify the potential role of endophytic fungi in integrated pest management, the compatibility of an endophytic isolate of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare (Hyphomycetes) with nine insecticides used against Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) was examined both in vitro over 14 days and in planta. In the laboratory, most insecticides partially or completely inhibited the germination of conidia and growth of hyphae in nutrient-rich conditions. Endosulfan completely inhibited the germination of conidia and hyphal growth. In contrast, all insecticides were compatible with L. lecanii in planta, and the fungus was readily recovered from inoculated, colonized leaves. These data support the hypothesis that endophytic L. lecanii will be unaffected by insecticides and could be integrated in the management of pests in cotton. PMID:21424605

Gurulingappa, Pampapathy; Mc Gee, Peter; Sword, Gregory A



Assessment of fluorescein-based fluorescent dyes for tracing Neotyphodium endophytes in planta.  


Fluorescent dyes were assessed for their ability to stain viable hyphae of the fungi Neotyphodium lolii and N. coenophialum, symbiotic endophytes of the Pooideae grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea, respectively. The fluorescein-based fluorophores; fluorescein diacetate (FDA), 5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein diacetate (CFDA), 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and the chitin-binding stain, Calcofluor while M2R, were assessed for staining of endophyte hyphae in vitro from axenic fungal cultures and in planta, including epidermal leaf sheath peels, nodes, ovaries, embryos and meristems. CMFDA produced the greatest intensity of staining of fungal hyphae and gave excellent contrast in planta compared to the plant cells. Compared to the other dyes, CMFDA was also the least affected by photo bleaching and continued to fluoresce up to 2 h after initial excitation. None of the fluorescent dyes stained fungal hyphae in seed. PMID:22802389

Card, Stuart D; Tapper, Brian A; Lloyd-West, Catherine; Wright, Kathryn M



Slow-adapting responses of the Pacinian corpuscles of cat planta.  


Slow-adapting impulses were recorded from the single nerve fiber innervating the Pacinian corpuscle of the cat planta, which was stimulated by constant pressure. Slow-adapting Pacinian corpuscles responded to both low-frequency (0.1-0.01 Hz) and high-frequency (400-800 Hz) vibrations. Simultaneously performed electron microscopy showed that there were no definite ultrastructural differences between slow- and fast-adapting Pacinian corpuscles. PMID:3995265

Sakada, S; Sasaki, T; Tazaki, M



Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: a Cause or Consequence of Oxidative Stress in Planta?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic specialization of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is typically found in plants growing in environments\\u000a where water and\\/or CO2 is limiting and, by analogy, where irradiance and daytime temperatures may be high. Such abiotic actors are known to lead\\u000a to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in planta which can elicit potentially damaging oxidative stress and\\/or\\u000a act as

Ewa Niewiadomska; Anne M. Borland



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) no crescimento inicial de plantas de confrei ( Symphytum officinale L.), uma espécie medicinal, um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. Segmentos de rizomas, obtidos de plantas com 90 dias de idade, foram submetidos a cinco concentrações (0, 0,246, 0,492, 0,738, 0,984 mM) e três tempos de exposição



i Planta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This application was designed for farmers, agriculture researchers, and gardeners. The application includes a calculator, a data logger, and a GPS mapping function. It was designed for vegetable farming but can be used for open field applications. The calculator solves for the amount of pesticide,...


Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina


Aplicaciones prácticas de la fisiología de los herbicidas en las plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Esta lección se focaliza en el impacto de las características de la planta y el herbicida, importantes para determinar el desempeño del herbicida. Se usarán imágenes visuales para ilustrar varios principios, incluyendo el sitio de absorción del herbicida en la planta, transporte, el sitio de acción sensible, y efectos del ambiente sobre el desempeño del herbicida. Esta información provee la base para maximizar la utilidad del uso de los herbicidas.


Ex planta phytoremediation of trichlorophenol and phenolic allelochemicals via an engineered secretory laccase.  


Plant roots release a range of enzymes capable of degrading chemical compounds in their immediate vicinity. We present a system of phytoremediation ex planta based on the overexpression of one such enzyme, a secretory laccase. Laccases catalyze the oxidation of a broad range of phenolic compounds, including polychlorinated phenols such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), that are among the most hazardous and recalcitrant pollutants in the environment. We isolated a secretory laccase cDNA of LAC1, which is specifically expressed in the roots of Gossypium arboreum (cotton). Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing LAC1 exhibited enhanced resistance to several phenolic allelochemicals and TCP. The secretory laccase activity in these plants was responsible for the conversion of sinapic acid into a mono-lactone type dimer and for the transformation of TCP. PMID:15195102

Wang, Guo-Dong; Li, Qian-Jin; Luo, Bin; Chen, Xiao-Ya



High-throughput fluorescent tagging of full-length Arabidopsis gene products in planta.  


We developed a high-throughput methodology, termed fluorescent tagging of full-length proteins (FTFLP), to analyze expression patterns and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis gene products in planta. Determination of these parameters is a logical first step in functional characterization of the approximately one-third of all known Arabidopsis genes that encode novel proteins of unknown function. Our FTFLP-based approach offers two significant advantages: first, it produces internally-tagged full-length proteins that are likely to exhibit native intracellular localization, and second, it yields information about the tissue specificity of gene expression by the use of native promoters. To demonstrate how FTFLP may be used for characterization of the Arabidopsis proteome, we tagged a series of known proteins with diverse subcellular targeting patterns as well as several proteins with unknown function and unassigned subcellular localization. PMID:15141064

Tian, Guo-Wei; Mohanty, Amitabh; Chary, S Narasimha; Li, Shijun; Paap, Brigitte; Drakakaki, Georgia; Kopec, Charles D; Li, Jianxiong; Ehrhardt, David; Jackson, David; Rhee, Seung Y; Raikhel, Natasha V; Citovsky, Vitaly



Rubisco in planta kcat is regulated in balance with photosynthetic electron transport.  


Site turnover rate (k(cat)) of Rubisco was measured in intact leaves of different plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and birch (Betula pendula Roth.) leaves were taken from field-growing plants. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wild type (wt), Rubisco-deficient (-RBC), FNR-deficient (-FNR), and Cyt b(6)f deficient (-CBF) transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were grown in a growth chamber. Rubisco protein was measured with quantitative SDS-PAGE and FNR protein content with quantitative immunoblotting. The Cyt b(6)f level was measured in planta by maximum electron transport rate and the photosystem I (PSI) content was assessed by titration with far-red light. The CO(2) response of Rubisco was measured in planta with a fast-response gas exchange system at maximum ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate concentration. Reaction site k(cat) was calculated from V(m) and Rubisco content. Biological variation of k(cat) was significant, ranging from 1.5 to 4 s(-1) in wt, but was >6 s(-1) at 23 degrees C in -RBC leaves. The lowest k(cat) of 0.5 s(-1) was measured in -FNR and -CBF plants containing sufficient Rubisco but having slow electron transport rates. Plotting k(cat) against PSI per Rubisco site resulted in a hyperbolic relationship where wt plants are on the initial slope. A model is suggested in which Rubisco Activase is converted into an active ATP-form on thylakoid membranes with the help of a factor related to electron transport. The activation of Rubisco is accompanied by the conversion of the ATP-form into an inactive ADP-form. The ATP and ADP forms of Activase shuttle between thylakoid membranes and stromally-located Rubisco. In normal wt plants the electron transport-related activation of Activase is rate-limiting, maintaining 50-70% Rubisco sites in the inactive state. PMID:19661266

Eichelmann, H; Talts, E; Oja, V; Padu, E; Laisk, A



The in-planta induced ecp 2 gene of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is not essential for pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the colonization of tomato leaves, the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum excretes low-molecular-weight proteins in the intercellular spaces of the host tissue. These proteins are encoded by the ecp genes which are highly expressed in C. fulvum while growing in planta but are not, or are only weakly, expressed in C. fulvum grown in vitro. To investigate the function of

Roland Marmeisse; Guido F. J. M. Van den Ackerveken; Theo Goosen; Henk W. J. Van den Broek



Single, Ancient Origin of a Plastid Metabolite Translocator Family in Plantae from an Endomembrane-Derived Ancestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) in red, green, and glaucophyte algae (Plantae) likely had a single origin from a cyanobacterial endosymbiosis (8, 17). This ancient (ca. 1 to 1.5 billion years ago) (10, 24) event was followed by the transfer of genetic material from the endosymbiont to the nuclear genome of the host, the evolution of a protein import apparatus for

Andreas P. M. Weber; Marc Linka; Debashish Bhattacharya



Expression of the Phytophthora infestans ipiB and ipi0 genes in planta and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ipiB and ipiO genes of the potato late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary were isolated from a genomic library in a screen for genes induced in planta. Expression of these genes was studied during pathogenesis on various host tissues and different host plants, some of which show specific resistance against P. infestans infection. During pathogenesis on leaves

Corné M. J. Pieterse; Anne-Marie C. E. Derksen; Jindra Folders; Francine Govers



Efficacy of phosphonic acid, metalaxyl-M and copper hydroxide against Phytophthora ramorum in vitro and in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of metalaxyl-M, phosphonic acid in the form of phosphonate, and copper hydroxide to inhibit different stages in the life cycle of Phytophthora ramorum , the causal agent of sudden oak death (SOD), was tested in vitro using 12 isolates from the North American forest lineage. In addition, experiments were conducted in planta to study the ability of phosphonic

M. Garbelotto; T. Y. Harnik; D. J. Schmidt



Transformation of the ryegrass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii can alter its in planta mycelial morphology.  


The fungus Neotyphodium lolii grows in the intercellular spaces of perennial ryegrass as a mutualistic endosymbiont. One of the benefits it conveys to the plant is the production of alkaloids toxic to herbivores. We wanted to determine in planta expression patterns of the N. lolii 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG CoA reductase) gene, believed to be involved in the synthesis of two of these alkaloid toxins, lolitrem B and ergovaline. We transformed the N. lolii strain Lp19 with plasmids, in which DNA fragments upstream of the open reading frame of the N. lolii HMG CoA reductase gene controlled expression of the GUS (gusA; Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase) reporter gene. In exponentially growing cultures, the GUS gene was not expressed if the length of upstream sequence was less than 400 bp, and >1100 bp were required for maximum expression. When reintroduced into ryegrass plants, transformants often showed highly increased hyphal branching compared to the wild-type parent strain, although in culture their growth kinetics and morphology were indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Deterioration of hyphae and the hypha-plant interface occurred and in one transformant reduced tillering (formation of new plants, referred to in agronomy as tillers) and death of infected plants. We found no evidence that these abnormalities were caused by interference of the construct with the function of the native gene, as judged by analysis of the site of integration of the promoter-GUS cassette, expression of the native gene and lolitrem B and ergovaline levels in infected plants. However, there was some correlation between GUS expression and the degree of hyphal branching, suggesting that high levels of beta-glucuronidase may disturb the symbiotic interaction. Levels of another alkaloid, peramine, were also not significantly affected by transformation. In previous studies increased in planta branching of the endophyte has been shown to be associated with a severe reduction of alkaloid production. Our results show that a plant-endophyte association in which increased branching occurs is still able to produce alkaloids. PMID:16769511

Zhang, Ningxin; Scott, Vicki; Al-Samarrai, Taha H; Tan, Yong Y; Spiering, Martin J; McMillan, Lisa K; Lane, Geoffrey A; Scott, D Barry; Christensen, Michael J; Schmid, Jan



Detection and visualization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.  


Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. PMID:17827325

Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C



Quantitative assessment of in planta distribution of metabolic activity and gene expression of an endophytic fungus.  


Using perennial ryegrass infected with an Acremonium transformant carrying the Escherichia coli beta-D-glucuronidase gene (gusA) (GUS system) under control of a constitutive promoter, we have developed methods for the quantitative extraction of endophyte-associated GUS activity from plant material. Fluorometric assays of these extracts allow quantitative assessment of the distribution of endophyte-associated GUS activity within single plants (tillers) with high resolution. Fluorescence microscopy with the dye Imagene Green can in addition visualize individual GUS-expressing hyphae. Since the transformant expresses the GUS gene constitutively, GUS activity can be used as an indicator of in planta endophyte metabolic activity. Using this approach we found that (i) the concentration of endophyte metabolic activity in plant tissue decreases with increasing plant size, (ii) approximately 70% of endophyte metabolic activity present in a plant is located in the leaf sheaths, (iii) basal-apical gradients and lateral (younger to older tissue) gradients of endophyte metabolic activity exist and (iv) basal-apical gradients are established early in leaf development. Our data suggest that the concentration of endophyte in each part of the plant is regulated so that a predetermined threshold of total endophyte activity per plant is not exceeded and a consistent distribution pattern is maintained. PMID:10627142

Herd, S; Christensen, M J; Saunders, K; Scott, D B; Schmid, J



Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta  

SciTech Connect

Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

Brodzik, R. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Bandurska, K. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Deka, D. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Golovkin, M. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Koprowski, H. [Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)]. E-mail:



Characterization of VIP1 activity as a transcriptional regulator in vitro and in planta.  


VIP1 (VirE2 interacting protein 1), initially discovered as a host protein involved in Agrobacterium-plant cell DNA transfer, is a transcription factor of the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain family that regulates several defence-related genes in Arabidopsis. We have developed assays to assess VIP1 binding to its DNA target in vitro and transcriptional activation efficiency in planta. Several point mutations in the VIP1 response element VRE affected the VIP1 activity, and a strong correlation between VIP1-VRE binding and transcriptional activation levels was observed. Promoter activation by VIP1 was influenced by bacterial and plant proteins known to interact with VIP1 during Agrobacterium infection, i.e., VirE2, VirF and VIP2. VirF, an F-box protein, strongly decreased VIP1 transcriptional activation ability, but not its binding to VRE in vitro, most likely by triggering proteasomal degradation of VIP1. Finally, activation of a VRE-containing promoter was observed in dividing cells, probably resulting from activation of endogenous VIP1. PMID:23942522

Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly



Rapid in planta evaluation of root expressed transgenes in chimeric soybean plants.  


Production of stable transgenic plants is one factor that limits rapid evaluation of tissue specific transgene expression. To hasten the assessment of transgenes in planta, we evaluated the use of chimeric soybean seedlings expressing transgenic products in roots. Tap roots from four-day old seedlings (cultivars 'Jack' and KS4704) were excised and hairy roots were induced from hypocotyls via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Inoculated hypocotyls were screened on a MS-based medium containing either 200 mg/L kanamycin or 20 mg/L hygromycin. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay indicated that highest GUS expression was observed in hypocotyls exposed to a 4-d pre-inoculation time, a neutral pH (7.0) for the co-cultivation medium. A 170-bp of the Fib-1 gene and 292-bp of the Y25C1A.5 gene fragments, both related to nematode reproduction and fitness, were cloned independently into pANDA35HK vector using a Gateway cloning strategy. The resulting RNAi constructs of the genes fragments were transformed into soybean using the chimeric hairy root system and evaluated for its effect on soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) fecundity. Confirmation of transformation was attained by polymerase chain reaction and Southern-blot analysis, and some potential for suppression of H. glycines reproduction was detected for the two constructs. This method takes on average four weeks to produce chimeric plants ready for transgene analysis. PMID:20012965

Li, Jiarui; Todd, Timothy C; Trick, Harold N



Phylogeny of nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins supports an early divergence of glaucophytes within Plantae.  


The phylogenetic position of the glaucophyte algae within the eukaryotic supergroup Plantae remains to be unambiguously established. Here, we assembled a multigene data set of conserved nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins of cyanobacterial origin (i.e., through primary endosymbiotic gene transfer) from glaucophyte, red, and green (including land plants) algae to infer the branching order within this supergroup. We find strong support for the early divergence of glaucophytes within the Plantae, corroborating 2 important putatively ancestral characters shared by glaucophyte plastids and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to this organelle: the presence of a peptidoglycan deposition between the 2 organelle membranes and carboxysomes. Both these traits were apparently lost in the common ancestor of red and green algae after the divergence of glaucophytes. PMID:17827169

Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Bhattacharya, Debashish



In Planta Distribution of ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ as Revealed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tatineni, S., Sagaram, U. S., Gowda, S., Robertson, C. J., Dawson, W. O., Iwanami, T., and Wang, N. 2008. In planta distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Phytopathology 98:592-599. Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide, and is caused by a phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic ?- proteobacterium

Satyanarayana Tatineni; Uma Shankar Sagaram; Siddarame Gowda; Cecile J. Robertson; William O. Dawson; Toru Iwanami; Nian Wang



Phylogeny of Nuclear-Encoded Plastid-Targeted Proteins Supports an Early Divergence of Glaucophytes within Plantae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic position of the glaucophyte algae within the eukaryotic supergroup Plantae remains to be unambiguously established. Here, we assembled a multigene data set of conserved nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins of cyanobacterial origin (i.e., through primary endosymbiotic gene transfer) from glaucophyte, red, and green (including land plants) algae to infer the branching order within this supergroup. We find strong support for

Adrian Reyes-Prieto; Debashish Bhattacharya



Single-Cell Raman Spectral Profiles of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 Reflects in vitro and in planta Metabolic History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-cell Raman microspectroscopy has the potential to report on the whole-cell chemical composition of bacteria, reflecting\\u000a metabolic status as well as growth history. This potential has been demonstrated through the discriminant functional analysis\\u000a of Raman spectral profiles (RSP) obtained from the soil and plant-associated bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, grown in vitro using defined media, and in planta using 3-month-old sugar

Wei E. Huang; Mark J. Bailey; Ian P. Thompson; Andrew S. Whiteley; Andrew J. Spiers




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos de campo com o feijão -mungo-verde (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), variedade Ouro Verde: um no verão-outono e outro na primavera-verão, em Coimbra -MG, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes herbicidas sobre o control e de plantas daninhas e sobre a cultura. Foi usado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com



Behavior of RNAi suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus in planta in presence and absence of virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2b protein encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been shown as a virus counter defense factor that interferes with the RNAi pathway. The 2b gene from CMV-banana,\\u000a New Delhi isolate (CMV-NDLS) was amplified from CMV infected cucumber plants to generate the sense and antisense binary vector\\u000a constructs for 2b expression and repression in planta. Constitutive expression of 2b

Shelly Praveen; Satendra K. Mangrauthia; Priyanka Singh; Anil K. Mishra



Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).  


An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 ?M acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days). PMID:23852797

Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy



A rapid assay to quantify the cleavage efficiency of custom-designed nucleases in planta.  


Custom-designed nucleases are a promising technology for genome editing through the catalysis of double-strand DNA breaks within target loci and subsequent repair by the host cell, which can result in targeted mutagenesis or gene replacement. Implementing this new technology requires a rapid means to determine the cleavage efficiency of these custom-designed proteins in planta. Here we present such an assay that is based on cleavage-dependent luciferase gene correction as part of a transient dual-luciferase(®) reporter (Promega) expression system. This assay consists of co-infiltrating Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains: one contains the target sequence embedded within a luciferase reporter gene and the second strain contains the custom-designed nuclease gene(s). We compared repair following site-specific nuclease digestion through non-homologous DNA end-joining, as opposed to single strand DNA annealing, as a means to restore an out-of-frame luciferase gene cleavage-reporter construct. We show, using luminometer measurements and bioluminescence imaging, that the assay for non-homologous end-joining is sensitive, quantitative, reproducible and rapid in estimating custom-designed nucleases' cleavage efficiency. We detected cleavage by two out of three transcription activator-like effector nucleases that we custom-designed for targets in the Arabidopsis CRUCIFERIN3 gene, and we compared with the well-established 'QQR' zinc-finger nuclease. The assay we report requires only standard equipment and basic plant molecular biology techniques, and it can be carried out within a few days. Different types of custom-designed nucleases can be preliminarily tested in our assay system before their downstream application in plant genome editing. PMID:23625357

Johnson, Ross A; Gurevich, Vyacheslav; Levy, Avraham A



Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.  

PubMed Central

The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4?ng??g?1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4?ng??g?1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har2] nodularin, which contains ?-homoarginine instead of ?-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74?ng?ml?1 (approximately 3?pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har2] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har2] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta.

Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A



Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure.

Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.



A new scenario of plastid evolution: plastid primary endosymbiosis before the divergence of the "Plantae," emended.  


A recent hypothesis on the origin of eukaryotic phototrophs proposes that red algae, green plants (land plants plus green algae), and glaucophytes constitute the primary photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose plastids may have originated directly from a cyanobacterium-like prokaryote via primary endosymbiosis, whereas the plastids of other lineages of eukaryotic phototrophs appear to be the result of secondary endosymbiotic events involving a phototrophic eukaryote and a host cell. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the three lineages of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes remained unresolved because previous nuclear multigene phylogenies used incomplete red algal gene sequences derived mainly from Porphyra (Rhodophyceae, one of the two lineages of the Rhodophyta), and lacked sequences from the Cyanidiophyceae (the other red algal lineage). Recently, the complete nuclear genome sequences from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D of the Cyanidiophyceae were determined. Using this genomic information, nuclear multigene phylogenetic analyses of various lineages of mitochondrion-containing eukaryotes were conducted. Since bacterial and amitochondrial eukaryotic genes present serious problems to eukaryotic phylogenies, basal eukaryotes were deduced based on the paralogous comparison of the concatenated alpha- and beta-tubulin. The comparison demonstrated that cellular slime molds (Amoebozoa) represent the most basal position within the mitochondrion-containing organisms. With the cellular slime molds as the outgroup, phylogenetic analyses based on a 1,525-amino acid sequence of four concatenated nuclear genes [actin, elongation factor-1alpha( EF-1alpha), alpha-tubulin, and beta-tubulin] resolved the presence of two large, robust monophyletic groups and the basal eukaryotic lineages (Amoebozoa). One of the two groups corresponded to the Opisthokonta (Metazoa and Fungi), whereas the other included various lineages containing primary and secondary plastids (red algae, green plants, glaucophytes, euglenoids, heterokonts, and apicomplexans), Ciliophora, Kinetoplastida, dinoflagellates, and Heterolobosea, for which the red algae represented the most basal lineage. Therefore, the plastid primary endosymbiosis likely occurred once in the common ancestor of the latter group, and the primary plastids were subsequently lost in the ancestor(s) of organisms within the group that now lacks primary plastids. A new concept of Plantae was proposed for phototrophic and nonphototrophic organisms belonging to this group on the basis of their common history of plastid primary endosymbiosis. This new scenario of plastid evolution is discussed here, and is compared with recent genome information and findings on the secondary endosymbiosis of the Euglena plastid. PMID:16032387

Nozaki, Hisayoshi



The In Planta Transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: Conserved Physiological and Virulence Strategies during Bacterial Wilt of Tomato  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109 CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 108 CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle.

Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn



Mobilité professionnelle et salaire : des différences entre hommes et femmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Mobilité professionnelle et salaire : des différences entre hommes et femmes . Les dix à quinze premières années de carrière ne présentent pas la même rentabilité, sur le plan du salaire, pour les hommes et pour les femmes. Même quand leurs diplômes sont comparables, leurs débuts de carrière le sont rarement - carrière étant entendue comme la succession d'épisodes

Véronique Simonnet



España, entre Europa y América: un ensayo interpretativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este último artículo del dossier presenta algunas hipótesis de interpretación sobre la historia de la política exterior española durante el siglo xx.Los elementos centrales son la relación entre España y el resto de los Estados continentales; la imagen de las instituciones europeas; los sentimientos encontrados hacia Estados Unidos, su política y su sociedad; y las cambiantes percepciones, estrategias e intereses

Florentino Portero



Identidad étnica y redes personales entre jóvenes de Sarajevo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Después de un trabajo de campo realizado con algunos jóvenes en Sarajevo, hemos encontrado una relación entre los discursos que sostienen y las categorías que utilizan tanto para clasificar a las personas como para auto-identificarse. Asimismo hemos observado que la gente que se autodenomina \\

Claudia Aguilar; José Luis Molina


O casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. Sobre \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

O artigo constitui uma primeira reflexão sobre dados de uma pesquisa realizada em Barcelona. O debate público sobre o casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo revela as tensões sociais em torno do género, da sexualidade, da conjugalidade, da procriação e da parentalidade. As representações simbólicas e os discursos ideológicos sobre estes campos vêem revelado o seu carácter construído no momento




Les temps partiels : entre emplois choisis et emplois \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les temps partiels : entre emplois choisis Les emplois à temps partiel correspondent à des situations individuelles bien différentes les unes des autres. À côté des femmes à temps partiel « scolaire », il y a toutes celles qui occupent des emplois, traditionnellement dévolus aux femmes et aux horaires courts, comme vendeuses ou femmes de ménage. Il y a

Bénédicte Galtier



As Relações entre Autismo, Comportamento Social e Função Executiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O objetivo do presente artigo é discutir o papel do lobo frontal nos comportamentos que caracterizam a síndrome do autismo. Focaliza, em especial, as possíveis relações entre função executiva, teoria da mente e habilidade de atenção compartilhada. Conclui-se que, apesar da investigação sobre a hipótese de comprometimento da função executiva como déficit subjacente ao autismo ser uma área promissora,

Cleonice Alves Bosa



Conserved active site sequences in Arabidopsis plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX): in vitro and in planta mutagenesis studies.  


The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is distantly related to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX). Both are members of the diiron carboxylate quinol oxidase (DOX) class of proteins. PTOX and AOX contain 20 highly conserved amino acids, six of which are Fe-binding ligands. We have previously used in vitro and in planta activity assays to examine the functional importance of the Fe-binding sites. In this report, we conduct alanine-scanning mutagenesis on the 14 other conserved sites using our in vitro and in planta assay procedures. We found that the 14 sites fall into three classes: (i) Ala-139, Pro-142, Glu-171, Asn-174, Leu-179, Pro-216, Ala-230, Asp-287, and Arg-293 are dispensable for activity; (ii) Tyr-234 and Asp-295 are essential for activity; and (iii) Leu-135, His-151, and Tyr-212 are important but not essential for activity. Our data are consistent with the proposed role of some of these residues in active site conformation, substrate binding, and/or catalysis. Titration experiments showed that down-regulation of PTOX to approximately 3% of wild-type levels did not compromise plant growth, at least under ambient growth conditions. This suggests that PTOX is normally in excess, especially early in thylakoid membrane biogenesis. PMID:19542226

Fu, Aigen; Aluru, Maneesha; Rodermel, Steven R



Quorum-sensing signals produced by plant-growth promoting Burkholderia strains under in vitro and in planta conditions.  


The genus Burkholderia is a heterogeneous group with extraordinary nutritional versatility and which occupies a diversity of niches. In recent decades, members of Burkholderia have been shown to be active participants in plant-microbe interactions, imparting beneficial effects as plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) or as pathogens. The study of quorum sensing and cell-density-dependent gene regulation, which play an important role in host colonization and pathogenesis, is extremely important in such a versatile organism. We report the identification and characterization by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing signal molecules by PGP Burkholderia. The Burkholderia spp. strains CBMB40, CBPB-HOD and CBPB-HIM investigated in this study were isolated from rice and possessed one or more PGP characteristics. Culture extracts of these strains contained detectable levels of hexanoyl (C(6)-), heptanoyl (C(7)-) and octanoyl (C(8)-) HSLs. Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 produced an additional molecule that migrated along decanoyl (C(10)-) HSL. Inoculation of HSL-producing Burkholderia strains through seed bacterization to canola stimulated root elongation. Signal molecules produced by Burkholderia strains could also be detected in planta, as determined by plate assays and TLC analysis of plant extracts. This study advances the hypothesis that signaling molecules by PGPB in planta might play a substantial role in increasing the pathogen resistance of plants. PMID:17350232

Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tongmin



Controle de qualidade de produtos à base de plantas medicinais comercializados na cidade do Recife-PE: erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L.), quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus spp.), espinheira santa (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart.) e camomila (Matricaria recutita L.) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: As plantas têm sido bastante utilizadas para a cura de doenças e por isso, a cada dia, mais fitoterápicos têm sido colocados à disposição no mercado. Apesar do aumento no consumo de diferentes produtos a base de plantas medicinais, fatores como a precariedade na fiscalização da produção e da venda têm comprometido a qualidade dos mesmos. O presente trabalho

V. T. Nascimento; E. U. Lacerda; J. G. Melo; E. L. C. Amorim


Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes  

PubMed Central

Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids.

Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed



Donnees experimentales sur la diffusion des elements majeurs entre verres ou liquides de compositions basaltique, rhyolitique et phonolitique, entre 900°C et 1300°C, a pression ordinaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Un processus expérimental de diffusion entre cylindres coaxiaux a permis d'analyser à la microsonde électronique les profils de diffusion des éléments Si, Ti, Al, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe entre trois couples de matériaux provenant de la fusion de roches naturelles de compositions basaltique, rhyolitique et phonolitique. Les coefficients de diffusion calculés sont très voisins pour tous les cations et

Chantal Alibert; Jean-Paul Carron



Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.  


Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta. PMID:20549230

Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim



Agrobacterium Mediated In Planta Transformation of Field Bean ( Lablab purpureus L.) and Recovery of Stable Transgenic Plants Expressing the cry 1AcF Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amenability and reproducibility of a tissue culture-independent Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation strategy was analyzed in field bean and the stability of the transgenes was examined. The protocol\\u000a involves in planta inoculation of embryo axes of germinating seeds and allowing them to grow into seedlings ex vitro. Transformants were raised using a chimeric Bt gene, cry1AcF, and putative transformants were analyzed

E. Keshamma; Rohini Sreevathsa; A. Manoj Kumar; Kalpana N. Reddy; M. Manjulatha; N. B. Shanmugam; A. R. V. Kumar; M. Udayakumar


Multiple gene co-integration in Arabidopsis thaliana predominantly occurs in the same genetic locus after simultaneous in planta transformation with distinct Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 243 transgenic T1-plant lines were produced by in planta transformation of Arabidopsis by a mixture of three distinct Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying different plasmid constructs. PCR analysis indicated that about 30% of the transgenic plants were transformed with two different T-DNAs and additional 9.5% of the plants carried all genes from three different T-DNAs. Southern analysis revealed

Volodymyr V. Radchuk; Dang Thi Van; Evelyn Klocke



Towards crop improvement in bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.): Transgenics ( uid A:: hpt II) by a tissue-culture-independent Agrobacterium-mediated in planta approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been one of the methods used to generate transgenic plants in bell pepper. An alternate transformation method that avoids\\/minimizes tissue culture would be beneficial for the improvement of bell pepper due to its recalcitrant nature. In this report, transgenic bell pepper plants have been developed by a tissue-culture-independent A. tumefaciens-mediated in planta transformation procedure. In the

A. Manoj Kumar; Kalpana N. Reddy; Rohini Sreevathsa; Girija Ganeshan; M. Udayakumar



Amenability of castor to an Agrobacterium -mediated in planta transformation strategy using a cry1AcF gene for insect tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated in planta transformation protocol was developed for castor, Ricinus communis. Two-day-old seedlings were infected with Agrobacterium strain EHA105\\/pBinBt8 harboring cry1AcF and established in the greenhouse. Screening the T1 generation seedlings on 300 mg L?1 kanamycin identified the putative transformants. Molecular and expression analysis confirmed the transgenic nature and identified\\u000a high-expressing plants. Western blot analysis confirmed the co-integration

Arthikala Manoj Kumar; Rohini Sreevathsa; Kalpana Nanja Reddy; Prasa Trichy Ganesh; Makarla Udayakumar



In Planta Regulation of Extension of an Endophytic Fungus and Maintenance of High Metabolic Rates in Its Mycelium in the Absence of Apical Extension  

PubMed Central

The fungus Neotyphodium lolii is an endophytic symbiont. It grows in the intercellular spaces of the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne, producing secondary metabolites which enhance the fitness of the association over that of uninfected L. perenne. We report that the average number of hyphal strands in a given section of a leaf remains constant during the life of a leaf, indicating synchrony of leaf and hyphal extension, including cessation of hyphal extension when leaf extension ceases. We used a constitutively expressed reporter gene as an indicator of the mycelium's metabolic activity during and after hyphal extension. Reporter gene activity decreased when the mycelium stopped extending in liquid culture but not in planta. This indicates that in planta endophyte hyphae remain metabolically highly active when extension has ceased and throughout the life of the leaf they are colonizing. The behavior of the fungus in planta indicates the existence of signaling pathways which (i) synchronize the extension of leaf and hypha by regulating hyphal extension, (ii) suppress hyphal branching, and (iii) stop apical extension of fungal hyphae, without reducing the mycelium's metabolic activity. These signals may be crucial for the symbiosis, by allowing the endophyte to switch the focus of its metabolic activity from extension to the production of secondary metabolites.

Tan, Yong Y.; Spiering, Martin J.; Scott, Vicki; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Christensen, Michael J.; Schmid, Jan



In planta regulation of extension of an endophytic fungus and maintenance of high metabolic rates in its mycelium in the absence of apical extension.  


The fungus Neotyphodium lolii is an endophytic symbiont. It grows in the intercellular spaces of the perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne, producing secondary metabolites which enhance the fitness of the association over that of uninfected L. perenne. We report that the average number of hyphal strands in a given section of a leaf remains constant during the life of a leaf, indicating synchrony of leaf and hyphal extension, including cessation of hyphal extension when leaf extension ceases. We used a constitutively expressed reporter gene as an indicator of the mycelium's metabolic activity during and after hyphal extension. Reporter gene activity decreased when the mycelium stopped extending in liquid culture but not in planta. This indicates that in planta endophyte hyphae remain metabolically highly active when extension has ceased and throughout the life of the leaf they are colonizing. The behavior of the fungus in planta indicates the existence of signaling pathways which (i) synchronize the extension of leaf and hypha by regulating hyphal extension, (ii) suppress hyphal branching, and (iii) stop apical extension of fungal hyphae, without reducing the mycelium's metabolic activity. These signals may be crucial for the symbiosis, by allowing the endophyte to switch the focus of its metabolic activity from extension to the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:11722882

Tan, Y Y; Spiering, M J; Scott, V; Lane, G A; Christensen, M J; Schmid, J



Validation of RT-qPCR reference genes for in planta expression studies in Hemileia vastatrix, the causal agent of coffee leaf rust.  


Hemileia vastatrix is a biotrophic fungus, causing coffee leaf rust in all coffee growing countries, leading to serious social and economic problems. Gene expression studies may have a key role unravelling the transcriptomics of this pathogen during interaction with the plant host. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is currently the golden standard for gene expression analysis, although an accurate normalisation is essential for adequate conclusions. Reference genes are often used for this purpose, but the stability of their expression levels requires validation under experimental conditions. Moreover, pathogenic fungi undergo important biomass variations along their infection process in planta, which raises the need for an adequate method to further normalise the proportion of fungal cDNA in the total plant and fungus cDNA pool. In this work, the expression profiles of seven reference genes [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), elongation factor (EF-1), Beta tubulin (?-tubulin), cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (Cyt III), cytochrome b (Cyt b), Hv00099, and 40S ribosomal protein (40S_Rib)] were analysed across 28 samples, obtained in vitro (germinated uredospores and appressoria) and in planta (post-penetration fungal growth phases). Gene stability was assessed using the statistical algorithms incorporated in geNorm and NormFinder tools. Cyt b, 40S_Rib, and Hv00099 were the most stable genes for the in vitro dataset, while 40S_Rib, GADPH, and Cyt III were the most stable in planta. For the combined datasets (in vitro and in planta), 40S_Rib, GADPH, and Hv00099 were selected as the most stable. Subsequent expression analysis for a gene encoding an alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein showed that the reference genes selected for the combined dataset do not differ significantly from those selected specifically for the in vitro and in planta datasets. Our study provides tools for correct validation of reference genes in obligate biotrophic plant pathogens, as well as the basis for RT-qPCR studies in H. vastatrix. PMID:21872186

Vieira, Ana; Talhinhas, Pedro; Loureiro, Andreia; Duplessis, Sébastien; Fernandez, Diana; Silva, Maria do Céu; Paulo, Octávio S; Azinheira, Helena Gil



In planta transcription of a second subgenomic RNA increases the complexity of the subgroup 2 luteovirus genome.  

PubMed Central

The genetic information of potato leafroll virus (PLRV), a typical member of the subgroup 2 luteoviruses, is contained in a single-stranded (+) sense RNA of approximately 5.9 kb. A single subgenomic RNA (sgRNA1) of approximately 2.3 kb has been characterized as the mRNA for the 3' clustered viral open reading frames ORF3, ORF3/5 and ORF4. Here we demonstrate by Northern blot analyses of polysomal RNAs from PLRV-infected Solanum tuberosum and Physalis floridana plants that, as with luteoviruses belonging to subgroup 1, in planta synthesis of a second 0.8 kb subgenomic RNA (sgRNA2) increases the complexity of subgroup 2 luteoviral genomes significantly. PLRV-specific hybridization probes as well as primer extension experiments map sgRNA2 to the 3'-end of the PLRV RNA genome (positions 5190-5987). Similarly, for the closely related cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) a sgRNA2 of similar size and position (positions 4888-5669) was identified. PLRV sgRNA2 may code for two viral proteins of 7.1 (ORF6) and 14 kDa (ORF7) respectively, while the CABYV proteins are 8.7 (ORF6) and 8.3 kDa (ORF7) in size, with PLRV ORF7 displaying nucleic acid binding activity. In vivo experiments by transient expression of chimeric GUS fusions in potato protoplasts demonstrated that sgRNA2 functions as a bicistronic mRNA with high expression of ORF6 and low translational efficiency for synthesis of ORF7.

Ashoub, A; Rohde, W; Prufer, D



In planta analysis of a cis-regulatory cytokinin response motif in Arabidopsis and identification of a novel enhancer sequence.  


The phytohormone cytokinin plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and is involved in numerous physiological responses to environmental changes. The type-B response regulators, which regulate the transcription of cytokinin response genes, are a part of the cytokinin signaling system. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5'-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3' or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5'-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3'. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between -220 and -193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes. PMID:23620480

Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Brenner, Wolfram G; Pfeifer, Andreas; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas



Une mesure de la discrimination dans l'écart de salaire entre hommes et femmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Una medición de la discriminación en la diferencia de salario entre hombres y mujeres Las diferencias de salario entre hombres y mujeres se deben a multiples factores. Primero, los empleos ocupados no tienen las mismas caracterlsticas: las duraciones medias de trabajo de las mujeres son más cortas, esencialmente a causa del tiempo parcial (que afecta a un tercio de

Dominique Meurs; Sophie Ponthieux



La baisse des charges en France : Un bon compromis entre emploi et productivité  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous proposons une maquette du marché du travail à tems complet sur le segment des moins qualifiés, tenant compte des interdépendances entre offre et demande de travail et dans laquelle les distributions de salaire et de productivité sont endogènes, résultat d’un jeu stratégique entre entreprises. La reproduction de la distribution observée des salaires nous permet d’identifier précisément les paramètres structurels

Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot



The Small Subunit of Snapdragon Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase Modifies the Chain Length Specificity of Tobacco Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase in Planta[W  

PubMed Central

Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta.

Orlova, Irina; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.; Kish, Christine M.; Gutensohn, Michael; Maeda, Hiroshi; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Krichevsky, Alexander; Citovsky, Vitaly; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia




Microsoft Academic Search

A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de grande interesse madeireiro, encontrando-se, atualmente, bastante dizimada. Em trabalhos anteriores, foi observado que as folhas novas de plantas jovens de grápia apresentaram sintomas visuais indicativos de deficiência de Fe na presença de doses crescentes de P. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar os efeitos da interação da

Evandro Luiz Missio; Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso



Comparação entre o desempenho motor de homens e mulheres em séries múltiplas de exercícios com pesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A magnitude das respostas neuromusculares, metabólicas e morfológicas de homens e mulheres parece ser bastante diferen- ciada até mesmo quando esses sujeitos são submetidos a proto- colos de exercícios com pesos semelhantes. Todavia, as diferen- ças no desempenho motor entre homens e mulheres têm sido relatadas predominantemente em protocolos baseados em con- trações isométricas e isocinéticas. Assim, o objetivo

Emanuel Péricles Salvador; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; André Luiz Demantova Gurjão; Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias; Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Arli Ramos de Oliveira



Sur le comportement magnétique de l'acide desoxyribonucléique (ADN) entre 80 et 300°K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deux échantillons d'acide desoxyribonucléique (ADN) sont étudiés, préparés à partir du thymus de veau, l'un «simple», l'autre hautement polymérisé et très pur. Le comportement magnétique du système est représenté entre 80 et 300°K par la relation\\u000a

N. Perakis; F. Kern




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este trabalho analisa as diferenças entre os títulos de press releases publicados por duas empresas brasileiras de telecomunicações e de notícias correspondentes publicadas por um jornal on-line, em uma análise comparativa feita com base na metafunção ideacional descrita pela Lingüística Sistêmico-Funcional. A análise comparativa dos títulos identificou inclusões e exclusões de participantes e diferenças nas funções de transitividade atribuídas

Mauro Tadeu Baptista SOBHIE


Le rééquilibrage entre le secteur public et le secteur privé : Le cas du Mexique  

Microsoft Academic Search

La politique de rééquilibrage entre le secteur public et le secteur privé au Mexique s'inscrit dans une redéfinition du modèle de développement qui le ferait passer de la priorité traditionnellement donnée à la substitution aux importations à la priorité de la compétitivité internationale. Les changements structurels qui en découlent comportent deux volets. D'une part, ils visent à redimensionner le secteur

Charles-Albert Michalet



Crise de la balance des paiements et substituabilité entre monnaie et consommation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Crise de la balance des paiements et substituabilité entre monnaie et consommation. . Cet article étudie une crise de la balance des paiements dans un modèle d'optimisation intertemporelle à monnaie dans la fonction d'utilité. Comme chez Krugman [1979] ou Calvo [1987], la crise découle du maintien du taux de dévaluation du change à un niveau inconséquent (politique de stabilisation

Patrick Villieu




Microsoft Academic Search

Se realizo una comparacion entre metodos Evaluation of methods for available de analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Zn in four soil orders in Costa Rica. Analyti- los de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles cal methods for available Zn determination we- e Inceptisoles, 25 de c\\/u), utilizando las siguientes re evaluated on four soil orders in Costa

Eloy Molina; Elemer Bomemisza


Cooperación en I+D e innovación entre empresas argentinas y españolas: una aproximación empírica  

Microsoft Academic Search

La cooperación inter-empresas está experimentando una fuerte expansión a nivel internacional. El presente trabajo pretende profundizar en este fenómeno, considerando las relaciones de cooperación en I+D e innovación entre empresas argentinas y españolas. A partir de la revisión de la bibliografía, se implementó una encuesta a una muestra de 540 empresas susceptibles de haber participado en proyectos de cooperación, obteniendo

Mónica Edwards Schachter; Guillermo Anlló; Elena Castro-Martínez; Ignacio Fernández-de-Lucio




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo:A partir de exame bibliográfico, perspectiva interdisciplinar e observação empírica, este estudo pretende, dentro do contexto latino-americano (Brasil e América Hispânica) das ditaduras militares, discutir algumas das possíveis relações entre temas polêmicos como o feminismo, crítica literária feminista e engajamento político, debatidos em certos setores da mídia e refletidos em obras literárias. Textos da ar gentina Marta Pynch, da costaricense

Vera Lúcia Dietzel


Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.  


Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions. PMID:15947906

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh



Assessing the role of root plasma membrane and tonoplast Na+/H+ exchangers in salinity tolerance in wheat: in planta quantification methods.  


This work investigates the role of cytosolic Na+ exclusion in roots as a means of salinity tolerance in wheat, and offers in planta methods for the functional assessment of major transporters contributing to this trait. An electrophysiological protocol was developed to quantify the activity of plasma membrane Na+ efflux systems in roots, using the microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE) technique. We show that active efflux of Na+ from wheat root epidermal cells is mediated by a SOS1-like homolog, energized by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. SOS1-like efflux activity was highest in Kharchia 65, a salt-tolerant bread wheat cultivar. Kharchia 65 also had an enhanced ability to sequester large quantities of Na+ into the vacuoles of root cells, as revealed by confocal microscopy using Sodium Green. These findings were consistent with the highest level of expression of both SOS1 and NHX1 transcripts in plant roots in this variety. In the sensitive wheat varieties, a greater proportion of Na+ was located in the root cell cytosol. Overall, our findings suggest a critical role of cytosolic Na+ exclusion for salinity tolerance in wheat and offer convenient protocols to quantify the contribution of the major transporters conferring this trait, to screen plants for salinity tolerance. PMID:21342209

Cuin, Tracey A; Bose, Jayakumar; Stefano, Giovanni; Jha, Deepa; Tester, Mark; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey



Specific In Planta Recognition of Two GKLR Proteins of the Downy Mildew Bremia lactucae Revealed in a Large Effector Screen in Lettuce.  


Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein. PMID:23883357

Stassen, Joost H M; Boer, Erik den; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido



Laser photoacoustic detection allows in planta detection of nitric oxide in tobacco following challenge with avirulent and virulent Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars.  


We demonstrate the use of laser photoacoustic detection (LPAD) as a highly sensitive method to detect in planta nitric oxide ((*)NO) production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). LPAD calibration against (*)NO gas demonstrated a linear relationship over 2 orders of magnitude with a detection threshold of <20 pmol h(-1) (1 part per billion volume [ppbv]). The specificity of the photoacoustic signal for (*)NO when adding gas or the (*)NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on injection into plant leaves, was demonstrated by its abolition with O(3) ((*)NO + O(3) --> NO(2) + O(2)). The utility of the LPAD method was shown by examination of a nonhost hypersensitive response and a disease induced by Pseudomonas syringae (P. s.) pv phaseolicola and P. s. pv tabaci in tobacco. (*)NO was detected within 40 min of challenge with P. s. pv phaseolicola, some 5 h before the initiation of visible tissue collapse. The wildfire tobacco pathogen P. s. pv tabaci initiated (*)NO generation at 2 h postinfection. The use of (*)NO donors, the scavenger CPTIO ([4-carboxyphenyl]-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-oxide), and the mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NMMA (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) indicated that (*)NO influenced the kinetics of cell death and resistance to both avirulent and virulent bacteria in tobacco. These observations suggest that (*)NO is integral to the elicitation of cell death associated with these two bacterial pathogens in tobacco. PMID:16009999

Mur, Luis A J; Santosa, I Edi; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Holton, Nicholas J; Harren, Frans J M; Smith, Aileen R



Laser Photoacoustic Detection Allows in Planta Detection of Nitric Oxide in Tobacco following Challenge with Avirulent and Virulent Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars1  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the use of laser photoacoustic detection (LPAD) as a highly sensitive method to detect in planta nitric oxide (.NO) production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). LPAD calibration against .NO gas demonstrated a linear relationship over 2 orders of magnitude with a detection threshold of <20 pmol h?1 (1 part per billion volume [ppbv]). The specificity of the photoacoustic signal for .NO when adding gas or the .NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on injection into plant leaves, was demonstrated by its abolition with O3 (.NO + O3 ? NO2 + O2). The utility of the LPAD method was shown by examination of a nonhost hypersensitive response and a disease induced by Pseudomonas syringae (P. s.) pv phaseolicola and P. s. pv tabaci in tobacco. .NO was detected within 40 min of challenge with P. s. pv phaseolicola, some 5 h before the initiation of visible tissue collapse. The wildfire tobacco pathogen P. s. pv tabaci initiated .NO generation at 2 h postinfection. The use of .NO donors, the scavenger CPTIO ([4-carboxyphenyl]-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-oxide), and the mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl-l-arginine) indicated that .NO influenced the kinetics of cell death and resistance to both avirulent and virulent bacteria in tobacco. These observations suggest that .NO is integral to the elicitation of cell death associated with these two bacterial pathogens in tobacco.

Mur, Luis A.J.; Santosa, I. Edi; Laarhoven, Lucas J.J.; Holton, Nicholas J.; Harren, Frans J.M.; Smith, Aileen R.



A Functional Histidine-Tagged Replication Initiator Protein: Implications for the Study of Single-Stranded DNA Virus Replication In Planta  

PubMed Central

Replication initiation of nanoviruses, plant viruses with a multipartite circular single-stranded DNA genome, is triggered by the master Rep (M-Rep) protein. To enable the study of interactions between M-Rep and viral or host factors involved in replication, we designed oligohistidine-tagged variants of the nanovirus Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) M-Rep protein that allow affinity purification of enzymatically active M-Rep from plant tissue. The tagged M-Rep protein was able to initiate replication of its cognate and other FBNYV DNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf disks and plants. The replicon encoding the tagged M-Rep protein multiplied and moved systemically in FBNYV-infected Vicia faba plants and was transmitted by the aphid vector of the virus. Using the tagged M-Rep protein, we demonstrated the in planta interaction between wild-type M-Rep and its tagged counterpart. Such a tagged and fully functional replication initiator protein will have bearings on the isolation of protein complexes from plants.

Vega-Arreguin, Julio C.; Timchenko, Tatiana; Gronenborn, Bruno; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia



In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection.

Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua




Microsoft Academic Search

BORBA, H.R.; AMORIM, A. de (Anthelmintic action of plants XIV. Evaluation of the activity of aqueous extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides l. (Erva-de-Santa-Maria) in mice naturally infected with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera.) Ação anti-helmíntica de plantas XIV. Avaliação da atividade de extratos aquosos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Erva-de-Santa-Maria) em camundongos naturalmente infectados com Syphacia obvelata e Aspiculuris tetraptera. Revista Brasileira



Interaction entre lacunes dans l'aluminium trempé à 4°K  

Microsoft Academic Search

De 1'aluminium de haute pureté a été trempé depuis des temperatures comprises entre 180° et 550°C jusqu' à 4,2°K. Le comportement des lacunes pendant la trempe et au cours des recuits ultérieurs a été étudié au moyen de. mesures de résitivité électrique et d'observations de microscopic électroniqueLe profil du spectre do restauration semble indiquer que plus de deux espèces mobiles

Par Viviane Levy; J. M. Lanore; J. Hillairet



Malacofauna continental holocena y paleoambientes en Villa Valle María (Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molluscan fauna recovered from Holocene continental sediments at Villa Valle María fossiliferous locality (Diamante, Entre Ríos, Argentina), eolian in origin and dated at 2,490±45 14C yrs. B.P. on Bulimulus sp, is reported. It represents the first illustrated record of Quaternary molluscs from loess sequences in Argentina. It is represented exclusively by land snails which belong to five gastropod families

Marina L. Aguirre; Sergio E. Miquel; C. Adrián González; Daniela Kröhling; Alejandro F. Zucol; Mariana Brea; Christopher Eastoe



Comprendre une société confrontée à la guerre civile : le Midi toulousain entre 1562 et 1596  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Entre 1560 et 1600, alors que le royaume de France est plongé dans les troubles de religion, le Midi toulousain apparaît comme un territoire original de cette forme de guerre civile. Citadelle d'un catholicisme intransigeant, Toulouse s'impose comme fer de lance de la défense de l'Église romaine au centre d'un axe s'étendant du Comminges au Rouergue en passant par

Pierre-Jean Souriac



Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.



Antagonism of the Two-Needle Pine Stem Rust Fungi Cronartium flaccidum and Peridermium pini by Cladosporium tenuissimum In Vitro and In Planta.  


ABSTRACT Selected isolates of Cladosporium tenuissimum were tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro aeciospore germination of the two-needle pine stem rusts Cronartium flaccidum and Peridermium pini and to suppress disease development in planta. The antagonistic fungus displayed a number of disease-suppressive mechanisms. Aeciospore germination on water agar slides was reduced at 12, 18, and 24 h when a conidial suspension (1.5 x 10(7) conidia per ml) of the Cladosporium tenuissimum isolates was added. When the aeciospores were incubated in same-strength conidial suspensions for 1, 11, 21, and 31 days, viability was reduced at 20 and 4 degrees C. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that rust spores were directly parasitized by Cladosporium tenuissimum and that the antagonist had evolved several strategies to breach the spore wall and gain access to the underlying tissues. Penetration occurred with or without appressoria. The hyperparasite exerted a mechanical force to destroy the spore structures (spinules, cell wall) by direct contact, penetrated the aeciospores and subsequently proliferated within them. However, an enzymatic action could also be involved. This was shown by the dissolution of the host cell wall that comes in contact with the mycelium of the mycoparasite, by the lack of indentation in the host wall at the contact site, and by the minimal swelling at the infecting hyphal tip. Culture filtrates of the hyperparasite inhibited germination of rust propagules. A compound purified from the filtrates was characterized by chemical and spectroscopic analysis as cladosporol, a known beta-1,3-glucan biosynthesis inhibitor. Conidia of Cladosporium tenuissimum reduced rust development on new infected pine seedlings over 2 years under greenhouse conditions. Because the fungus is an aggressive mycoparasite, produces fungicidal metabolites, and can survive and multiply in forest ecosystems without rusts, it seems a promising agent for the biological control of pine stem rusts in Europe. PMID:18943590

Moricca, S; Ragazzi, A; Mitchelson, K R; Assante, G



Post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of Digitalis purpurea remain in a developmental state that is not terminated by desiccation ex planta  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seed quality may be compromised if seeds are harvested before natural dispersal (shedding). It has been shown previously that slow or delayed drying can increase potential quality compared with immediate rapid drying. This study set out to investigate whether or not there is a critical moisture content, below which drying terminates maturation events for seeds harvested after mass maturity but before dispersal. Methods Seeds of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in the post-abscission pre-dispersal phase were held at between 15 and 95 % RH for 4 or 8 d, with or without re-hydration to 95 % RH for a further 4 d, before drying to equilibrium at 15 % RH. In addition, dry seeds were primed for 48 h at ?1 MPa. Subsequent seed longevity was assessed at 60 % RH and 45 °C. Key Results Rate of germination and longevity were improved by holding seeds at a wide range of humidities after harvest. Longevity was further improved by re-hydration at 95 % RH. Priming improved the longevity of the seeds dried immediately after harvest, but not of those first held at 95 % RH for 8 d prior to drying. Conclusions Maturation continued ex planta in these post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of D. purpurea dried at 15–80 % RH at a rate correlated positively with RH (cf. ageing of mature seeds). Subsequent re-hydration at 95 % RH enabled a further improvement in quality. Priming seeds initially stored air-dry for 3 months also allowed maturation events to resume. However, once individual seeds within the population had reached maximum longevity, priming had a negative impact on their subsequent survival.

Butler, L. H.; Hay, F. R.; Ellis, R. H.; Smith, R. D.



Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to the suppression of rust diseases on wheat.  


Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi. PMID:23110316

Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus



Mites (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with sigmodontinae rodents in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina.  


The richness, diversity, abundance and prevalence of mite species associated with sigmodontine rodents of different species in Entre Ríos province, Argentina are studied. Five of the six species of mites were reported for the first time in the study area. The richness and diversity of mites was higher on Oligoryzomys flavescens and O. delticola than on Akodon azarae. Androlaelaps rotundus was dominant and exhibited higher values of mean abundance and prevalence on A. azarae, Mysolaelaps microspinosus on O. flavescens and Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis on O. delticola. PMID:11784942

Abba, A M; Udrizar Sauthier, D E; Bender, J B; Lareschi, M



Alternaria alternata prevalence in cereal grains and soybean seeds from Entre Ríos, Argentina.  


A mycological survey was carried out at Entre Ríos province, Argentina, on sorghum grain, maize, rice, soybean seeds and on freshly harvested and stored wheat. The isolation frequencies and relative densities of species belonging to genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and other fungi were calculated. Alternaria alternata was the major fungal species isolated from sorghum, rice, soybean seeds and on freshly harvested wheat, and a low incidence of Fusarium species was observed on the same substrates. In maize the major fungal species isolated was Fusarium verticillioides. The high incidence levels of A. alternata observed,suggest that it may be necessary to determine, among other mycotoxins, if Alternaria toxins occur in these commodities. PMID:17592893

Broggi, Leticia Elvira; González, Héctor Horacio Lucas; Resnik, Silvia Liliana; Pacin, Ana



Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1  

PubMed Central

Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade.

Silva, Cristiane Goncalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard



Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site ( Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.



Análisis de la correlación espacio-temporal entre ondas EIT y ondas Moreton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observaciones de la atmósfera solar en distintas longitudes de onda han demostrado la presencia de fenómenos ondulatorios, tanto a nivel cromosférico como coronal. En el primero de los casos a las ondas observadas se las dió por llamar ondas Moreton, mientras que en el segundo ondas EIT. En el presente trabajo se abordará el estudio de la posible relación causal entre ambos fenómenos ondulatorios. Para concretar dicha meta se hará uso de un conjunto de observaciones del disco solar en H? (para la determinación y análisis de las ondas Moreton) y en Fe XII (para la determinación y análisis de las ondas EIT). Los observables que se midan serán luego usados para la interpretación física del fenómeno en base a modelos teóricos existentes.

Borgazzi, A.; Rovira, M.; Stenborg, G.


State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis nigra as the dominant tree species. Although the successional forests were not the most frequent, they occupied the greater area of the basin (30.8%), being low and open forest the dominant type. The regeneration forest dominated by Acacia caven, represents 18.71% of the basin area. Weed shrub species growth was the most frequent disturbance. We determined a severe weed shrub growth in 41% of the sampling points, with Baccharis punctulata and Eupatorium buniifolium as the dominant species. According to state of conservation of native forest, 7,797.03 ha have a high conservation value, while 21,272.17 ha and 13,657.71 ha have a medium and low conservation value, respectively.

Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.




Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca evidencia en la literatura sobre la posible relación existente en Colombia entre los instrumentos de política de promoción de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES) y los modelos de desarrollo económico e ndustrialización. Por lo tanto, se analizan los planes de desarrollo económico y se estudian las leyes y documentos aprobados por el Consejo Nacional de Política





Microsoft Academic Search

El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar el efecto de la confianza y el compromiso sobre la creación de valor para el cliente. Para ello primero se examinan las distintas funciones creadoras de valor en las relaciones comerciales entre empresas. A continuación se plantea el modelo teórico que conecta la confianza y el compromiso con las funciones creadoras de valor.

J. A. López Sánchez; M. L Santos Vijande; J. A. Trespalacios Gutiérrez



La internacionalización de empresas: relación entre el capital social, las tecnologías de la información relacional y la innovación  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar el proceso de internacionalización de las empresas, estudiando su desempeño exportador y la influencia que ejercen variables como el capital social, las tecnologías de la información relacional (Web 2.0) y la innovación. Para cumplir este propósito se realiza una revisión sobre los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales sobre la relación entre la internacionalización empresarial, las

María José Peláez Cano; Manuel Rodenes Adam



Occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in beverages from the Entre Rios Province market, Argentina.  


One hundred and eighty five samples of red, white and rosé wines and different juices purchased in Entre Rios, Argentina, were analyzed for the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME). White wines were analyzed after removal of alcohol by a nitrogen stream and concentrated. AOH in red wines was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction columns in series (octadecyl and amino propyl modified silica) and AME quantified directly on the sample. The juices were filtered and concentrated, and then all sample extracts were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector that allows confirmation through UV spectra. Method validation revealed a good sensitivity with adequate LOD and LOQ for AME and less sensitivity for AOH (i.e. white wine: AME 0.8 and 1.4 ng/mL, AOH 2 and 3.3 ng/mL; red wine: AME 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, AOH 4.5 and 7.5 ng/mL; apple juice: AME 1.7 and 2.8 ng/mL, AOH 5 and 9 ng/mL; other juices: AME 2.0 and 3.1 ng/mL, AOH 6 and 10 ng/mL). Recoveries in all cases were greater than 80 %. Four of 53 white wine samples were contaminated with AOH with a maximum level of 18 ng/mL, 6 of 56 samples of red wine had a maximum of 13 ng/mL, and 3 of 68 samples of juices had traces of AOH. AME was less frequently detected than AOH, and the LOD and LOQ for AME are smaller than for AOH. Only three samples of white wine and one of red wine were contaminated, but in only one white wine sample (AME 225 ng/mL) did the toxin level exceed the LOQ. PMID:23334721

Broggi, Leticia; Reynoso, Cora; Resnik, Silvia; Martinez, Fernanda; Drunday, Vanesa; Bernal, Angela Romero



TDP Studies and Tests for C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (Enelven) at Planta Ramon Laguna, Units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 3. Unit RL-10 Turbine Generator Condition Assessment Report and Units RL-10 and RL-11 Boiler Feed Pump Condition Assessment Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the conditio...




Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article a pour objectif d'étudier la structure des liens humains entre les conseils d'administration et son influence sur la rémunération incitative du premier dirigeant. Un échantillon de 181 dirigeants des sociétés du SBF 250 entre 2002 et 2005 est retenu. Nos résultats montrent que la position du conseil dans le réseau des liens, appréhendée par la centralité de proximité,

Ali Dardour



Dueños, intrusos e intermediarios. El reclamo de tierras entre los Mbyá Guaraní (Valle del Cuñapirú, Misiones, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

La selva paranaense es el espacio habitado por los Mbya . Las etnías guaraní-Mbyá se han caracterizado por su amplia movilidad, desde la época pre-y post-hispánica hasta la actualidad, si bien cada vez con mayores restricciones, pequeños grupos de personas se desplazaban entre los actuales territorios de Paraguay, Brasil y Argentina a fin de sostener sus modos tradicionales de vida.

María Rosa Martínez; Marta Crivos; Laura Teves



Microsoft Academic Search

Propôs-se analisar a comunicação não verbal entre mãe e filho na vigência do HIV\\/AIDS à luz da tacêsica (linguagem do toque) durante o desempenho dos cuidados maternos. Estudo exploratório desenvolvido em ambiente experimental em Fortaleza-CE no segundo semestre de 2007 com cinco díades mãe-bebê. Foram utilizados três recursos para a coleta de dados: questionário semiestruturado sobre a história de vida

Galvão MTG; Costa Ê; Lima ICV; Paiva SS; Pagliuca LMF; Ivana Cristina; Vieira de Lima; Simone de Sousa Paiva; Paulo César de Almeida; Lorita Marlena; Freitag Pagliuca


Relação entre diferentes índices de atividade física e preditores de adiposidade em adolescentes de ambos os sexos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre diferentes índices de ativi- dade física e preditores de adiposidade em adolescentes de am- bos os sexos. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 111 crianças (57 meni- nos e 54 meninas), com idade média de 11,62 ± 0,72. Como preditores de adiposidade foram determinados o IMC, percenta- gem de gordura corporal e a relação cintura\\/quadril (RCQ). Quanto

Luís Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas; Fabiano de Macedo Salgueirosa; Gabriel Ferreira Nunes; Paulo Ângelo Martins; Antonio Stabelini Neto; Wagner de Campos



La diff?rence ?pid?miologique des h?morragies digestives hautes entre les hommes et les femmes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Des différences épidémiologiques, étiologique voire pronostique des hémorragies digestives hautes (HDH) entre les deux sexes opposés ont été cité par différentes études. Méthodes Nous avons essayé de déceler ces différences à travers une analyse rétrospective nichée sur une étude prospective sur les hémorragies digestives hautes ayant inclus 945 patients. Résultats Six cents trente-sept patients étaient des hommes (67,4% Vs 32,6%). Un antécédent d'HDH était trouvé chez 24,2% des cas sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. L'âge de survenue de l'hémorragie était plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes : 51,5 ans ± 18,8 Vs 47,8 ans ± 18,3 (p : 0,003). Les étiologies de l'HDH étaient différentes entre les deux sexes. Alors que l'hémorragie liée à l'HTP était la première cause chez la femme (38 % Vs 23,5 % chez l'homme, p<0,0001), c'est la pathologie ulcéreuse qui venait en premier chez l'homme (62 % Vs 36,7 % chez la femme, p<0,0001). Un besoin transfusionnel était noté chez 42,4 % des patients de sexe masculin contre 35,4 % des patientes avec un p = 0,03. Le taux de récidive et de décès global étaient de 7,5 % et de 5,7 % des cas respectivement, sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. Conclusion L'étude trouve un profil épidémiologique, clinique et étiologique différent selon le sexe des patients.

El Mekkaoui, Amine; Saada, Kaoutar; Mellouki, Ihssane; El Yousfi, Mounia; Aqodad, Nourdin; El Abkari, Mohammed; Ibrahimi, Adil; Benajah, Dafr-Allah



La Maîtrise Intuitive des Relations entre Masse, Volume et Masse Volumique Chez des Elèves du Premier Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Dans le cadre de la théorie de l'integration de l'information, trois expériences sont consacrées à l'application de la méthodologie\\u000a développée par Anderson au problème de la maîtrise chez des élèves français du secondaire, des relations entre les notions\\u000a de masse, volume et masse volumique. Il apparaît que, s'agissant de juger de la masse d'objets divers dont ils connaissent\\u000a la masse

Etienne Mullet; Daniel Vidal



Relations entre les pratiques alimentaires maternelles et l'alimentation d'enfants québécois d'âge préscolaire.  


Objectif. L'objectif de cette étude est d'examiner les relations entre les pratiques alimentaires de la mère et l'alimentation de l'enfant d'âge préscolaire. Méthodes. Cent vingt-deux mères ont été recrutées par des milieux de garde de l'île de Montréal et ont rempli un questionnaire autoadministré. Celui-ci portait sur l'impact des pratiques alimentaires des parents sur l'alimentation de leur enfant, notamment sur les fréquences de consommation et les préférences alimentaires. Résultats. Des corrélations ont été observées entre les trois pratiques alimentaires maternelles, à savoir les restrictions, la pression à manger et les récompenses alimentaires, et le comportement alimentaire de l'enfant. En effet, ces trois pratiques ont été corrélées à des comportements alimentaires moins désirables chez l'enfant, comportements mesurés par des variations de fréquences de consommation et/ou de préférences alimentaires. Conclusions. Cette étude suggère que les pratiques alimentaires de la mère ont un effet direct sur l'acte alimentaire de l'enfant dans un contexte québécois. Ainsi, les mères doivent être informées quant à l'usage contre-productif de ces pratiques alimentaires et être outillées pour développer des stratégies alimentaires plus saines en remettant l'appétit de l'enfant et le plaisir de manger au cœur de leurs pratiques alimentaires. PMID:24018003

Dulude, Geneviève; Marquis, Marie



Public Notification: Fruta Planta Contains Undeclared Drug ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... is known to substantially increase blood pressure and/or pulse rate in some ... of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias or ... More results from


Resistencia en Insectos, Plantas y Microorganismos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se describe la noción de la resistencia y se mencionan diferentes clases de este fenómeno, es decir, los tipos de morfológico, comportamental, y fisiológico o metabólico. Se destaca la historia y evolución de la resistencia en los artrópodos. Se marcan los casos de resistencia en artrópodos y también la resistencia de éstos organismos a diferentes clases de plaguicidas. Se explica

Mohammad H. Badii


Soil Quality Indicators to Define Land Use in the Area of Native Forest of Entre Ríos, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main economic activity in the area of native forest of the province of Entre Ríos (Argentina) has long been the agricultural and/or livestock production, especially cattle breeding. In recent years, the proportion of agricultural crops in the rotations, especially that of soybean, has increased, thus leading to an increase in the need for land clearing to incorporate new lands for agricultural use. Most of these lands are considered marginal for agricultural use. In addition rice farming with irrigation is a critical part of the Entre Ríos economy. Defining and assessing soil quality indicators (SQI) that show the evolution of the soil with different uses and management systems is a way to contribute to the knowledge of soil quality. The aims of this study were to characterize the current land use and land tenure in the area of native forest of Entre Ríos, as well as to identify and select variables sensitive to agricultural and/or livestock use of the most representative soils of this area (indicators of the dynamic quality of the soil) and define the most appropriate land use according to land suitability and behavior of these indicators. We identified the most representative soil subgroups (corresponding to the orders Vertisols, Mollisols and Alfisols) and defined the production systems livestock-agricultural, agricultural-livestock, agricultural without irrigation, and rice crop irrigated with water from groundwater and surface reservoirs. We also determined the physical, physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological variables of the soil, and characterized the quality of the water for irrigation. We selected the SQI using Principal Components Analysis, to form a minimum data set (MDS). The change in the use of the land responded to a favorable economic situation for agriculture that started in the 1990's. The leasing and sharecropping schemes and the incidental contracts have become increasingly important, predominating over the undivided property. We obtained the MDS for twelve combinations of soil subgroups and production systems. The MDS for each of them presented between six and nine SQI. The indicators showed greater variation in the MDS by production system than by unit of land. Total organic carbon content (TOC) and the structural stability index (Is) were included in all the MDS. The rice systems showed high dependence on the quality of the irrigation water. We also found high fragility of some soil subgroups. The results suggest that rotations including pastures in a high proportion should be considered, especially in Alfisols and Vertisols. The native forest is considered as the basis of sustainable production systems for the study area. Thus, the land that has already been cleared or is about to be cleared should consider an agricultural and/or livestock use according to its productive capacity and its limitations.

Wilson, M. G.; Tasi, H. A.; Paz González, A.; Díaz, E. L.; Sasal, M. C.



Characterization of copy numbers of 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and the implication in detection in planta using quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early detection. Results We investigated the copy numbers of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of the HLB pathogen and the implication of improving the diagnosis of HLB for early detection using Quantitative PCR. We compared the detection of HLB with different Quantitative PCR based methods with primers/probe targeting either 16S rDNA, beta-operon DNA, 16S rRNA, or beta-operon RNA. The 16S rDNA copy number of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus was estimated to be three times of that of the beta-operon region, thus allowing detection of lower titer of Ca. L. asiaticus. Quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR (QRT-PCR) indicated that the 16S rRNA averaged 7.83 times more than that of 16S rDNA for the same samples. Dilution analysis also indicates that QRT-PCR targeting 16S rRNA is 10 time more sensitive than QPCR targeting 16S rDNA. Thus QRT-PCR was able to increase the sensitivity of detection by targeting 16S rRNA. Conclusion Our result indicates that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus contains three copies of 16S rDNA. The copy number of 16S rRNA of Ca. L. asiaticus in planta averaged about 7.8 times of 16S rDNA for the same set of samples tested in this study. Detection sensitivity of HLB could be improved through the following approaches: using 16S rDNA based primers/probe in the QPCR assays; and using QRT-PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA.

Kim, Jeong-soon; Wang, Nian



A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.




Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo desse artigo é discutir o que leva o agricultor a aplicar ou não os agrotóxicos, bem como ressaltar quais são os elementos que estão por traz dessa decisão. O presente trabalho abordará o problema a partir de uma análise integrada entre agricultura, meio ambiente e saúde pública, estabelecendo elementos que dão legitimidade à agricultura sustentável como geradora de

Wagner Lopes Soares; Firpo De Souza Porto



Associação entre trauma por perda na infância e depressão na vida adulta Association between childhood loss trauma and depression in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observações clínicas efetuadas por psicanalistas sugerem que psicopatologias da idade adulta podem ter sido originadas na infância. Estudos publicados na última década identificaram associação entre trauma na infância e depressão na vida adulta. Vivências traumáticas na infância, como a perda de vínculos afetivos devido à morte de pais ou de irmãos ou, ainda, a privação de um ou de ambos

Maria Lucrécia; Scherer Zavaschia; Fabíola Satlerb; Daniela Poesterc; Cláudia Ferrão; Rafael Piazenskib Vargasd; Luís Augusto Paim Rohdee; Cláudio Laks Eizirikf


L'expression verbale de la douleur chez l'enfant : Comparaison intermodale entre sensation de douleur et manipulation tactile  

PubMed Central

HISTORIQUE: La présente étude se situe dans le contexte de l’expression verbale de la douleur chez l’enfant. Elle porte plus particulièrement sur la dimension qualitative de la sensation de douleur. OBJECTIF: Nous cherchons à repérer les particularités de l’expression verbale relativement à l’aspect qualitatif de la douleur. MÉTHODOLOGIE: La recherche a été menée auprès de 60 patients de quatre à 18 ans ressentant de la douleur, rencontrés dans un hôpital universitaire pédiatrique. Elle confirme en premier lieu l’origine des descripteurs sensoriels de la douleur, qui renvoient aux expériences perceptives passées de l’enfant, non nécessairement liées à la douleur. Ces expériences sont qualifiées de prototypiques, dans la mesure où, bien qu’elles soient liées à des contextes de vie variés, le type de rapport au monde qu’elles provoquent ne varie pas. RÉSULTATS: Dans ce cadre, le pincement, le tiraillement, le tapement, l’écrasement et l’appuiement, le picotement et le serrement constituent chacune des expériences sensorielles et motrices particulières dont la structure de base ne varie pas d’un contexte à l’autre. En second lieu, les résultats obtenus montrent que dès quatre ans, l’enfant est en mesure de comparer, puis de reconnaître une analogie entre une expérience exclusivement tactile et sa sensation de douleur. CONCLUSION: Ces résultats mettent en lumière le rôle primordial du raisonnement analogique dans l’expression verbale de la douleur, ce qui amène à affirmer que le niveau de développement cognitif de l’enfant n’est pas une variable a priori déterminante lorsqu’il s’agit de qualifier sa douleur.

Bienvenu, Margaux; Jacquet, Denis; Michelutti, Marjolaine; Wood, Chantal



De l'intermodalité à la multimodalité : enjeux, limites et perspectives, illustré par un projet d'expérimentation d'une tarification multimodale entre Martigues et Marseille  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Direction Déléguée TER PACA de la SNCF souhaiterait mettre en place une tarification multimodale car\\/train entre Martigues et Marseille. Ce projet serait une expérimentation destinée à tester la faisabilité et la pertinence d'une telle tarification. En cas de succès, il est envisagé d'étendre l'opération sur d'autres sites. Le choix s'est porté sur la liaison Marseille-Martigues, notamment pour qualité des

Aurélie Souchon



Etude théorique de l'interaction de van der Waals entre une sonde métallique et une surface diélectrique : application à la microscopie par mesure de forces atomiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The van der Waals interaction force between a metallic tip and a non planar dielectric is derived from a non local formalism. A general formulation is given for a spherical tip of nanometric size and for surfaces of arbitrary shape (monocrystal adsorbed on planar surfaces). The dispersion part of the attractive force is obtained from a non local theory expressed in terms of generalized electric susceptibilities of the two partners. Implications for atomic force microscopy in attractive mode are also discussed. La force d'interaction de van der Waals entre une pointe métallique et une surface diélectrique est calculée à partir d'une théorie non-locale. Plus précisément, on considère comme point de départ que l'interaction sonde-surface est due au couplage entre les fluctuations des densités de charges des solides en présence. De plus, dans cette approche la force de van der Waals est calculée dans le cadre de la théorie de la réponse linéaire en utilisant pour chacun des milieux la fonction réponse non-locale correspondante. En particulier la sonde, de nature métallique, est caractérisée par un jeu de susceptibilités du champ décrites par un formalisme auto-cohérent. On effectue enfin une étude numérique de la force sur des surfaces présentant des corrugations de dimensions nanométriques.

Maghezzi, S.; Girard, C.; van Labeke, D.



Recursos para educação de crianças com necessidades especiais e articulação entre educação especial e inclusiva Resources for education of children with special necessities and articulation between special and inclusive education Recursos para educación de niños con necesidades especiales y articulación entre educación especial y inclusiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Este breve artigo de revisão sumaria alguns recursos disponíveis para escolarização e alfabetização de crianças com dificuldade escolar, bem como de crianças com distúrbios de comunicação e linguagem de etiologia neurossensorial (e.g., surdez congênita), neu- romotora (e.g., paralisia cerebral) e neurolingüística (e.g., dislexia do desenvolvimento). O artigo defende a articulação entre educação especial e educação inclusiva em contra-turno, num

Fernando C. Capovilla


Un modelo para el control de calidad academica de los textos de instruccion a distancia (A Model for Controlling the Academic Quality of Distance Education Texts).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the need for a system of control over the academic quality of distance education texts, this article proposes a methodological model based on criteria that evaluate written materials based on their instructional quality, design, and production. A discussion and figures evaluate educational aspects of content, communication,…

Bolanos-Mora, Guiselle; And Others



Ma.Di.M.A.C. Material Didáctico Para el e-Learning del Álgebra- Un Aporte Para la Enseñanza a Distancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experience is carried out in the class of Mathematical I (Algebra), of the Department of Mathematics of the Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences and Surveying of the National University of the Northeast (UNNE). Argentina. The planning of the experience and the elaboration of the tools were carried out in the year 2004, and in the presently year we

Julio César; Dora Alicia; David Luis


Condutas de saúde entre universitários: diferenças entre gêneros  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether undergraduate students' health-risk behaviors differed accord- ing to gender. The sample consisted of 382 sub- jects, aged 20-29 years, from public universities in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Data were collected using the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, previously validated in Portuguese. De- scriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used. Associations were analyzed with the chi-square test

Viviane Colares; Carolina da Franca; Emília Gonzalez



A Relação entre o Processamento Fonológico e a Habilidade de Leitura: Evidência da Síndrome de Down e da Síndrome de Williams The Relationship between Phonological Processing and Reading Ability: Evidence from Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente artigo apresenta uma avaliação dos resultados de estudos que investigaram a relação entre o processamento fonológico e a habilidade de ler palavras em dois distúrbios do desenvolvimento: a síndrome de Down (SD) e a síndrome de Williams (SW). Os resultados sugerem que, como crianças sem transtornos do desenvolvimento, indivíduos com SD e indivíduos com SW aprendem a

Cláudia Cardoso-Martins; Juliane Ribeiro da Silvab


Le renforcement de l'interface entre les services de sant? publique et de premi?re ligne : enjeux et pistes de solution  

PubMed Central

Le développement de liens étroits entre la santé publique et les services cliniques, notamment ceux offerts par les médecins de famille œuvrant en première ligne, est prôné dans tous systèmes de santé occidentaux. On suppose que les collaborations formant une telle interface ont des impacts positifs à la fois sur la qualité des soins, sur le fardeau des maladies et sur l'équité dans le système de santé. Si les acteurs des deux domaines admettent le bien-fondé de l'interface et favorisent en principe son développement, plusieurs barrières nuisent aux collaborations dans la réalité. Or, peu est connu sur ces barrières dans le système de santé québécois. Cette étude vise à répondre à ce manque d'information en étudiant l'interface à partir d'une perspective organisationnelle. Deux cadres conceptuels ont été utilisés, soit la typologie de Lasker (1997) et les archétypes de Hinings et Greenwood (1988). L'analyse met en évidence deux des six formes de collaboration proposées par la typologie utilisée, soit la coordination des services aux individus et la mise à profit des rencontres cliniques pour les fins de la santé publique. Les activités associées à ces formes de collaboration, qui sont importantes eu égard au mandat de la santé publique, comportent un intérêt essentiellement pour la santé publique et sont déterminées en pratique unilatéralement par cette dernière. En outre, le manque de coordination des activités qui impliquent une collaboration avec les médecins constitue un obstacle au développement de telles activités en créant des irritants pour les médecins. Il y a donc, dans le système de santé québécois, des possibilités de développement de l'interface là où la collaboration se fait également au profit du travail clinique et là où elle tient compte des contraintes du milieu clinique.

Paquette, Daniel; Reinharz, Daniel



Análise da composição fitoquímica do extrato etanólico das folhas da Annona squamosa (ATA) Phytochemical analysis composition from Annona squamosa (ATA) ethanolic extract leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O conhecimento histórico do uso de plantas medicinais nos mostra que as plantas foram os primeiros recursos terapêuticos utilizados. Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae, encontra-se aclimatada no Brasil, sendo conhecida popularmente como ATA, pinha, fruta-do-conde, entre outros nomes. A A TA é bastante utilizada na medicina popular, possuindo ações antidiarréica, antitumoral, antifertilidade e con- tra hipertireoidismo e fitonematóides. Dessa

Haissa Oliveira Brito; Elda Pereira Noronha; Lucas Martins França; Maria Segunda-Aurora Prado



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A detecção de marcadores moleculares em plantas de amendoim cultivado tem oferecido contribuição restrita, devido ao alto grau de homogeneidade genética verificada entre os genótipos intraespecíficos. Quando submetidos a mudanças fisiológicas, contudo, os padrões obtidos são de grande contribuição nos estudos elucidativos do comportamento e da fisiologia da planta durante seu desenvolvimento ontogenético. O presente trabalho teve como



Nós e as plantas: ontem e hoje1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants and us: past and present). Green areas in cities and trees growing on streets and squares of urban sites are features that only recently acquired relevance in the western world. It seems that formerly urban inhabitants did not value a close proximity with plants. In the present paper it is suggested that this is a consequence of a



Plantas medicinais de uso popular em Boa Vista, Roraima, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants of popular use in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. Boa Vista is located in the North of Amazonia, Brazil. The population of Boa Vista is heterogeneous, composed of Northeastern, Southern and Amazonian people. It has a strong tradition of using plants in popular medicine. This work aims to identify medicinal plants of popular use in Boa Vista, through information

Francisco Joaci F. Luz



ANÁLISE IMUNODIAGNÓSTICA DO TESTE ANTI-PGL-I NA DIFERENCIAÇÃO ENTRE HANSENÍASE CLÍNICA E REAÇÃO HANSÊNICA PÓS-CURA Imunodiagnosis analysis of anti-PGL-I test in the differentiation between clinical hansens disease and postcure leprosy reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Neste artigo avalia-se o teste anti-PGL-I na diferenciação entre doentes com hanseníase clínica multibacilar (MB) e pacientes com reação hansênica após tratamento poliquimioterápico. A amostra constou de 160 indivíduos classificados em doentes MB (n=40), reacionais (n=40), contatos de doentes (n=40) e controles de área endêmica (n=40). O teste anti-PGL-I foi realizado por meio de Ensaio Imunoadsorvente Enzima- Associado (ELISA).

Maria do Perpétuo; Socorro Corrêa Amador; Maria Heliana; Chaves Monteiro da Cunha; Carlos Alberto; Vieira Da Cruz


Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d'analyse qualitative et adaptee de la litterature (Thouin, 1995). Une seconde serie d'analyses permettant de categoriser les reponses selon la typologie des connaissances declaratives, procedurales et conditionnelles complete la prise de donnees. Nos resultats indiquent que les sujets sont tres influences par des elements de surface, principalement lorsqu'il s'agit de problemes auxquels ils ne sont pas habitues. En l'absence de connaissances de base, plusieurs sujets vont tendre vers des propositions de solution "pratico-pratique" provenant de leur vecu: cela nous apparait d'importance d'un point de vue didactique et en matiere de transfert. Lors des entretiens realises un mois plus tard, les sujets ont eprouve de la difficulte a se rappeler le contenu de l'epreuve. Et lorsqu'il y avait un rappel, celui-ci etait superficiel et surtout axe sur le contenu ou le contexte d'un probleme. La plupart des sujets ne pouvait nommer que deux ou trois elements (des problemes en mathematiques, en sciences physiques, le probleme de la fenetre, le probleme du laser, etc.). Nos resultats confirment ce que plusieurs chercheurs (Julo, 1995, Jonnaert et Vander Borght, 1999; Richard et al., 1990) qui s'interessent aux questions de l'apprentissage admettent aujourd'hui: l'eleve ne travaille jamais sur la situation proposee par l'enseignant, mais bien sur la representation qu'il s'en est construite. Au plan methodologique, cette recherche est interessante par la variete des sources de collecte de donnees utilisees, par l'application d'outils methodologiques et d'analyses originaux tires de la recherche et de la pratique. Du cote theorique, il resulte de cette etude une meilleure comprehension du processus de transfert des connaissances mathematiques vers les sciences physiques. Finalement, aux plans didactique et pedagogique, cette recherche alimente la reflexion sur l'apprentissage et l'enseignement des sciences au secondaire. Elle fait ressortir que les mathematiques sont importantes dans la mobilisation de certaines connaissances scientifiques et que l'enseignant peut et devrait jouer un

Samson, Ghislain



Entrée dans l'écrit en contexte plurilingue et défavorisé : développer les capacités métaphonologiques et sensibiliser à la diversité linguistique  

Microsoft Academic Search

RésuméCet article présente les résultats d'une recherche réalisée en milieu montréalais plurilingue et défavorisé et dont les objectifs étaient, d'une part (étude 1), d'observer, chez 107 élèves d'origine immigrante du préscolaire 5 ans (sept classes), les relations existant entre la mise en oeuvre d'activités portant sur les capacités métaphonologiques et le développement de ces capacités ainsi que des habiletés de

FranÃois Sirois FranÃoise Armand; Samira Ababou



Diseño, Implementación y Evaluación de un Foro de Discusión de apoyo a la educación a distancia en la ESPOL, basado en la ingeniería de la usabilidad y tecnologías del Web 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research centered in usability studies of two discussion forum applications of ESPOL and other commercial applications available in the Web. This paper includes usability problems of discussion forum applications and the state of the art related to this topic. A set of 15 guidelines for designing educational discussion forums is presented as a result of the

Xavier Ruiz; Miguel Barzallo


DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal


DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal


Estudo comparativo entre a miniesternotomia em \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the results obtained from two distinct surgical approaches in patients undergoing surgical correction of an atrial septal defect (ASD). Method: The study series consisted of 20 patients, with a mean age of 24.1 ± ± ± ± ± 14.2 years, distributed in two groups. In group A, 10 patients (80% female, with a mean age of 20.9

Luiz Cláudio Nery; Vieira GUEDES; Álvaro RABELO JR



Problématique des interactions verbales entre élèves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a communicative approach, verbal interaction between peers should constitute an essential aspect of language teaching. This study investigates these interactions in order to discover the type of language learning which can result. The author filmed small groups of primary level children during periods of verbal exchange following various directives (to inform, to express oneself, to convince). The preliminary results

Robert Sarrasin



Uso del tabaco entre los jóvenes colombianos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing tobacco use rates among Colombian youth exemplify the need to make prevention top public health priority. The purpose of this article is to document the adverse effects of tobacco in the human body, the increases in tobacco use among Colombian youth, and to explore the role of prevention in

Miguel A. Pérez; Helda Pinzón-Pérez


L'annonce d'une d?ficience motrice c?r?brale : Une relation de confiance ? construire entre les parents, le personnel param?dical et les m?decins  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ : L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale et des incapacités qui en découlent est une situation difficile à vivre pour les parents et les dispensateurs de soins (personnel paramédical et médecins). Un examen de la documentation médicale démontre que depuis vingt ans, le nombre de parents insatisfaits n’a pas changé. L’étude de type qualitatif et exploratoire, effectuée à la demande de milieux de réadaptation, vise à décrire le processus d’annonce d’un diagnostic de déficience motrice cérébrale (DMC) à partir de l’expérience des différents acteurs en cause et à déterminer les facteurs qui facilitent ou compliquent la relation de confiance. Les résultats indiquent que les parents et les dispensateurs de soins vivent dans deux mondes de perception différents au moment de l’annonce, lesquels se rejoignent difficilement. Les parents sont envahis par le drame qu’ils vivent, tandis que les médecins sont concentrés sur le contenu à transmettre aux parents. Cette annonce provoque une importante incertitude qui bloque la communication entre les partenaires, mais elle pourrait devenir un stimulant à de nouvelles stratégies d’adaptation.

Pelchat, Diane; Lefebvre, Helene; Bouchard, Jean-Marie




Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanized forest harvest operations induce changes in soil physical properties, which have the potefitial to impzct soil sustai~ability and forest productivity. The assessment of soil compaction and its spatial variability has been determined previously through the identification and tabulation of visual soil disturbance classes and soil physical changes associated with each disturbailce class. This is a time consuming and inaccurate

E. A. Carter; T. P. McDonald; J. L. Torbert



Microsoft Academic Search

En el proceso de extracción de cloruro de sodio a partir de agua de mar queda una salmuera residual rica en sales de sodio y magnesio que al ser tratadas químicamente y al ser evaporada permite recuperar aproximadamente el 75% del cloruro de sodio que queda en dicho residual, lo que puede reducir la contaminación ambiental del litoral y generar

Mariana Estela Colombat Rodríguez; Amada Lissett Colombat Rodríguez



A chemical-genetic approach to elucidate protein kinase function in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective in protein kinase research is the identification of the biological process, in which an individual enzyme\\u000a is integrated. Protein kinase-mediated signalling is thereby often addressed by single knock-out mutation- or co-suppression-based\\u000a reverse genetics approaches. If a protein kinase of interest is a member of a multi gene family, however, no obvious phenotypic\\u000a alteration in the morphology or

Maik Böhmer; Tina Romeis



In planta modification of potato starch granule biogenesis by different granule-bound fusion proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin and it is deposited in amyloplasts\\/choloroplasts as semi-crystalline granules. Many biosynthetic enzymes are involved in starch degradation and biosynthesis. Some microbial starch degrading enzymes have a Starch Binding Domain (SBD) which has affinity for the starch granules on its own. In our laboratory, expression of SBD alone or fused to other effector proteins

F. Nazarian



In planta multiplication and graft transmission of ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ revealed by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus in many countries. Despite the fact that many\\u000a characteristics of the disease are known, the rate of multiplication of the bacterium within an infected tree is still poorly\\u000a understood. To study this feature, we used the quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay to follow and\\u000a to

H. D. Coletta-Filho; E. F. Carlos; K. C. S. Alves; M. A. R. Pereira; R. L. Boscariol-Camargo; A. A. de Souza; M. A. Machado



Chemical compounds effective against the citrus Huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta.  


Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. As a possible control strategy for citrus HLB, therapeutic compounds were screened using a propagation test system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle and citrus plants. The results demonstrated that the combination of penicillin and streptomycin (PS) was effective in eliminating or suppressing the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium and provided a therapeutically effective level of control for a much longer period of time than when administering either antibiotic separately. When treated with the PS, 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings achieved 70% of regeneration rates versus <50% by other treatments. The 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterial titers in the infected periwinkle plants, as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, decreased significantly following root soaking or foliar spraying with PS. Application of the PS via trunk injection or root soaking also eliminated or suppressed the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium in the HLB-affected citrus plants. This may provide a useful tool for the management of citrus HLB and other Liberibacter-associated diseases. PMID:21834727

Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Zhou, Lijuan; He, Zhenli; Stover, Ed; Duan, Yongping



Regulation and mechanism of potassium release from barley roots: an in planta 42K+ analysis.  


Potassium (K(+) ) flux into plant cells is a well-characterized ion transport phenomenon. By contrast, little is known about the mechanisms and regulation of K(+) flux from the cell. Here, we present a radioisotopic analysis of K(+) fluxes from roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the context of recent discoveries in the molecular biology and electrophysiology of this process. Plants were labelled with (42)K(+), and kinetics of its release from roots were monitored at low (0.1 mM) or high (1.0 mM) external K concentration, [K(+)](ext), and with the application of channel modulators and nutrient shifts. At 0.1 (but not 1.0) mM [K(+)], where K(+) efflux is thought to be mediated by K(+)-outward-rectifying channels, (42)K(+) efflux was inhibited by the channel blockers barium (Ba(2+)), caesium (Cs(+)), tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), and lanthanum (La(3+)). Ammonium and nitrate (10 mM) stimulated and inhibited (42)K(+) efflux, respectively, while 10 mM [K(+)](ext) or [Rb(+) ](ext) decreased it. No evidence for the involvement of ATP-binding cassettes, nonselective cation channels, or active K(+)-efflux pumps was found. Our study provides new evidence for the thermodynamic transition between high- and low-affinity transport, from the efflux perspective, identifying the operation of channels at low [K(+)], and the cessation of transmembrane efflux at high [K(+)]. PMID:20731780

Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J



ARAD proteins associated with pectic Arabinan biosynthesis form complexes when transiently overexpressed in planta.  


Glycosyltransferase complexes are known to be involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis, as for example in cellulose. It is not known to what extent such complexes are involved in biosynthesis of pectin as well. To address this question, work was initiated on ARAD1 (ARABINAN DEFICIENT 1) and its close homolog ARAD2 of glycosyltransferase family GT47. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer and non-reducing gel electrophoresis, we show that ARAD1 and ARAD2 are localized in the same Golgi compartment and form homo-and heterodimeric intermolecular dimers when expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana. Biochemical analysis of arad2 cell wall or fractions hereof showed no difference in the monosaccharide composition, when compared with wild type. The double mutant arad1 arad2 had an arad1 cell wall phenotype and overexpression of ARAD2 did not complement the arad1 phenotype, indicating that ARAD1 and ARAD2 are not redundant enzymes. To investigate the cell wall structure of the mutants in detail, immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on arad1, arad2 and arad1 arad2 using the arabinan-specific monoclonal antibody LM13. In roots, the labeling pattern of arad2 was distinct from both that of wild type, arad1 and arad1 arad2. Likewise, in epidermal cell walls of inflorescence stems, LM13 binding differed between arad2 and WILD TYPE, arad1 or arad1 arad2. Altogether, these data show that ARAD2 is associated with arabinan biosynthesis, not redundant with ARAD1, and that the two glycosyltransferases may function in complexes held together by disulfide bridges. PMID:22270560

Harholt, Jesper; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Søgaard, Casper; Bernard, Sophie; Nafisi, Majse; Poulsen, Christian Peter; Geshi, Naomi; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Driouich, Azeddine; Knox, J Paul; Scheller, Henrik Vibe



In planta reduction of maize seedling stalk lesions by the bacterial endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to autoinfection and alloinfection, maize is susceptible to infection by Fusarium verticillioides resulting in diseases and contamination of maize kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. Attempts at controlling this fungus are currently being done with biocontrol agents such as bacteria and this...


Establishment of an in planta magnesium monitoring system using CAX3 promoter-luciferase in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The direct determination of elemental concentrations in plants is laborious. To overcome this, a novel monitoring system for magnesium (Mg) in plants was established. Mg deficiency-induced genes were identified by microarray analysis and transgenic lines that expressed luciferase (LUC) under the control of the Mg deficiency-inducible CAX3 promoter were established. The transgenic lines showed a clear response under low Mg conditions, and the degree of luminescence reflected the accumulation of endogenous CAX3 mRNA. The CAX3 expression pattern was also examined in a previously characterized low Mg-sensitive mutant, mrs2-7. In mrs2-7 mutant plants, CAX3 expression was more than three times higher than in the wild-type. In addition, CAX3 expression was negatively correlated with the shoot Mg concentration. Together, these results indicate that CAX3 transcription is a quantitative marker of the Mg status in Arabidopsis.

Kamiya, Takehiro; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fujiwara, Toru



Especies de plantas de valor científico específico Scientific-specific value plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic botany considers may valuable species under different parameters. One of these less considerate-parameters is the scientific value of many species, useful to wide-biologic research and their variety of disciplines. Arabidopsis thaliana is the most representative example of this matter, although this plant can't be used as food, drug or as industrial source, has been widely used for a kind


Floral Benzenoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases: From in Vitro to in Planta Function  

SciTech Connect

Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses might represent the ancestor for the presently existing floral genes which during evolution gained different expression profiles and encoded enzymes with the ability to accept structurally similar substrates.

Effmert,U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.; Noel, J.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B.



Regioselectivity of glucosylation of caffeic acid by a UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase is maintained in planta.  

PubMed Central

Caffeic acid is a phenylpropanoid playing an important role in the pathways leading to lignin synthesis and the production of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. The compound is also an antioxidant and has potential utility as a general protectant against free radicals. Three glucosylated forms of caffeic acid are known to exist: the 3- O - and 4- O -glucosides and the glucose ester. This study describes for the first time a glucosyltransferase [UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGT)] that is specific for the 3-hydroxyl, and not the 4-hydroxyl, position of caffeic acid. The UGT sequence of Arabidopsis, UGT71C1, has been expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified and assayed against a range of substrates in vitro. The assay confirmed that caffeic acid as the preferred substrate when compared with other hydroxycinnamates, although UGT71C1 also exhibited substantial activity towards flavonoid substrates, known to have structural features that can be recognized by many different UGTs. The expression of UGT71C1 in transgenic Arabidopsis was driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S (CaMV35S) promoter. Nine independent transgenic lines were taken to homozygosity and characterized by Northern-blot analysis, assay of enzyme activity in leaf extracts and HPLC analysis of the glucosides. The level of expression of UGT71C1 was enhanced considerably in several lines, leading to a higher level of the corresponding enzyme activity and a higher level of caffeoyl-3- O -glucoside. The data are discussed in the context of the utility of UGTs for natural product biotransformations.

Lim, Eng-Kiat; Higgins, Gillian S; Li, Yi; Bowles, Dianna J




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) exists as several distinct strains: Dideron (D), Marcus (M), El Amar (EA), and Cherry (C). The M strain is considered the most easily aphid transmissible and epidemic form in peach. The D strain is the oldest recognized strain, most widely distributed worldwide, and the on...


Variação vertical da temperatura do ar no dossel de plantas de batata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air temperature is one of the most important meteorological elements in the conditioning of infection caused by pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of air temperature in the canopy of potato plants, cv. Macaca. Two experiments were carried out, one in the spring in a rural farm in the county of Silveira Martins, RS, from

Ivonete F. Tazzo; Arno B. Heldwein; Luciano Streck; Gustavo Trentin; Edenir L. Grimm; Guilherme F. Maass; Ivan C. Maldaner



Gene expression biomarkers provide sensitive indicators of in planta nitrogen status in maize.  


Over the last several decades, increased agricultural production has been driven by improved agronomic practices and a dramatic increase in the use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers to maximize the yield potential of crops. To reduce input costs and to minimize the potential environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilizer that has been used to optimize yield, an increased understanding of the molecular responses to nitrogen under field conditions is critical for our ability to further improve agricultural sustainability. Using maize (Zea mays) as a model, we have characterized the transcriptional response of plants grown under limiting and sufficient nitrogen conditions and during the recovery of nitrogen-starved plants. We show that a large percentage (approximately 7%) of the maize transcriptome is nitrogen responsive, similar to previous observations in other plant species. Furthermore, we have used statistical approaches to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the response of plants to varying nitrogen conditions. Using a composite gene expression scoring system, this single set of biomarker genes can accurately assess nitrogen responses independently of genotype, developmental stage, tissue type, or environment, including in plants grown under controlled environments or in the field. Importantly, the biomarker composite expression response is much more rapid and quantitative than phenotypic observations. Consequently, we have successfully used these biomarkers to monitor nitrogen status in real-time assays of field-grown maize plants under typical production conditions. Our results suggest that biomarkers have the potential to be used as agronomic tools to monitor and optimize nitrogen fertilizer usage to help achieve maximal crop yields. PMID:21980173

Yang, Xiaofeng S; Wu, Jingrui; Ziegler, Todd E; Yang, Xiao; Zayed, Adel; Rajani, M S; Zhou, Dafeng; Basra, Amarjit S; Schachtman, Daniel P; Peng, Mingsheng; Armstrong, Charles L; Caldo, Rico A; Morrell, James A; Lacy, Michelle; Staub, Jeffrey M



Neonicotinoid insecticides: oxidative stress in planta and metallo-oxidase inhibition.  


Neonicotinoids not only control insect pests but also sometimes independently alter plant growth and response to stress. We find that imidacloprid, thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin but not nitenpyram and dinotefuran induce foliar lesions and peroxidative damage in soybean ( Glycine max ) seedlings assayed with the 3,3'-diaminobenzidine stain. The chloropyridinyl-carboxylic acid (COOH) but not the -carboxaldehyde (CHO) metabolites induce peroxidative damage but in a different pattern. Surprisingly, the chlorothiazolyl -CHO and -COOH metabolites induce chlorosis but no clear superimposable peroxidative damage or cell death. Four metallo-oxidases known to modulate reactive oxygen species were not sensitive in vitro to the parent neonicotinoid itself but were to several CHO and COOH metabolites and related compounds, with a sensitivity order of CHO > COOH and tyrosinase > xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase > catalase. Although metallo-oxidase inhibition does not correlate overall with lesion formation, it may play an as yet unknown role in plant response to neonicotinoids. PMID:21476569

Ford, Kevin A; Gulevich, Alexander G; Swenson, Tami L; Casida, John E



The DNA damage response signaling cascade regulates proliferation of the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis in planta.  


In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the dikaryotic state dominates the period of growth occurring during the infectious phase. Dikaryons are cells in which two nuclei, one from each parent cell, share a single cytoplasm for a period of time without undergoing nuclear fusion. In fungal cells, maintenance of the dikaryotic state requires an intricate cell division process that often involves the formation of a structure known as the clamp connection as well as the sorting of one of the nuclei to this structure to ensure that each daughter dikaryon inherits a balance of each parental genome. Here, we describe an atypical role of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Atr1 during pathogenic growth of U. maydis. We found that Chk1 and Atr1 collaborate to control cell cycle arrest during the induction of the virulence program in U. maydis and that Chk1 and Atr1 work together to control the dikaryon formation. These findings uncover a link between a widely conserved signaling cascade and the virulence program in a phytopathogen. We propose a model in which adjustment of the cell cycle by the Atr1-Chk1 axis controls fidelity in dikaryon formation. Therefore, Chk1 and Atr1 emerge as critical cell type regulators in addition to their roles in the DNA damage response. PMID:21478441

de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Holloman, William K; Pérez-Martín, José



Water conservation and reuse in poultry processing plant—A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water conservation and water reuse concepts in food industry are presented in this paper. The developed study was in poultry processing plant, which focused water reuse evaluation for only non-potable applications. Although potable water reuse is allowed in some countries and there are international regulations about this practice [Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Guidelines for Water Reuse; 2004. http:\\/\\/\\/nrmrl\\/pubs\\/625r04108\\/625r04108.htm], this issue

E. M. Matsumura; J. C. Mierzwa



Anatomia foliar de plantas de alfavaca-cravo cultivadas sob malhas coloridas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present research, the effect of spectral control of light was evaluated on anatomical characteristics of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaves. The plants were cultivated during four months under black, red and blue nets with 50% of shade, and full sunlight. Plants grown under full sunlight showed higher leaf thickness, higher stomatal density and higher density of no-glandular and glandular

Ana Paula; Oliveira da Silva II; Cynthia Oliveira II; Eduardo Alves II



Influência da Maturidade da Planta de Milho para Produção de Silagem1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work was conducted in the agricultural crop of 2005\\/2006; on the José do Rosário Vellano University farm in Alfenas\\/MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the percentage of the DM for ensiling corn upon the loss of effluents, CP and pH of silages. The cultivars evaluated were: GNZ 2004, AG1051, P30S40 and P30F90, ensiled in the

Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara; Gustavo Augusto; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Simone Silvia Senedese


In planta transient expression as a system for genetic and biochemical analyses of chlorophyll biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mg chelatase is a multi-subunit enzyme that catalyses the first committed step of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Studies in higher plants and algae indicate that the Mg chelatase reaction product, Mg-protoporphyrin IX plays an essential role in nuclear-plastid interactions. A number of Mg chelatase mutants have been isolated from higher plants, including semi-dominant alleles of ChlI, the gene encoding the I

Ruairidh JH Sawers; Phyllis R Farmer; Peter Moffett; Thomas P Brutnell




Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of new European legal regulations for treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), recycling plants have to be installed in Spain. In this context, this contribution provides the decision maker with a ranking of Spanish municipalities according to their appropriateness for the installation of these plants. In order to rank the alternatives, the discrete multi-criteria decision

D. Queiruga; J. González-Benito


Heterologous Expression of Glycosyl Hydrolases in planta: A New Departure for Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

The concept of expressing non-plant glycosyl hydrolase genes in plant tissue is less than two decades old, and yet little work in this field has been reported. However, the resurgent interest in technologies aimed at enabling biomass to sugars/fuels processes have again pointed to this intuitive solution. Research challenges in this regard include developing better and more specifically targeted delivery systems for hydrolytic genes, achieving successful folding and post-translational modification of heterologous proteins, and developing cost effective process strategies utilizing these transformed plants. Integration of these concepts, from the improvement of biomass production and conversion characteristics to heterologous production of glycosyl hydrolases in a high yielding bioenergy crop, holds considerable promise for improving the lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol/fuels process.

Taylor, Larry E.; Dai, Ziyu; Decker, Stephen R.; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.



Heterologous Expression of Glycosyl Hydrolases in planta: A New Departure for Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

The concept of expressing non-plant glycosyl hydrolase genes in plant tissue is nearly two decades old, yet relatively little work in this field has been reported. However, resurgent interest in technologies aimed at enabling processes that convert biomass to sugars and fuels has turned attention toward this intuitive solution. There are several challenges facing researchers in this field, including the development of better and more specifically targeted delivery systems for hydrolytic genes, the successful folding and post-translational modification of heterologous proteins and the development of cost-effective process strategies utilizing these transformed plants. The integration of these concepts, from the improvement of biomass production and conversion characteristics to the heterologous production of glycosyl hydrolases in a high yielding bioenergy crop, holds considerable promise for improving the lignocellulosic conversion of biomass to ethanol and subsequently to fuels.

Taylor II, L. E.; Dai, Z.; Decker, S. R.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel M. E.



Screening a cDNA Library for Protein-Protein Interactions Directly in Planta[W  

PubMed Central

Screening cDNA libraries for genes encoding proteins that interact with a bait protein is usually performed in yeast. However, subcellular compartmentation and protein modification may differ in yeast and plant cells, resulting in misidentification of protein partners. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation technology to screen a plant cDNA library against a bait protein directly in plants. As proof of concept, we used the N-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein– or nVenus-tagged Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirE2 and VirD2 proteins and the C-terminal extension (CTE) domain of Arabidopsis thaliana telomerase reverse transcriptase as baits to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library encoding proteins tagged with the C-terminal fragment of yellow fluorescent protein. A library of colonies representing ?2 × 105 cDNAs was arrayed in 384-well plates. DNA was isolated from pools of 10 plates, individual plates, and individual rows and columns of the plates. Sequential screening of subsets of cDNAs in Arabidopsis leaf or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 protoplasts identified single cDNA clones encoding proteins that interact with either, or both, of the Agrobacterium bait proteins, or with CTE. T-DNA insertions in the genes represented by some cDNAs revealed five novel Arabidopsis proteins important for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. We also used this cDNA library to confirm VirE2-interacting proteins in orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis) flowers. Thus, this technology can be applied to several plant species.

Lee, Lan-Ying; Wu, Fu-Hui; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Shen, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Yu; Liao, De-Chih; Fang, Mei-Jane; Liu, Nien-Tze; Yen, Yu-Chen; Dokladal, Ladislav; Sykorova, Eva; Gelvin, Stanton B.; Lin, Choun-Sea




Microsoft Academic Search

The otomies (the hñähñü) of the Nicolás Flores municipality, Hidalgo, have maintained their knowledge of medicinal plants over generations. Allopathic medicine is limited mostly to prevention of diseases such as poliomyelitis, measles, smallpox, and malaria. It is considered that traditional medicine is more viable for this group of people because of the socioeconomic, cultural and physiographic conditions prevalent in the

A. Sánchez-González; D. Granados-Sánchez



Evite los Conceptos Erróneos cuando Enseñe sobre las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David R. Hershey (biology education consultant;)



Inhibition of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens In Vitro and In Planta with Ultrashort Cationic Lipopeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and cause extended environ- mental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens develop resistance to them. Re- cently, we have reported on a new family of ultrashort antimicrobial lipopeptides which are composed of only four amino

Arik Makovitzki; Ada Viterbo; Yariv Brotman; Ilan Chet; Yechiel Shai



The Use of Bioluminescence for Monitoring in planta Growth Dynamics of a Pseudomonas syringae Plant Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bioluminescence was evaluated as a tool to study Pseudomonas syringae population dynamics in susceptible and resistant plant environments. Plasmid pGLITE, containing the luxCDABE genes from Photorhabdus luminescens, was introduced into Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola race 7 strain 1449B, a Gram-negative pathogen of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bacteria recovered from plant tissue over a five-day period were enumerated by

Christopher D. Paynter; Vyvyan C. Salisbury; Dawn L. Arnold; Robert W. Jackson



A gateway cloning vector set for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta.  


The current challenge, now that two plant genomes have been sequenced, is to assign a function to the increasing number of predicted genes. In Arabidopsis, approximately 55% of genes can be assigned a putative function, however, less than 8% of these have been assigned a function by direct experimental evidence. To identify these functions, many genes will have to undergo comprehensive analyses, which will include the production of chimeric transgenes for constitutive or inducible ectopic expression, for antisense or dominant negative expression, for subcellular localization studies, for promoter analysis, and for gene complementation studies. The production of such transgenes is often hampered by laborious conventional cloning technology that relies on restriction digestion and ligation. With the aim of providing tools for high throughput gene analysis, we have produced a Gateway-compatible Agrobacterium sp. binary vector system that facilitates fast and reliable DNA cloning. This collection of vectors is freely available, for noncommercial purposes, and can be used for the ectopic expression of genes either constitutively or inducibly. The vectors can be used for the expression of protein fusions to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein and to the beta-glucuronidase protein so that the subcellular localization of a protein can be identified. They can also be used to generate promoter-reporter constructs and to facilitate efficient cloning of genomic DNA fragments for complementation experiments. All vectors were derived from pCambia T-DNA cloning vectors, with the exception of a chemically inducible vector, for Agrobacterium sp.-mediated transformation of a wide range of plant species. PMID:14555774

Curtis, Mark D; Grossniklaus, Ueli



Fenologia e Análise Fitoquímica de Plantas Medicinais de Ocorrência na Amazônia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenology and phytochemistry analysis of the medicinal plants of occurrence in the Amazon. The determination of the fenology of the medicinal plants is of fundamental importance for the obtaining of extracts. The work had as objective evaluates the and to characterize phytochemistryment coming medicinal species of collections and banks of germoplasma of East Amazon Embrapa, seeking the use and correct

Osmar Alves Lameira; Juliana Silva Paiva; Elaine Cristina; Pacheco de Oliveira


Wide Screening of Phage-Displayed Libraries Identifies Immune Targets in Planta  

PubMed Central

Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns and virulence effectors are recognized by plants as a first step to mount a defence response against potential pathogens. This recognition involves a large family of extracellular membrane receptors and other immune proteins located in different sub-cellular compartments. We have used phage-display technology to express and select for Arabidopsis proteins able to bind bacterial pathogens. To rapidly identify microbe-bound phage, we developed a monitoring method based on microarrays. This combined strategy allowed for a genome-wide screening of plant proteins involved in pathogen perception. Two phage libraries for high-throughput selection were constructed from cDNA of plants infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, or from combined samples of the virulent isolate DC3000 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and its avirulent variant avrRpt2. These three pathosystems represent different degrees in the specificity of plant-microbe interactions. Libraries cover up to 2×107 different plant transcripts that can be displayed as functional proteins on the surface of T7 bacteriophage. A number of these were selected in a bio-panning assay for binding to Pseudomonas cells. Among the selected clones we isolated the ethylene response factor ATERF-1, which was able to bind the three bacterial strains in competition assays. ATERF-1 was rapidly exported from the nucleus upon infiltration of either alive or heat-killed Pseudomonas. Moreover, aterf-1 mutants exhibited enhanced susceptibility to infection. These findings suggest that ATERF-1 contains a microbe-recognition domain with a role in plant defence. To identify other putative pathogen-binding proteins on a genome-wide scale, the copy number of selected-vs.-total clones was compared by hybridizing phage cDNAs with Arabidopsis microarrays. Microarray analysis revealed a set of 472 candidates with significant fold change. Within this set defence-related genes, including well-known targets of bacterial effectors, are over-represented. Other genes non-previously related to defence can be associated through this study with general or strain-specific recognition of Pseudomonas.

Rioja, Cristina; Van Wees, Saskia C.; Charlton, Keith A.; Pieterse, Corne M. J.; Lorenzo, Oscar; Garcia-Sanchez, Susana



An efficient method for visualization and growth of fluorescent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease, is a serious pathogen of rice. Here we describe a fluorescent marker system to study virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. RESULTS: A fluorescent X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (PXO99GFP) was generated using the gfp gene under the

Sang-Wook Han; Chang-Jin Park; Sang-Won Lee; Pamela C Ronald




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO- O grupo botânico Arecaceae é de extremo interesse por compreender plantas em extinção e por apresentar um grande potencial de exploração econômica. O butiazeiro (Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc.) ocorre naturalmente no Sul do Brasil. Sua caracterização molecular é de extremo interesse para futuros trabalhos de melhoramento genético. Assim sendo, verificou-se a variabilidade genética existente entre vinte e dois genótipos



Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.



Microsoft Academic Search

The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. Results: Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the

Juana Carolina Buchanan; Sandra Cristina Pillon




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a proposal for implementing asynchronous replication between heterogeneous databases. The goal of the proposed architecture is to allow asynchronous replication between heterogeneous databases, without the need of a gateway or any other replication tool, native or third party, between the database management systems - DBMS involved. 1. Introdução A disseminação do acesso à Internet, inclusive via banda

Heliomar Quadros Lorêdo


Empleo y desempleo entre los adultos mayores argentinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of the work participation of people aged 60 and above residing in urban areas in Argentina, from data specially processed from the Encuesta Permanente de Hogares for the third quarter of 2009. With this purpose, emphasis is made on the main occupation among those who work and the last occupation among those who are unemployed.

Gabriela Adriana Sala



Le cannabis dans les armées : entre passé et actualité  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis in the army is a reality the authors have chosen to inscribe in a temporality, from the concept of mental hygiene to the history of cannabis and of its spreading in the French population, so as to apprehend the present interest in cannabis in the army. Consumption of psychoactive drugs in military forces actually dates back to some decades,

C. Gheorghiev; P. Arvers; F. de Montleau; G. Fidelle; B. Queyriaux; C. Verret



Correlación entre la corriente interlobular inducida y estados de depresión  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-invasive technique known as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), that uses electromagnetic fields to induce electric currents in the brain, that could alter brain activity, is being applied since 1985. Initially, such technique (TMS) was used in a diagnostic procedure to dimension excitability and connectivity of nervous tissue, and to map brain functions, but due to its capacity of modulating

Antonino Caralli D'Ambrosio; Cesar Seijas; Sergio Villazana; Francisco Arteaga; Andreau Lenox


Inteligência emocional: validade discriminante entre MSCEIT e 16 PF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aim was to investigate discriminative validity evidences between Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and The 16 Personality Factors. The construct definition has been described as the person's ability to accurately perceive, express, understand and use his or her own emotions and the emotions of others as well manager them in order to facilitate the cognitive

Marilda Aparecida Dantas; Ana Paula Porto Noronha




Microsoft Academic Search

La poca efectividad en el combate al crimen organizado en México tiene su origen en diversas causas, que van desde la incapacidad de conceptualizarla, hasta la negación del sentido económico sobre el que se soporta la actividad delictiva en nuestro país, lo cual impide hacer propuestas de política más efectivas que no se reduzcan únicamente a los enfrentamientos violentos con

Guillermo Campos Ríos



Les partages inégaux de successions entre frères et soeurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] The Uneven Sharing of Estates between Brothers and Sisters . Estates favouring one or more direct heirs to the detriment of the others seems to be less frequent in France than in the United States. French legislation limits the sum to which will clauses may unevenly share estates between children to an available portion. In total, 7 % of

Luc Arrondel; Anne Laferrère




Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé : Le déroulement des études à l'ESIEE, école d'ingénieurs en 5 ans, est articulé selon une progression de projets et de stages devant permettre à l'élève d'acquérir des compétences techniques, humaines et de gestion de projet. Nous décrivons ici l'étude de synthèse de quatrième année, menée selon un schéma légèrement différent permettant aux élèves d'aborder globalement un système technique




Hemostáticos tópicos en cirugía: entre la ciencia y el marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical hemostatic agents have been used in surgery with varying degrees of success. These agents include oxidized cellulose, absorbable gelatin sponges, microfibrillar collagen and fibrin seals. Fibrin seals have become widely used as they improve perioperative hemostasis, reduce the need for red blood cell transfusions and prevent biliary leaks. Their widespread use, however, contrasts with the scarcity of data from

Héctor Daniel González; Joan Figueras Felip



Reflexionando sobre las relaciones entre política social y estructura social  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the main debates that have developed in the SAP. S ( Social Po l i c y Analysis Se m i n a r, UAB), in order to build a theoretical framew o rk which should be able to analyse the relations between social policy and social stru c t u re. We start from some criticisms

José Adelantado Gimeno; José Antonio Noguera



Relação entre técnicas e lesões em praticantes de judô  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationship between techniques and injuries among judo practitioners Judo is a martial art created in 1882 characterized by a great number of techniques and philosophical basis, and it has been mentioned in several studies as one of the sports presenting a higher amount of injury occurrences. Nevertheless, there are few detailed surveys to allow performing a causal correlation between the

Daniel Barsottini; Anderson Eduardo Guimarães; Paulo Renato de Morais



Comorbilidad entre trastorno bipolar y migraña: una revisión sistemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Migraine and bipolar disorder (BD) are prevalent conditions and of great relevance for the general population. Some studies have informed of their association but until now we don't know if it is real. Objective: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the known evidence of the association between migraine and BD. Methods: A search was placed in Medline, Proquest

Germán Eduardo; Rueda Jaimes; Iván Augusto; Gaona Barbosa; Yuli Andrea Martínez Ladino



Comparación entre los sitios de LLAMA y APEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison among the meteorological condition prevailing at the location of APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) telescope and the site selected to deploy LLAMA (Long Latin American Millimeter Array) is carried out. The later is dubbed Alto Chorrillo, and is located 4800 m above sea level and around 16 km eastward from the town of San Antonio de los Cobres (province of Salta). This work is part of a long term monitoring campaign aim at selecting sites for millimeter and submillimeter radioastronomy that is being carried out by the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR) since 2002. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Bareilles, F. A.; Morras, R.; Hauscarriaga, F. P.; Guarrera, L.; Arnal, E. M.; Lepine, J. R. D.


O TDAH: entre as funções, disfunções e otimização da atenção  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of the diagnostic category of Attentio n Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its controversies is investigated. Since the 1980s, the ADHD diagnosis has been interpreted as a neuropsychiatric dysfunction that appears in childhood and persists into adultho od. ADHD diagnosis is described by international medical authorities as a public health issue. Although ADHD medical and biological legitimacy has

Luciana Vieira Caliman



Análise comparativa entre os implantes mamários mais usados no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Compare the advantages of the using of one of the breast implants most used during the research period, in terms of the most common complications in this procedure. Methodology: The four silicon breast implants most used on the national market were selected in a consecutive and incoming field of 500 women, divided into subgroups of 100, each corresponding to



La douleur des nouveau-nés : entre réalité et perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newborn hospitalized in neonatology suffers a lot of painful and fully perceived procedures. However this pain is not enough taken into consideration. There are various reasons for this failure. The objective of our study was to analyze the perception of 3 groups of participants (parents, nurses and doctors) about newborns'pain. We wanted to compare these perceptions with pain scales

P. R. Smeesters; A. B. Johansson; S. Coppens; D. Blum; R. Vanderlinden; A. Kahn



El cáncer entre las minorías con VIH y sida

Cancer and HIV/AIDS has always been “a tale of two diseases,” according to researchers at the NCI. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system, leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. This Spanish-language Lifelines articles explains how HIV/AIDS affects cancer risk.


Funcionalidade da relação entre habilidades sociais e dificuldades de aprendizagem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in social skills area have established relations between social and academic performance, although the data regarding the nature and the functionality of this relationship remain somewhat controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the empirical relationship between these two aspects through two pathways: a) promoting social skills and evaluating their effects on academic results; b) promoting academic results and

Renata Cristina; Moreno Molina; Zilda Aparecida; Pereira Del Prette




Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison between electropuncture and local ischaemic compression in the myofascial pain syndrome. The myofascial pain syndrome represents a frequent pathology and a medical problem, generally misdiagnosed. The main symptom is musculoskeletal pain leading to functional incapacity. The objective was to compare the degree of pain relief and the amplitude of neck lateral movement by means of either electropuncture or local

Pedro José Salinas; Rosa Cho Cheng; Yolanda Monzón de Briceño


Effects of energy content and energy density of pre-portioned entr?es on energy intake  

PubMed Central

Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. In a crossover design, 68 non-dieting adults (28 men and 40 women) were provided with breakfast, lunch, and dinner on one day a week for four weeks. Each meal included a compulsory, manipulated pre-portioned entrée followed by a variety of unmanipulated discretionary foods that were consumed ad libitum. Across conditions, the entrées were varied in both energy content and ED between a standard level (100%) and a reduced level (64%). Results showed that in men, decreases in the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées acted independently and added together to reduce daily energy intake (both P<0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced total energy intake in men by 16% (445±47 kcal/d; P <0.0001). In women, the entrée factors also had independent effects on energy intake at breakfast and lunch, but at dinner and for the entire day the effects depended on the interaction of the two factors (P <0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced daily energy intake in women by 14% (289±35 kcal/d; P<0.0001). Both the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées affect daily energy intake and could influence the effectiveness of such foods for weight management.

Blatt, Alexandria D.; Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.



Conocimientos y habilidades de los profesores del campus de ciencias sociales de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán para la educación a distancia. Knowledge and skills of the teachers of the campus of social sciences of the Autonomous University of Yucatan through distance education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open learning and over a distance, a force that he contributes clearly to the social and economic development, has been turning into an indispensable part of the education, and has been gaining acceptance inside the educational traditional systems, both in the developed countries and in development, but particularly in the above mentioned (UNESCO, 2002). This work arises as a response

Victor Manuel Cab Pech; J. Gabriel; Domínguez Castillo


Use of a PTGS-MAR expression system for efficient in planta production of bioactive Arabidopsis thaliana plant defensins.  


Plant defensins, exhibiting various levels of inhibitory activity against fungal pathogens, are potent candidates for pharmaceutical or agricultural antimycotics. Study of the plant defensins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the purification of these peptides. However, heterologous production of defensins for large-scale in vitro bioactivity assays is often experienced as a major problem. In this study we describe the transgenic expression of a previously identified seed-specific and a so far uncharacterized plant defensin gene in their host A. thaliana using a formerly developed plant expression system. Therefore, both genes were cloned in a matrix attachment region (MAR) based plant transformation vector and expressed in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) impaired A. thaliana plants. The peptides were purified to homogeneity and were correctly processed, as confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Finally, they were assessed for their in vitro antifungal activity and mode of antifungal action. Our results indicate that the PTGS-MAR expression system can be applied to obtain significant amounts of bioactive, rightly processed plant peptides from leaves of first generation transgenic plants. PMID:17180735

Sels, Jan; Delauré, Stijn L; Aerts, An M; Proost, Paul; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Bolle, Miguel F C



In vivo trans-specific gene silencing in fungal cells by in planta expression of a double-stranded RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is

Maria Laine P Tinoco; Bárbara BA Dias; Rebeca C Dall'Astta; João A Pamphile; Francisco JL Aragão




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in an agrobacteria-mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase (Photinus pyrali...


Chitin synthesis during in planta growth and asexual propagation of the cellulosic oomycete and obligate biotrophic grapevine pathogen Plasmopara viticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR amplification of two CHS gene fragments of the obligate biotroph Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew of grapevine, is described. While one fragment shows homology to fungal class IV chitin synthases, the other fragment groups with other oomycete chitin synthases to form a novel class of chitin synthases most closely related to class I–III. RT-PCR experiments indicate

Stefan Werner; Ulrike Steiner; Rayko Becher; Andreas Kortekamp; Eva Zyprian; Holger B Deising




Microsoft Academic Search

We report 61 new records of alien plants for Torres del Paine National Park. The park is located in the Magellan Region (49°21'-51°08'S y 73°07'-74°52'O), with an area of 181.414 ha. The study area has 21 families, 65 genera and 85 alien species. The families with the largest number of species are Poaceae (22 spp.), Asteraceae (11 spp.) and Caryophyllaceae

Erwin Domínguez; Arve Elvebakk; Clodomiro Marticorena; Aníbal Pauchard


Isolation, Cultivation and In Planta Visualization of Bacterial Endophytes in Hanging Roots of Banyan Tree ( Ficus bengalensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microbial endophytes are able to colonize internal tissues of plant without causing harm to the host. Historically, microbial\\u000a endophytes have been thought to be weakly virulent plant pathogens, but now they have been recently discovered to have several\\u000a beneficial effects on the host plants, such as plant growth promotion by producing phyto-hormone, and increasing resistance\\u000a against the plant pathogens and

Khyati Pathak; Haresh Keharia; Amit C. Kharkwal


In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression  

SciTech Connect

Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites.

Rimando A. M.; Liu C.; Pan, Z.; Polashock, J. J.; Dayan, F. E., Mizuno, C. S.; Snook, M. E.; Baerson, S. R.



In planta differential targeting analysis of Thermotoga maritima Cel5A and CBM6-engineered Cel5A for autohydrolysis.  


The heterologous expression of glycosyl hydrolases in bioenergy crops can improve the lignocellulosic conversion process for ethanol production. We attempted to obtain high-level expression of an intact Thermotoga maritima endoglucanase, Cel5A, and CBM6-engineered Cel5A in transgenic tobacco plants for the mass production and autohydrolysis of endoglucanase. Cel5A expression was targeted to different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytosol, apoplast, and chloroplast, using the native form of the pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and Rubisco activase (RA) transit peptides. Cel5A transgenic tobacco plants with the chloroplast transit peptide showed the highest average endoglucanase activity and protein accumulation up to 4.5% total soluble protein. Cel5A-CBM6 was targeted to the chloroplast and accumulated up to 5.2% total soluble protein. In terms of the direct conversion of plant tissue into free sugar, the Cel5A-CBM6 transgenic plant was 33% more efficient than the Cel5A transgenic plant. The protein stability of Cel5A and Cel5A-CBM6 in lyophilized leaf material is an additional advantage in the bioconversion process. PMID:21152978

Mahadevan, Shobana Arumugam; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Yeon Ok; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong



Simulation of the influence of industrial wastewater on a municipal sewage treatment plant—a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Industrial wastewater flow caused operational difficulties in the wastewater treatment plant in Debrecen, Hungary. Bioaugmentation\\u000a was successfully applied to maintain effluent quality in the periods when wastewater of high starch content was accepted,\\u000a but, at the end of 2008, the nitrification capacity of the plant decreased considerably due to improperly pre-treated pharmaceutical\\u000a wastewater.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and material  Dynamic simulations were carried out

Ákos Rédey; Viola Somogyi; József Ányos; Endre Domokos; Péter Thury; Tatiana Yuzhakova



Traditional plants as source of functional foods: a review Plantas tradicionales como fuente de alimentos funcionales: una revisión  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the following plants as functional foods that can be found in Mexico: white sapote (Casimiroa edulis), jicama (Pachyrhizus spp.), amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), oregano (Lippia graveolens), pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.), agave (Agave americana), pelitre (Heliopsis longipes), and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L). The main characteristics, components and active substances, forms of

G. Rivera; V. Bocanegra-García; A. Monge



A secreted lipolytic enzyme from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is expressed in planta and contributes to its virulence.  


A recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) approach with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) revealed that lipA, annotated as putative secreted lipase, is expressed during the interaction between this pathogen and tomato. Here, the tnpR and uidA reporter genes were used to show that lipA is strongly induced in XVM2 minimal medium and during the early stages of tomato infection by Xcv. A mutant strain impaired in lipA was generated by insertional mutagenesis. This mutant grew in a similar manner to the wild-type in rich medium, but its growth was significantly compromised in a medium containing olive oil as a single carbon source. The lipolytic activity of the extracellular fraction of the lipA mutant was reduced significantly relative to that of the wild-type strain, thus confirming that lipA indeed encodes a functional secreted enzyme with lipolytic activity. A plasmid carrying a wild-type copy of lipA complemented the lipA mutant for extracellular lipolytic activity. Dip inoculation experiments with tomato lines Hawaii 7998 (H7998) and Micro Tom showed that the lipA mutant grew to a lesser extent than the wild-type in tomato leaves. Following leaf syringe infiltrations, the mutant strain induced disease symptoms that were less severe than those induced by the wild-type strain, supporting a significant role of lipA in the pathogenicity of Xcv. PMID:22176521

Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Rosenberg, Tally; Navon, Naama; Burdman, Saul



The area of origin of Manihot esculenta as a crop plant—a review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  It has been suggested by Mangelsdorf and his co-workers (1964) that the two subdivisions (according to toxicity) into which\\u000a cultivated manioc falls “had a separate and local history of cultivation,” and an examination of the evidence presented above\\u000a makes it possible to elaborate on this suggestion.\\u000a \\u000a It may be proposed that sweet manioc was first domesticated in Mesoamerica as one

Barbara S. Renvoize



Técnicas para a obtenção de preparações citológicas com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas em plantas: Passiflora (Passifloraceae) e Crotalaria (Leguminosae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques to obtain cytological preparations with high frequency of mitotic metaphases in plants: Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)). Experiments were carried out aiming to optimize procedures for cytological preparations of root tips with high frequency of metaphase cells showing clear features of chromosome morphology, in species belonging to two genera of plants, Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and Crotalaria

Silvia Marina Cuco; Mateus Mondin; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Margarida L. R. Aguiar-Perecin




Microsoft Academic Search

The precision agriculture technology has been motivated by cost minimization, labor optimization and environmental pollution reduction. The Lesser Cornstalk Borer damages the corn plants on initial stage affecting the production because of stand reduction. Therefore, algorithms have been proposed for classifying damaged corn plants by that pest. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of image block



Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids.\\u000a However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage\\u000a dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile\\u000a compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of

Andrea Ilg; Qiuju Yu; Patrick Schaub; Peter Beyer; Salim Al-Babili



Cloning, characterization, and targeted disruption of cpcat1, coding for an in planta secreted catalase of Claviceps purpurea.  


Claviceps purpurea has been shown to secrete catalases in axenic and parasitic culture. In order to determine the importance of these enzymes in the host-parasite interaction, especially their role in overcoming oxidative stress imposed on the pathogen by the plant's defense system, the catR gene from A. niger was used to isolate a putative catalase gene from a genomic library of C. purpurea, cpcat1 consists of an open reading frame of 2,148 bp that is interrupted by five introns. Its derived gene product shows significant homology to fungal catalases and contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and three putative N-glycosylation sites, which indicates that CPCAT1 is a secreted catalase. Disruption of the gene by a gene replacement approach resulted in the loss of two catalase isoforms, CATC and CATD, strongly suggesting that they are both encoded by cpcat1. CATD is the major secreted catalase of C. purpurea and is furthermore the only catalase present in the honeydew of infected rye ears. Deletion mutants of cpcat1 were inoculated on rye plants and showed no significant reduction in virulence. Ovarian tissue and honeydew of plants inoculated with the mutants lacked CATD, confirming that this catalase is not essential for colonization of the host tissue by C. purpurea. PMID:9675893

Garre, V; Müller, U; Tudzynski, P




Microsoft Academic Search

Total Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations and the distribution of lead in soils from a farmland near a battery recycling plant in Madrid (Spain) were investigated to establish a possible relationship with a recent episode of horses death that presented lead intoxication symptoms before dying. Total Pb and Cd levels presented a clear decrease with distance to the

Victoria CALA; Yukihiko KUNIMINE


Mutations in the Arabidopsis Peroxisomal ABC Transporter COMATOSE Allow Differentiation between Multiple Functions In Planta: Insights from an Allelic Series  

PubMed Central

COMATOSE (CTS), the Arabidopsis homologue of human Adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), is required for import of substrates for peroxisomal ?-oxidation. A new allelic series and a homology model based on the bacterial ABC transporter, Sav1866, provide novel insights into structure-function relations of ABC subfamily D proteins. In contrast to ALDP, where the majority of mutations result in protein absence from the peroxisomal membrane, all CTS mutants produced stable protein. Mutation of conserved residues in the Walker A and B motifs in CTS nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) 1 resulted in a null phenotype but had little effect in NBD2, indicating that the NBDs are functionally distinct in vivo. Two alleles containing mutations in NBD1 outside the Walker motifs (E617K and C631Y) exhibited resistance to auxin precursors 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA) but were wild type in all other tests. The homology model predicted that the transmission interfaces are domain-swapped in CTS, and the differential effects of mutations in the conserved “EAA motif” of coupling helix 2 supported this prediction, consistent with distinct roles for each NBD. Our findings demonstrate that CTS functions can be separated by mutagenesis and the structural model provides a framework for interpretation of phenotypic data.

Dietrich, Daniela; Schmuths, Heike; Lousa, Carine De Marcos; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Baker, Alison; Holdsworth, Michael J.



Positive-selection and ligation-independent cloning vectors for large scale in Planta expression for plant functional genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient expression is an easy, rapid and powerful technique for producing proteins of interest in plants. Recombinational\\u000a cloning is highly efficient but has disadvantages, including complicated, time consuming cloning procedures and expensive\\u000a enzymes for large-scale gene cloning. To overcome these limitations, we developed new ligationindependent cloning (LIC) vectors\\u000a derived from binary vectors including tobacco mosaic virus (pJL-TRBO), potato virus X

Sang-Keun Oh; Saet-Byul Kim; Seon-In Yeom; Hyun-Ah Lee; Doil Choi



Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.  


Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola, identified through ITS sequence analysis, was isolated from VSD-affected cacao plants in Java, and is widespread in diseased cacao collected from Indonesia. PMID:22208598

Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A



Más Conceptos Erróneos a Evitar en la Enseñanza sobre las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is useful for teacher's professional development by alerting educators to many plant misconceptions in teaching literature. In the thought provoking, peer reviewed resource fifty misconceptions are identified. Some misconceptions are easier to identify because they are oversimplifications, overgeneralizations, or misidentifications. Others are more difficult to identify because they are obsolete concepts and terms or flawed research.

David Hershey (biology education consultant;)



A mutation in the Lettuce infectious yellows virus minor coat protein disrupts whitefly transmission but not in planta systemic movement.  


The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission. These results provide strong molecular evidence that the full-length LIYV-encoded CPm is dispensable for systemic plant movement but is required for whitefly transmission. PMID:20861267

Stewart, Lucy R; Medina, Vicente; Tian, Tongyan; Turina, Massimo; Falk, Bryce W; Ng, James C K



A Mutation in the Lettuce Infectious Yellows Virus Minor Coat Protein Disrupts Whitefly Transmission but Not In Planta Systemic Movement?  

PubMed Central

The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission. These results provide strong molecular evidence that the full-length LIYV-encoded CPm is dispensable for systemic plant movement but is required for whitefly transmission.

Stewart, Lucy R.; Medina, Vicente; Tian, Tongyan; Turina, Massimo; Falk, Bryce W.; Ng, James C. K.



In planta expression of a protein encoded by the extrachromosomal DNA of a phytoplasma and related to geminivirus replication proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extrachromosomal DNA, EcOYW1, was cloned from the onion yellows phytoplasma (OY-W). Southern blot and PCR analysis showed that EcOYW1 is not present in the OY-M, a mild symptom line derived from OY-W. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of EcOYW1; it is a circular dsDNA of 7<0 kbp in length, which contains seven ORFs. ORF1 encoded a homologue

Hisashi Nishigawa; Shin-ichi Miyata; Kenro Oshima; Toshimi Sawayanagi; Akihiro Komoto; Tsutomu Kuboyama; Izumi Matsuda; Tsuneo Tsuchizaki; Shigetou Namba


Comparative in vitro and in planta analyses of extracellular enzymes secreted by the pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.  


Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important economic crop in Brazil but its yield can be significantly reduced by white mold, a disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, a necrotrophic, highly destructive, and non-host-specific fungus. This fungus secretes numerous cell wall-degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases, exo-?-1,3-glucanases, xylanases, and cellulases that have been detected during the early stages of infection. In this study, the activities of these enzymes were detected in all carbon sources tested (citrus pectin, cell wall extract from P. vulgaris, carboxymethyl cellulose, and glucose), but the highest levels were found when using citrus pectin and cell wall extract from P. vulgaris. Regardless of the carbon source, pH decreased throughout the culture time. During pathogenesis in dry bean stems, increased enzyme activities were also observed. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that the induction of polygalacturonases (sspg1, sspg3, sspg5, sspg6, and sspg7), exo-?-1,3-glucanases, and endo-?-1-4-glucanase in S. sclerotiorum occurred during the early stages of colonization. PMID:23913372

Oliveira, M B; Barbosa, S C; Petrofeza, S



Inhibition of fungal growth in planta and in vitro by transgenic tobacco expressing a bacterial nonheme chloroperoxidase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants producing chloroperoxidase (CPO-P), encoded by a novel gene from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation was shown by PCR, Southern, northern and western blot analyses, and assays\\u000a of CPO-P enzyme activity. Extracts from plants transformed with the CPO-P gene significantly reduced Aspergillus flavus colonies by up to 100% compared with extracts from control plants

K. Rajasekaran; J. W. Cary; T. J. Jacks; K. D. Stromberg; T. E. Cleveland



Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiarido (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value




Microsoft Academic Search

INDUCED RESISTANCE EFFECT TO THE GIANT CONIFER APHID (HEMIPTERA:APHIDIDAE) IN SILICON FERTILIZED PLANTS OF PINUS TAEDA This research aimed to study the effect of silicon as a resistance inducer in P. taeda L. to C. atlantica (Wilson). Preference and reproductive rate tests were performed in plants of P. taeda with and without silicon application. The experiment was carried out in




Aspectos morfofisiológicos e conteúdo de óleo essencial de plantas de alfazema-do-Brasil em função de níveis de sombreamento  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphophysiological aspects and essential oil content in Brazilian-lavender as affected by shadowing Changes in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics and in the production of essential oil of medicinal plants under influence of different radiation conditions have been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to characterize the variation in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics, and in the essential oil content

José Eduardo BP Pinto; Júlio César W Cardoso; Evaristo M de Castro; Suzan Kelly V Bertolucci; Lucas A de Melo; Sara Dousseau



In vivo trans-specific gene silencing in fungal cells by in planta expression of a double-stranded RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is also a great interest in applying RNAi to pathogenic fungi. Specific inhibition of gene expression by RNAi has been shown to be suitable for a multitude of phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. However, double-stranded (ds)RNA/small interfering (si)RNA silencing effect has not been observed in vivo. Results This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides, in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. Conclusion The results provide a powerful tool for further studies on molecular plant-microbe and symbiotic interactions. From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms.



In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression.  


Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites. PMID:21902799

Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang; Polashock, James J; Dayan, Franck E; Mizuno, Cassia S; Snook, Maurice E; Liu, Chang-Jun; Baerson, Scott R



In planta transformation of pigeon pea: a method to overcome recalcitrancy of the crop to regeneration in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of transgenics in pigeon pea remains dogged by poor plant regeneration in vitro from transformed tissues and low frequency transformation protocols. This article presents a non-tissue culture-based method\\u000a of generating transgenic pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millisp.) plants using Agrobacterium-Ti plasmid-mediated transformation system. The protocol involves raising of whole plant transformants (T0 plants) directly from Agrobacterium-infected young seedlings. The

K. Sankara Rao; Rohini Sreevathsa; Pinakee D. Sharma; E. Keshamma; M. Udaya Kumar



A robust and sensitive synthetic sensor to monitor the transcriptional output of the cytokinin signaling network in planta.  


Cytokinins are classic plant hormones that orchestrate plant growth, development, and physiology. They affect gene expression in target cells by activating a multistep phosphorelay network. Type-B response regulators, acting as transcriptional activators, mediate the final step in the signaling cascade. Previously, we have introduced a synthetic reporter, Two Component signaling Sensor (TCS)::green fluorescent protein (GFP), which reflects the transcriptional activity of type-B response regulators. TCS::GFP was instrumental in uncovering roles of cytokinin and deepening our understanding of existing functions. However, TCS-mediated expression of reporters is weak in some developmental contexts where cytokinin signaling has a documented role, such as in the shoot apical meristem or in the vasculature of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also observed that GFP expression becomes rapidly silenced in TCS::GFP transgenic plants. Here, we present an improved version of the reporter, TCS new (TCSn), which, compared with TCS, is more sensitive to phosphorelay signaling in Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays) cellular assays while retaining its specificity. Transgenic Arabidopsis TCSn::GFP plants exhibit strong and dynamic GFP expression patterns consistent with known cytokinin functions. In addition, GFP expression has been stable over generations, allowing for crosses with different genetic backgrounds. Thus, TCSn represents a significant improvement to report the transcriptional output profile of phosphorelay signaling networks in Arabidopsis, maize, and likely other plants that display common response regulator DNA-binding specificities. PMID:23355633

Zürcher, Evelyne; Tavor-Deslex, Deborah; Lituiev, Dmytro; Enkerli, Katalin; Tarr, Paul T; Müller, Bruno



A rapid infection assay for Armillaria and real-time PCR quantitation of the fungal biomass in planta.  


Slow and unreliable infection in the greenhouse has been a barrier to research on Armillaria root disease. The existing infection assay takes 7-18 months for detectable infection, during which time the inoculum often dies, resulting in unequal challenge among plants. Because symptom expression and mortality are rare, presence or absence of infection, determined by culturing, is the only datum derived from the existing infection assay. This limits both routine comparisons of strain virulence and complex investigations of pathogenesis, neither of which have been done for Armillaria mellea. We tested a new infection assay, in which grape rootstocks growing in tissue culture medium are inoculated, and compared to rootstocks previously characterized from the existing infection assay as tolerant (Freedom) or susceptible (3309C). Culture media of 25 plants per rootstock was inoculated and five plants per rootstock were harvested 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation; the experiment was completed twice. Confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) were used to quantify infection. Roots were treated with WGA-AlexaFluor488, hyphae and roots were scanned on green and red channels on a confocal microscope, and percent root colonization was quantified. A fungal gene (EF1?) was determined to have a single copy in A. mellea, and both EF1? and a single-copy grape gene (UFGT) were amplified by Q-PCR; fungal DNA: plant DNA served as a measure of fungal biomass. Armillaria was detected by culture, microscopy, and Q-PCR starting 2 weeks postinoculation from all inoculated plants, demonstrating that the new infection assay is rapid and plants do not escape infection. Our findings of higher percent root colonization (as measured by microscopy) of 3309C than Freedom at all harvests (P<0.0001), consistently higher fungal biomass (as measured by Q-PCR) of 3309 than Freedom, and a significant positive correlation between percent root colonization and fungal biomass (P=0.01) suggests that the quantitative methods of our new assay give similar results to the qualitative method of the existing infection assay. PMID:20965067

Baumgartner, Kendra; Bhat, Ravi; Fujiyoshi, Phillip



ST-segment elevation and ventricular tachycardia after ingestion of a common ornamental plant-a case report.  


Japanese yew is a widely used ornamental plant. However, most people are unaware that it is also a poisonous plant. It has potent cardiac toxicities that can lead to sudden cardiac death. A 37-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with altered mental status and sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). Electrocardiogram (ECG) after cardioversion showed profound QRS prolongation and ST-segment elevation suggestive of either hyperkalaemia, acute myocardial ischaemia, or Brugada syndrome. Her electrolytes and coronary angiography were normal. After improvement of the patient's mental status, she admitted that she has been consuming Japanese yew from her yard for several months. Few hours later, QRS duration normalised, but mild ST-segment elevation persisted in the right pre-cordial leads, making it more suspicious for Brugada syndrome. However, a procainamide challenge test and electrophysiology study failed to induce typical Brugada pattern ECG and VT. The absence of coronary artery disease and electrolytes disturbances points toward the fact that her arrhythmia and ECG changes are secondary to yew intoxication. The patient was monitored for a few days. She was haemodynamically stable and has not had any arrhythmia. This case highlights the importance of public awareness of severe toxicity from Japanese yew or other yew plants. Yews contain taxines that are responsible for the ECG abnormalities due to its inhibitory effect on the cardiac sodium and calcium channels. They cause conduction abnormalities, VT, and ST-segment elevation that can resemble acute myocardial infarction, hyperkalaemia, and Brugada syndrome. PMID:22572505

Jambeih, Rami A; Shaheen, Wassim H; Li, Vuy Y; Shaheen, Mazen H



Introduccion, establecimiento y potencial de Apion ulicis como antagonista de Ulex europaeus en el sur de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  El coleópteroApion ulicis Forster, introducido desde Nueva Zelanda se estableció exitosamente enUlex europaeus L. en todas las localidades del Sur de Chile donde fue introducido, entre los paralelos 37 y 43 grados Lat. Sur.\\u000a \\u000a Los niveles de consumo de semilla que muestran las plantas infestadas con este insecto, indican queA. ulicis puede ser un valioso agente de control biológico de

H. Norambuena; R. Carrillo; M. Neira



Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

Briceno, D. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria (Costa Rica); Eberhard, W. [Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Costa Rica); Vilardi, J. [Dpto. de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cayol, J.-P. [Technical Cooperation Division, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100 A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Shelly, T. [A. C. , D. , E. USDA/APHIS/CPHST, 41-650 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States)



Prediction uncertainty of plume characteristics derived from a small number of measuring points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small number of measuring points may inflict a bias on the characterisation of flow and transport based on field experiments in the unsaturated zone. Simulation of pure advective transport of a Gaussian plume through a setup of 30 regularly placed measuring points revealed regular temporal fluctuations about the real spatial moments. An irregular setup predicted both irregular fluctuations and larger discrepancies from the real value. From these considerations, a regular setup is recommended. Spatial moments were sensitive to the plume size relative to the distance between individual measuring points. To reduce prediction errors of the variance, the distance between the measuring points should be less than twice the standard deviation of the examined plume. The total size of the setup should cover several standard deviations of the plume to avoid mass being lost from the monitored area. Numerical simulations of a dispersing plume (comparing calculations based on 9000 nodes with 30 measuring points) revealed that vertical and horizontal centres of mass were predicted well at all degrees of heterogeneity, and the same was the case for horizontal variances. Vertical variances were more susceptible to prediction errors, but estimates were of the same order of magnitude as the real values. Résumé Lorsque l'on cherche à caractériser l'écoulement et le transport à partir d'expériences de terrain dans la zone saturée, il arrive qu'un petit nombre de points introduisent un biais. La simulation d'un transport purement advectif d'un panache gaussien au travers d'un ensemble de 30 points de mesures espacés régulièrement fait apparaître des variations temporelles régulières autour des moments spatiaux réels. Un ensemble irrégulier conduit à prédire à la fois des variations irrégulières et de plus grandes divergences par rapport à la valeur réelle. A partir de ces constations, un ensemble régulier est recommandé. Les moments spatiaux sont apparus sensibles à la dimension du panache en fonction de la distance entre les différents points de mesure. Afin de réduire les erreurs de prédiction de la variance, la distance entre les points de mesure doit être inférieure au double de l'écart-type du panache examiné. La dimension totale de l'ensemble doit couvrir une étendue de plusieurs écarts-types du panache pour éviter qu'une partie de la matière échappe à la zone surveillée. Des simulations numériques du panache en dispersion (les calculs de comparaison sont basés sur 9000 nœuds avec 30 points de mesure) montrent que le centre vertical et le centre horizontal de la matière dispersée ont été bien prédits à tous les degrés d'hétérogénéité, de même que pour les variances horizontales. Les variances verticales ont été plus sensibles aux erreurs de prédiction, mais les estimations étaient du même ordre de grandeur que les valeurs réelles. Resumen Un número pequeño de puntos de medida puede producir un sesgo en la caracterización en campo del flujo y transporte de solutos en la zona no saturada. La simulación de transporte advectivo (no difusivo) de un penacho Gaussiano a travs de un conjunto de 30 puntos de medida regularmente distribuidos revelan fluctuaciones temporales regulares de los momentos espaciales del penacho. Una distribución irregular de puntos de medida predijo a su vez fluctuaciones irregulares, más alejadas de la realidad, por lo que se recomienda el uso de esquemas de muestreo regulares. Los momentos espaciales fueron sensibles a la relación entre tamaño del penacho y distancia entre puntos de medida. Para reducir los errores en la predicción de la varianza, la distancia entre puntos de observación debe ser menor que dos veces la desviación estándar del penacho. El tamaño del área muestreada debe cubrir varias desviaciones estándar del penacho para evitar perder parte de la masa. Las simulaciones numricas en un penacho dispersivo, comparando los cálculos basados en 9000 nudos con las 30 medidas, mostraron que las posiciones de los centros de masa y

French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.


Sobre el estado evolutivo de ? Pictoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en ? Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. ? Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a ?Pic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en ? Pic indica edades avanzadas para ? Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para ? Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.


Antioxidant and antiglycation potential of some Sudanese medicinal plants and their isolated compounds (Potencial antioxidante y antiglicosidación de algunas plantas medicinales sudanesas y de sus compuestos aislados)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to be associated with a number of human neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, diabetes, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. In the present work twenty three ethanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases were investigated for their potential scavenging of superoxide free radicals. 14

Waleed S. KOKO; Elbadri E. OSMAN; Mohamed GALAL



Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile fractions were isolated by simultaneous distillation- solvent extraction (SDE) from leaves of four Piperaceae species: Piper marginatum Jacq, P. aduncum L., P. hispidum Sw. and Pothomorphe peltata L. Components were separated and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC - MS).




Analysis of RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Using a New Vector (pKNOCKOUT) and an In Planta Agrobacterium Transient Expression System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in an Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase (Photinus pyralis) gene segment in sense (sFLUC), antisense (aFLUC), and inverted repeat (ihpFLUC) orientations. The inverted repeats of the target




Analysis of RNA-mediated gene silencing using a new vector (pKNOCKOUT) and an in planta Agrobacterium transient expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene\\u000a silencing (PTGS) in anAgrobacterium-mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase\\u000a (Photinus pyralis) gene segment in sense (sFLUC), antisense (aFLUC), and inverted repeat (ihpFLUC) orientations. The inverted repeats of the\\u000a target gene are

Christopher Ian Cazzonelli; Jeff Velten




Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the adsorption isotherms for the herbicide Atrazine, evaluated in circular sections of dead roots of three wetland plants, Typha domingensis Sagittaria lancifolia y Echinochloa pyramidalis. The adsorptive capacity (mg Atrazina \\/g of biomass) of each species was S. lancifolia (qm= 2.035), followed by T. domingensis (qm= 1.797), and E. pyramidalis (qm= 1.107). The highest adsorptive capacity of

E. Cejudo-Espinosa; A. Velázquez-Zepeda; R. Rodríguez-Vázquez; Carretera Antigua



Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein  

PubMed Central

Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.



Use of medicinal plants among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in Morelos, Mexico (Uso de plantas medicinales por pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Morelos, México)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was the identification of the most frequently used plants by patients with DM2 with access to public health services in Morelos, Mexico. A questionnaire was employed with 259 patients with DM2 who regularly utilize medicinal plants as a complementary therapy, and another 259 patients who only use the pharmaceutical prescription in primary-care clinics from two



Interpretação das características espectrais de emissividade de minerais e plantas no infravermelho termal (2,5 a 14 µm) por comparação com refletância total atenuada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work interprets spectra measured with directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) to observe what kind of information from transmission spectra can be retained in emissivity spectra. A small amount of a component in a sample, as a thin layer of a mineral with small particle size exhibits emissivity features similar to transmission features; but, when the

Beatriz Ribeiro da Luz


In planta biocatalysis screen of P450s identifies 8-methoxypsoralen as a substrate for the CYP82C subfamily, yielding original chemical structures.  


An in vivo plant screen that allows for the analysis of exogenously applied substrates against transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing individual cytochrome P450s has been developed. By deploying this screen with a subset of 91 P450s, we have identified an original substrate for members of the CYP82C subfamily. The therapeutic compound 8-methoxypsoralen was hydroxylated by plants overexpressing CYP82C2 or CYP82C4, forming 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen. Additionally, plants further modified this product to create a glycosylated compound, likely the compound 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-methoxypsoralen. The discovery of adducts of therapeutic compounds demonstrates the potential of this biocatalysis screening approach to create compounds that may be of pharmacological value. Additionally, this platform provides a means to expand the general knowledge base of P450 enzyme/substrate combinations and may provide valuable tools for a vast array of biocatalytic and bioremediation processes. PMID:18291319

Kruse, Tanya; Ho, Kwongling; Yoo, Hye-Dong; Johnson, Thomas; Hippely, Matt; Park, Joon-Hyun; Flavell, Richard; Bobzin, Steve



Characterisation of Phoma tracheiphila by RAPD-PCR, microsatellite-primed PCR and ITS rDNA sequencing and development of specific primers for in planta PCR detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty six isolates of Phoma tracheiphila from Italy, the causal agent of the mal secco disease on Citrus species, were characterised by different molecular tools in comparison with representative isolates of other phytopathogenic Phoma species. These included analysis of the distribution of RAPD and microsatellite markers and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rRNA genes.

Virgilio Balmas; Barbara Scherm; Stefano Ghignone; Ali Ould Mohamed Salem; Santa Olga Cacciola; Quirico Migheli



Analise multielementar de plantas medicinais pelo metodo de ativacao neutronica. (Multi elementary analysis in medicinal plants through the neutron activation method).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A instrumental method by neutron activation in multielementary analysis was applied. Samples of Centelha asiatica (Cairucu) and Paulinia cupana (Guarana) were used. The elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, and Zn were determined. The results li...

M. S. Vaz M. Saiki M. B. A. Vasconcellos J. A. A. Sertie



In planta production of two peptides of the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of potato virus X  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Classical Swine Fever (CSFV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting wild boars and domestic pigs. The etiological agent of the disease is the CSF virus, a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. All preventive measures in domestic pigs have been focused in interrupting the chain of infection and in avoiding the spread

Gianpiero Marconi; Emidio Albertini; Pierluigi Barone; Francesca De Marchis; Chiara Lico; Carla Marusic; Domenico Rutili; Fabio Veronesi; Andrea Porceddu



The 20S proteasome ?5 subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana carries an RNase activity and interacts in planta with the lettuce mosaic potyvirus HcPro protein.  


In plants, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in protein degradation and is involved in many steps of defence mechanisms, regardless of the types of pathogen targeted. In addition to its proteolytic activities, the UPS ribonuclease (RNase) activity, previously detected in 20S proteasome preparations from cauliflower and sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has been shown to specifically target plant viral RNAs in vitro. In this study, we show that recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana proteasomal ?(5) subunit expressed in Escherichia coli harbours an RNase activity that degrades Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tobamovirus)- and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, Potyvirus)-derived RNAs in vitro. The analysis of mutated forms of the ?(5) subunit demonstrated that mutation of a glutamic acid at position 110 affects RNase activity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated, using a bimolecular fluorescence complement assay, that the multifunctional helper component proteinase (HcPro) of LMV, already known to interfere with the 20S proteasome RNase activity in vitro, can interact in vivo with the recombinant ?(5) subunit. Further experiments demonstrated that, in LMV-infected lettuce cells, ?(5) is partially relocalized to HcPro-containing infection-specific inclusions. Susceptibility analyses of Arabidopsis mutants, knocked out for each At-PAE gene encoding ?(5) , showed that one (KO-pae1) of the two mutants exhibited a significantly increased susceptibility to LMV infection. Taken together, these results extend to A. thaliana ?(5) the range of HcPro-interacting proteasomal subunits, and suggest that HcPro may modulate its associated RNase activity which may contribute to an antiviral response. PMID:21199564

Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Sassaki, Flavio Tetsuo; Walter, Jocelyne; Michon, Thierry; Ménard, Guillaume; Pagny, Gaëlle; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Maia, Ivan De Godoy; Badaoui, Saloua; Le Gall, Olivier; Candresse, Thierry; German-Retana, Sylvie



Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua: studies in planta and results of a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases  

PubMed Central

Artemisia annua L. produces the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug that is also effective in treating other parasitic diseases, some viral infections and various neoplasms. Artemisinin is also an allelopathic herbicide that can inhibit the growth of other plants. Unfortunately, the compound is in short supply and thus, studies on its production in the plant are of interest as are low cost methods for drug delivery. Here we review our recent studies on artemisinin production in A. annua during development of the plant as it moves from the vegetative to reproductive stage (flower budding and full flower formation), in response to sugars, and in concert with the production of the ROS, hydrogen peroxide. We also provide new data from animal experiments that measured the potential of using the dried plant directly as a therapeutic. Together these results provide a synopsis of a more global view of regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua than previously available. We further suggest an alternative low cost method of drug delivery to treat malaria and other neglected tropical diseases.

Arsenault, Patrick R.; Covello, Patrick S.; McMickle, Anthony; Teoh, Keat H.; Reed, Darwin W.



In planta Protein Interactions of Three Alphacryptoviruses and Three Betacryptoviruses from White Clover, Red Clover and Dill by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Analysis  

PubMed Central

Plant-infecting viruses of the genera Alpha- and Betacryptovirus within the family Partitiviridae cause no visible effects on their hosts and are only transmitted by cell division and through gametes. The bipartite dsRNA genome is encoding a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP). Aside from sequence and structural analysis, the investigation of protein interactions is another step towards virus characterization. Therefore, ORFs of two type members White Clover Cryptic Virus 1 and 2 (WCCV-1 and WCCV-2), as well as the related viruses from Red Clover and Dill were introduced into a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We showed CP-CP dimerization for all tested viruses with localization for alphacryptoviruses at the nuclear membrane and for betacryptoviruses close to cell walls within the cytoplasm. For CPs of WCCV-1 and WCCV-2, deletion mutants were created to determine internal interaction sites. Moreover, RdRp self-interaction was found for all viruses, whereas CP-RdRp interactions were only detectable for the alphacryptoviruses. An intra-genus test of CPs was successful in various virus combinations, whereas an inter-genus interaction of WCCV-1CP and WCCV-2CP was absent. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of members in the family Partitiviridae, indicating distinct features of the alpha- and betacryptoviruses.

Lesker, Till; Maiss, Edgar



Validation of RT-qPCR reference genes for in planta expression studies in Hemileia vastatrix, the causal agent of coffee leaf rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemileia vastatrix is a biotrophic fungus, causing coffee leaf rust in all coffee growing countries, leading to serious social and economic problems. Gene expression studies may have a key role unravelling the transcriptomics of this pathogen during interaction with the plant host. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is currently the golden standard for gene expression analysis, although

Ana Vieira; Pedro Talhinhas; Andreia Loureiro; Sébastien Duplessis; Diana Fernandez; Maria do Céu Silva; Octávio S. Paulo; Helena Gil Azinheira



The cycHJKL genes of Rhizobium meliloti involved in cytochrome c biogenesis are required for “respiratory” nitrate reduction ex planta and for nitrogen fixation during symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the genetic and biochemical analysis of Rhizobium meliloti mutants defective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Fix-) and “respiratory” nitrate reduction (Rnr-). The mutations were mapped close to the ade-1 and cys-46 chromosomal markers and the mutated locus proved to be identical to the previously described fix-14 locus. By directed Tn5 mutagenesis, a 4.5 kb segment of the chromosome was

Attila KeresztKrystyna; Krystyna Slaska-Kiss; Peter Putnoky; Zsofia Banfalvi; Adam Kondorosi




Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an atmosphere enriched with carbon dioxide (CO 2) was studied on some physiological and growth parameters of plants of Zea mays L. cv. H-30 and Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cacahuate-72 grown in the field in open-top chambers. Two CO2 concentrations were established, normal (360 m m m m mmoles mol-1) and the enriched one (600- - -

Patricia Sánchez-Espino; Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; Tomás Nava-Sánchez; Carlos Trejo



Microsoft Academic Search

The root diazotroph bacteria population associated to the irrigated rice crop has been studied. However, there are little studies in the population of these bacteria in plant leaves and stems. The objective of this work was to study the bacteria population in leaves and stems of flooded rice plants, in two varieties: a modern (IRGA- 419), and a traditional (EEA-406),

Danni Maisa da Silva; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Márcio Voss



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recovery of quiescent filamentous fungi from non-symptomatic grape berries and dormant buds demonstrated dominance of Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium and other dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Up to 78% of berries contained fungi prior to harvest. Botrytis cinerea was recovered from 0...


A GFP-based assay to quantify the impact of effectors on the ex planta development of the slowly growing barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune.  


A growth assay was established for the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune with EGFP-tagged fungal mutants. This assay was used to study the effect of four antibiotics (hygromycin B, nourseothricin, kanamycin, phleomycin) and a herbicide (phosphinothricin) on fungal development. Fitting the growth curves to the modified Gompertz model allowed calculating growth parameters, such as lag periods of fungal colony formation and mycelial growth rates as well as EC(50) values. Except kanamycin all compounds were efficient inhibitors so that the corresponding resistance-conferring genes can be used as markers for selection of fungal transformation-based mutants. In addition the assay was used to quantify the inhibitory activity of a barley secondary metabolite, the indole alkaloid gramine. PMID:21498556

Kirsten, S; Siersleben, S; Knogge, W




Microsoft Academic Search

Residual effect of acidulated or burnt Riecito phosphoric rock on maize grown in soils with variable levels of calcium With the purpose of evaluating the residual effect of phosphoric rock from Riecito (Venezuela) treated with vinaza or high temperatures, three successive crops of corn, used as indicative plant, were grown in an acid soil (pH 3.7) whitewashed up to pH

Shirley M. Fernández; Carlos A. Meza




Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and foliar analysis laboratories in Costa Rica: a report of the Committee for Laboratories of Analysis of Soils, Plants and Waters. The characteristics and methodologies of each laboratory are described, as well as the results of the National Exchange Programs, which have been implemented among all of them for the last 6 years, and which are denominated as PINAS

Marco Corrales; Floria Bertsch; José Antonio Bejarano


Species-specific ITS primers for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei and using nested-PCR for detection of P. juniperi in planta.  


Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. Also, during their symbiotic phase, these are barely distinguishable morphologically, and molecular probes are needed for their identification. We have developed a PCR-based method for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei based on internal transcribed spacers of rDNA. Two PCR primers specific for P. lefebvrei (FLE/RLE) and two specific for P. juniperi (FJU/RJU) were designed. A collection of samples from different geographical areas representing diversity of these species were examined for unique regions of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA (ITS) compared to other closely related species. Annealing temperatures and extension times were optimized for each set of primers for maximum specificity and efficiency. They proved to be efficient to specifically detect the presence of P. juniperi and P. lefebvrei by PCR and neither set amplified purified DNA from other truffle species as well as some ascomycetous fungi. The partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of P. juniperi were amplified with the genomic DNA extracted from Helianthemum ledifolium var. ledifolium roots by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the universal fungal primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and specific primer pair FTC/RTC, which was designed based on internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA sequences of P juniperi. The nested-PCR was sensitive enough to re-amplify the direct-PCR product, resulting in a DNA fragment of 426 bp. The efficacy of nested-PCR showed that it could re-amplify the direct-PCR product and detect 200 fg genomic DNA. PMID:24065525

Jamali, Samad; Banihashemi, Zia



The influence of antibiotic production and pre-emptive colonization on the population dynamics of Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) Eh1087 and Erwinia amylovora in planta.  


Stigma colonization by Erwinia amylovora is the crucial first step in the development of most fire blight infections in apple and pear trees. Suppression at this point of the disease process by antagonists of E. amylovora, such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh1087, is a rational approach to control fire blight. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of E. amylovora to compete with Eh1087 for colonization of a stigma is reduced by the potential for Eh1087 to produce the phenazine antibiotic, d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In competition experiments on the stigmas of apple flowers, E. amylovora was significantly less successful against Eh1087 (AGA+) than against EhDeltaAGA (AGA-). Further experiments to test the importance of pre-emptive colonization of the stigma by either the pathogen or the antagonist suggested that AGA production significantly enhanced the competitiveness of Eh1087 when it was applied at the same time or 24 h before the pathogen. We also found that pre-emptive stigma colonization by either the pathogen or the antagonist resulted in a population that was resilient to subsequent invasion by a second species suggesting that niche exclusion has a dominant influence on the dynamics of bacterial populations on stigmas. PMID:14510856

Giddens, Stephen R; Houliston, Gary J; Mahanty, H Khris



In planta PCR-based detection of early infection of plant-parasitic nematodes in the roots: a step towards the understanding of infection and plant defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphagous obligate parasites Meloidogyne spp. devastate a wide range of crop plants including bananas and plantains. Their infestations impact agriculture worldwide. Therefore,\\u000a an effective combating regime against this nematode species and an in-depth understanding of plant-nematode interaction are\\u000a essential. Early detection of infection by visual inspection is not possible. This hampers early control strategy efforts\\u000a and makes in-depth research

Syarifah Aisyafaznim Sayed Abdul Rahman; Zulqarnain Mohamed; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Rony Swennen; Bart Panis; Dirk De Waele; Serge Remy; Sebastien Christian Carpentier



Seed development and maturation in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus continues post-shedding with little evidence of maturation in planta  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal.

Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.



Relación entre variables climáticas y casos de Infección Respiratoria Aguda en la Provincia del Callao - 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish the relationship between climatic variables, air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH), and the number of cases of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the jurisdiction of the Callao Department of Health I (DISA I) for the year 2001. Methods: Observational analytical cross study that was carried out in the Constitutional Province of Callao. Information about ARI, as

Melina Aguinaga; César Gutiérrez; Guillermo Lazo; Facultad de Medicina-UNMSM



La Communicacion entre los Centros de Investigacion en Educacion (Communication among Educational Research Centers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Latin America there is a lack of communication concerning educational research. This lack has been underlined in many regional meetings, but no action has been taken. Possible steps that would lead to improvement include circulation of research summaries, both for completed and current works, efforts by research centers to organize meetings,…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto



Entre Dos Mundos” (Between Two Worlds): Bicultural Skills Training with Latino Immigrant Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the acculturation model of second-culture-acquisition for Latino immigrants. Two theoretical frameworks,\\u000a assimilation and alternation theories, are compared within the acculturation model. Empirical research findings suggest that\\u000a assimilation is a risk factor for increases in negative health behaviors and mental health problems. Conversely, biculturalism\\u000a appears to be an emerging protective factor that buffers assimilation stress, enhances socio-cognitive

Martica L. Bacallao; Paul R. Smokowski



Asociación entre el virus XMRV y enfermedades humanas: preguntas y respuestas

El XMRV es un retrovirus del que se informó por primera vez en 2006 como una causa potencial del cáncer de próstata. Está estrechamente relacionado con los virus de leucemia murina, los cuales causan una amplia variedad de cánceres así como enfermedades inmunológicas y neurológicas en ratones.


Une étude du ministère de l'Industrie sur la concentration industrielle entre 1970 et 1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Pendant les années 1970 à 1972, le mouvement de concentration de l'industrie française, amorcé en 1965 se poursuit et s'amplifie, avec la formation de nouveaux groupes industriels et la restructuration de certains autres. Apports partiels d'actifs et absorptions, restent les procédés financiers les plus usités pour ces opérations (en dehors des prises de participations que l'étude n'examine pas au

Jean-Pierre Gorgé; Arlette Tandé



Consommation du cannabis chez les adolescents : liens entre structure, cohésion, hiérarchie familiales et niveau de consommation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, even when it is still classified as a narcotic, of which the detention implies judicial pursuits, marijuana is underestimated in all its consequences and all its effects. Approximately 50 % of 17-year-olds declared experimenting with marijuana starting at the average age of 15 (OFDT 2007). “Cohesion” and “Power”, two fundamental elements of the family structure that were not yet explored

M. Chedid; L. Romo; E. Chagnard



Estudio comparativo de supervivencias entre la actual y la antigua clasificación del carcinoma broncogénico  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionA new classification of bronchogenic carcinoma has been made by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and published by Frank C. Detterbeck et al in the journal Chest (2009). The Thoracic Surgery Department of the Gerona (Spain) University Hospital has re-staged a series of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma who had attempted curative surgery, with the aim

Sandra Martínez-Somolinos; Matilde Magdalena Rubio-Garay; Edwin Emilio Mármol-Cazas; Xavier Baldó-Padró; Juan Carlos Penagos-Tafurt; Fernando Sebastián-Quetglás; María del Mar García-Gil



¿Existe diferencia entre extracción de catarata asociada con vitrectomía realizada vía córnea clara versus pars plana?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective: To determine if cataract extraction via pars plana or clear cornea plus vitrectromy causes different corneal damage degrees, and describe the complications. Design: Prospective, comparative, randomized study, including patients with vitreous hemorrhage secondary to diabetic retinopathy plus cataract. Patients were randomly assigned to be treated with lensectomy plus vitrectomy (group A), or clear cornea phacoemulsification plus vitrectomy (group

Jaime Villaseñor-Diez; Javier Zamarripa; Hugo Quiroz-Mercado


Análise comparativa-financeira entre os modelos de fabricação de xarope simples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present objective works do a comparative study between the two models of the process of making simple syrup, used in carbonated beverage factory, and identify which is the best model from the financial point of view. The economic analyze take the Net Present Value and the Internal Tax of Return as investments analyze methods, that way, these two methods

Daniel de Andrade; Gonçalves do Amaral; Everton Anger Cavalheiro


Pedagogia del cos simbòlic. El cos com a valor emergent entre els joves  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo aborda desde una perspectiva socio-antropológica el cuerpo humano. Los cambios paradigmáticos sucedidos en disciplinas artísticas así como en el campo de las humanidades permiten una lectura simbólica del cuerpo humano. Es justamente esta dimensión simbólica que nos permite presentarlo como un valor emergente en las identidades de los jóvenes; identidades que pasan por transformar el cuerpo a través

Jordi Planella Ribera



Correlação entre uso de quimioterápicos antiinfecciosos e mortalidade Correlation between antimicrobial chemotherapy and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To correlate the consumption of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents with death figures. Research design: Epidemiological surveillance. Population: All antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents prescribed to treat infectious di- seases in a given hospital were registered. Patients were followed since admission until dis- charge or fatal outcome at the hospital. Results: Charts from 4968 patients, whose admissions totaled 6043 occasions, were analyzed. From

ARTIGOS ORIGINAIS; Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello


Invertir en integración: Los retornos de la complementariedad entre software y hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el curso de la Tercera Reunión de los Ministros de Hacienda de América y el Caribe celebrada en Lima el 28 de mayo de 2010, los presentes deliberaron sobre cómo reducir las brechas de integración regional y coincidieron en que la agenda de integración requiere de inversiones simultáneas en software (políticas y marcos regulatorios) y en hardware (infraestructura física).

Antoni Estevadeordal; Paolo Giordano; Alexandre Rosa; Jordan Schwartz; Osvaldo Rosales; Ricardo Sánchez



Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and herbal medicines (Interacciones entre fármacos antiepilépticos y medicinas herbales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been




Les transferts des quantités de référence laitière entre producteurs de lait  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Transferring reference quantities between milk producers - The milk quota problem has been dealt with by a great number of jurists. Some of them connect the quota with the land, others think it's a patrimonial right being part of the producer's delivery contract, others, lastly, consider it's an incorporai right or even a simple administrative permission. Professional organizations have

R. Bonneviale



The Interaction between Education and Culture = L'Interaction entre l'Education et la Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliographical essay addresses the interrelationship between education and culture. Short introductory texts on the historical perspective, cultural pluralism and its effects on education, educational approaches designed to change culture, and concern for children, lead to abstracts of 47 sources of information. Introductory materials appear…

Fernig, Leo



Vínculo entre el pensamiento proporcional cualitativo y cuantitativo: el caso de Paulina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case study reported here it is part of a doctoral project already concluded. It refers to the evaluation of the teaching proposal for rate and proportion developed in the Doctoral research. This proposal was carried out with a group of students of elementary school constituted by 29 eleven-year-old Mexican children. The girl of the case study (Paulina) express the

Elena Ruiz; Marta Valdemoros



Avaliação de funções psicomotoras de crianças entre 6 e 10 anos de idade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate psychomotor functions in 86 children, ages six to ten years old, male or female who were enrolled in elementary education in one institution in the south region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study that used a structured instrument to gather data on the following

José Roberto da Silva Brêtas; Sônia Regina Pereira; Cintia de Cássia Cintra; Kátia Muniz Amirati



Relation entre la conversion somatique et l’idée de la mort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author attempts to show that somatic conversion is due to the fact that a subject in major denial of death was in fact faced with its reality. The author argues that in Freud's cases of hysteria, the symptoms were preceded shortly before by the death or severe illness of somebody close to the patient, or that the patient was

W. de Campos Vieira



Le « Harcèlement Entre Pairs » À L'école élémentaire Tchèque: Une Question D'interprétation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"PEER BULLYING" IN CZECH PRIMARY SCHOOLS: A QUESTION OF INTERPRETATION—This article questions adults' reports of an alleged increase in peer bullying at Czech primary schools. A survey on the school climate revealed that the pupils see it as a generally positive one and consider their relationships to be good. However, compared to France, their behaviour towards the adults is aggressive and rude. This apparent contradiction is linked to a conflict between the educational norms carried over from the old regime (behavioural control and conformism) and the new socio-economic paradigms (critical thinking and free enterprise). Public opinion, the media and a number of scientifically-questionable studies have drawn attention to the phenomenon of peer bullying ( šikana), and applied an imported concept to describe it ( school bullying). This makes it possible to avoid questioning the part played by the adults, the school and the researchers; justify segregating pupils from socially, culturally or economically disadvantaged backgrounds (Roma); and facilitate the country's socio-economic inclusion in the European Union by highlighting educational problems about whose nature there is general agreement.

Kohout-Diaz, Magdalena




Microsoft Academic Search

Sports sponsoring is a form of alternative media that opens up unique oportunities for companies to communicate their brands, whether be it through merchandising or other marketing actions that are able to institutionally promote the company, its brands and its products. Sports are in the news, they have a succesful image, are synonimous with emotions, life, pleasure, victory and entertainment,



Dimension anthropique de l'éruption du Mont Pinatubo, Philippines, entre 800 et 500 ans BP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before its worldwide famous awakening in 1991, Mt Pinatubo volcano erupted between 800 and 500 year BP. The impacts of this little known eruption are progressively coming to light with the discovery of archaeological sites and the study of oral and geographical records. Recent archaeological excavations have shown that pyroclastic flows and lahar onslaughts have probably led to the abandonment

Jean-Christophe Gaillard; Francisco G. Delfin; Eusebio Z. Dizon; John A. Larkin; Victor J. Paz; Emmanuel G. Ramos; Cristina T. Remotigue; Kelvin S. Rodolfo; Fernando P. Siringan; Janneli Lea S. Soria; Jesse V. Umbal




Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, Spanish firms have attempted to create value for their shareholders.The market value added (MVA) has been proposed by the Stern Stewart Consulting Group asa measure of value creation, and the economic value added (EVA) as an operating measure toimplement this new management philosophy. In this paper, an empirical analysis about therelationship between MVA and several performance

Francisco Poveda; Raúl Iñiguez



Transfert de la résistance à la vancomycine entre entérocoques d’origine animale et humaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococci are a dominant bacterial group in the intestinal flora of humans and animals. They have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens over the last two decades, at least in part because of their intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin. Two main reservoirs of vancomycin resistant enterococci were described: the hospital and the animal reservoirs. It should

N. Bourgeois-Nicolaos; C. Moubareck; F. Doucet-Populaire



Entre deux feux”: Jean Sénac’s Struggle for Self-determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the years between 1954 and 1965, which witnessed the construction of a new Algerian national identity, Jean Sénac, the most important French-language poet associated with Algerian nationalism, was struggling to establish a sense of self, both at the collective level of the Nation and on the individual level of the Man. By the end this decade of self-determination Sénac

Katia Sainson



Entre deux feux”: Jean Sénac’s Struggle for Self-determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

: During the years between 1954 and 1965, which witnessed the construction of a new Algerian national identity, Jean Sénac, the most important French-language poet associated with Algerian nationalism, was struggling to establish a sense of self, both at the collective level of the Nation and on the individual level of the Man. By the end this decade of self-determination

Katia Sainson




Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerated rhythm of the urban growth, your several administration forms, the existent contradictions and the need of a holistic vision, transforms the city in the center of the most varied professionals, wants as knowledge object, wants as middle of work. To know to interpret, to cross, to evaluate, to analyze the correlation among the several existent variables in a

Márcia Andréia Ferreira Santos; Roberto Rosa


Structures conceptuelles, représentation des objets et des relations entre les objets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article présente un panorama général de l'étude psychologique des concepts liés aux objets, l'insistance étant mise sur les conceptualisations les plus récentes et les derniers développements de la recherche dans ce domaine. Ces derniers développements portent essentiellement d'une part sur la notion de contexte et son rôle dans l'organisation des concepts, et d'autre part sur la notion de relations

Soulaimane Chemlal; Françoise Cordier



Les élites agraires portugaises au XIXe siècle : entre groupes de pression et associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Abstract Since the establishment of the Liberal Regime in Portugal, the agrarian associations acquired increasing importance both at political and institutional levels. Although there were several projects concerning the establishment and the development of associations, the political instability made difficult to pursue them. Only during the second half of the ninenteenth century the associations obtained full expression. At the

Maria Ana Rodrigues Bernardo




Microsoft Academic Search

The problem to investigate is the permanent disequilibrium of Mexican commercial balance of cattle heads and meat regarding United States during the period 1993-2007. The objective is shows that the inequality productive structure on cattle heads and meat that exists between Mexico and American Union, through commercial exchange of those products impact the commercial balance. The methodology used was the

Luis Alberto Araujo Andrade; Eraclio del Jesus Cruz Pacheco



Les Rapports Entre Langage et Pensée. Point de Vue D'un Linguiste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author first wonders whether it was necessary to re-examine now the old problem of the relations between language and thought, as they are still too much related to traditional philosophical formulations, even among psychologists. He gives the reasons why, since Whitney, the scientific linguists, because of their epistemological prudence, voluntarily discarded this problem which they were not armed to

Georges Mounin



Divergência genética entre acessos de Passiflora cincinnata mast com base em descritores morfoagronômicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study had the objective of evaluating the genetic divergence among passion fruit (Passiflora cincinnata Mast.) accessions maintained in the collection of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid, Petrolina-PE, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Thirty-two accessions were evaluated considering thirty-three characters: two related to the plant, three to the leaves, six to the

Francisco Pinheiro de Araújo; Norberto da Silva; Manoel Abílio de Queiroz



Entre illusion et réalité, le tracé théâtral d'une efficacité symbolique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of a creative process dwell within an area of the inform which is absolutely necessary to tolerate from a therapeutic point of view, so that the subject, struggling with delirious productions and loss of boundaries, can progressively give a form to the inner chaos. There lies the aim and meaning of the aesthetic and theatrical course of some

Patricia Attigui



Implementação de Gateway de Sinalização entre Protocolos de Telefonia IP SIP\\/H.323  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet has truly become the ubiquitous communication infrastructure, bringing many benefits to the users and making the communication over IP the predominant protocol architecture for data and multimedia transmission (Web). The regular telephone service shall, in a near future, converge to the Internet, giving place to a single integrated voice and data network. IP telephony is growing, following this

Bruno F. M. Ribeiro; Paulo H de Aguiar; Cesar A. C. Marcondes


Entre Reproduction et Mobilisation: les Rapports de Genre EN Formation Continue EN France et AU Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REPRODUCTION OR MOBILISATION? GENDER PROPORTIONS IN CONTINUING EDUCATION IN FRANCE AND CANADA - Initial education provisions for women have evolved greatly over the past 40 years. But what about their situation within adult education and training? This article, comparing Canada and France, shows that, while it is well known that more women than men participate in adult education, their greater presence in professional training courses is a new development. The analysis highlights certain particular findings, such as the growing demand for continuing education in Canada and the increased rate of participation by full-time employees in France. In both countries, a number of social factors continue to influence women's participation.

Fourner, Christine; Béret, Pierre; Doray, Pierre; Bélanger, Paul



Entre aromas de incienso y pólvora: Los Altos de Jalisco, México, 1917-1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the Mexican Revolution and on the opposition strategies followed by the opponents of the revolutionary regime who lived in the region known as Los Altos de Jalisco. In this particular region, the Catholic population, supported by the Clergy, was in constant conflict with the revolutionary government. It shows how the new revolutionary rationale clashed with the

José Luis López Ulloa




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO --- Para tentar avaliar o impacto das modificações na cobertura vegetal de uma bacia nos processos hidrológicos, no trabalho aqui apresentado adotou-se como objeto de estudo um trecho, com área de drenagem de 109 km2, da sub-bacia do ribeirão Serra Azul - Minas Gerais. As variações no comportamento hidrológico foram representadas pela evapotranspiração: componente do ciclo hidrológico considerada mais

Betânia Vilas Boas Neves; Paulo César; Horta Rodrigues; Bruno Rabelo Versiani


Evaluación de la conducta alimentaria de riesgo. Estudio transcultural entre adolescentes de España y México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of risk eating behavior. Crosscultural study between spanish and mexican adolescents. The study presented has as main aims to detect tendencies and markers of abnormal and risky eating behavior, as well as the distribution between groups of young people from different cultures. A random sample of 770 pupils has been used, male and female, 384 of which are Spanish

M. Victoria; Acosta García; Juan Manuel Llopis Marín; Gilda Gómez; Gisela Pineda García


Entre la provincia y el mundo. Modernidad e innovacion en la narrativa de Lino Novas Calvo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lino Novás Calvo (1903–1983) is by many considered the best Cuban short story writer. Critics acknowledge his major contribution to the modernization of narrative prose in that country. With Cayo Canas and La Luna Nona, the short story achieved a language of its own, a precise technique, an acute outlook and an awareness of its own individual art form. Nevertheless,

Carlos B Espinosa Dominguez



Les incompatibilites entre la theorie standard de l'extinction interstellaire et l'observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard interpretation of the extinction curve does not agree with some observations. The light we receive from a reddened star must be contaminated by starlight scattered at very small angular distances from the star. The true extinction curve is a straight line from the near infrared to the far-UV. If so, all interstellar dust models must be questionned. A

Frederic Zagury




Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the years the concept of death has been redefi ned and it currently generates attitudes of fear and anxiety, where death is regarded as a topic that few want to discuss and that many evade. The aim of the present article was to assess the developmental changes in attitude toward death in a sample of 343 persons, composed by



Mortalidad materna en Guatemala: diferencias entre muerte hospitalaria y no hospitalaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the association between obstetric and socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors re- lated to intra- and extra-hospital maternal mortality in Gua- temala during the year 2000. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was carried out in 649 maternal mortality (MM) cases that occurred in Guatemala during 2000, comparing characteristics of intra- and extra- hospital maternal deaths. Multivariate

Ana Marina Tzul; Edgar Kestler; Bernardo Hernández-Prado; Carlos Hernández-Girón



La confiance entre les partenaires de l'échange, au-delà des labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

La description des évolutions observées en matière d'économie agro-agri-alimentaire dans la dernière décennie conduit en général à l'identification d'un double mouvement, à savoir l'apparition progressive d'une \\

Danièle Benezech



Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.



L'eficàcia de l'emplaçament de productes entre els infants: una prova experimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a noticeable increase in the use of non-con- ventional TV advertising has taken place. However, hardly any studies have been carried out to understand how these for- mats influence young viewers. This article presents the find- ings from an experimental study on the influence of product placement on children (aged 8, 10 and 12 years). The con-




La formation a Bukavu au Zaire: une course entre l'education et la catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

La description de la situation socio-scolaire de Bukavu depuis l'époque coloniale permet de comprendre pourquoi la population a mis sur pied des stratégies pour survivre à l'abandon progressif de ses responsabilités par l'Etat zaïrois, abandon aggravé par l'afflux massif au Kivu, à l'Est du Zaïre, de réfugiés du Rwanda et du Burundi et de Zaïrois expatriés pendant plusieurs années dans

Bazilashe Juvénal Balegamire




Microsoft Academic Search

Temporalities are to be organized in the relation with several factors considered interchangeable. Among the most important factors we have: gender, social class, work, education, urbanization and industrialization. The research analyses the time use of a group of children from medium class. It also compares these data with the data acquired in the previous research with a group of children

Marie Jane; Soares Carvalho



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El tema de las adicciones ha sido abordado históric amente por la literatura desde múltiples puntos de vista, sin embargo en esta investigación bibliográfica nuestra intenci ón es dimensionar las teorías sobre el origen de la s adicciones, considerando la complementariedad teórica para la q ue se presta el tema, permitiendo un paralelo con l as terapias psicoanalíticas y

Alan Herzberg; Viviana Messina; Diego Moreno; Natalia Olmedo; Romina Pitronello; Francisca Roman



Microsoft Academic Search

Les analyses et réflexions proposées dans cet article prennent appui sur une recherche qui a porté sur l'observation et l'analyse de trente-sept dispositifs d'autoformation en France, dans divers contextes institutionnels (entreprises, universités, formation continue, grand public). Ceux-ci s'organisent autour d'un centre de ressources et proposent un accompagnement pédagogique pour l'apprentissage de langues étrangères. L'étude est également étayée par une enquête

Brigitte ALBERO


Entre courtoisie et révolte. La correspondance de Condé (1648-1659)  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Abstract Letters being a substitute for conversation, their formal ending belongs to a code that characterizes social relationships. The present paper checks this hypothesis with letters written by the Great Condé during the Fronde and his subsequent exile. Once identified the code and its perception, one can trace its alterations according to events. Letters are used for propanda purposes

Christophe Blanquié



La formation a Bukavu au Zaire: une course entre l'education et la catastrophe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the socio-educational situation in Bukavu since the colonial era clearly shows why the population has sought means of overcoming the gradual abandonment by the Zairean State of its responsibilities, which has been aggravated by the large-scale influx into Kivu, in Eastern Zaire, of refugees from Rwanda and Burundi and of Zaireans who has been living in those countries for some years. These means are principally trade occupations, small-time selling, short-term vocational training and higher and university education at private institutions which are financed locally and/or by funds from the North. A new approach has been deveoped, that of training the trainers working for non-governmental development organisations. Trainers of trainers have been recruited locally among the many graduates of the Higher Institutes of Education and Rural Development, which have been affected by unemployment and the miserable salaries which the State offers to its employees. The trainers of trainers could be trained by the Higher Institute of Rural Development, making the largest possible use of local skills. However, such training should be one of a set of reforms of the Zairean education system. All of this only makes sense if Zaire and its neighbours urgently defuse present socio-political tensions so that all of our populations can peacefully and resolutely engage in the healthy transformation of our societies.

Balegamire, Bazilashe Juvénal



Estudio del efecto de distintos promotores en la reacción directa entre silicio y cloruro de metilo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyldichlorosilane (Me2SiCl2, DD), the main mono- mer in the industrial production of polysiloxanes is obtained by a gas- solid reaction between silicon and methyl chloride using copper as a catalyst as well as various promoters. This reaction has been named as the direct process since its discovery about fifthy years ago. We discuss results related to the important role of

Jorge Cervantes Jáuregui; Arturo Zizumbo López; Alberto Florentino; Aguilera Alvarado; José Emigdio Frausto Romero; Bonfilio Acosta Solís; Francisco Javier Luna García



Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS\\/VIH\\/SIDA entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To introduce the study design of an HIV\\/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. Material and Methods. A school cur- riculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV\\/AIDS\\/STD prevention, which included infor- mation on emergency contraception (EC) for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted

Torres P; Walker DM; Bertozzi SM


Interactions entre L’infection a VIH, le SIDA et les autres MST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is mainly transmitted by sexual intercourses. History of STD’s and serological markers\\u000a of STD’s are frequently encountered in HIV-infected patients. This is partly due to a common mode of transmission. However,\\u000a it has been clearly demonstrated that ulcerative and non ulcerative STD’s are able to favour the sexual transmission of HIV.\\u000a In addition, the HIV epidemic

Philippe Van de Perre



Entre le personnalité antisociale et la psychopathie grave, un gradient de sévérité  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, these patients are diagnosed based on ‘antisocial personality’ criteria. However, these are insufficient to evaluate the degree of severity. Hare has established a list of psychopathic symptoms on a scale of 1 to 3. Subjects who obtain 30 out of 40 are considered to have ‘antisocial personalities with severe psychopathy’. Criminal psychopaths are not receptive to treatment and some

J. R Meloy




Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at: (a) comparing\\/correlating indices of social skills repertoire and parents involvement in the upbringing of their children and (b) comparing fathers and mothers in the two set of indices. The sample was composed of 22 mothers and 13 fathers who had children in the 1st grade at primary school. Both parents filled in the questionnaires Quality

Fabiana Cia; Camila de Sousa Pereira; Almir Del Prette


Relaciones entre estilos educativos, temperamento y ajuste social en la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Relations between parenting styles, temperament and social adjust- ment in childhood: A review. Abstract: The objective of this work is to review theorically the main variables that are affecting child social development. Tradicionally, social adjustment study has relied upon unidirectional influence that the parents have as socialization agents. However, this position has generated several criticisms about its severe inflexibility,

Ester Ato Lozano; Elisa Huéscar Hernández


Mieux comprendre la notion d'intégration entre l'apprentissage et le jeu  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ. : Concrétiser le potentiel des jeux vidéos pour l'apprentissage, c'est peut-être avant tout répondre à des questions à la fois fondamentales et pratiques : comment intégrer le contenu d'apprentissage dans un jeu ? Comment, dans un jeu pédagogique, ne sacrifier ni le gameplay, ni la qualité pédagogique, ni les deux ? Pour cela, après une rapide analyse de deux

Nicolas Szilas; Denise Sutter Widmer



Microsoft Academic Search

The production and diffusion of knowledge applied to the Management field reached a significant expansion by the last quarter of the 20 th and beginning of 21 st centuries, both in terms of a growing academic concern and presence of specialized media to spread this applied content, like business books, magazines, workshops and seminars. The present study intends to discuss

Márcio Tadeu Furrier; Francisco Antonio Serralvo


Estudo das relações entre tipos de solos, alteração, mineralogia e topografia por sensoriamento remoto hiperespectral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal components, band depth analysis and the Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) technique were applied over hyperspectral data collected by the Airborne Visible\\/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) in the vicinity of Campo Verde (MT) to characterize major variations in reflectance of different soil types; changes in the depth of major absorption bands due to kaolinite (2210 nm) and gibbsite (2260 nm); and

Lênio Soares Galvão


Possibilidades e dificuldades na articulação entre pesquisa e psicoterapia com adolescentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to inquire the interaction of developmental psychology research on adolescence and the professional field of adolescent psychotherapy. This inquiry included a literary review, which indicated the importance of considering developmental issues in clinical practice, and 15 psychotherapistsí interviews (psychologists and psychiatrists), representing different approaches, about their psychotherapy processes. The analysis was made in three

Adriano Pereira Jardim; Manoela Ziebell de Oliveira; William Barbosa Gomes



Entre événements de vie et croyances culturelles : un délire à la croisée des chemins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the story of a woman who lost in a shipwreck her last 19-years-old son. Mariama T. is a widow, her husband died eight years ago, after a mysterious illness according to her. The couple had got four children before the birth of Landing, dying successively in their early weeks or months of life. A curse of the ancestors

Mamadou Lamine Diouf; Marième Ndiaye; René Collignon; Amadou Makhtar Seck



O professor de inglês Entre a alienação e a emancipação1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, some scholars inside the English Language Teaching (ELT) community have started to question the absence of a critical view in the teaching and role of English internationally. They question the alleged neutrality of English as an international language. They wish for an empowering and transformative critical pedagogy. Enticed by this rhetoric of critical pedagogy, this study attempts to investigate

Maria Inês Pagliarini Cox


Algunas relaciones entre diferentes ejes que se consideran en la rotación de la Tierra.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper some relations between the "Celestial Ephemeris Pole" and several axes are considered for an elementary elastic earth model. The authors give a geometrical and geodynamical interpretation.

Camacho, A. G.; Sevilla, M. J.


NOVIAZGO, EMOTIVIDAD Y CONFLICTO Relaciones sociales entre alumnos de la escuela media Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is part of anthropological research carried out at a public school in Córdoba, Argentina, to address the relations among teenagers enrolled in the same grade. The contextualized socio-historical time reveals the downward social mobility of large sectors of the population, especially the middle levels of society that were impoverished in the 1990s. In a framework of conflictive relations





Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Data from stem analysis o f Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden planted in different agroecological regions of the mesopotamia Argentina were used for fitting models for the prediction of volume o.b and u.b. As significant differences were found between the slopes of the models fitted for each region, data from Misiones-NE of Corrientes and data from Concordia-Monte Caseros were

Hugo Fassola; Ernesto Crechi; Aldo Keller; Sara Barth; Costa Jorge


Corrélations entre la tomodensitométrie thoracique de haute résolution et les données clinicofonctionnelles au cours de la polyarthrite rhumatoïde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. – The contribution of computed tomography (CT) to the assessment of rheumatoid lung disease is universally recognized. Our objective was to define the usefulness of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in evaluating lung abnormalities in unselected patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine whether HRCT findings were correlated with clinical and lung function test (LFT) abnormalities.Patients and methods. – We

Saoussen Hassen Zrour; Mongi Touzi; Ismail Bejia; Mondher Golli; Naceur Rouatbi; Nabil Sakly; Mohamed Younes; Zouheir Tabka; Naceur Bergaoui



Título: Dinâmica espacial da renda per capita e crescimento entre os Municípios da região Nordeste do Brasil – uma analise markoviana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents new insights on the debate aboutincome,convergence,between,cities in Northeast Brazil. In the first part, economic growth models are investigated. New-classical models indicate the possibility of poverty ,trap – consumption ,below the ,poverty ,line and ,negative growth ,– and polarisation. In contrast, endogenous growth models, which employ the technology and the human capital as endogenous variables, suggest the

Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro


Frecuencia y descripción del habito tabáquico entre población urbana del Municipio de San Juan de la Maguana  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a question of a market and descriptive study that develop across an epidemiological survey cross street directed persons of the urban zone of the Municipality of San Juan of the Maguanawho were present in his homes. Of 1089 you present interviewed 164 (15.1 %) was smoking. The age average of the polled population was 40.8 years (rango: 15-70

Sención Jorán; José A. Cueto Benzo; Carlina Evelyn; Victoria Guzmán; Luis Emilio Pérez Gómez; Bertha Delgado


Selling Gender : An Alternative View of ‘Prostitution’ in Three French Novels of the entre-deux-guerres  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Prostitution’, in literary texts, is often (re)presented as a domain of particularly extreme—and at the same time, particularly\\u000a transparent—mises en scène of sexuality, but also of gender identities: the literary approach to prostitution constitutes a privileged\\u000a object for the analysis of gender ‹masquerades’. ‘Prostitution’—usually equated with female prostitution, the traditional\\u000a discourse on prostitution not providing any conceptual frames for phenomena

Martina Stemberger



Potencial de Seqüestro de Carbono Atmosférico entre Diferentes Cultivares de Milho (Zea mays L.) sob Condiç o de Déficit Hídrico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a question concerning the role of agricultural practices on carbon sequestration enhancement. By producing biomass with agricultural crops and adding this residue to soil, it should act on the mitigation process of the greenhouse effect, especially CO2. The objectives of this study were to ...


Orígen del deterioro del medio ambiente en Taiwan: Desajuste entre el modelo de desarrollo y la dotación de recursos naturales  

Microsoft Academic Search

De igual modo que el análisis de los llamados nuevos países industriales asiáticos (NPIAs) abre interesantes matices en el campo de las teorías del desarrollo, poniendo en duda la capacidad explicativa de los enfoques tanto dependentista como neoclásico, el estudio del medio ambiente en esos países aporta visiones nuevas y enriquecidas en lo referente a sus modelos de desarrollo. En

Antonio Rodríguez Carmona



Effets de compétition entre les phénomènes de dopage et d'endommagement dans les polymères électroactifs implantés  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a general band scheme appropriate for electroactive polymers, we explain how each of the two main processes (damage or doping) induced by ion implantation can play a major role. DC conductivity, thermopower and AC conductivity studied versus temperature for varying implantation parameters allow us to confirm our interpretations : damage is produced by high implantation parameters in which case transport phenomena of p type occur mainly in degenerate states near the Fermi level, whereas low implantation parameters induce doping in polaronic bands characterized by thermally activated processes, although effects due to the existence of defects can appear, especially at low temperature. Compensation effects, described by a Kubo-Greenwood formula applied to the thermoelectric power, give a consistent explanation of the successive behaviours. Moreover, we present a general interpretation of the p type conductivity behaviour observed in intrinsic polymers. En utilisant le schéma de bandes des polymères électroactifs, nous expliquons les raisons pour lesquelles au cours de l'implantation ionique dans ces matériaux les deux principaux, processus générés (le dopage et les endommagements) sont à même de jouer un rôle important. Les mesures de conductivité continue, de pouvoir thermoélectrique et de conductivité alternative ont conforté nos interprétations : de forts paramètres d'implantation génèrent des endommagements qui induisent des phénomènes de transports de type p principalement dans les états dégénérés situés au voisinage du niveau de Fermi, alors que de faibles paramètres d'implantation favorisent le dopage dans les bandes polaroniques caractérisées par des processus thermiquement activés bien que la présence de défauts puisse se faire sentir notamment à basse température. Des effets de compensation, décrits à partir de la formule de Kubo-Greenwood appliquée au pouvoir thermoélectrique, fournissent une explication satisfaisante des différents comportements rencontrés. De plus, nous présentons une interprétation générale de l'origine de la conductivité de typep rencontrée dans les polymères intrinsèques.

Moliton, A.; Moreau, C.; Lucas, B.; Friend, R. H.; Froyer, G.



Tecnología musteriense en la región madrileña : un discurso enfrentado entre valles y páramos de la Meseta sur  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’àrea madrilenya és una regió rica en jaciments paleolítics coneguts des de fa anys. Els dipòsits de terrasses dels principals rius de la nostra regió han permès conèixer un elevat nombre de jaciments vinculats als entorns fluvials. En els últims anys, la política de gestió del patrimoni iniciada per l’administració madrilenya ha facilitat la localització de nous conjunts ben datats

Javier Baena Preysler; José Polo; Sergio Bárez Cueto; Felipe Cuartero Monteagudo; Marta Roca; Ana Lázaro Lázaro; Ana Nebot; Alfredo Pérez-González; Teresa Pérez; Inmaculada Rus; Daniel Rubio; Diego Martín Puig; Carmen Manzano; Iván González; Raúl Márquez



Entre metrópolis y periferias. Análisis de los movimientos migratorios a partir del censo de población de 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Área de Demografía y Estudios de Población, del Centro de Investigaciones sobre Dinámica Social –CIDS– de la Universidad Externado de Colombia, definió como objetivo de una de sus Líneas estratégicas de investigación el análisis de los procesos migratorios en Colombia. Aunque la migración constituye un elemento central en la determinación del crecimiento, volumen y composición de la población, este

Alejandro González Pulido; Norma Rubiano



Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine dairy and goat milk perceptions among students of the University of Costa Rica. Our objective was to establish meaningful differences between age, gender, exercise practice and consumption habits and its interactions among students of the University of Costa Rica. The knowledge and the perception of goat milk among these persons were studied as well. In September 2005 a study

Pedro Vargas-Aguilar; María Lourdes Pineda-Castro; Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos



Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine dairy and goat milk perceptions among students of the University of Costa Rica. Our objective was to establish meaningful differences between age, gender, exercise practice and consumption habits and its interactions among students of the University of Costa Rica. The knowledge and the perception of goat milk among these persons were studied as well. In September 2005 a study

Pedro Vargas-Aguilar; María Lourdes Pineda-Castro; Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos



Les OGM entre la science et le public? Quatre modèles pour la gouvernance de l'innovation et des risques  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] À partir de conceptions différenciées du public et de la science, ce papier présente quatre modèles génériques pour la gouvernance des risques. Ces modèles idéal-typiques permettent de mieux poser deux questions essentielles: la question de la participation du public et celle du traitement de l'incertitude. Concernant le dossier des ogm, nous utilisons ces modèles pour montrer que l'expérience Européenne

Pierre-Benoît Joly



Comparaison des expériences dissociatives à l'adolescence entre un groupe de collégiens et un groupe clinique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociation involves alterations in consciousness, memory and identity, as well as disruptions in the perception of time and the environment. They contain an inability to remember aspects of one’s life, the experience of feeling oneself in an unfamiliar situation, feelings of unreality, feeling absorbed or completely lost in an activity, and feeling of being detached or disconnected from oneself. These

O. Moyano; E. Thiébaut; P. Claudon



Análise comparativa entre os anestésicos locais Articaína 4% e Prilocaína 3% na extração de terceiros molares retidos em humanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis between the local anesthesics Articaine 4% and Prilocaine 3% on human third molar removals. The local anesthesics are the most used drugs in Dentistry. They are frequently used in surgery, because pain has been described as an unpleasant experience, both on sensorial and psychological levels. The aim of this study was to obtain further knowledge about articaine 4%

Fausto Rodrigo Victorino; Aparecido Neri Daniel; Liogi Iwaki Filho; Edevaldo Tadeu Camarini; Josmar Mazucheli; Ângelo José Pavan



Comparação entre o sistema Petrifilm RSA® e a metodologia convencional para a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva em alimentos  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY COMPARISON OF PETRIFILM RSA SYSTEM WITH THE TRADITIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE ENUMERATION OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE IN FOODS. Foods are examined for the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci using selective and differential media followed by characterization for coagulase, thermoestable nuclease, Gram and catalase tests. These tests may require up to four days to obtain the results, besides time and material used. The

Anderson de Souza Sant'ana; Denise R. Perdomo Azeredo



El pensamiento “de cadena corta”. Búsqueda de medida entre materialidad e inmaterialidad en la vida y en el trabajo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dialogue, that has been taking place for a long time, between two friends whose professions are different but, in one way or another, marked by elements of great immateriality: here we condense ten years of constant, vital, shared or solitary, tension of the soul and of thought; and of concrete attempts. Through the years, they have launched questions to

Cristina Cometti; Lucia Bertell




Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a sustainable production system, perennial, with low environmental impact and high socioeconomic potential in the Brazilian Amazon has always been seen as an ideal model of development for the region. In this context, the deployment and the expansion of the cultivation of palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) was driven and today represents one of agroindustrial activities with

Adriano Venturieri


Comparação entre a intensidade do esforço realizada por jovens futebolistas no primeiro e no segundo tempo do jogo de Futebol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison between the effort intensity of young soccer players in the first and second halves of the soccer game Objective: Compare the effort intensity (IE) of young soccer players between the first and second halves of official games. Methods: 25 ath- letes were evaluated (17,5 ± 1,2 years; 8,5 ± 1,0% of body fat; 175,1 ± 6,8 cm; 69,3 ±

Lucas Mortimer; Luciano Condessa; Vinícius Rodrigues; Daniel Coelho; Danusa Soares; Emerson Silami-Garcia; Belo Horizonte



Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The current image of the artist, with origin in the Romanticism, is associated with inspiration and irrationality and, therefore, usually it is not visible any relationship between,art and ,science. A drawing ,of Stradanus ,(1523-1605) representing ,the discovery,of oil ,painting ,by Jan ,van ,Eyck (c.1395-1441) shows ,another ,reality: a painter, as a craftsman, developing its activity in the workshop, in

António João Cruz



Relações afetivas entre mães e recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo: variáveis sociais e perinatais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective bonds between mothers and full term and preterm infants: social and perinatal variables. It is known that a mother assumes an important role in the affective development of a baby and consequently in their future relationship The purpose of this paper was to analyze: (a) the first affective relationships between full-term and preterm infants mothers and their babies in

Ana Claire; Pimenteira Thomaz; Maria Rejane Tenório de Lima; Carlos Henrique; Falcão Tavares; Carlos Gonçalves de Oliveira



Interactivite, relations entre interlocuteurs et constitution d'unites conversationnelles (Interaction Processes, Participants' Relationships and Definition of Conversation Units).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes a type of conversational exchange where the participants focus on a given subject or theme contributing personal views to the discussion. Characterizes the relationship among the participants as a "cooperative conflict," examining the internal structure of speech acts and their illocutory functions, particularly the initiatory and…

Zenone, Anna



Étude numérique de l'écoulement d'un fluide non newtonien thermodépendant entre deux plaques parallèles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the heat transfer of a non Newtonian thermodependent fluid flowing between two parallel plates is considered. The effects of different parameters on the evolutions of thermal boundary layer and of Nusselt number are numerically investigated in two heating cases and correlations are proposed to compute the heat transfer. To cite this article: N. Van Tuan, M. Lebouche, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

Van Tuan, Nguyen; Lebouche, Michel



Uso de imagens CBERS para avaliação da evolução da atividade de Carcinicultura em Sergipe entre 2005 e 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian coast, besides its great fauna and flora biodiversity, has favorable weather conditions to shrimp farming, an activity which has been increasing especially in the northeast of Brazil. The activity has caused the deforestation of mangrove areas, an important ecossystem to maintain the natural balance of coast biological diversity. The Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources -

Raquel Barreto


Henri Chretien, un savant entre science et technique: reflections a propos de l'invention de l'hypergonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beggining of the 20-th century, French engineers and scientists were not well acquainted with some of the importnat principles of applied optics developed elsewhere, especially in Germany, over the preceding fifty years. In preparation for a career as a designer of astronomical instruments, Henri Chretien visited observatories in several countries and read widely. His research in optics produced many tangible advances. The Richy-Chretien telescope, which gained popularity in the 1960s and still in use today, was designed in 1910, based on an application of the principles developed by Abbe in Germany first to make color movies and then, though another application of the same principle, to project motion pictures onto a wide screen (The "Hypergonar" objective).

Le Guet Tully, Francoise


Étude expérimentale de la résistance thermique de contact entre l'étain en cours de fusion et un creuset refroidi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analysis of the thermal contact conditions during the melting of tin on different cooled walls, for different heat situations and for different cooling flows. Two experimental set ups are studied. A polished nickel substrate covers the melting-pot of the first one. Semi intrinsic thermocouples are implemented to measure the temperature of the substrate. This will

Franck Gabriel; Jean-Pierre Bardon; Daniel Guilbaud; Jean-Claude Rouffignac



URUGUAY A LO LARGO DEL SIGLO XX La relación entre la contaminación atmosférica, la calidad del aire y otros determinantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to explore the existing relations- hip between economic growth and air pollution and air quality (CO2 and SO2, respectively) in Uruguay (characterized as a small, open economy) throug- hout the XXth century. Based on the theory behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), the existen- ce of a linear relation between the economic growth and the polluting agents



Facteurs associés à l?opposition au don d’organes en France entre 1996 et 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The demand for organ transplantation exceeds organ donation in France and refusal to organ donation remains close to 30%. This study analysed risk factors associated with refusal of organ donation.Study design: Retrospective study.Patients: All potential organ donors registered by the French transplantation agency between 1996 and 1999 were included, excepted those with a contraindication to organ procurement or a

V Demiguel; C Boileau; S Cohen; D Noury; F Bonnet; P Tuppin




Microsoft Academic Search

Os imigrantes estabelecidos num país cuja língua não é a mesma de sua terra de origem enfrentam singulares problemas quando crianças, enquanto gerações posteriores a assimilam e precisam fazer frente às questões de identidade pessoal e cultural. A situação coloca desafios ainda mais complexos, quando a cultura dominante no país anfitrião subestima a língua materna do imigrante. Este artigo analisa

Lourdes C. Rovira


Interaction Entre un Tourbillon Isole et un Profil d'Aile (Interaction between an Isolated Vortex and a Wing Profile).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind tunnel measurements were carried out in a two-dimensional configuration. A reproducible vortex with an axis parallel to the profile is created by mechanical means in the subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements include the velocity fields with and with...




Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se analiza el comportamiento del comercio intraindustrial (CII) de los subsectores representativos de la industria del Valle del Cauca con los países de Ecuador y Venezuela para el período 1980-2006 a través del índice Greenaway y Milner y el índice de Brülhart. De esta forma se corrige el problema de agregación presentado en mediciones anteriores y

Aura María Muñoz Cardona; Lina Johanna Salinas Luna



Réponses de GH, IGF-1 et IGF-BP3 à un exercice submaximal : différences entre sujets entraînés et sédentaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. – We explored growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-BP3 (IGFs binding protein 3) responses during a submaximal exercise and its recovery in trained and sedentary young subjects.Subjects and methods. – The study investigates 18 year old sportsmen (N = 20) and sedentary boys of the same age as control group (N = 19). A 20 min exercise is performed on an

S Mejri; F Bchir; D Koubâa; C Ben Slama



Entre Byzance et Rome : l'image et le sacré au Proche-Orient au XVIIe siècle  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Abstract : Before the arrival of European missionaries, religious pictures were quite rare in the Near East. Christians often went through their rituals without using them. The fact that Muslims disliked these pictures is often mentioned, although it was not systematically the case. Religious men of Latin origin showed little interest for the paintings kept by the Levantine Christians

Bernard Heyberger



Pujol y la construcción de un espacio catalán de comunicación interacciones entre instituciones políticas y empresas mediáticas (1980-2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses Jordi Pujol's effort to build up a 'Catalan communicative space', essentially inspired, from the beginning of the 80s, by the so-called 'Catalan School of Communication'. This theoretical influence has been critical (as well as infrequent in the field of social communication) to understand the interactions between the political and the media powers in Catalonia in the last

Daniel E. Jones



Consumo de cafeína entre gestantes e a prevalência do baixo peso ao nascer e da prematuridade: uma revisão sistemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a systematic review of studies on caffeine intake during pregnancy and prevalence of low birth weight and prematurity, focusing on methods to quantify intake and con- trol for confounding. The review consisted of an article search from 1996 to 2006 in MEDLINE, LILACS, and PubMed, using the key words: \\

Alice Helena de Resende; Nóra Pacheco; Nathália Silva; Raposo Barreiros; Iná S. Santos; Gilberto Kac




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction and background Substance abuse in the world is reported higher among men than in women; nevertheless in different countries including Mexico, use has increased among women during recent years. The distribution among male and female population is different according to each substance. Prevalence among both populations shows a preference for illegal drugs: mariguana, cocaine, solvent-inhalants and in a

Arturo Ortiz; Alejandra Soriano; Denize Meza; Rosario Martínez; Jorge Galván




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The need of cost-effective drug abuse prevention programs has derived in a growing interest to develop scientific based alterna- tives. On this context, this study forms part of a project for the design and evaluation of a theoretical and empirically sustained intervention for illicit drug abuse prevention among Mexican jun- ior high school students. Starting with the revision and

David Bruno Diaz-Negrete; Sara Elisa; Gracia-Gutiérrez de Velasco; José Abelardo Guerrero-Huesca; Emilia Lucio Gómez-Maqueo




Microsoft Academic Search

Body image is the figuration of the body formed and structured in people's minds, involving all the senses, from life experiences of an individual, where it creates a reference body for himself. The media and the practice of some sports may cause disturbances in the perception of body image for the individual and can take you to develop other disorders

Érica Zadir; Cundari Paulucci; Alexandre Ferreira


Le relation entre la theorie et la pratique: langue et litterature (The Relationship between Theory and Practice: Language and Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Without the integration of theory into teaching practice, native language and literature instruction can deteriorate into a perpetual repetition of old teaching habits. To be a good practitioner, a teacher must also be a good theoretician. (MSE)|

Levasseur-Ouimet, France




Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting

Kathy Newman; Lynda Harrison; Carol Dashiff; Susan Davies




Microsoft Academic Search

OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCE OF NESTS OF JOÃO-DE- BARRO (Furnarius rufus, Gmelin) AMONG URBANIZED AREA AND NATURAL. Quantita tive and qualitative observations were presented, of the UNISINOS Campus in São Leopoldo - Brazil, relative the distribution of nests of João- de-barro ( Furnarius rufus ) among natural and urban areas. The study was carried on from February to October of 2006, characterizing

Íris Trois MARREIS; Martin SANDER


Construyendo puentes entre la política ambiental y la política de tratamiento de aguas en la cuenca Lerma-Chapala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable development of a nation does not recognise divisions bet- ween the importance of economical, ecological, social, political and cul- tural factors. However, an analytical review of the water and environ- mental policies in Mexico does show a gap between them. There are divergences between two sector policies that must be, by definition, con- vergent. In order to demonstrate



Educación para la convivencia en contextos escolares: una propuesta de intervención contra los malos tratos entre iguales  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intervention program against bullying is presented in this article. The intervention program is integrated in two European research projects - the TMR Project about nature and prevention of bullying and the Sócrates Project - and it is developed through out pupils and teachers' training. The intervention program persecutes the improvement of social skills in order to develop positive interpersonal



Les Missions de Police routière de la Sûreté du Québec : entre politique publique, logique territoriale et contraintes économiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobilization of organizations insures the implementation of a public policy. It is required to yield an effective intervention. The police organizations play this crucial role in the traffic safety field. Police organizations intervene through many different ways : law enforcement, prevention, educative interventions... These different missions constitute their mandate, entrusted by government. These missions and the means for intervening can

Laurent CARNIS




Microsoft Academic Search

This study consists of an experiment report after getting to know the benefits obtained through Animal Assisted Therapy in four health institutions of the city of São Paulo. The visits occurred in the second semester of 2001 in one place specialized in special education for children with diverse syndromes; one that houses old people who are abandoned or with no

Cíntia Hissae Kawakami; Cyntia Kaori Nakano


Metonymie dans la presse ecrite: entre discours et langue (Metonymies in the Press: Between Discourse and Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes certain metonymies that are often employed in the daily French press. In such metonymies, a human being or a set of individuals are referred to by means of the name of an institutional location (i.e., a capital city, a ministry in a western country, the name of a country). These metonymic patterns do not seem to be used by…

Lecolle, Michelle



Racismo, alienación y emancipación en el pensamiento de Frantz Fanon El espíritu de nuestra época entre civilización y barbarie  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discerns key concepts of the thought of Afro-Caribbean psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, which are regaining their revolutionary validity in the present international context in which the desperate run on strategic natural resources has given way to a re-colonization of key regions in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The reasons alleged to justify the direct interventions of the West are

Franz Lee


Concentrations spatiales des populations à faible revenu, entre polarisation et mixité. Une analyse de trois grandes aires urbaines françaises  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'objectif de cet article est d'aborder la question de la pauvreté par sa dimension spatiale. À travers une comparaison de trois aires urbaines de formes différentes, à savoir Lyon, Lille et Marseille, nous montrons, d'abord à l'échelle communale, que les lieux de concentration des populations modestes sont très stables dans le temps. À l'échelle fine du quartier, nous mettons en

Louafi Bouzouina



Transporte de energia eletrica entre autoprodutor e consumidor. (Transport of electric power between the auto producer and the consumer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The practice of 'energy transport' in the experimental process of surplus acquisition from cogeneration established new ways for the large use of auto production potential of electric power in industrial processes. The creation of rules for this practice ...

L. D. Dastre R. L. Arantes L. A. M. Amoroso L. R. Sebusiani



Évolution de la résistance aux antibiotiques et des sérogroupes de Streptococcus pneumoniae en Bretagne entre 1997 et 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

At this time, many antibiotics have decreased activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major agent of infectious disease. In this study, we evaluated antibiotic susceptibility and serogroups of strains isolated from bacteraemia, meningitis and acute otitis media in adults and children over the 1997- 2003 period in Brittany, France. In 2003, 62% of the isolates were not susceptible to penicillin and

S. Mignard; P.-Y. Donnio; J. Vaucel; M.-L. Abalain; M. Anguill; J.-P. Aubry; L. Desbordes; M.-J. Dufour; J.-Y. Esvant; F. Gangneux; F. Geffroy; A. Gougeon; J.-L. Laborie; C. Lebrun; A. Le Gac; G. Lelay; A.-L. Lerestif-Gautier; A. LeMeur; J. Minet; O. Morvan; P. Plessis; P. Pouedras; J. Rome; D. Tandé; A. Valogne; C. Voisine; J.-F. Ygout



El papel modulador de la implicación con el trabajo en la relación entre el estrés y la satisfacción laboral  

Microsoft Academic Search

The job involvement modulating role in the relationship between stress and job satisfaction. This pa- per analyzes the modulator role of job involvement in the relationship between stress and job satisfac- tion, using the OSI (Occupational Stress Indicator) model. For this purpose, we analyzed: six sources of stress, the OSI job satisfaction results, and a job involvement scale. The sample

Blanca López-Araújo; Amparo Osca Segovia; José María Peiró



Emergence et devenir du systeme de prise en charge de la tuberculose en France entre 1900 et 1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé In industrialised countries the treatment of tuberculosis was one of the first public health services to appear at the beginning of the 20th century. This initiative represented a departure from the usual measures set up by public health specialists for improving living and environmental conditions, as new knowledge about the process of infection meant that action could be taken

France Lert



Importancia de las plantas medicinales en el autocuidado de la salud en tres caseríos de Santa Ana Trujillo, Venezuela. The importance of medicinal plants in health care in three small villages of the Santa Ana county at Trujillo state, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gather some information about the importance of medicinal plants in the primary health care, the use of plants in three small villages of the Santa Ana county, Pampán municipality at Trujillo State, Venezuela, was quantitatively analyzed. To do this, a local epidemiology diagnosis was carried out and the etnopharmacological information obtained was recorded using the TRAMIL survey.



In planta analysis of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-cyt gene promoter: identification of an upstream region essential for promoter activity in leaf, stem and root cells of transgenic tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promoter region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-cyt gene was fused to a ß-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene and introduced into tobacco plants. Detection of gusA expression in transgenic F1 progeny revealed that the T-cyt promoter is active in many, if not all, cell types in leaves, stems and roots of fully developed plants. Developmental stage-dependent promoter activity was observed in

Saskia T. C. Neuteboom; Esther Hulleman; Rob A. Schilperoort; J. Harry C. Hoge



Efectos de distintas dosis de fertilizante de liberación controlada (Osmocote®) en el desarrollo de plantas de coigüe, raulí y ulmo Effects of different doses of slow-release fertilizer (Osmocote®) in the development of coigüe, raulí and ulmo seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study was carried out with the goal of determining the effects of different doses of slow-release fertilizer (Osmocote®) in the development of aerial and root biomass of the native species Nothofagus dombeyi, Nothofagus nervosa, and Eucryphia cordi- folia. Seedlings were raised in containers of 130 cm3 filled with discomposed bark of Pinus radiata calibrated to particles ? 10

Fernando Bustos; Pablo Donoso; Víctor Gerding; Claudio Donoso; Bernardo Escobar



Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the efficiency of whey protein concentration in a mobile filtration plant composed of an ultra-filtration module and a nano-filtration module, analyses of ultra (P1) and nano (P2) filtration permeates for total solids, protein, ash and lactose of the original whey, and protein concentrate were conducted. Ash content was determined by the AOAC method. Total solids was

Aleida C. García; Aiza C. García



Historia natural y conservación de los mutualismos planta-animal del bosque templado de Sudamérica austral Natural history and conservation of plant-animal mutualisms in the temperate forest of southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperate forest of southern South America (TFSSA) has a highly endemic biota with a flora that exhibits one of the highest incidences of biotic pollination (particularly ornithophily) and animal dispersal (particularly endozoochory) found in any temperate biome worldwide. Much knowledge has been gained in the last few years on the nature of these mutualisms. In this study, we review



Consecuencias de la ruptura de mutualismos planta-animal para la distribución de especies vegetales en las Islas Baleares Consequences of the disruption of plant-animal mutualisms for the distribution of plant species in the Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alteration of a habitat such as that caused by the introduction of exotic animal species that displace the native ones, reducing their populations or leading them to extinction, can result in the disruption of species interactions which may have evolved during millions of years. The insular ecosystems are especially vulnerable to such disturbances, as they are usually less complex



Characterization of copy numbers of 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and the implication in detection in planta using quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus and is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.. The pathogens are phloem limited and have not been cultured in vitro. The current management strategy of HLB is to remove infected citrus trees and reduce psyllid populations with insecticides to prevent the spreading. This strategy requires sensitive and reliable

Jeong-soon Kim; Nian Wang



Methodology for producing 100 tons of fuel peat for a cement plant test burn. Metodologia para producir 100 toneladas de turba combustible para una prueba de quema en uns planta de cemento  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Agency for International Development-funded cooperative project between Los Alamos and Costa Rica, the burning characteristics of Costa Rican peat were to be tested in an application. The cement plant owned by Industria National de Cemento in Cartago has a capability to handle solid fuel and was chosen for the burn demonstration. The Jungle No. 1 Peat Deposit near El Cairo was chosen as the site of the peat excavation. This peat production methodology study covers project site selection, installation of an access road and clearing of the jungle vegetation, removal of an upper layer of organic peat, excavation of fuel-grade peat, transport of the peat to the drying site, and drying and stockpiling of the finished product. As of this date the peat removal for the demonstration project has been started, and a description of the operation is included as an appendix to this paper. 10 figs.

Allen, A.B.; Malavassi, L.; Ramirez, O.; Thayer, G. (Allen (Andrew), Plymouth, NC (USA); RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))



Qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais comercializados no Brasil: castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf ) e centela (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban). Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city

Joabe Gomes de Melo; Járisson Diógenes Guilherme da Roch Martins; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque



Importancia de la planta y el elote en poblaciones de maíz para el mejoramiento genético de la calidad forrajera Importance of the stover and ear of corn populations in the genetic improvement of forage quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forage quality for whole plant, stover, and ear was investigated in five corn population Groups consisting of highland, tropical and subtropical germplasm, F1 hybrids and F2 hybrid generations. The experimental material was evaluated in Aguascalientes, Mexico, in a split plot experiment with three replications, in which plots were Groups and subplots populations within Groups. The earliest group of highland populations

Fernando González


Liberación\\/mineralización de nitrógeno en hojarasca de Eucalyptus grandis y leguminosas herbáceas, su relación con la calidad física y química del residuo y su efecto sobre el crecimiento de plantas jóvenes de eucalipto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El tipo de cosecha y manejo de residuos inciden en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo y la productividad forestal. Estos residuos contienen la mayoría del retorno de N. La velocidad de provisión de nutrientes por la descomposición\\/mineralización puede verse afectada por la calidad química y física como por la localización y contacto de los residuos con el suelo.

Alcaraz Maria Luciana


Interplay of light and temperature during the in planta modulation of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from the leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: diurnal and seasonal effects manifested at molecular levels  

PubMed Central

The interactive effects of light and temperature on C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined both in vivo and in situ using the leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus collected at different times during a day and in each month during the year. The maximum activity of PEPC, least inhibition by malate, and highest activation by glucose-6-phosphate were at 15.00?h during a typical day, in all the months. This peak was preceded by maximum ambient light but coincided with high temperature in the field. The highest magnitude in such responses was in the summer (e.g. May) and least in the winter (e.g. December). Light appeared to dominate in modulating the PEPC catalytic activity, whereas temperature had a strong influence on the regulatory properties, suggesting interesting molecular interactions. The molecular mechanisms involved in such interactive effects were determined by examining the PEPC protein/phosphorylation/mRNA levels. A marked diurnal rhythm could be seen in the PEPC protein levels and phosphorylation status during May (summer month). In contrast, only the phosphorylation status increased during the day in December (winter month). The mRNA peaks were not as strong as those of phosphorylation. Thus, the phosphorylation status and the protein levels of PEPC were crucial in modulating the daily and seasonal patterns in C4 leaves in situ. This is the first detailed study on the diurnal as well as seasonal patterns in PEPC activity, its regulatory properties, protein levels, phosphorylation status, and mRNA levels, in relation to light and temperature intensities in the field.

Avasthi, Uday K.; Izui, Katsura; Raghavendra, Agepati S.



AISLAMIENTO DE Salmonella y Escherichia coli PATÓGENAS DURANTE EL PROCESAMIENTO DE HAMBURGUESAS EN UNA PEQUEÑA PLANTA DE MARACAIBO, VENEZUELA Isolation of Salmonella and Pathogenic Escherichia coli during Processing of Hamburger Patty in a Small Plant of Maracaibo, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Salmonella, pathogenic E. coli and to detect potentials sources of contamination in a small meat processing plant of hamburg- ers with an average of production the 120 kg\\/day of product. Samples were taken from 52 ingredients (n = 52): raw meat in frozen blocks (BLOCAR), ground reprocessed meat (REPRO-

Claudia A. Narváez; Katynna C. Parra; Nelson Huerta-Leiden; Argenis Rodas-González; Lilia Arenas de Moreno



In-planta detection and monitorization of endophytic colonization by a Beauveria bassiana strain using a new-developed nested and quantitative PCR-based assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy.  


Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip obtained from larvae of the opium poppy stem gall Iraella luteipes endophytically colonizes opium poppy plants and protect it against this pest. Development of a specific, rapid and sensitive technique that allows accurately determining the process and factors leading to the establishment of this strain in opium poppy plants would be essential to achieve its efficient control in a large field scale. For that purpose in the present study, species-specific primers that can be used in conventional or quantitative PCR protocols were developed for specifically identification and detection of B. bassiana in plant tissues. The combination of the designed BB.fw/BB.rv primer set with the universal ITS1-F/ITS4 primer set in a two-step nested-PCR approach, has allowed the amplification of up to 10fg of B. bassiana. This represented an increase in sensitivity of 10000- and 1000-fold of detection than when using the BB.fw/BB.rv primers in a single or single-tube semi-nested PCR approaches, respectively. The BB.fw and BB.rv primer set were subsequently optimized to be used in real time quantitative PCR assays and allowed to accurately quantify B. bassiana DNA in different plant DNA backgrounds (leaves and seeds) without losing accuracy and efficiency. The qPCR protocol was used to monitor the endophytic colonization of opium poppy leaves byB. bassiana after inoculation with the strain EABb 04/01-Tip, detecting as low as 26fg of target DNA in leaves and a decrease in fungal biomass over time. PCR quantification data were supported in parallel with CLMS by the monitoring of spatial and temporal patterns of leaf and stem colonization using a GFP-tagged transformant of the B. bassiana EABb 04/01-Tip strain, which enabled to demonstrate that B. bassiana effectively colonizes aerial tissues of opium poppy plants mainly through intercellular spaces and even leaf trichomes. A decline in endophytic colonization was also observed by the last sampling times, i.e. from 10 to 15days after inoculation, although fungal structures still remained present in the leaf tissues. These newly developed molecular protocols should facilitate the detection, quantification and monitoring of endophytic B. bassiana strains in different tissues and host plants and would help to unravel the factors and process governing the specific endophytic association between opium poppy and strain EABb 04/01-Tip providing key insights to formulate a sustainable strategy for I. luteipes management in the host. PMID:23851123

Landa, B B; López-Díaz, C; Jiménez-Fernández, D; Montes-Borrego, M; Muñoz-Ledesma, F J; Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Quesada-Moraga, E




Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide is traditionally used in chemical me tallurgy to obtain preciousus metals (gold and silver). Cyanide produces damages because of it s toxicity and breath cell inhibition. Here we try a biotechnological process to degrade cyanide with P. fluorescens obtained by cyanide heap leaching process in gold metallurgy in Segovia, Colombia. In Colombia cyanide heap leaching process in gold




454-pyrosequencing of Coffea arabica leaves infected by the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix reveals in planta-expressed pathogen-secreted proteins and plant functions in a late compatible plant-rust interaction.  


Coffee (Coffea arabica L.), one of the key export and cash crops in tropical and subtropical countries, suffers severe losses from the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. The transcriptome of H. vastatrix was analysed during a compatible interaction with coffee to obtain an exhaustive repertoire of the genes expressed during infection and to identify potential effector genes. Large-scale sequencing (454-GS-FLEX Titanium) of mixed coffee and rust cDNAs obtained from 21-day rust-infected leaves generated 352 146 sequences which assembled into 22 774 contigs. In the absence of any reference genomic sequences for Coffea or Hemileia, specific trinucleotide frequencies within expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and blast homology against a set of dicots and basidiomycete genomes were used to distinguish pathogen from plant sequences. About 30% (6763) of the contigs were assigned to H. vastatrix and 61% (13 951) to C. arabica. The majority (60%) of the rust sequences did not show homology to any genomic database, indicating that they were potential novel fungal genes. In silico analyses of the 6763 H. vastatrix contigs predicted 382 secreted proteins and identified homologues of the flax rust haustorially expressed secreted proteins (HESPs) and bean rust transferred protein 1 (RTP1). These rust candidate effectors showed conserved amino-acid domains and conserved patterns of cysteine positions suggestive of conserved functions during infection of host plants. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction profiling of selected rust genes revealed dynamic expression patterns during the time course of infection of coffee leaves. This study provides the first valuable genomic resource for the agriculturally important plant pathogen H. vastatrix and the first comprehensive C. arabica EST dataset. PMID:21726390

Fernandez, Diana; Tisserant, Emilie; Talhinhas, Pedro; Azinheira, Helena; Vieira, Ana; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Loureiro, Andreia; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Silva, Maria Do Céu; Duplessis, Sébastien



Efecto de la época de siembra y la densidad de plantas sobre el número de granos y el rendimiento de un híbrido de maíz en la región central de Córdoba (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The change in the sowing date of maize modifies the response in grain yield to the plant density. The objective of this work was to study in the central region of Córdoba, Argentina, the effect of sowing date and plant density on the determi- nation of the yield and its components. The experiments were conducted in the field in

M. G. Cantarero; S. F. Luque; O. J. Rubiolo



Microsoft Academic Search

-benciladenina (BA) (5.9 µM a 29.3 µM), ácido indol-3-acético (AIA) (0.28 µM a 5.71 µM), ácido ?- naftalenacético (ANA) (0.16 µM a 0.53 µM) y ácido giberélico (AG3) (0.86 µM). Todas las combinaciones de reguladores de crecimiento probadas promovieron la formación de brotes adventicios tanto en los explantes de hipocotilo como en los de cotiledón. Fue posible obtener hasta 5.1

Alejandrina Robledo Paz; Guillermo Carrillo Castañeda



Establecimiento de la línea base de productos formulados con silicio y estudio de los efectos de los parámetros de desarrollo y sanitario de plantas de banano Cavendish (AAA), variedad Williams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was carried out in the laboratory of Phytopathology of the Biotechnological Research Centre of Ecuador (CIBE), belong to the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL) in the Campus Gustavo Galindo. The ESPOL is located in km 30,5 of the vía Perimetral to 80 m.s.n.m within a tropical dry climate in the city of Guayaquil. During the period

Byron Edison; Moyano Del Pezo; María Isabel Jiménez Feijoo


Más y mejores trenes: Cambiando la matriz de transporte en América Latina y el Caribe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta nota técnica aborda el tema de los ferrocarriles de América Latina y el Caribe en sus tres modelos de negocio (Transporte de cargas, de pasajeros urbanos y suburbanos -trenes de cercanías-, y de pasajeros de larga distancia) y su potencial papel en un cambio de matriz de transporte. Se analiza el estado actual del sector y se revisan sus

Jorge Kohon



Some Social Implications of Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social implications of distance education at the university level are considered, based primarily on the case of La Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED) of Costa Rica. UNED, which is Costa Rica's attempt to implement Great Britain's open university philosophy of education, was developed in response to the following needs: to provide…

Borden, George A.


Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Laboratories in a 'Third World' Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of low-cost multimedia courses and materials for use on the Internet, as well as virtual laboratories, at the Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica). Explains how simultaneous production of traditional printed materials and online courses, outsourcing, and the use of HTML and Java can reduce costs for developing…

Monge-Najera, Julian Antonio; Rivas Rossi, Marta; Mendez-Estrada, Victor Hugo



Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Laboratories in a 'Third World' Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of low-cost multimedia courses and materials for use on the Internet, as well as virtual laboratories, at the Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica). Explains how simultaneous production of traditional printed materials and online courses, outsourcing, and the use of HTML and Java can reduce costs for developing…

Monge-Najera, Julian Antonio; Rivas Rossi, Marta; Mendez-Estrada, Victor Hugo



Distance Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews six papers from the Open University Distance Education Research Group which cover the following topics: the credibility of distance education, admission systems, distance methods in adult basic education, the Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica), Radio Ecca (Canary Islands), and the Open University (Great Britain). (EAO)

Curran, Chris



Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge Rivas Diaz); "Una…

Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.



Relations entre les enzymes anti-oxydantes plasmatiques et érythrocytaires et la peroxydation des lipides chez des patients atteints de polyarthrite rhumatoïde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the activities of some key erythrocyte and plasma enzymes participating in free radical metabolism and the end product of lipid peroxidation in rheumatoid arthritis, and whether there are any differences for these parameters between newly diagnosed untreated patients and rheumatoid arthritis patients on drug therapy. Patients and methods. Superoxide dismutase and catalase

Ömer Akyol; Nuran I?çi; Ismail Temel; Salih Özgöçmen; Efkan Uz; Mustafa Murat; Süleyman Büyükberber



Relation entre arthrite de cheville et destruction sous-astragalienne au cours de la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Une étude prospective de 20 ans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. In the present study we evaluated radiographically involvement of the ankle joint and its relationship with destruction of subtalar joint in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients and methods. An inception cohort of 103 patients with seropositive RA was followed over a period of 20 years. Follow-up examinations were conducted after onset 1, 3, 8, 15, and 20 years from entry.

Eero A Belt; Kalevi Kaarela; Heikki Mäenpää; Markku J Kauppi; Janne T Lehtinen; Matti U. K Lehto



Variations des taux d'ecdystéroïdes au cours du développement de Bombyx mori ; rapport entre ces variations et les phases de croissance et de morphogenèse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the development ofBombyx mori (monovoltin race) ecdysteroid levels were determined in oocytes, eggs, and haemolymph of larvae, and in the haemolymph of pupae. In haemolymph, the only RIA reactive materials are ecdysone and ecdysterone. In oocytes and eggs, other ecdysteroids are also detected. During larval instars, the ecdysteroid levels are low whereas they are very high during morphogenetic

M. Coulon; B. Calvez; M. De Rggi; J. M. Legay; M. Hirn



Preferência musical, atitudes e comportamentos anti-sociais entre estudantes adolescentes: um estudo correlacional1 Music preference, attitudes and antisocial behaviors among adolescent students: a correlational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As there are not many studies about musical preferences as an antisocial behavior understanding method , this study aimed to raise possible relation among this construct and deviant behaviors, considering also the attitudes toward marijuana use. This sample was composed by 548 high school students from public (46.4%) and private (53.6%) schools, most of them female (54.9%). They had answered

Carlos Eduardo PIMENTEL; Valdiney Veloso GOUVEIA; Tatiana Cristina VASCONCELOS


Etude des relations fonctionnelles entre le muscle fléchisseur accessoire et les organes sensoriels chordotonaux et myochordotonaux des appendices locomoteurs de la langouste Palinurus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The comparative activity of the myochordotonal organ MCO1 and of the chordotonal MC1 of the rock-lobster Palinurus vulgaris are studied with different types of stimulation.2.Calibrated stretching of the flexor muscles shows the variety of MCO1, proprioceptive discharge (Figs. 4–6).3.The contraction of the main flexor muscle and of the extensor significantly modifies MCO1 and MC1 (Fig. 7).4.The contraction of the accessory

F. Clarac; J. P. Vedel



La información política en televisión: ¿apatía o interés entre los telespectadores? Political news on TV: are the citizens apathetic or interested in it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the changes that have taken place in the political communication from the birth of television. A historical review of the functions that have been having the television until becomes the first source of political information for the citizens it is shown in this article. The research analyzes the effects that the new political communication has in the

Salomé Berrocal Gonzalo


Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.


Conséquences de l'interaction entre préférences pour l'habitat et quantité de ressources trophiques sur les communautés d'insectes coprophages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the years 1988 and 1995, five dung beetle communities were studied in combined conditions of habitat and trophic resources. Investigations were conducted on La Viale experimental farm, in the Causse Méjean, southern France. At each site, dung beetle traps of standard design were set up simultaneously. In most situations, the vegetation cover acted like a filter that allowed the

Nassera Kadiri; Jorge M. Lobo; Jean-Pierre Lumaret



La Reaccion Fotoquimica Entre El Monoxido de Fluor Y El Monoxido de Carbono (The Photochemical Reaction Between F2O and CO).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photochemical reaction between F2O and CO-with light of the wavelength 365 mu was investigated between 15 and 35 C. In all reactions the same products were found: COF2, CO2, FC(O)OF and (FCO)2O2. Added oxygen favored the formation of CO2 and COF2. The...

A. H. Jubert H. J. Schumacher J. E. Sicre



Análise comparativa entre imagens de satélites CBERS2 e LANDSAT5 na classificação da cobertura vegetal na região de Jaboticabal - SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing images present potential for mapping and estimating crop yield. This paper details a technique for estimating percent vegetation cover based on land use classify on satellite images using a geographic information system (GIS)-IDRISI and CBERS2 and LANDSAT5 satellites images. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary College - FCAV - UNESP,

Christiano Luna Arraes


As relações entre identidade, memória e a pesquisa da história da psicologia The relationships between identity, memory and the research of the history of psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho de cunho teórico discute algumas questões metodológicas que surgem com o uso da memória em pesquisas que relacionam identidade e história da Psicologia. Esta investigação fundamentou-se em uma perspectiva de identidade que a compreende como um movimento constante de transformação no tempo Este movimento é concebido como uma composição onde estão presentes elementos de continuidade e de

Marisa Todescan Dias da Silva; Marcos Brasil


Suicidal ideation among students enrolled in healthcare training programs: a cross-sectional study Ideação suicida entre estudantes da área da saúde: um estudo transversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We aimed to assess the presence of suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms and symptoms of hopelessness in three healthcare training programs. Method: The study's population comprised all students enrolled at the Medical School of the Fundação do ABC, Brazil, from 2006 to 2007 compared to students enrolled in nursing and pharmacy programs. We applied the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation,

Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva; Maira Lazarini; Guimarães Pereira; Carlos Bustamante; André Corrêa; Toledo Ferraz; Sergio Baldassin; Arthur Guerra de Andrade; Tânia Corrêa de Toledo; Ferraz Alves



Une experience de collaboration entre la BBC et des etablissements d'enseignement superieur britanniques (Collaboration Experiences between BBC and Some British Higher Education Institutions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the BBC French language program and the activities that have resulted from BBC's collaboration with institutions such as the Brighton Polytechnic. These activites include the organization of intensive courses, the publication of instructional materials for teachers, and the development of correspondence studies. (MES)|

Hill, Brian



Estudio comparativo entre dos fuentes alimentarias aportadoras de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 y su efecto sobre el timo y el perfil lipídico de ratas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Comparative study between two different sources of n-3 poliunsaturated fatty acids and it effect on thymus and lipid profile in rats. In the present paper we analyzed the effect caused by different recovery diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n-3) on thymus and serum lipid pattern. Severe depleted weanling Wistar rats (D) were divided in three groups

Inés Fernandez; Anabel N. Pallaro; Nora H. Slobodianik



Del tractat d'Argelers al de Poissy. El Regne de Mallorca entre la Corona Catalanoaragonesa i França (1298-1313)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Towards the end of the 13th century the kingdom of Majorca strengthened its relationships with the Crown of Aragon, once it obtained its renounciation to its claims upon the Balearic islands, through the Argelers agreemenet. Together, the two states created by James I the Conqueror’s anachronistic policy towards his own succession, opposed the French advance towards the Pyrenees and the

Antoni Riera i Melis



Relations structurales entre U3O8 et quelques fluorures mixtes de formules M2M'3F11, MM'2F7 et MM'3F10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U3O8 oxide, as well as M2M'3F11, MM'2F7 and MM'3F10 fluorides, with M = Rb, Tl, Cs, NH4 and M' = In, Lu, Yb, Tm, is described as the regular repetition according to the ... A-A-A ... sequence of identical and parallel sheets of edge-and corner-sharing M'F7 or UO7 pentagonal bipyramids and M'F6 octahedra. M' and U atoms are systematically located at the lattice points of a pseudohexagonal network, but in the fluorides some of these lattice points are vacant, producing hexagonal tunnels in which M atoms are located. It is shown that in the two kinds of compounds the same linear chains and M'3X17 groups of pentagonal bipyramids are present, and that the transformation of the U3O8 structure into the fluorides can be achieved by an ordered substitution of some linear ... U-O-U-O ... chains by ... M-M-M ... chains. All these structures can be described with the same structural model based on the chemical twinning principle.

Aléonard, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Champarnaud-Mesjard, J. C.; Frit, B.; Roux, M. Th.




Microsoft Academic Search

The violence has increased in different levels and coun - tries during the last years. This problem is caused by historic, institutional, family and personal components. In this article we focused on the violence in schools and more specific the violence among children. This kind of maltreatment is a perturbation of the relationship among the members of a group, and

Teresa Ana; Javier Gonzalo; Erika Valeria Grisolia



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The distribution of Trichoderma species in soils of Embu region in relation to land use practices was investigated. The study area was chosen because of its significant land use intensification. Soil washing and dilution plate techniques were used to recover Trichoderma spp from soil samples. The fungal isolates were identified and assigned to eight species. Greater populations as well

Sheila A. Okoth; H. Roimen; B. Mutsotso; E. Muya; J. Kahindi; J. O. Owino; P. Okoth



Récupération de la conscience après un coma traumatique ou vasculaire : comparaison entre l'échelle de Coma de Glasgow Liège (GLS) et la Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actuellement, il existe un certain nombre d'instruments d'évaluation de la conscience des patients en coma ou sortant du coma. Cependant, la majorité de ces échelles sont très peu sensi- bles, ne permettant pas de détecter des changements plus subtils du niveau de l'état de conscien- ce. Dans ce contexte, la Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM; Shiel et al., 2000) se

Steve Majerus; Martial Van der Linden


Caractéristiques épidémiologiques et évolution de l'incidence des lymphomes cérébraux primitifs observés chez 80 patients infectés par le VIH entre 1983 et 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective – To describe the epidemiological characteristics of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and the evolution of the incidence of this lymphoma in HIV-infected patients with a more than 17-year follow-up.Results – Eighty cases of PCNSL were analyzed from a data base of 2263 AIDS subjects followed from 1983 to 1999 (3.5% of the patients with AIDS). At the

A Rigolet; P Bossi; E Caumes; R Agher; V Zeller; C Katlama; F Bricaire



La clôture comme seule protection ? Syndicats du spectacle et marché du travail dans l’entre-deux-guerres (1919–1937)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of performers in the entertainment industry during the period between the two World wars serves to test the hypothesis of a monopolistic closure, as workers try to improve their lot by restricting access to the labor market. In line with the predictions of this hypothesis in the sociology of professions, actors and singers did try to close the

Mathieu Grégoire



Etudes sociales 30. Sujet B: Interaction entre nations. Cahier de l'eleve. Edition finale = Social Studies 30. Subject B: Interaction between Nations. Student Workbook. Final Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Alberta (Canada) student workbook, four history units are presented for study. These are: (1) Between Two Wars (1919-1936); (2) World War II; (3) The Emergence and Interaction of the Superpowers; and (4) Contemporary World Interactions. Advice is offered to students in each unit along with information about key events and issues during…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.


La Linguistica Aplicada a la Relacion Paradigmatica entre los Verbos "Ser" y "Estar" (Linguistics Applied to the Paradigmatic Relationship between the Verbs "Ser" and "Estar")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speakers of Italian often have problems mastering Spanish because they erroneously believe its great similiarity to Italian makes it easy to learn. One of the fundamental problems is the lack of ability to choose the correct verb, "ser" or "estar," both equivalents of the Italian "essere." (Text is in Spanish.) (CFM)|

Marchetti, Magda Ruggeri



La drépanocytose dans le sud du Zaïre. Étude de deux séries de 251 et 340 malades suivis entre 1988 et 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. — This work concerns 591 sickle cell disease patients followed by the same paediatrics team in south Zaire.Population. — Two series of homozygous sickle cell patients were studied: 1) 251 in-patients hospitalized in Kolwezi during the period 1988–1989, and 2) 340 out-patients examined in Lubumbashi during the period 1990–1992.Results. — In the first series, a high proportion of children

L Tshilolo; R Mukendi; R Girot



Etude par spectrométrie Raman de l'interaction entre un substrat de graphite et un mélange MCl4-H2 (M = Si, Ti)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La spectrométrie de diffusion Raman a été utilisée pour optimiser les conditions de la CVD réactive du carbure de silicium ou du carbure de titane sur fibres de carbone. Cette technique a permis la caractérisation de couches de ces carbures, d'épaisseur de l'ordre de 50 nm, en surface des filaments élémentaires constituants la fibre. En envisageant des substrats massifs de carbone, nous avons mis en évidence leur dégraphitisation à proximité de l'interface carbure-carbone. Raman spectroscopy has been used in order to optimize the reactive CVD conditions for silicium carbide or titanium carbide deposits on carbon fibers. With this technique 50-nm-thick carbide coatings could be characterized at the surface of the individual filament constituting the carbon fibers. In bulk carbon substrates evidence of degraphitization near the carbon/carbide interface was observed.

Vincent, H.; Ponthenier, J. L.; Vincent, C.; Bouix, J.



Cat?licos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1  

PubMed Central

Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos.

Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard



Comparaison entre les différentes commandes d'un moteur asynchrone pour un véhicule électrique en vue de minimiser les pertes de l'onduleur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The losses of an inverter supplying an induction motor are compared for different vector control and pulse width modulation strategies. The study is carried out in simulation. As a conclusion, an optimal control in terms of losses is determined. Les pertes par conduction et par commutation d'un onduleur alimentant un moteur asynchrone sont comparées pour différentes solutions de contrôle vectoriel et de modulation de largeur d'impulsions. L'étude est réalisée en simulation. En conclusion, une commande optimale au niveau des pertes est déterminée.

Papazian, J.-C.; Rognon, J.-P.; Roye, D.; Delbosc, Ph.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: Muitas instituições de saúde oferecem serviços 24 horas diariamente. Isso ocorre em detri- mento de necessidades, tais como sono e lazer dos trabalhadores. Objetivou-se avaliar a percepção do sono e de fadiga comparando trabalhadores de enfermagem em turnos diurnos e noturnos. Este estudo epidemiológico refere-se a uma população de 696 profissionais. A coleta de dados

Patricia Lima Ferreira; Santa Rosa; Frida Marina Fischer; Flávio Nortanicola da Silva Borges; Nilson da Silva Soares; Lucia Rotenberg; Paul Landsbergis


O impacto da publicidade de bebidas alcoólicas sobre o consumo entre jovens: revisão da literatura internacional Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among youngsters: review of the international literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Problems related to alcohol consumption are frequent, especially among the youth population. We analyzed advertisement as one of several modifiable factors with impact over alcohol consumption. Method: The authors carried out a literature review within Medline, SciELO, PsychoInfo and Google Scholar databases between 1990 and 2008, retrieving studies with different approaches of the alcohol advertisement impact on consumption. Besides,

Ilana Pinsky; Henrique Neves Lefevre; Rev Bras; Sami A R J El



Relación entre la contaminación atmosférica y la calidad del aire con el crecimiento económico y otros determinantes : Uruguay a lo largo del Siglo XX  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between economic growth in reference to atmospheric pollution and air quality (CO2 and SO2, respectively) in Uruguay (a small-open economy) through the XX century. Departing from the theory behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), a linear relationship was found between economic growth and the contaminants in the period 1955 – 2000 through a Vector Error

Matías Piaggio




Microsoft Academic Search

The delay time or time lag, i.e. the time to reach the stationary state, represents, all together with the permeation, the dinamics of the diffusive process, and is of large use and usefulness to characterize the mass transport through polymeric films. Is important because is a measure of the difusive dinamics, and also because it depends on sorption equilibrium. We

J. A. Horas; M. Rizzotto


L'espace du mouvement: Une analyse des conflits dans les interactions entre institutrice et eleves d'une ecole maternelle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described in this article, winner of the Gottfried Hausmann Prize for 1994, was carried out in a kindergarten in São Paolo, Brazil, using the theory developed by Henri Wallon. The aim was to examine how primary school children are affected in their development by: (a) unnecessary restrictions placed on their physical movements during lessons; and (b) failure to organize the classroom space in a way that assists the learning process. The author concludes that these factors lead to tensions in the classroom which could be avoided through a different approach to movement and space.

Galvão, Izabel




Microsoft Academic Search

Information retrieval (IR) using search engines is engaged in a deep evolution due to the hegemony of Google, the overlapping spaces between a public and a private or intimate web, a process of redocumentarisation, and the coexistence of regulated and algorithmic models on the one hand and of commercial logics on the other hand. Considering classical models of information retrieval,



Correspondencia entre CIE10 y CIE9 para las listas de causas de muerte del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y de la Región de Murcia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: A decline in infectious diseases (-1.7%) and viral hepa- titis, (-12.3%) declined under Tenth revision, while AIDS showed an increase (5.7%). Neoplasms increased a little (0.3%) with the inclu- sion of the Mielodisplasic Syndrome (55.2%). Diabetes mellitus is increased (2.1%). Mental disorders declined on dementia being shif- ted to Alzheimer's disease (28.6%). Cardiovascular diseases dropped slightly (-1.4%), without any

Lluís Cirera Suárez; Miguel Rodríguez Barranco; Emilia Madrigal de Torres; Jesús Carrillo Prieto; Augusto Hasiak Santo; Roberto Augusto Becker; Aurelio Tobías Garcés; Carmen Navarro Sánchez



Psychological Correlates of the Transmission and Acceptance of Rumors about AIDS = Correlates Psychologiques Entre la Transmission et l'Acceptation des Rumeurs sur le SIDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public reactions to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis are accompanied by the sorts of emotional and cognitive factors that have been identified by researchers as predictors of rumor generation and transmission. The present investigation attempted to ascertain the extent that various subjective factors (including anxiety,…

Kimmel, Allan J.


The Carpathian seismicity: Vrancea zone between Ukraine, Romania and Hungary Sismicidad de la region Carpatiana: Zona de Vrancea entre Ucrania, Rumania y Hungría  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carpathian complex prognostic polygon has being created for testing of new methods and equipment and their implementation into the practice of seismotectonic investigations in the Transcarpathians. The polygon consists of a network of regime geophysical stations (RGS). I analyzed the seismicity of the Ukrainian sector of the Carpathians. It is determined by local earthquakes and strong subcrustal earthquakes of the

Malytskyy Dmytro



Signification des caractères partagés entre Bennettitales et Cycadales. Implications de la découverte d'une Cycadale nouvelle du Cénomanien de l'Anjou (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lagoonal Cenomanian formation (Lower Cretaceous) of clays of the region of Baugeois (north of Angers) has supplied an exceptionally well-preserved fossil flora: leaves, woody structures or\\/and reproductive organs of pteridophyta, gymnosperms and angiosperms. A well-preserved fossil plant found in a quarry “Le Brouillard” (8 km from Angers), has allowed a detailed morphological and structural study of this species. A

Martine Berthelin; Denise Pons



Sexualidad, experiencias corporales y género: un estudio etnográfico entre personas viviendo con VIH en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the results of an ethnographic study on daily experience with HIV in Greater Metropoli- tan Buenos Aires, Argentina, the article discusses behavioral approaches that reduce the sexuality of persons living with HIV to an issue of safety and protection. By articulating a social construc- tion perspective and the notion of hegemony, the author proposes that sexuality can be

Mabel Grimberg




Microsoft Academic Search

During the last years, the development of the Systems of Information have revolted the methods of jobs realized until today, as in the private interprise as in the administration. Geo- graphic Information Systems (GIS), besides to be able to represent georrefered geographics dates, they are able to realice spatial analysis, which offer great possibilities in many apli- cations. This article

Javier Navarro Luna; Juan Sánchez del Río


La distinction entre actus exercitus et actus significatus dans les sophismes grammaticaux du MS BN lat. 16618 et autres textes apparentés  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Le manuscrit BN lat. 16618 comporte, des folios 40r à 114ra, un recueil de sophismes grammaticaux, inachevé et anonyme, que\\u000a l’on désignera, d’après son incipit: Sicut dicit Remigius. Il est précédé par une collection de sophismes logiques, qui a été décrite par Alain de Libera.1 Nous n’avons trouvé aucune mention nous permettant d’assigner aux sophismes grammaticaux une date ou un

Irène Rosier


Etude de la stabilité de l'attitude scolaire entre la troisième et la cinquième année du niveau élémentaire, chez des sujets masculins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study of attitude toward school was conducted among 30 elementary school boys. A projective test of attitudes toward school (ATS) and a teacher's questionnaire were employed for the test–retest. According to the ATS measure, there was a significant difference in the attitude toward school between Grades 3 and 5 although there was no significant difference according to the

Guy Thibaudeau



Tabagismo entre médicos da Região do ABC Paulista* Smoking among physicians in a specific region of the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of and describe the methods used to control the smoking habit among a geographically-specific population of physicians. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to physicians practicing in a region of the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo area known as the \\




Relación entre Condiciones de Suelo y Manejo de Huertas de Nogal Pecanero Carya illinoensis Koch con la Dinámica de la Pudrición Texana, causada por Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1998, 26 plots of three ha each were selected in commercial walnut orchards. The objective of the survey was to relate the dynamics of Phymatotrichum root rot with orchard management and soil condition. The management variables were: age of the trees, plantation distance, trees\\/ha, pest management, number of irrigations and incidence of diseased trees (in 1995); for

José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Teodoro Herrera-Pérez; Jesús Santamaría-César



Qualité de l’air intérieur dans les écoles et asthme et allergies parmi les écoliers en Auvergne. Différences entre le milieu rural et le milieu urbain  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe aim of this study was to (1) compare the prevalence of asthma and allergy between rural and urban schoolchildren and their exposure to indoor air pollution in classrooms and (2) estimate the associations between these two factors.

M. Hulin; I. Annesi-Maesano; D. Caillaud



L'espace du mouvement: Une analyse des conflits dans les interactions entre institutrice et eleves d'une ecole maternelle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Cet article décrit les résultats d'une recherche menée dans une école mater-nelle de São Paolo, Brésil et qui s'appuie sur la théorie élaborée par Henri Wallon. Elle avait pour objectif d'étudier comment les écoliers sont influencés dans leur développment par a) une exigence erronée de contention motrice pendant la classe et b) un aménagement de l'espace de la classe

Izabel Galvão; IZABEL GALV



Loquella barbarica (VI). Caníbals i caribs segons Colón entre el 4 de novembre de 1492 i el 4 de març de 1493  

Microsoft Academic Search

En aquest article, s’hi analitza com Colón, en el seu diari de navegació, a partir de l’entrada corresponent al 4 de novembre de 1492, inventa el nom de «caníbals», pressuposant un singular «caníbal», per aludir als menjadors de carn humana. El mot no es correspon exactament al de «caribes», habitants d’una, en aquell moment, imprecisa regió geogràfica. La vacil·lació lèxica,

Miquel Barceló



Interferência do Controle Glicêmico na Transição entre as Fases I e II da Lactogênese em Pacientes com Diabetes Melito Tipo 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interference of the Blood Glucose Control in the Transition Between phases I and II of lactogenesis in patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Lactogenesis is constituted by phases I and II. The transition between those phases is characterized by an increase of the lactose concentration in the co- lostrum. This study aimed to evaluate the interference of type 1 Diabetes

Banco de Leite



Comparación entre métodos convencionales, ChromAgar Candida ® y el método de la PCR para la identificación de especies de Candida en aislamientos clínicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the incidence of yeast species causing fungemia in susceptible immunocompromised patients in the last two decades and the low sensitivity of conventional blood culture has led to the need to develop alternative approaches for the early detection and identification of causative species. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of molecular testing by the

Deyanira Estrada-Barraza; Arturo Dávalos Martínez; Luis Flores-Padilla; Roberto Mendoza-De Elias; Luis Octavio Sánchez-Vargas



Relaciones entre actitud hacia el cambio y cultura organizacional: Estudio de caso en medianas y grandes empresas de confecciones de Ibagué  

Microsoft Academic Search

P a l a b r a s c l a v e : cambio organizacional, cultura organizacional, resistencia al cambio, empresas medianas y grandes, sector de confecciones. a b s t r a c t R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n a t t i

Gregorio Calderón Hernández




Microsoft Academic Search

En los últimos años los investigadores han mostrado un creciente interés en las relaciones interorganizativas verticales, principalmente en la Cadena de Suministro. La ausencia de trabajos previos de revisión bibliográfica sobre este tema, que permitan plantear las cuestiones clave a estudiar en Gestión de la Cadena de Suministro, nos ha llevado a realizar un análisis de contenido de la investigación

M. T. Martínez Fernández; T Vallet Bellmunt; R. Barreda Tarrazona



Análise Ecoepidemiológica da Incidência da Doença de Chagas em Abaetetuba, Barcarena e Bragança, no estado do Pará, entre 2000 e 2006, utilizando Geotecnologias Livres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main propose of this paper is to demonstrate the ecoepidemiological analysis of the spatial distribution of vectors of Chagas's Disease in the municipalities of Abaetetuba, Barcarena and Bragança, in the state of Pará. Taking into account that the incidence of this disease is linked to human activities such as deforestation, agriculture for subsistence, among others. To achieve this goal

Cláudia Souza; Douglas Gasparetto; Cleice T. N. Souza; Nelson F. L. Soffiatti


Mapeamento da cobertura natural e uso da terra como subsidio ao estudo da dinâmica e ocupação do Estado do Tocantins entre 1990 e 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Region large areas of savannas and forests have been changing in pasture and agriculture that modify the environment resulting in environmental and economic problems. The Tocantins state has climatics and physicals features common with Amazon and the Brazil Central Region and it is a transiction zone. On the purpose of study the dynamic of coverage and land

Marco Aurélio Barros


Différences de mode de vie entre les filles et les garçons de 8 à 14 ans : résultats de l’étude FLVS II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity increases in our society. Comprehension of nutritional behaviors is very important for prevention. This work describes 278 children from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé II study. (FLVS II). Food consumption, food preferences, activity during meals but also body weight perception, sleep, activity out of school was presented. Among children, there are a lot of differences between girls and boys.

V Deschamps; J.-M Borys



RGENDF: programa interface entre o codigo NJOY e codigos que utilizam secoes de choque multigrupo. (RGENDF: interface program between NJOY code and codes which use multigroup cross sections).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interface program, for reformatting multigroup cross section libraries generated by NJOY into ENDF/B-V format and Expanda, PFCOND and Compar input formats, is presented. (author). (Atomindex citation 22:069921)

E. S. Chalhoub J. Anaf




Microsoft Academic Search

The actual concept of a social skilled behavior should include the ability of the individual to obtain self-satisfaction and, at the same time, to develop and keep mutual beneficial and sustainable relationships. In the educational field, a growing worry of parents, school principals and teachers is identified related to the interpersonal development of their students in order to reduce conflicts,



Interference Between the Vaccinal Virus and the Common Rabies Virus (Interference Entre le Virus Vaccinal et le Virus Rabique des Rues).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interference between the vaccinal virus and the virus of rabies has been demonstrated using the rabbit. The method of inoculation for the vaccinal virus as well as for the rabies virus was the intradermal method and this method allowed the demonstratio...

J. Vieuchange M. A. Chabaud C. Vialat



Labeling disorder - the relationship between conduct problems and drug use in adolescents Transtorno do rótulo - a relação entre problemas de conduta e uso de drogas em adolescentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To verify how conduct disorder and conduct problems are associated with gender, age at onset of drug use and categories of drugs used. Method: A test of association was conducted between the presence of comorbidity and gender. Mean age of first use of each drug was compared to mean age of first arrest, of first robbery\\/theft, and of first

Rogerio Shigueo Morihisa; Lúcia Pereira Barroso; Sandra Scivoletto



Correlación entre la estructura de bandas y las propiedades físicas de óxidos cerámicos de estructura perovskita con metales de transición (I): Propiedades de conducción electrónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se revisa los principales modelos teóricos, que pretenden dar una explicación sobre las propiedades de con- ducción electrónica de óxidos cerámicos con estructura perovskita, que incluyen en la posición B metales de transición del primer período (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn), en conexión con su estructura de bandas y el carácter de sus electrones más externos, así como



Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.



Microsoft Academic Search

A atividade leiteira no Sudoeste do Paraná atravessa um processo de transformação. A Instrução Normativa 51, editada pelo Ministério da agricultura no ano de 2002, é uma recente alteração no setor leiteiro, a fim de garantir a qualidade do produto. O caso do município de Santa Izabel do Oeste, localizado no Sudoeste do Paraná, é um retrato desta mudança. As

Valdir Antonio Galante; Eloir Da Costa; Pessoa Fisica



Microrganismos do solo produtores de fosfatases em diferentes sistemas agrícolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Considerando-se que uma forma de prover fosfato disponível para as plantas é através da atividade mineralizadora microbiana do fósforo orgânico, avaliou-se a influência da planta (braquiária, guandu e sem planta), dos fertilizantes (superfosfato simples, fosfato de rocha e sem adubo) e da calagem (com e sem calcário) nas populações de microrganismos produtores de fosfatases ácida e alcalina. Do total

Ely Nahas



La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) como plaga y vectora de virus en fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) as pest and vector of plant viruses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Resumen. La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci es una de las plagas más ampliamente distribuidas en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo donde afecta más de 600 especies de plantas cultiva- das y silvestres. Los daños que causa se deben a diversos efectos del insecto en las plantas atacadas, como el debilitamiento de la planta por la extracción de nutrientes;




Financial Integration and Interest Rate Linkages in Industrial Countries, 1958-71 (Intégration financière et relations entre les taux d'intérêt des pays industriels, 1958-71) (Integración financiera y relaciones entre los tipos de interés en los países industriales, 1958-71)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on theoretical and policy issues posed by financial integration among industrial countries since the mid-1950s. The problems of measuring international financial integration and of estimating its trend over the years are also explored. The role of the Euro-dollar market, as a major financial intermediary that channels short-term funds between the money markets of the industrial countries, is

Victor Argy; Zoran Hodjera



Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults  

SciTech Connect

Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [Spanish] Lipolexis oregmae Gahan fue introducida en Florida por medio de un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de los citricos, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), sobre Citrus. Prioritario a la evaluacion de la distribucion, el rango de los hospederos y los efectos potenciales de L. oregmae sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque de control en la Florida, nosotros evaluamos el papel de otras especies de afidos y plantas hospederas potenciales sobre la produccion y ubicacion de las momias. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio, este parasitoide produjo el mayor numero de progenies sobre la especie de plaga enfocada, el afido pardo de los citricos sobre Citrus . Este parasitoide, no como la mayoria de los afidiidos (Hymenoptera), no produjo momias sobre cualquiera de las plantas hospederas probadas cuando fue criado sobre el afido negro de los citricos, ( T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe)) en toronja, el afido spirea (Aphis spiraecola Patch) en toronja y pittosporum, el afido del caupi (A. craccivora Koch) en toronja y caupi o el afido del melon (A. gossypii Glover) en toronja y pepino. Asi, el muestreo para momias de L. oregmae de estas especies de afidos hospederos y plantas hospederas tiene que incluir el mantenimiento de follaje en el laboratorio hasta que se produzcan las momias. Este parasitoide requiere una alta humedad relativa para producir los adultos por que ningun adulto emergio cuando las momias fueron mantenidas en capsulas de gelatina, pero una tasa alta de emergencia de adultos fue observada cuando se mantuvo las momias en platos con agar al 1.5%. Ademas de esto, nosotros comparamos el color de 6 especies de afidos hospederos, asi como el color de las momias producidos por L. oregmae cuando fue criado sobre ellos para determinar si se puede usar el color de las momias para la identificacion de L. oregmae . El color de las momias varia entre las especies de afidos hospederos y las plantas hospederas probadas, por lo que no es una herramienta util para la identificacion de L. oregmae o para la evaluacion de su efecto sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque del control. (author)

Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A. [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)



Eco-hydrology: Groundwater flow and site factors in plant ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Résumé En écologie végétale, le site est un concept central. Un site, c'est l'endroit où une espèce végétale ou une communauté de plantes se développe le site assure un ensemble de conditions dans lesquelles elles vivent. Dans un matériau homogène à l'origine, l'écoulement gravitaire d'une nappe influence les conditions du site par l'intermédiaire de la distribution spatiale des nutriments et d'autres composés chimiques associés. Les remontées d'eau peuvent tout spécialement produire et maintenir les conditions du site essentielles pour différentes espèces et communautés de plantes relativement rares. Les écologues ont porté une attention accrue à ces remontées d'eau, en sorte qu'une coopération avec les hydrologues en a résulté, avec l'émergence d'une discipline propre, l'éco-hydrologie, à la limite des deux domaines scientifiques et liée au concept de site. Aux Pays-Bas, une classification des types d'eau, basée sur l'histoire de l'eau souterraine à proximité de la surface, a été mise en oeuvre pour constituer une base nationale de données géographiques sur les remontées d'eau d'intérêt écologique. Des analyses des correspondances des données de cette base, portant sur l'existence de certaines espèces de plantes, montrent que dans les sols sableux pauvres du Pléistocène la remontée d'eau explique très bien la présence de certaines espèces et communautés, alors que, dans les plaines fluviales et les régions de polders à sols argileux riches, l'influence de la remontée d'eau est masquée par l'importance des caractéristiques des sols. En conclusion donc, certaines espèces de plantes peuvent être utilisées comme des indicateurs de la remontée d'eau dans des diagnostiques et des levés de terrain rapides, mais à condition de prendre en permanence des précautions sur les limites de l'approche. Resumen En ecología botánica un concepto de gran importancia es el de emplazamiento, definido como el lugar que proporciona unas condiciones de vida adecuadas que permiten el crecimiento de una especie o una comunidad botánica. En un material inicialmente homogéneo, el flujo subterráneo gravífico influencia las condiciones del emplazamiento variando la distribución espacial de los nutrientes y de otros agentes químicos relevantes. En especial, el flujo ascendente puede producir y mantener una serie de condiciones que son esenciales para algunas especies y comunidades de plantas relativamente raras. La especial atención hacia este fenómeno ha dado lugar a una cooperación entre ecologistas e hidrogeólogos y a la aparición de una nueva disciplina - eco-hidrología -, en la frontera de los dos campos científicos. En Holanda, se ha usado una clasificación sencilla de tipos de agua para crear una base de datos, a nivel nacional, de lugares donde la presencia de flujos ascendentes pueda ser de interés ecológico. El análisis de correspondencias entre esta base de datos y los tipos de plantas existentes muestra que en los suelos arenosos pobres del Pleistoceno los flujos ascendentes explican la presencia de algunas especies y comunidades de plantas. Por el contrario, en las llanuras fluviales y pólders, con suelos más arcillosos, la influencia de estos flujos es despreciable frente a la relativa a las propias características de los suelos. Se concluye que las especies botánicas se pueden usar como indicadores de la presencia de flujo ascendente sólo en campañas preliminares, pero que el método presenta grandes limitaciones para su extensión a casos generales.

Klijn, Frans; Witte, Jan-Philip M.


Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA 98-0217-2772, Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority Sergio Cuevas Bustamante Filtration Plant Frujillo Alto, Puerto Rico (Planta de Filtraccion Sergio Cuevas Bustamante Autoridad de Acueducto y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico Frujillo Alto, Puerto Rico.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 6, 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a confidential employee request for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) at the Sergio Cuevas Bustamante Filtration Plant of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authorit...

L. M. Ewers A. Lopez C. Rodriguez



FEEDING NON-PREFERENCE OF THE CORN LEAF APHID Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) TO CORN PLANTS ( Zea mays L.) TREATED WITH SILICON Não-preferência do pulgão-da-folha Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) para plantas de milho (Zea mays L.) tratadas com silício  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tactic for control to corn leaf Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) would be the use of resistant materials, but, for not being a key pest of the crop, there are not yet corn genotypes availables with those characteristics. So, it was aimed in this work to evaluate the effect of silicon on the aphid s development on corn plants. Preference

Jair Campos Moraes; Márcio Marcos Goussain; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Rosane Rodrigues Costa


Potencial forrageiro da caatinga, fenologia, métodos de avaliação da área foliar e o efeito do déficit hídrico sobre o crescimento de plantas (Forrageiro potential of caatinga, fenologia, methods of evaluation of the foliar area and the effect of the hídrico deficit on the growth of plants)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of caatinga presents great potential of fodder plant production constituting in the majority of the times the main source of animal feeding in the half-barren region in the Brazilian Northeast. The forage species of this vegetation present periodic oscillations of growth and budding, having, however, much doubt on the factors that affect this regularity. The growth of the

Maria do Socorro de Caldas Pinto; Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante; Maria Verônica Meira de Andrade



Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: the participation of the media in people lives, especially the young, is increasing in frequency and intensity but we have no knowledge about what type of information in eroticism and prevention of sexually transmitted disease (STD) is been transmitted to our adolescents. Objective: evaluate the real load of information about eroticism and prevention of STD\\/Aids. Methods: in an epidemiologic

Glauco R Mello; Gustavo Castro; Claudete Reggiani; Newton S Carvalho


Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

Paulu, Nancy


The Transitional Development of Entrepreneurship-Dialoque Between New Economic Activity, Work and Reedom\\/El Desarrollo de la Empresarialidad-Interacción entre nuevas actividades económicas, trabajo y libertad  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand for studying entrepreneurial behaviour also from a national perspective. This is especially important for new independent nations as well as for those restructuring their economies. I suggest that entrepreneurship is a phenomenon gaining importance in transitions, rather than developing evolutionarily as Schumpeter declared (Schumpeter 1996a). Such transitions have taken place twice in the development of




Estudo da evolução dinâmica fluvial dos rios do Amazonas com base em imagens de RADAR e satélite nos últimos 30 anos, balanço entre área de erosão e deposição e possíveis conseqüências para a ocupação humana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon region as resultant of geologic history and the climate, shelters a more extensive fluvial system and of bigger liquid mass of the Land. The analysis of products of remote sensing in the Amazônia is the technique that still persists as the main tool to assist in the execution of diverse scientific works. The agreement of the fluvial dynamics

Amaro Luiz Ferreira



Microsoft Academic Search

The Geo-School website belongs to the Geo-School project; both have been born from the idea that, in the Brazilian basic education, the geosciences contents offer a rich contribution for the formation of students pupils, although their insertion is too low in these school levels. The website takes advantage of digital didactic material generated on interdisciplinary topics as Earth dynamics, water



Conversado con su Medico: Consejos para Lograr una Buena Comunicacion Entre las Personas de la Tercera Edad y su Doctor (Talking With Your Doctor: A Guide for Older People).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How well you and your doctor talk to each other is one of the most important parts of getting good health care. A good patient-doctor relationship is a partnership. You and your doctor can work as a team, along with nurses, physician assistants, pharmacis...



Comparação entre os enfoques cognitivo, comportamental e cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento do transtorno de pânico Comparison between cognitive, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches in the treatment of panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the most studied psychotherapeutic modality in panic disorder (PD) and has demonstrated, in the most different experimental studies, to be sufficiently efficient when compared with control groups, psychopharmacological treatments and other forms of unstructured psychotherapies. Literature on the cognitivebehavioral treatment of PD contemplates comparisons between the most used techniques. Objectives: Revise the literature that compares the

Mar C


L'agro-Pastoralisme au Tchad Comme Strategie de Survie: Essai sur la Relation Entre l'Anthropologie et la Statistique (Agro-Pastoralism in Chad as a Strategy for Survival: An Essay on the Relationship between Anthropology and Statistics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anthropological study provides a nontechnical introduction to the ways in which pastoral societies operate. It gives development specialists an analytical framework for understanding how such societies influence human behavior and economic activity. T...

A. M. Bonfiglioli



Agro-Pastoralisme au Tchad Comme Strategie de Survie: Essai sur la Relation Entre l'Anthropologie et la Statistique (Agro-Pastoralism in Chad as a Strategy for Survival: An Essay on the Relationship between Anthropology and Statistics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is a wide-ranging multi-disciplinary study of the system within which Sahelian agropastoral groups in Chad live and work. It examines the key features of a traditional rural society, describing the Chadian agropastoral universe as a coherent who...

A. M. Bonfiglioli



Manifestacions i evolució de la rivalitat entre Gènova i la Corona d'Aragó a la Granada del segle XV, un reflex de les transformacions de la penetració mercantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among piratical incidents occurred between Genoese and Catalano-Aragonese people during the first half of the fifteenth century, we particularly notice those that took place in the Nasrid sultanate of Granada.Those incidents show an evolution in the authorities’s attitude and behaviour towards them. In Granada, all piratical attacks were committed by Genoese, as Nasrid officials tolerated Genoese abuses and did not

Roser Salicrú i Lluch



Aptidão Física, História Familiar e Ocorrência de Hipertensão Arterial, Osteoporose, Doenças Metabólicas e Cardíacas entre Mulheres Physical Fitness, Family History and Occurrence of Arterial Hypertension, Osteoporosis, Metabolic and Cardiac Diseases among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between physical activities \\/ genotypes and the development of diseases is not very clear. Objectives: To assess physical fitness in women and establish its association with personal \\/ family histories of chronic diseases. Methods: A sample of 133 women was assessed, between 21 and 81 years old (58±12), participating in the Preventive Health Program run in Presidente

Ismael Forte; Freitas Júnior; Robson Chacon Castoldi; Diego Grando Moreti; Miguel Luis Pereira; Mauro Leandro Cardoso; Jamile Sanches Codogno; Rômulo Araújo Fernandes; Denise Rodrigues Bueno; Jaime de Oliveira Gomes


Análisis de series temporales de nivel agregado sobre la asociación entre el consumo de alcohol y la mortalidad cardiovascular Aggregate level time series association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current epidemiological evidence suggests J- or U-shaped relationship between the level of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality (CVD) rate with an elevated risk for abstainers and heavy drinkers. The role of drinking pattern in the alcohol-cardiovascular mortality association is a very important issue today. It is known that occasional heavy drinking increases the risk of CVD in liner fashion. Considerable



Association between leprosy reactions after treatment and bacterial load evaluated using anti PGL-I serology and bacilloscopy Associação entre reação hansênica após alta e a carga bacilar avaliada utilizando sorologia anti PGL-I e baciloscopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leprosy (Hansen's disease, HD) reactions are immune-inflammatory phenomena that occur during the evolution of the disease. Given the current criteria for treatment of the disease, this event is often observed after the patient has been released from treatment (RFT) from multi-drug therapy (MDT). A case-control study was conducted comparing laboratory results of cases of leprosy reactions after RFT from multibacillary

Maria de Fátima de Medeiros Brito; Ricardo Arraes; Alencar Ximenes; Maria Eugênia Noviski Gallo; Samira Bührer-Sékula


An overview on safety issues of interactions between traditional herbal medicines and pharmaceutical medicines (Una apreciación global sobre la seguridad de las interacciones entre las medicinas herbarias tradicionales y los fármacos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity world-wide of using herbal medicinal materials (HMM) from ethnic traditional medicine such as the widely used Chinese materia medica (CMM) or other ethnic herbal medicines and related proprietary health products (PHP), functional food and prescription herbal medicines has raised concerns over their concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines (PHARMED) and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the

Kelvin CHAN



CONSIDERAÇÕES TÉCNICAS SOBRE A IMPORTÂNCIA DO ENSAIO DE IMPULSO DE TENSÃO NO PROCESSO PRODUTIVO DE BOBINAS DE MÚLTIPLAS ESPIRAS: Normas de ensaio, dimensionamento de isolação entre espiras e métodos preventivos de falhas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents technical considerations regarding the importance of the surge test for generators multiturn coils. The test is very useful to verify the correct dimensioning of the interturn insulation of coils concerning its ability to undergo transient overvoltages which they are subjected. This test prescribed by IEEE 522 and IEC60034 part 15, is the only means to check the

Fábio Salomão; Engenheiro Especialista; Mauro Ken; Iti UEMORI


Associação entre tempo de ruptura do ligamento cruzado anterior e freqüência de outras lesões articulares do joelho * Association between the time of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and the frequency of other knee joint lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture correlates with the frequency of associated lesions to other knee structures. Methods: A retrospective study from 46 patients, ages ranging from 16 to 43 years (44 male and two female patients) with ACL lesions was performed. All patients had arthroscopic confirmation of their lesions, which were recorded in



Relación entre hermanos y ajuste psicológico en adolescentes: los efectos de la calidad de la relación padres-hijos Relationship between siblings and psychological adjustment in adolescents: effects of the quality of parent-child relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of parent-child relationship quality (acceptance and differential treatment) over dimensions of the quality of sibling relationships (warmth and confl ict) and psychologi- cal adjustment in 69 adolescent sibling dyads. The effects of parent-child relationships were evaluated both at the individual and dyadic levels. In older siblings, the father-child relationship had a signifi - cant effect



Faible différenciation génétique, à partir d'amplification aléatoire d'ADN polymorphe (RAPD), entre les types de pin sylvestre ( Pinus sylvestris L.) d'altitude et de plaine dans les Alpes à climat continental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns show weak genetic differentiation between low- and high-elevation types of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in dry continental valleys in the Alps. Two types of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), found either in the lowland or in the subalpine zone, are morphologically distinguished in the central-Alpine Valais (Switzerland), a dry continental valley. The low-elevation

Nicolas Fournier; Andreas Rigling; Matthias Dobbertin; Felix Gugerli



Structures isomorphes MeX2O4-Evolution structurale entre 2 K et 300 K de l'antimonite FeSb2O4: Elasticité et ordre magnétique anisotropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron diffraction has been used to study the whole structural evolution of the antimony oxide FeSb2O4, from 2 to 300 K. The antiferromagnetic order has been investigated: at 2 K the magnetic moment is M = 3.8 ?B. An extrapolated Néel temperature TN = 45 +/- 6 K is observed. The function M(T) below TN is similar to that found in the isomorphous NiSb2O4. Magnetostrictive effects are observed. Above 70 K, the thermal expansion tensor is anisotropic with ?a << ?c. Using the anisotropic temperature factors Ba (Å2), Bc (Å2) at 2 and 300 K, anisotropic Debye temperatures are calculated. Then, using simple approximations, mean force constants Fa, Fc are calculated; they allow to evaluate the anisotropic compressibility coefficients ?a ~ 0.857 × 10-11Pa-1, ?c ~ 0.467 × 10-11Pa-1 the value of the Grüneisen constant is ? = 0.33.

Chater, R.; Gavarri, J. R.; Hewat, A.



Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006



Contrôle structural du partage de Rb entre fluide et micas potassiques dans les pegmatites du Brásil Structural control of the Rb distribution between K-micas and fluid in Brazil pegmatites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geochemical study of pegmatitic micas from Minas Gerais State in Brazil was performed with an electron microprobe, in order to examine the variations of Rb, K, Al and F contents. It is observed a linear decreasing relationship between the [Rb/K] ratio of the micas and their contents in Al VI. The interpretation is based on the hypothesis that the partition coefficient CRb/Kmica/fl between fluid and mineral does not vary significantly as a function of temperature and pressure in the narrow conditions of crystallization of pegmatites. It is suggested that the relation: CRb/Kmica/fl=0.55×(5-[Al VI]) is of crystallochemical order. Micas with low contents in Al take higher contents in Rb because the potassic sites where Rb enters are larger. This relation gives another way of calculating the values [Rb/K] of the fluids knowing Rb, K, Al and Si in the micas. This crystallochemistry also allows us to foresee a direct correlation between Rb and F in the pegmatitic micas. To cite this article: J. Quéméneur et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

Quéméneur, Joël; Volfinger, Marcel; Azevedo, Luciana



Composes isomorphes MeX2O4E2. I. Etude vibrationnelle de MnSb2O4 entre 4 et 300 K: champ de force et tenseur élastique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vibrational study of the tetragonal antimony oxides (Mn, Ni, Zn) Sb2O4E2 in which E is a lone pair has been carried out using Raman and infrared spectroscopy between 4 and 300 K. A force field calculation has been performed using previous results (J. P. Vigouroux et al., Spectrochimi. Acta A 38, 393, 1982) and a new structural evolution approach using models and results of X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments (R. Chater and J. R. Gavarri, J. Solid State Chem. 59, 123, 1985). This approach delivers mean force constants Fa, Fc, elastic constants Cij, and Grüneisen parameters. Using these results it has been possible to propose initial force constants which have been refined. For MnSb2O4 the following results are obtained: (1) In MnO6 octahedra, the six Mn-O bond force constants are about 60 N m-1. (2) In SbO3E tetrahedra, the three Sb-O force constants are about 200 N m-1 while O-Sb-O angle force constants are in the range 50-70 N m-1. (3) SbE . . . SbE interactions are evaluated in the three Mn, Zn, Ni isomorphous compounds: the interaction is strongly connected with the Sb-Sb distances found in these structures. It is shown that the force field calculation is in agreement with the results of the structural evolution approach: the values Fa = 49 N m-1, Fc = 70 N m-1 can be compared qualitatively with the various averaged force constants.

Chater, R.; Gavarri, J. R.; Genet, F.



Portrait des différences entre les genres dans le contexte de l'apprentissage de l'électricité en fonction de la certitude exprimée lors de la production de réponses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory research aims to describe changes in the “feeling-of-knowing” (FOK) experienced by high school students who are being introduced to the fundamental concepts of electricity through learning by discovery. The analysis focuses first on the initial state of boys and girls in terms of their prior experience and the perception they have of their abilities in science and technology,

Patrice Potvin; Martin Riopel; Patrick Charland; Julien Mercier



Demographic change and the supply of potential family supporters in Britain, Finland and France in the period 1911–2050\\/Changements démographiques et disponibilité des soutiens familiaux en Grande-Bretagne, en Finlande et en France entre 1911 et 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the contribution of changes in mortality and fertility to availability of living mothers and living children among older people in Britain, Finland and France. The proportion of people aged around 60 with a mother alive will more than double between those born in 1911 and 1970 before starting to decline slightly. Conversely, a higher proportion of elderly people

Michael Murphy; Pekka Martikainen; Sophie Pennec



Etudes sociales 30. Sujet B: Interactions entre nations. Unite d'enseignement--Guide. Edition finale = Social Studies 30. Subject B: Interactions between Nations. Teaching Unit--Guide. Final Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Alberta (Canada) teacher's guide, four history units are outlined. These are: (1) Between Two Wars (1919-36); (2) World War II; (3) The Emergence and Interaction of the Superpowers; and (4) Contemporary World Interactions. At the end of each unit, questions are provided for discussion and there is a final synthesis at the end of the…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.


Estudo comparativo entre bicicletas tradicionais e aerodinâmicas utilizando escalas de avaliação de níveis de desconforto corporal - EANDC. Study comparative among traditional and aerodynamic bicycles using scales of evaluation of levels of corporal discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an experiment for application of the Scales of Evaluation of Levels of Corporal Discomfort. It is aimed at to evaluate your efficiency in the rising of the discomfort levels in products. For such, the product bicycle was selected, because it was verified that the more popular national bicycles present a frame size only. The results showed that

Suzi Mariño Pequini; Ana Maria de Moraes; Jorge Boueri; Paolo Cinque Pequini



Diferencias en las características sociales, conductas de riesgo y prevalencia de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana e infecciones de transmisión sexual entre trabajadoras del sexo españolas e inmigrantes en Cataluña  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectiveTo describe and compare the social characteristics, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoae prevalences, and risk behaviours among immigrant female sex workers (FSW) according to their geographical area of origin.

Cinta Folch; Cristina Sanclemente; Anna Esteve; Elisa Martró; Sonia Molinos; Jordi Casabona