Science.gov

Sample records for distant branch points

  1. An Information Access Model at a Distant Branch Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Academic branch libraries located at a distance from the parent institution often face unique challenges in meeting users' needs for scholarly information. This is especially true for distant branch libraries that do not have a specialized function or collection, but who often face the challenge of meeting users' needs for scholarly materials…

  2. The use of antibodies to the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) to analyze the protein components that assemble on alternatively spliced pre-mRNAs that use distant branch points.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, J S; Meyer, M I; Wang, Y C; Mulligan, G J; Kobayashi, R; Helfman, D M

    1998-01-01

    We are using the rat beta-tropomyosin (beta-TM) gene as a model system to study the mechanism of alternative splicing. Previous studies demonstrated that the use of the muscle-specific exon is associated with the use of distant branch points located 147-153 nt upstream of the 3' splice site. In addition, at least one protein, the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), specifically interacts with critical cis-acting sequences upstream of exon 7 that are involved in blocking the use of this alternative exon in nonmuscle cells. In order to further study the role of PTB, monoclonal antibodies to PTB were prepared. Anti-PTB antibodies did not inhibit the binding of PTB to RNA because they were able to supershift RNA-PTB complexes. To determine if additional proteins interact with sequences within the pre-mRNA, 35S-met-labeled nuclear extracts from HeLa cells were mixed with RNAs and the RNA-protein complexes were recovered by immunoprecipitation using antibodies to PTB. When RNAs containing intron 6 were added to an 35S-met-labeled nuclear extract, precipitation with PTB antibodies showed a novel set of proteins. By contrast, addition of RNAs containing introns 5 or 7 gave the same results as no RNA, indicating that these RNAs are unable to form stable complexes with PTB. These results are in agreement with our previous studies demonstrating that PTB interacts with sequences within intron 6, but not with sequences within introns 5 and 7. When 35S-met-labeled HeLa nuclear extracts were mixed with biotinylated RNA containing intron 6 and the RNA-protein complexes were recovered using streptavidin-agarose beads, an identical pattern of proteins was observed when compared with the immunoprecipitation assay. Analysis of the proteins that assembled on introns 5, 6, or 7 using biotinylated RNA revealed a unique set of proteins that interact with each of these sequences. The composition of proteins interacting with sequences associated with the use of the 3' splice site of

  3. Detection of branching points in noisy processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Michael; Liebscher, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Processes in engineering mechanics often contain branching points at which the system can follow different physical paths. In this paper a method for the detection of these branching points is proposed for processes that are affected by noise. It is assumed that a bundle of process records are available from numerical simulations or from experiments, and branching points are concealed by the noise of the process. The bundle of process records is then evaluated at a series of discrete values of the independent process coordinates. At each discrete point of the process, the associated point set of process values is investigated with the aid of cluster analysis. The detected branching points are verified with a recursive algorithm. The revealed information about the branching points can be used to identify the physical and mechanical background for the branching. This helps to better understand a mechanical system and to design it optimal for a specific purpose. The proposed method is demonstrated by means of both a numerical example and a practical example of a crashworthiness investigation.

  4. Black Holes In Distant Galaxies Point To Wild Youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Like 'flower power' tattoos on aging ex-hippy baby boomers, unexpectedly large numbers of neutron stars and black holes in elliptical galaxies suggest some of these galaxies lived through a much wilder youth. The discovery by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory may require a revision of how elliptical galaxies evolved. "For the first time, Chandra has allowed us to distinguish hundreds of star-like sources that are black holes and neutron stars in distant elliptical galaxies," said Craig Sarazin of the University of Virginia who presented his team's findings on three elliptical galaxies, known as NGC 4697, NGC 4649, and NGC 1553, today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Albuquerque, NM. "The black holes and neutron stars we now see in these elliptical galaxies are reminders of their very active past." Black holes and neutron stars are the "stellar corpses" of the brightest, most massive and short-lived stars. The presence of numerous neutron stars and black holes shows that these galaxies once contained many very bright, massive stars. This is in marked contrast to the present populations of lower-mass, faint, old stars that now dominate elliptical galaxies. NGC 1553 Press Image and Caption The black holes and neutron stars found by Chandra in these galaxies appear to be members of binary star systems. The strong pull of gravity from the collapsed star pulls material off the normal star. This material emits large amounts of X-rays as it falls into the black hole or neutron star. The Chandra observations also show that most of the binary star systems that contain black holes are not scattered randomly among the stars in the elliptical galaxies. Instead, most of the X-ray binaries are located in "globular star clusters," round balls of stars, containing about one million stars in a region of the galaxy where typically only one would be found. The high fraction of black hole binaries found in globular star clusters suggests that the black holes captured a

  5. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (INDUSTRIAL MULTIMEDIA BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Points-of-Contact page for the Industrial Multimedia Branch (IMB) of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division lists the names, titles, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses for staff members of IMB.IMB's mission is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate timely and integrated in...

  6. Electrical Transport Through a Single Nanoscale SemiconductorBranch Point

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yi; Banin, Uri; Bjork, Mikael T.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-09

    Semiconductor tetrapods are three dimensional branched nanostructures, representing a new class of materials for electrical conduction. We employ the single electron transistor approach to investigate how charge carriers migrate through single nanoscale branch points of tetrapods. We find that carriers can delocalize across the branches or localize and hop between arms depending on their coupling strength. In addition, we demonstrate a new single-electron transistor operation scheme enabled by the multiple branched arms of a tetrapod: one arm can be used as a sensitive arm-gate to control the electrical transport through the whole system. Electrical transport through nanocrystals, molecules, nanowires and nanotubes display novel quantum phenomena. These can be studied using the single electron transistor approach to successively change the charge state by one, to reveal charging energies, electronic level spacings, and coupling between electronic, vibrational, and spin degrees of freedom. The advent of colloidal synthesis methods that produce branched nanostructures provides a new class of material which can act as conduits for electrical transport in hybrid organic-inorganic electrical devices such as light emitting diodes and solar cells. Already, the incorporation of branched nanostructures has yielded significant improvements in nanorod/polymer solar cells, where the specific pathways for charge migration can have a significant impact on device performance. Progress in this area requires an understanding of how electrons and holes migrate through individual branch points, for instance do charges delocalize across the branches or do they localize and hop between arms. Here we employ the single electron transistor approach to investigate the simplest three dimensional branched nanostructure, the semiconductor tetrapod, which consists of a pyramidal shaped zinc blende-structured ''core'' with four wurzite-structured arms projecting out at the tetrahedral angle

  7. Analysis of a method for precisely relating a seafloor point to a distant point on land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiess, F. N.; Lowenstein, C. D.; Mcintyre, M. O.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the environmental constraints and engineering aspects of the acoustic portion of a system for making geodetic ties between undersea reference points and others on land is described. Important areas in which to make such observations initially would be from the California mainland out to oceanic points seaward of the San Andreas fault, and across the Aleutian Trench. The overall approach would be to operate a GPS receiver in a relative positioning (interferometric) mode to provide the long range element of the baseline determination (10 to 1,000 km) and an array of precision sea floor acoustic transponders to link the locally moving sea surface GPS antenna location to a fixed sea floor point. Analyses of various environmental constrants (tides, waves, currents, sound velocity variations) lead to the conclusion that, if one uses a properly designed transponder having a remotely controllable precise retransmission time delay, and is careful with regard to methods for installing these on the sea floor, one should, in many ocean locations, be able to achieve sub-decimeter overall system accuracy. Achievements of cm accuracy or better will require additional understanding of time and space scales of variation of sound velocity structure in the ocean at relevant locations.

  8. Branching enzyme assay: selective quantitation of the alpha 1,6-linked glucosyl residues involved in the branching points.

    PubMed

    Krisman, C R; Tolmasky, D S; Raffo, S

    1985-06-01

    Methods previously described for glycogen or amylopectin branching enzymatic activity are insufficiently sensitive and not quantitative. A new, more sensitive, specific, and quantitative one was developed. It is based upon the quantitation of the glucose residues joined by alpha 1,6 bonds introduced by varying amounts of branching enzyme. The procedure involved the synthesis of a polysaccharide from Glc-1-P and phosphorylase in the presence of the sample to be tested. The branched polysaccharide was then purified and the glucoses involved in the branching points were quantitated after degradation with phosphorylase and debranching enzymes. This method appeared to be useful, not only in enzymatic activity determinations but also in the study of the structure of alpha-D-glucans when combined with those of total polysaccharide quantitation, such as iodine and phenol-sulfuric acid. PMID:3160257

  9. Galactosyltransferase 4 is a major control point for glycan branching in N-linked glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Andrew G.; Hayes, Jerrard M.; Bezak, Tania; Głuchowska, Sonia A.; Cosgrave, Eoin F. J.; Struwe, Weston B.; Stroop, Corné J. M.; Kok, Han; van de Laar, Teun; Rudd, Pauline M.; Tipton, Keith F.; Davey, Gavin P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification that produces a complex array of branched glycan structures. The levels of branching, or antennarity, give rise to differential biological activities for single glycoproteins. However, the precise mechanism controlling the glycan branching and glycosylation network is unknown. Here, we constructed quantitative mathematical models of N-linked glycosylation that predicted new control points for glycan branching. Galactosyltransferase, which acts on N-acetylglucosamine residues, was unexpectedly found to control metabolic flux through the glycosylation pathway and the level of final antennarity of nascent protein produced in the Golgi network. To further investigate the biological consequences of glycan branching in nascent proteins, we glycoengineered a series of mammalian cells overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). We identified a mechanism in which galactosyltransferase 4 isoform regulated N-glycan branching on the nascent protein, subsequently controlling biological activity in an in vivo model of hCG activity. We found that galactosyltransferase 4 is a major control point for glycan branching decisions taken in the Golgi of the cell, which might ultimately control the biological activity of nascent glycoprotein. PMID:25271059

  10. Kinesin-2 and Apc function at dendrite branch points to resolve microtubule collisions.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Alexis T; Lanz, Michael C; Goetschius, Daniel J; Hancock, William O; Rolls, Melissa M

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila neurons, kinesin-2, EB1 and Apc are required to maintain minus-end-out dendrite microtubule polarity, and we previously proposed they steer microtubules at branch points. Motor-mediated steering of microtubule plus ends could be accomplished in two ways: 1) by linking a growing microtubule tip to the side of an adjacent microtubule as it navigates the branch point (bundling), or 2) by directing a growing microtubule after a collision with a stable microtubule (collision resolution). Using live imaging to distinguish between these two mechanisms, we found that reduction of kinesin-2 did not alter the number of microtubules that grew along the edge of the branch points where stable microtubules are found. However, reduction of kinesin-2 or Apc did affect the number of microtubules that slowed down or depolymerized as they encountered the side of the branch opposite to the entry point. These results are consistent with kinesin-2 functioning with Apc to resolve collisions. However, they do not pinpoint stable microtubules as the collision partner as stable microtubules are typically very close to the membrane. To determine whether growing microtubules were steered along stable ones after a collision, we analyzed the behavior of growing microtubules at dendrite crossroads where stable microtubules run through the middle of the branch point. In control neurons, microtubules turned in the middle of the crossroads. However, when kinesin-2 was reduced some microtubules grew straight through the branch point and failed to turn. We propose that kinesin-2 functions to steer growing microtubules along stable ones following collisions. PMID:26785384

  11. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atmospheric Protection Branch's (APB's) Points-of-Contact page lists APB's research areas along with the name, phone number and e-mail address of the responsible person. APB is part of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC. The ...

  12. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

  13. On the existence of point spectrum for branching strips quantum graph

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, I. Yu. Skorynina, A. N.; Blinova, I. V.

    2014-03-15

    The quantum graph having the form of branching strips with hexagonal (honeycomb) structure is considered. The Hamiltonian is determined as free 1D Schrödinger operator on each edge and some “boundary” conditions at each vertex. We obtain the conditions ensuring the point spectrum's existence for the Schrödinger operator of the system and relations that give us the eigenvalues.

  14. Classification of vibrational resonances in the energy spectrum of the formaldehyde molecule and Katz's branch points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. D.; Duchko, A. N.

    2016-05-01

    The Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory of high orders and the algebraic Padé-Hermite approximants are used to determine the singular points of a vibrational energy function of the formaldehyde molecule dependent on a complex perturbation parameter as on the argument. It is shown that the Fermi, Darling-Dennison, and other higher-order vibrational resonances are related to Katz's points—common branch points on the complex plane of the energy of two vibrational states. Analysis of Katz's points that connect different vibrational states allows one to reveal essential resonance perturbations, to introduce an additional classification for them, and to determine the polyad structure of an energy spectrum.

  15. Impact of branch points in adaptive optics compensation of thermal blooming and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Mark F.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2011-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) can be used to mitigate turbulence; however, when a single deformable mirror is used for phaseonly compensation of thermal blooming, analysis predicts the possibility of instability. This instability is appropriately termed phase compensation instability (PCI) and arises with the time-dependent development of spatial perturbations found within the high-energy laser (HEL) beam. These spatial perturbations act as local hot spots that produce negativelens- like optical effects in the atmosphere. An AO system corrects for the hot spots by applying positive-lens-like phase compensations. In turn, this increases the strength of the thermal blooming and leads to a runaway condition, i.e., positive feedback, in the AO control loop. This study uses computational wave-optics simulations to model horizontal propagation with the effects of thermal blooming and turbulence for a focused Gaussian HEL beam. A point-source beacon and nominal AO system are used for phase compensation. Previous results show that a high number of branch points limit the development of PCI for phase compensation of only thermal blooming. For phase compensation of thermal blooming and turbulence, the number of branch points decreases and system performance is reduced. A series of computational wave-optics experiments are presented which explore the possibility for PCI.

  16. Patterned photostimulation with digital micromirror devices to investigate dendritic integration across branch points.

    PubMed

    Liang, Conrad W; Mohammadi, Michael; Santos, M Daniel; Santos, M Danial; Tang, Cha-Min

    2011-01-01

    Light is a versatile and precise means to control neuronal excitability. The recent introduction of light sensitive effectors such as channel-rhodopsin and caged neurotransmitters have led to interests in developing better means to control patterns of light in space and time that are useful for experimental neuroscience. One conventional strategy, employed in confocal and 2-photon microscopy, is to focus light to a diffraction limited spot and then scan that single spot sequentially over the region of interest. This approach becomes problematic if large areas have to be stimulated within a brief time window, a problem more applicable to photostimulation than for imaging. An alternate strategy is to project the complete spatial pattern on the target with the aid of a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD approach is appealing because the hardware components are relatively inexpensive and is supported by commercial interests. Because such a system is not available for upright microscopes, we will discuss the critical issues in the construction and operations of such a DMD system. Even though we will be primarily describing the construction of the system for UV photolysis, the modifications for building the much simpler visible light system for optogenetic experiments will also be provided. The UV photolysis system was used to carryout experiments to study a fundamental question in neuroscience, how are spatially distributed inputs integrated across distal dendritic branch points. The results suggest that integration can be non-linear across branch points and the supralinearity is largely mediated by NMDA receptors. PMID:21403635

  17. LSPV+7, a branch-point-tolerant reconstructor for strong turbulence adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Michael J; Hyde, Milo W; Schmidt, Jason D

    2014-06-20

    Optical wave propagation through long paths of extended turbulence presents unique challenges to adaptive optics (AO) systems. As scintillation and branch points develop in the beacon phase, challenges arise in accurately unwrapping the received wavefront and optimizing the reconstructed phase with respect to branch cut placement on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. Several applications are currently restricted by these capability limits: laser communication, laser weapons, remote sensing, and ground-based astronomy. This paper presents a set of temporally evolving AO simulations comparing traditional least-squares reconstruction techniques to a complex-exponential reconstructor and several other reconstructors derived from the postprocessing congruence operation. The reconstructors' behavior in closed-loop operation is compared and discussed, providing several insights into the fundamental strengths and limitations of each reconstructor type. This research utilizes a self-referencing interferometer (SRI) as the high-order wavefront sensor, driving a traditional linear control law in conjunction with a cooperative point source beacon. The SRI model includes practical optical considerations and frame-by-frame fiber coupling effects to allow for realistic noise modeling. The "LSPV+7" reconstructor is shown to offer the best performance in terms of Strehl ratio and correction stability-outperforming the traditional least-squares reconstructed system by an average of 120% in the studied scenarios. Utilizing a continuous facesheet deformable mirror, these reconstructors offer significant AO performance improvements in strong turbulence applications without the need for segmented deformable mirrors. PMID:24979411

  18. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Branch Point Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal*

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production. PMID:24770414

  19. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point {sup 59}Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; and others

    2014-06-15

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive {sup 59}Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as {sup 59}Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n{sub T}OF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the {sup 59}Ni(n, α){sup 56}Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  20. Measurements of conversion electrons in the s-process branching point nucleus 176Lu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, A.; Tan, W.; Avetisyan, R.; Casarella, C.; Gyurijinyan, A.; Manukyan, K. V.; Marley, S. T.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Aprahamian, A.

    2016-05-01

    Conversion coefficients, gamma-gamma and gamma-electron coincidences were measured in the s-process branching point nucleus 176Lu . Our goal was to determine the multipolarities of the γ -ray transitions that connect the high and low K states of 176Lu . This 176Lu nucleus has a long-lived ground state ( K=7- of 37.6Gy, a short-lived isomeric state ( K=0- at 122.8keV with half-life of 3.6h, as well as a 58μs isomer at 1588keV ( K=14+ . The excitation structure of this nucleus contains bands of intermediate spins of both positive and negative parities. The intermediate states can under certain stellar temperatures completely change the equilibrium between the isomer and ground state of 176Lu and change the abundance of this nucleus. We populated 37 previously known levels in this nucleus via the 176Yb ( p, n reaction and measured 42 conversion coefficients for γ -ray transitions including 17 of them for the first time.

  1. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of research conducted by the Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, can provide practical methods that architects, design engineers, builders, manufacturers, suppliers and the gen...

  2. Stellar neutron capture cross section of the unstable s-process branching point {sup 151}Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Krticka, M.; Raman, S.; Mengoni, A.; Gallino, R.

    2006-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of the radioactive isotope {sup 151}Sm and of natural samarium have been measured in the energy range from 3 keV to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} Barium Fluoride Detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using a 206 mg sample of samarium oxide with 90% enrichment in {sup 151}Sm. Over most of the measured energy range uncertainties of {approx}2-3% could be achieved for the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 197}Au ratio. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections of {sup 151}Sm were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 keV and 100 keV with due consideration of the stellar enhancement factor and were found to be systematically larger than all previous theoretical predictions used in the analysis of the s-process branching at {sup 151}Sm. In the context of the branching analysis, an experimental determination of the stellar enhancement factor due to captures in thermally excited states is proposed, and the tentative determination of the p-process residual of {sup 152}Gd and a few other cases is discussed.

  3. Distant diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Madera, Angelo; Castelli, Alberto

    2004-02-01

    Effective communications are essential for any operation and for management of health-related problems. Telemedicine has altered profoundly the manner in which primary care physicians can interact with hospitals and specialists. As dedicated medical ICT systems evolve, medical care will be delivered to patients in remote locations in a more efficient and cost-effective way. Companies invariably have a vision that healthcare decisions benefiting patient care should be made anytime and anywhere in a model that facilitates care at the point of need. The development of telemedicine programs is inevitable as business globalization expands to more challenging cultural and geographic areas. PMID:15043366

  4. Simulations demonstrate a simple network to be sufficient to control branch point selection, smooth muscle and vasculature formation during lung branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cellière, Géraldine; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-08-15

    Proper lung functioning requires not only a correct structure of the conducting airway tree, but also the simultaneous development of smooth muscles and vasculature. Lung branching morphogenesis is strongly stereotyped and involves the recursive use of only three modes of branching. We have previously shown that the experimentally described interactions between Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)10, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and Patched (Ptc) can give rise to a Turing mechanism that not only reproduces the experimentally observed wildtype branching pattern but also, in part counterintuitive, patterns in mutant mice. Here we show that, even though many proteins affect smooth muscle formation and the expression of Vegfa, an inducer of blood vessel formation, it is sufficient to add FGF9 to the FGF10/SHH/Ptc module to successfully predict simultaneously the emergence of smooth muscles in the clefts between growing lung buds, and Vegfa expression in the distal sub-epithelial mesenchyme. Our model reproduces the phenotype of both wildtype and relevant mutant mice, as well as the results of most culture conditions described in the literature. PMID:23213471

  5. Simulations demonstrate a simple network to be sufficient to control branch point selection, smooth muscle and vasculature formation during lung branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cellière, Géraldine; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Proper lung functioning requires not only a correct structure of the conducting airway tree, but also the simultaneous development of smooth muscles and vasculature. Lung branching morphogenesis is strongly stereotyped and involves the recursive use of only three modes of branching. We have previously shown that the experimentally described interactions between Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)10, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and Patched (Ptc) can give rise to a Turing mechanism that not only reproduces the experimentally observed wildtype branching pattern but also, in part counterintuitive, patterns in mutant mice. Here we show that, even though many proteins affect smooth muscle formation and the expression of Vegfa, an inducer of blood vessel formation, it is sufficient to add FGF9 to the FGF10/SHH/Ptc module to successfully predict simultaneously the emergence of smooth muscles in the clefts between growing lung buds, and Vegfa expression in the distal sub-epithelial mesenchyme. Our model reproduces the phenotype of both wildtype and relevant mutant mice, as well as the results of most culture conditions described in the literature. PMID:23213471

  6. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase interacts with dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 at Golgi outposts in neuronal dendritic branch points

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Ariful; Sharif, Syeda Ridita; Lee, HyunSook; Seog, Dae-Hyun; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglucosamine kinase (GlcNAc kinase or NAGK) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme in mammalian cells. Recent studies have shown that NAGK has an essential structural, non-enzymatic role in the upregulation of dendritogenesis. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screening to search for NAGK-binding proteins and found a specific interaction between NAGK and dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 (DYNLRB1). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) on hippocampal neurons using antibodies against NAGK and DYNLRB1 or dynein heavy chain showed some colocalization, which was increased by treating the live cells with a crosslinker. A proximity ligation assay (PLA) of NAGK-dynein followed by tubulin ICC showed the localization of PLA signals on microtubule fibers at dendritic branch points. NAGK-dynein PLA combined with Golgi ICC showed the colocalization of PLA signals with somal Golgi facing the apical dendrite and with Golgi outposts in dendritic branch points and distensions. NAGK-Golgi PLA followed by tubulin or DYNLRB1 ICC showed that PLA signals colocalize with DYNLRB1 at dendritic branch points and at somal Golgi, indicating a tripartite interaction between NAGK, dynein and Golgi. Finally, the ectopic introduction of a small peptide derived from the C-terminal amino acids 74–96 of DYNLRB1 resulted in the stunting of hippocampal neuron dendrites in culture. Our data indicate that the NAGK-dynein-Golgi tripartite interaction at dendritic branch points functions to regulate dendritic growth and/or branching. PMID:26272270

  7. An Old Yellow Enzyme Gene Controls the Branch Point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea Ergot Alkaloid Pathways▿

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Christine M.; Cheng, Johnathan Z.; O'Connor, Sarah E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Ergot fungi in the genus Claviceps and several related fungal groups in the family Clavicipitaceae produce toxic ergot alkaloids. These fungi produce a variety of ergot alkaloids, including clavines as well as lysergic acid derivatives. Ergot alkaloids are also produced by the distantly related, opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. However, this fungus produces festuclavine and fumigaclavines A, B, and C, which collectively differ from clavines of clavicipitaceous fungi in saturation of the last assembled of four rings in the ergoline ring structure. The two lineages are hypothesized to share early steps of the ergot alkaloid pathway before diverging at some point after the synthesis of the tricyclic intermediate chanoclavine-I. Disruption of easA, a gene predicted to encode a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme class, in A. fumigatus led to accumulation of chanoclavine-I and chanoclavine-I-aldehyde. Complementation of the A. fumigatus easA mutant with a wild-type allele from the same fungus restored the wild-type profile of ergot alkaloids. These data demonstrate that the product of A. fumigatus easA is required for incorporation of chanoclavine-I-aldehyde into more-complex ergot alkaloids, presumably by reducing the double bond conjugated to the aldehyde group, thus facilitating ring closure. Augmentation of the A. fumigatus easA mutant with a homologue of easA from Claviceps purpurea resulted in accumulation of ergot alkaloids typical of clavicipitaceous fungi (agroclavine, setoclavine, and its diastereoisomer isosetoclavine). These data indicate that functional differences in the easA-encoded old yellow enzymes of A. fumigatus and C. purpurea result in divergence of their respective ergot alkaloid pathways. PMID:20435769

  8. Violating conformal invariance: Two-dimensional clusters grafted to wedges, cones, and branch points of Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Nadler, Walter; Grassberger, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Lattice animals are one of the few critical models in statistical mechanics violating conformal invariance. We present here simulations of two-dimensional site animals on square and triangular lattices in nontrivial geometries. The simulations are done with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) algorithm, which gives very precise estimates of the partition sum, yielding precise values for the entropic exponent θ (ZN˜μNN-θ) . In particular, we studied animals grafted to the tips of wedges with a wide range of angles α , to the tips of cones (wedges with the sides glued together), and to branching points of Riemann surfaces. The latter can either have k sheets and no boundary, generalizing in this way cones to angles α>360° , or can have boundaries, generalizing wedges. We find conformal invariance behavior, θ˜1/α , only for small angles (α≪2π) , while θ≈const-α/2π for α≫2π . These scalings hold both for wedges and cones. A heuristic (nonconformal) argument for the behavior at large α is given, and comparison is made with critical percolation.

  9. Structural and Functional Insights into (S)-Ureidoglycolate Dehydrogenase, a Metabolic Branch Point Enzyme in Nitrogen Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Il; Shin, Inchul; Cho, Suhee; Lee, Jeehyun; Rhee, Sangkee

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism is one of essential processes in living organisms. The catabolic pathways of nitrogenous compounds play a pivotal role in the storage and recovery of nitrogen. In Escherichia coli, two different, interconnecting metabolic routes drive nitrogen utilization through purine degradation metabolites. The enzyme (S)-ureidoglycolate dehydrogenase (AllD), which is a member of l-sulfolactate dehydrogenase-like family, converts (S)-ureidoglycolate, a key intermediate in the purine degradation pathway, to oxalurate in an NAD(P)-dependent manner. Therefore, AllD is a metabolic branch-point enzyme for nitrogen metabolism in E. coli. Here, we report crystal structures of AllD in its apo form, in a binary complex with NADH cofactor, and in a ternary complex with NADH and glyoxylate, a possible spontaneous degradation product of oxalurate. Structural analyses revealed that NADH in an extended conformation is bound to an NADH-binding fold with three distinct domains that differ from those of the canonical NADH-binding fold. We also characterized ligand-induced structural changes, as well as the binding mode of glyoxylate, in the active site near the NADH nicotinamide ring. Based on structural and kinetic analyses, we concluded that AllD selectively utilizes NAD+ as a cofactor, and further propose that His116 acts as a general catalytic base and that a hydride transfer is possible on the B-face of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. Other residues conserved in the active sites of this novel l-sulfolactate dehydrogenase-like family also play essential roles in catalysis. PMID:23284870

  10. "Recognizing" Distant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Fred, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the matter of authenticating distant student identities, and discusses several strategies including: proctored exams; digital signatures; getting to know the online student; and databases and online forums that yield student background information. (AEF)

  11. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  12. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  13. Shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

    2004-02-01

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

  14. HUBBLE PINPOINTS DISTANT SUPERNOVAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field

  15. A native-like intermediate serves as a branching point between the folding and aggregation pathways of the mouse prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Ryo P.; Xu, Ming; Yamaguchi, Kei-ichi; Roder, Heinrich; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Transient folding intermediates and/or partially unfolded equilibrium states are thought to play a key role in the formation of protein aggregates. However, there is only indirect evidence linking accumulation of folding intermediates to aggregation, and the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we show that a partially unfolded state of the prion protein accumulates both as a stable equilibrium state at acidic pH (A-state) and as a late folding intermediate. With a time resolution of approximately 60 μs, we systematically studied the kinetics of folding and unfolding, starting from various initial conditions including the U-, N-, and A-states. Quantitative modeling showed that the observed kinetic data are completely consistent with a sequential four-state mechanism where the A-state is a late folding intermediate. Combined with previous evidence linking A-state accumulation to aggregation, the results indicate that this native-like state serves as a branching point between the folding and aggregation pathways. PMID:26256540

  16. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in non-stationary metabolic flux analysis: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Robert; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labeling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from non-stationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements. PMID:26082786

  17. Star formation in distant galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    Scenarios of galactic evolution, essentially based on our knowledge of nearby galaxies have been proposed. Star formation laws, initial mass function, metallicity are the main parameters. The author shortly reviews the present status of these parameters in distant galaxies and gives some deductive conclusions from a comparison with the most distant (z ≥ 3) galaxies.

  18. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  19. Wnt ligand/Frizzled 2 receptor signaling regulates tube shape and branch-point formation in the lung through control of epithelial cell shape

    PubMed Central

    Kadzik, Rachel S.; Cohen, Ethan David; Morley, Michael P.; Stewart, Kathleen M.; Lu, Min Min; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing the morphology of a simple epithelial tube to form a highly ramified branching network requires changes in cell behavior that lead to tissue-wide changes in organ shape. How epithelial cells in branched organs modulate their shape and behavior to promote bending and sculpting of the epithelial sheet is not well understood, and the mechanisms underlying this process remain obscure. We show that the Wnt receptor Frizzled 2 (Fzd2) is required for domain branch formation during the initial establishment of the respiratory tree. Live imaging and transcriptome analysis of lung-branching morphogenesis demonstrate that Fzd2 promotes changes in epithelial cell length and shape. These changes in cell morphology deform the developing epithelial tube to generate and maintain new domain branches. Fzd2 controls branch formation and the shape of the epithelial tube by regulating Rho signaling and by the localization of phospho-myosin light chain 2, in turn controlling the changes in the shape of epithelial cells during morphogenesis. This study demonstrates the importance of Wnt/Fzd2 signaling in promoting and maintaining changes in epithelial cell shape that affect development of a branching network. PMID:25114215

  20. Employing the metabolic “branch point effect” to generate an all-or-none, digital-like response in enzymatic outputs and enzyme-based sensors

    PubMed Central

    Perez Rafael, Sandra; Vallee-Belisle, Alexis; Fabregas, Esteve; Plaxco, Kevin; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Ricci, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a strategy to convert the graded Michaelis-Menten response typical of unregulated enzymes into a sharp, effectively all-or-none response. We do so using an approach analogous to the “branch point effect”, a mechanism observed in naturally occurring metabolic networks in which two or more enzymes compete for the same substrate. As a model system, we used the enzymatic reaction of Glucose Oxidase (GOx) and coupled it to a second, non-signaling reaction catalyzed by the higher affinity enzyme Hexokinase (HK) such that, at low substrate concentrations, the second enzyme outcompetes the first, turning off the latter’s response. Above an arbitrarily selected “threshold” substrate concentration, the non-signaling HK enzyme saturates leading to a “sudden” activation of the first signaling GOx enzyme and a far steeper dose-response curve than that observed for simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using the well-known GOx-based amperometric glucose sensor to validate our strategy, we have steepen the normally graded response of this enzymatic sensor into a discrete yes/no output similar to that of a multimeric cooperative enzyme with a Hill coefficient above 13. We have also shown that, by controlling the HK reaction we can precisely tune the threshold target concentration at which we observe the enzyme output. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this strategy for achieving effective noise attenuation in enzyme logic gates. In addition to supporting the development of biosensors with digital-like output, we envisage that the use of all-or-none enzymatic responses will also improve our ability to engineer efficient enzyme-based catalysis reactions in synthetic biology applications. PMID:22148353

  1. Observations of Distant Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan

    2004-01-01

    The is the proceedings and papers supported by the LTSA grant: Homer, D. J.\\& Donahue, M. 2003, in "The Emergence of Cosmic Structure": 13'h Astrophysics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 666,3 1 1-3 14, (AIP). Baumgartner, W. H., Loewenstein, M., Horner, D. J., Mushotzky, R. F. 2003, HEAD- AAS, 35.3503. Homer, D. J. , Donahue, M., Voit G. M. 2003, HEAD-AAS, 35.1309. Nowak, M. A., Smith, B., Donahue, M., Stocke, J. 2003, HEAD-AAS, 35.1316. Scott, D., Borys, C., Chapman, S. C., Donahue, M., Fahlman, G. G., Halpem, M. Newbury, P. 2002, AAS, 128.01. Jones, L. R. et al. 2002, A new era in cosmology, ASP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 283, p. 223 Donahue, M., Daly, R. A., Homer, D. J. 2003, ApJ, 584, 643, Constraints on the Cluster Environments and Hotspot magnetic field strengths for radio sources 3280 and 3254. Donahue, M., et al. 2003, ApJ, 598, 190. The mass, baryonic fraction, and x-ray temperature of the luminous, high-redshift cluster of galaxies MS045 1.6-0305 Perlman, E. S. et al. 2002, ApJS, 140, 256. Smith, B. J., Nowak, M., Donahue, M., Stocke, J. 2003, AJ, 126, 1763. Chandra Observations of the Interacting NGC44 10 Group of Galaxies. Postman, M., Lauer, T. R., Oegerle, W., Donahue, M. 2002, ApJ, 579, 93. The KPNO/deep-range cluster survey I. The catalog and space density of intermediate-redshift clusters. Molnar, S. M., Hughes, J. P., Donahue, M., Joy, M. 2002, ApJ, 573, L91, Chandra Observations of Unresolved X-Ray Sources around Two Clusters of Galaxies. Donahue, M., Mack, J., 2002 NewAR, 46, 155, HST NIcmos and WFPC2 observations of molecular hydrogen and dust around cooling flows. Koekemoer, A. M. et al. 2002 NewAR, 46, 149, Interactions between the A2597 central radio source and dense gas host galaxy. Donahue, M. et al. 2002 ApJ, 569,689, Distant cluster hunting II.

  2. Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    During the period of reionization that followed the dark ages of our universe, hydrogen was transformed from a neutral state, which is opaque to radiation, to an ionized one, which is transparent to radiation. But what generated the initial ionizing radiation? The recent discovery of multiple distant galaxies offers evidence for how this process occurred.Two Distant GalaxiesWe believe reionization occurred somewhere between a redshift of z = 6 and 7, because Ly-emitting galaxies drop out at roughly this redshift. Beyond this distance, were generally unable to see the light from these galaxies, because the universe is no longer transparent to their emission. This is not always the case, however: if a bubble of ionized gas exists around a distant galaxy, the radiation can escape, allowing us to see the galaxy.This is true of two recently-discovered Ly-emitting galaxies, confirmed to be at a redshift of z~7 and located near one another in a region known as the Bremer Deep Field. The fact that were able to see the radiation from these galaxies means that they are in an ionized HII region presumably one of the earlier regions to have become reionized in the universe.But on their own, neither of these galaxies is capable of generating an ionized bubble large enough for their light to escape. So what ionized the region around them, and what does this mean for our understanding of how reionization occurred in the universe?A Little Help From FriendsLocation in different filters of the objects in the Hubble Bremer Deep Field catalog. The z~7 selection region is outlined by the grey box. BDF-521 and BDF-3299 were the two originally discovered galaxies; the remaining red markers indicate the additional six galaxies discovered in the same region. [Castellano et al. 2016]A team of scientists led by Marco Castellano (Rome Observatory, INAF) investigated the possibility that there are other, faint galaxies near these two that have helped to ionize the region. Performing a survey

  3. The Cosmic Dance of Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    detail, since they had to select a single slit, i.e. a single direction, across the galaxy. Things changed with the availability of the multi-object GIRAFFE spectrograph [2], now installed on the 8.2-m Kueyen Unit Telescope of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In one mode, known as "3-D spectroscopy" or "integral field", this instrument can obtain simultaneous spectra of smaller areas of extended objects like galaxies or nebulae. For this, 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) , cf. ESO PR 01/02 , are used to make meticulous measurements of distant galaxies. Each IFU is a microscopic, state-of-the-art two-dimensional lens array with an aperture of 3 x 2 arcsec2 on the sky. It is like an insect's eye, with twenty micro-lenses coupled with optical fibres leading the light recorded at each point in the field to the entry slit of the spectrograph. ESO PR Photo 10c/06 ESO PR Photo 10c/06 Dark Matter and Stellar Mass in Distant Galaxies "GIRAFFE on ESO's VLT is the only instrument in the world that is able to analyze simultaneously the light coming from 15 galaxies covering a field of view almost as large as the full moon," said Mathieu Puech, lead author of one the papers presenting the results [3]. "Every galaxy observed in this mode is split into continuous smaller areas where spectra are obtained at the same time." The astronomers used GIRAFFE to measure the velocity fields of several tens of distant galaxies, leading to the surprising discovery that as much as 40% of distant galaxies were "out of balance" - their internal motions were very disturbed - a possible sign that they are still showing the aftermath of collisions between galaxies. When they limited themselves to only those galaxies that have apparently reached their equilibrium, the scientists found that the relation between the dark matter and the stellar content did not appear to have evolved during the last 6 billions years. Thanks to its

  4. Formation Flying in Earth, Libration, and Distant Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation examines the current and future state of formation flying, LEO formations, control strategies for flight in the vicinity of the libration points, and distant retrograde orbit formations. This discussion of LEO formations includes background on perturbation theory/accelerations and LEO formation flying. The discussion of strategies for formation flight in the vicinity of the libration points includes libration missions and natural and controlled libration orbit formations. A reference list is included.

  5. Branching mechanisms in surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Subas; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    The mechanisms of branch formation in surfactant micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in presence of sodium salicylate (NaSal) counter ions in water are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The curvature energy associated with the formation of micelle branches and the effect of branching on the solution viscosity are quantified. Highly curved surfaces are energetically stabilized by a higher density of binding counter ions near the branch points. Simulations show that micellar branches result in a significant reduction in the solution viscosity as observed in experiments [Dhakal & Sureshkumar, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024905 (2015)]. This reduction in viscosity has long been attributed to the sliding motion of micelle branches across the main chain. However, to date, such dynamics of micelle branches have never been visualized in either experiments or simulations. Here, we explicitly illustrate and quantify, for the first time, how branches slide along the micelle contour to facilitate stress relaxation. We acknowledged the computational resources provided by XSEDE which is supported by NSF Grant Number OCI-1053575 and the financial support by National Science Foundation under Grants 1049489 and 1049454.

  6. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. Results The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3′5′H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3′5′H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between

  7. A point mutation in an intronic branch site results in aberrant splicing of COL5A1 and in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II in two British families.

    PubMed

    Burrows, N P; Nicholls, A C; Richards, A J; Luccarini, C; Harrison, J B; Yates, J R; Pope, F M

    1998-08-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of connective-tissue disorders characterized by skin fragility, joint laxity, and skeletal deformities. Type V collagen appears to have a causal role in EDS types I and II, which show phenotypic overlap and may sometimes be allelic. Type V collagen can exist as a heterotrimer, [alpha1(V)]2alpha2(V), and it both coassembles with and regulates type I collagen-fibril diameter. Using an intragenic COL5A1 polymorphism, we have demonstrated linkage, at zero recombination, to the same allele in two large British EDS type II families (LOD scores 4.1 and 4.3). Affected members from each family were heterozygous for a point mutation in intron 32 (IVS32:T-25G), causing the 45-bp exon 33 to be lost from the mRNA in approximately 60% of transcripts from the mutant gene. This mutation lies only 2 bp upstream of a highly conserved adenosine in the consensus branch-site sequence, which is required for lariat formation. Although both families shared the same marker allele, we have been unable to identify a common genealogy. This is the first description of a mutation at the lariat branch site, which plays a pivotal role in the splicing mechanism, in a collagen gene. Very probably, the resulting in-frame exon skip has a dominant-negative effect due to incorporation of the mutant proalpha chain into the triple-helical molecule. These findings further confirm the importance of type V collagen in the causation of EDS type II, and the novel collagen mutation indicates the importance of the lariat branch site in splicing. PMID:9683580

  8. The Cosmic Dance of Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    detail, since they had to select a single slit, i.e. a single direction, across the galaxy. Things changed with the availability of the multi-object GIRAFFE spectrograph [2], now installed on the 8.2-m Kueyen Unit Telescope of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In one mode, known as "3-D spectroscopy" or "integral field", this instrument can obtain simultaneous spectra of smaller areas of extended objects like galaxies or nebulae. For this, 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) , cf. ESO PR 01/02 , are used to make meticulous measurements of distant galaxies. Each IFU is a microscopic, state-of-the-art two-dimensional lens array with an aperture of 3 x 2 arcsec2 on the sky. It is like an insect's eye, with twenty micro-lenses coupled with optical fibres leading the light recorded at each point in the field to the entry slit of the spectrograph. ESO PR Photo 10c/06 ESO PR Photo 10c/06 Dark Matter and Stellar Mass in Distant Galaxies "GIRAFFE on ESO's VLT is the only instrument in the world that is able to analyze simultaneously the light coming from 15 galaxies covering a field of view almost as large as the full moon," said Mathieu Puech, lead author of one the papers presenting the results [3]. "Every galaxy observed in this mode is split into continuous smaller areas where spectra are obtained at the same time." The astronomers used GIRAFFE to measure the velocity fields of several tens of distant galaxies, leading to the surprising discovery that as much as 40% of distant galaxies were "out of balance" - their internal motions were very disturbed - a possible sign that they are still showing the aftermath of collisions between galaxies. When they limited themselves to only those galaxies that have apparently reached their equilibrium, the scientists found that the relation between the dark matter and the stellar content did not appear to have evolved during the last 6 billions years. Thanks to its

  9. Distant Massive Clusters and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan

    1999-01-01

    We present a status report of our X-ray study and analysis of a complete sample of distant (z=0.5-0.8), X-ray luminous clusters of galaxies. We have obtained ASCA and ROSAT observations of the five brightest Extended Medium Sensitivity (EMSS) clusters with z > 0.5. We have constructed an observed temperature function for these clusters, and measured iron abundances for all of these clusters. We have developed an analytic expression for the behavior of the mass-temperature relation in a low-density universe. We use this mass-temperature relation together with a Press-Schechter-based model to derive the expected temperature function for different values of Omega-M. We combine this analysis with the observed temperature functions at redshifts from 0 - 0.8 to derive maximum likelihood estimates for the value of Omega-M. We report preliminary results of this analysis.

  10. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Cunningham, V.

    2015-12-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions contains ˜2000 H ii region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic H ii region mid-infrared morphology of WISE 12 μ {{m}} emission surrounding 22 μ {{m}} emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope hydrogen radio recombination line and radio continuum detections in the X-band (9 GHz; 3 cm) of 302 WISE H ii region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone 225^\\circ ≥slant {\\ell }≥slant -20^\\circ , | {\\text{}}b| ≤slant 6^\\circ . Here we extend the sky coverage of our H ii region Discovery Survey, which now contains nearly 800 H ii regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, 5 have ({\\ell },{\\text{}}b,v) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to the Galactic warp, these nebulae are found at Galactic latitudes >1° in the first Galactic quadrant, and therefore were missed in previous surveys of the Galactic plane. One additional region has a longitude and velocity consistent with the OSC but lies at a negative Galactic latitude (G039.183-01.422 -54.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1). With Heliocentric distances >22 kpc and Galactocentric distances >16 kpc, the OSC H ii regions are the most distant known in the Galaxy. We detect an additional three H ii regions near {\\ell }≃ 150^\\circ whose LSR velocities place them at Galactocentric radii >19 kpc. If their distances are correct, these nebulae may represent the limit to Galactic massive star formation.

  11. Underwater branch connection study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report was prepared with the object of developing guidelines for designing underwater connections of branch pipelines to main lines at existing tap valves and with hot taps in diver accessible water depths. The report considers ANSI Classes 600 and 900 branch pipelines of up to twelve inches in diameter that conform to API Specification 5L minimum. Loads due to gravity, buoyancy, intemal and external pressure, thermal expansion, hydrodynamics and random events are considered. External corrosion, temperature, cover, bottom conditions, stability, testing, commissioning, trenching, and pigging are also addressed. A general discussion of these issues is included in the body of the report. Methods of analysis are included in the appendices and in various references. Lotus 123'' spreadsheets that compute the expansion stresses resulting from pressure and temperature at points on a generic piping geometry are presented. A program diskette is included with the report. The report summarizes, and draws from, the results of a survey of the relevant practice and experience of fifteen gas pipeline operating companies. The survey indicates that most existing branch connections do not provide for pigging of the lateral lines, but that there is a growing consensus that cleaning and inspection pigging of lateral lines is desirable or necessary.

  12. Distant retrograde orbits for the Moon's exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Vladislav

    We discuss the properties of the distant retrograde orbits (which are called quasi-satellite orbits also) around Moon. For the first time the distant retrograde orbits were described by J.Jackson in studies on restricted three body problem at the beginning of 20th century [1]. In the synodic (rotating) reference frame distant retrograde orbit looks like an ellipse whose center is slowly drifting in the vicinity of minor primary body while in the inertial reference frame the third body is orbiting the major primary body. Although being away the Hill sphere the third body permanently stays close enough to the minor primary. Due to this reason the distant retrograde orbits are called “quasi-satellite” orbits (QS-orbits) too. Several asteroids in solar system are in a QS-orbit with respect to one of the planet. As an example we can mention the asteroid 2002VE68 which circumnavigates Venus [2]. Attention of specialists in space flight mechanics was attracted to QS-orbits after the publications of NASA technical reports devoted to periodic moon orbits [3,4]. Moving in QS-orbit the SC remains permanently (or at least for long enough time) in the vicinity of small celestial body even in the case when the Hill sphere lies beneath the surface of the body. The properties of the QS-orbit can be studied using the averaging of the motion equations [5,6,7]. From the theoretical point of view it is a specific case of 1:1 mean motion resonance. The integrals of the averaged equations become the parameters defining the secular evolution of the QS-orbit. If the trajectory is robust enough to small perturbations in the simplified problem (i.e., restricted three body problem) it may correspond to long-term stability of the real-world orbit. Our investigations demonstrate that under the proper choice of the initial conditions the QS-orbits don’t escape from Moon or don’t impact Moon for long enough time. These orbits can be recommended as a convenient technique for the large

  13. Identity disturbance in distant patients.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Irwin

    2013-04-01

    Chronically distant, emotionally isolated patients often present with identity disturbance. Identity, it is argued, develops as a thematic pattern of narcissism, shaped by the nature of the mother's early libidinal influences on the child's sense of self. Identity provides a form of self-definition that addresses the question, Who am I? In the treatment of these patients, resistances to narcissistic vulnerabilities (narcissistic resistances) provide an illusory sense of security and induce the analyst to avoid attention to a central pathological problem: primitive and frightening needs for, and unconscious fantasies of, dependence on, and functionality for, another. Patients' avoidance of material and therapeutic interactions that deal with their dependencies are aspects of a tacit contract with the analyst to foreclose examination of their considerable problems with inner stability. Among these problems are anxieties regarding intrusion and loss of separateness. As analysis proceeds, elements of such a patient's identity become clarified and are used to understand and organize the material for both analyst and patient. This can allow the patient to articulate a more embodied and vital experience of individuality. A case is presented to illustrate the analysis of a patient using this approach. PMID:23526544

  14. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length.

  15. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length. PMID:26040560

  16. Cosmic Ray Transport in the Distant Heliosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florinski, V.; Adams, James H.; Washimi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The character of energetic particle transport in the distant heliosheath and especially in the vicinity of the heliopause could be quite distinct from the other regions of the heliosphere. The magnetic field structure is dominated by a tightly wrapped oscillating heliospheric current sheet which is transported to higher latitudes by the nonradial heliosheath flows. Both Voyagers have, or are expected to enter a region dominated by the sectored field formed during the preceding solar maximum. As the plasma flow slows down on approach to the heliopause, the distance between the folds of the current sheet decreases to the point where it becomes comparable to the cyclotron radius of an energetic ion, such as a galactic cosmic ray. Then, a charged particle can effectively drift across a stack of magnetic sectors with a speed comparable with the particle s velocity. Cosmic rays should also be able to efficiently diffuse across the mean magnetic field if the distance between sector boundaries varies. The region of the heliopause could thus be much more permeable to cosmic rays than was previously thought. This new transport proposed mechanism could explain the very high intensities (approaching the model interstellar values) of galactic cosmic rays measured by Voyager 1 during 2010-2011.

  17. Cold Gas in Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, observations of the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies via molecular and atomic fine structure line (FSL) emission have gone from a curious look into a few extreme, rare objects to a mainstream tool for studying galaxy formation out to the highest redshifts. Molecular gas has been observed in about 200 galaxies at z > 1 to z ~ 7, including AGN host-galaxies, highly star-forming submillimeter galaxies, and increasing samples of main-sequence color-selected star-forming galaxies. Studies have moved well beyond simple detections to dynamical imaging at kpc resolution and multiline, multispecies studies that determine the physical conditions in the ISM in early galaxies. Observations of the cool gas are the required complement to studies of the stellar density and star-formation history of the Universe as they reveal the phase of the ISM that immediately precedes star formation in galaxies.Current observations suggest that the order of magnitude increase in the cosmic star-formation rate density from z ~ 0 to 2 is commensurate with a similar increase in the gas-to-stellar mass ratio in star-forming disk galaxies. Progress has been made in determining the CO luminosity to H2 mass conversion factor at high z. The dichotomy between high versus low values for the conversion factor for main-sequence versus starburst galaxies, respectively, appears to persist with increasing redshift, with a likely dependence on metalicity and other local physical conditions. There may also be two sequences in the relationship between star-formation rate and gas mass: one for starbursts, in which the gas consumption timescale is short (~ few e7 years), and one for main sequence galaxies, with an order of magnitude longer gas consumption timescale.With the advent of ALMA, studies of atomic FSL emission are rapidly progressing, with ~ 50 galaxies detected in the exceptionally bright [CII] 158 um line to date, 50% in the last year or so. The [CII] line is

  18. Parallel Interior Point Solver - Simple Branch & Bound

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-02-04

    The purpose of this software package is to solve large-scale block-angular mixed-integer (linear) programs specified in SMPS format; the major application of this software package is to solving large-scale stochastic mixed-integer programs, which are block-angular.

  19. Using Distant Sources in Local Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, Bruce; Foulgr, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    Seismic tomography methods such as the 'ACH' method of Aki, Christoffersson & Husebye (1976, 1977) are subject to significant bias caused by the unknown wave-speed structure outside the study volume, whose effects are mathematically of the same order as the local-structure effects being studied. Computational experiments using whole-mantle wave-speed models show that the effects are also of comparable numerical magnitude (Masson & Trampert, 1997). Failure to correct for these effects will significantly corrupt computed local structures. This bias can be greatly reduced by solving for additional parameters defining the shapes, orientations, and arrival times of the incident wavefronts. The procedure is exactly analogous to solving for hypocentral locations in local-earthquake tomography. For planar incident wavefronts, each event adds three free parameters and the forward problem is surprisingly simple: The first-order change in the theoretical arrival time at observation point B resulting from perturbations in the incident-wave time t0 and slowness vector s is δtB ≡ δt0 + δs · rA = δtA, the change in the time of the plane wave at the point A where the un-perturbed ray enters the study volume (Julian and Foulger, submitted). This consequence of Fermat's principle apparently has not previously been recognized. In addition to eliminating the biasing effect of structure outside the study volume, this formalism enables us to combine data from local and distant events in studies of local structure, significantly improving resolution of deeper structure, particularly in places such as volcanic and geothermal areas where seismicity is confined to shallow depths. Many published models that were derived using ACH and similar methods probably contain significant artifacts and are in need of re-evaluation.

  20. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  1. DISTANT CLUSTER OF GALAXIES [left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the deepest images to date of the universe, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), reveals thousands of faint galaxies at the detection limit of present day telescopes. Peering across a large volume of the observable cosmos, Hubble resolves thousands of galaxies from five to twelve billion light-years away. The light from these remote objects has taken billions of years to cross the expanding universe, making these distant galaxies fossil evidence' of events that happened when the universe was one-third its present age. A fraction of the galaxies in this image belong to a cluster located nine billion light-years away. Though the field of view (at the cluster's distance) is only two million light-years across, it contains a multitude of fragmentary objects. (By comparison, the two million light-years between our Milky Way galaxy and its nearest large companion galaxy, in the constellation Andromeda, is essentially empty space!) Very few of the cluster's members are recognizable as normal spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way), although some elongated members might be edge-on disks. Among this zoo of odd galaxies are ``tadpole-like'' objects, disturbed and apparently merging systems dubbed 'train-wrecks,' and a multitude of faint, tiny shards and fragments, dwarf galaxies or possibly an unknown population of objects. However, the cluster also contains red galaxies that resemble mature examples of today's elliptical galaxies. Their red color comes from older stars that must have formed shortly after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2. The picture was taken in intervals between May 11 and June 15, 1994 and required an 18-hour long exposure, over 32 orbits of HST, to reveal objects down to 29th magnitude. [bottom right] A close up view of the peculiar radio galaxy 3C324 used to locate the cluster. The galaxy is nine billion light-years away as measured by its spectral redshift (z=1.2), and located in the

  2. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand. PMID:24502184

  3. Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

  4. Einstein Ring in Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, Rémi Cabanac and his European colleagues have discovered an amazing cosmic mirage, known to scientists as an Einstein Ring. This cosmic mirage, dubbed FOR J0332-3557, is seen towards the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), and is remarkable on at least two counts. First, it is a bright, almost complete Einstein ring. Second, it is the farthest ever found. ESO PR Photo 20a/05 ESO PR Photo 20a/05 Deep Image of a Region in Fornax (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 276k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1859 x 2015 pix - 3.8M] ESO PR Photo 20b/05 ESO PR Photo 20b/05 Zoom-in on the Newly Found Einstein Ring (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 575 pix - 168k] [Normal - JPEG: 630 x 906 pix - 880k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 20a/05 is a composite image taken in two bands (B and R) with VLT/FORS1 of a small portion of the sky (field-of-view 7x7' or 1/15th of the area of the full moon). The faintest object seen in the image has a magnitude 26, that is, it is 100 million times fainter than what can be observed with the unaided eye. The bright elliptical galaxy on the lower-left quadrant is a dwarf galaxy part of a large nearby cluster in the Fornax constellation. As for all deep images of the sky, this field shows a variety of objects, the brightest ponctual sources being stars from our Galaxy. By far the field is dominated by thousands of faint background galaxies the colours of which are related to the age of their dominant stellar population, their dust content and their distance. The newly found Einstein ring is visible in the top right part of the image. ESO PR Photo 20b/05 zooms-in on the position of the newly found cosmic mirage. ESO PR Photo 20c/05 ESO PR Photo 20c/05 Einstein Ring in Distant Universe (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 584 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1168 pix - 292k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1502 x 2192 pix - 684k] Caption of ESO PR Photo 20c/05: The left image is magnified and centred

  5. Treatment of distant metastases from follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastases from thyroid cancer of follicular origin are uncommon. Treatment includes levothyroxine administration at suppressive doses, focal treatment modalities with surgery, external radiation therapy and thermal ablation, and radioiodine in patients with uptake of (131)I in their metastases. Two thirds of distant metastases will become refractory to radioiodine at some point, and when there is a significant tumor burden and documented progression on imaging, a treatment with a kinase inhibitor may provide benefits. PMID:25750740

  6. Treatment of distant metastases from follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leboulleux, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastases from thyroid cancer of follicular origin are uncommon. Treatment includes levothyroxine administration at suppressive doses, focal treatment modalities with surgery, external radiation therapy and thermal ablation, and radioiodine in patients with uptake of 131I in their metastases. Two thirds of distant metastases will become refractory to radioiodine at some point, and when there is a significant tumor burden and documented progression on imaging, a treatment with a kinase inhibitor may provide benefits. PMID:25750740

  7. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  8. Characterizing Branched Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Branched flow appears in a variety of physical systems spanning length scales from microns to thousands of kilometers. For instance, it plays an important role in both electron transport in two dimensional electron gases and the propagation of tsunamis in the ocean. Branches have typically been identified with caustics in the theoretical literature, but concentrations of flux recognizable as branches can arise from other mechanisms. We propose a generalized definition of branching based on a local measure of the stability of trajectories. We analytically and numerically study the characteristics of Hamiltonian flow in phase space and characterize the relationship between branch formation and trajectory stability.

  9. DISTANT GALAXY IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE IN HUBBLE FIELD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Series of four panels that illustrate the distant-galaxy identification technique. Four panels that show (top to bottom, or right to left when rotated correctly) F814W filter, F606W filter, F450W filter, and F300W filter images, or near-infrared through near-ultraviolet images. The identified galaxy is prominent in the near-infrared image but totally absent in any of the other images. It is this spectroscopic signature that identifies this galaxy as a very distant object. Credit: Ken Lanzetta and Amos Yahil (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  10. Single Molecule Dynamics of Branched DNA Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Sing, Charles; Schroeder, Charles

    This work focuses on extending the field of single polymer dynamics to topologically complex polymers. Here, we report the direct observation of DNA-based branched polymers. Recently, we recently demonstrated a two-step synthesis method to generate star, H-shaped, and comb polymers for single molecule visualization. Following synthesis, we use single-color or dual-color single molecule fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize branched polymer dynamics in flow, in particular tracking side branches and backbones independently. In this way, our imaging method allows for characterization of molecular properties, including quantification of polymer contour length and branch distributions. Moving beyond characterization, we use molecular rheology and single molecule techniques to study the dynamics of single branched polymers in flow. Here, we utilize precision microfluidics to directly observe branched DNA polymer conformations during transient stretching, steady-state extension, and relaxation from high stretch. We specifically measure backbone end-to-end distance as a function of time. Experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations show that branched polymer relaxation is a strong function of the number of branches and position of branch points along the main chain backbone.

  11. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  12. Heralded Quantum Entanglement between Distant Matter Qubits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize heralded quantum entanglement between two distant matter qubits using two Λ atom systems. Our proposal does not need any photon interference. We also present a general theory of outcome state of non-monochromatic incident light and finite interaction time. PMID:26041259

  13. Library Support for UNL Distant Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    Distance education strategies offer the potential to overcome barriers of time and distance. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries have been providing an array of services to distant learners enrolled in UNL graduate degree programs. This paper reviews the services that the UNL Libraries have developed, describes current objectives, and…

  14. Defining a Distant Environment for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Gertrude; Ellis, Timothy

    This paper describes some of the issues involved in refining Internet-based, asynchronous conference forums to meet the learning needs of adult students in distant inservice and graduate courses. The paper focuses on an analysis of existing instruction delivery systems and explores identification of optimal environments for inservice professional…

  15. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  16. Strategies for distant speech recognitionin reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcroix, Marc; Yoshioka, Takuya; Ogawa, Atsunori; Kubo, Yotaro; Fujimoto, Masakiyo; Ito, Nobutaka; Kinoshita, Keisuke; Espi, Miquel; Araki, Shoko; Hori, Takaaki; Nakatani, Tomohiro

    2015-12-01

    Reverberation and noise are known to severely affect the automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance of speech recorded by distant microphones. Therefore, we must deal with reverberation if we are to realize high-performance hands-free speech recognition. In this paper, we review a recognition system that we developed at our laboratory to deal with reverberant speech. The system consists of a speech enhancement (SE) front-end that employs long-term linear prediction-based dereverberation followed by noise reduction. We combine our SE front-end with an ASR back-end that uses neural networks for acoustic and language modeling. The proposed system achieved top scores on the ASR task of the REVERB challenge. This paper describes the different technologies used in our system and presents detailed experimental results that justify our implementation choices and may provide hints for designing distant ASR systems.

  17. Quantitative Spectroscopy of Distant Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Guy, J.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C. J.; Neill, James D.

    2007-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of 24 high-z (zmed = 0.81) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) spectra observed at the Gemini Telescopes for the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) is presented. This analysis includes equivalent width measurements of SNe Ia-specific absorption features with methods tailored to the reduced signal-to-noise and host galaxy contamination present in these distant spectra. The results from this analysis are compared to corresponding measurements of a large set of low-z SNe Ia from the literature. This comparison showed no significant difference (less than 2σ) between the spectroscopic features of the distant and nearby SNe; a result that supports the assumption that SNe Ia are not evolving with redshift. Additionally, a new correlation between SiII absorption (observed near peak luminosity) and SNe Ia peak magnitudes is presented.

  18. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  19. Beyond Sedna: Probing the Distant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.

    This thesis presents studies in observational planetary astronomy probing the structure of the Kuiper belt and beyond. The discovery of Sedna on a highly eccentric orbit beyond Neptune challenges our understanding of the solar system and suggests the presence of a population of icy bodies residing past the Kuiper belt. With a perihelion of 76 AU, Sedna is well beyond the reach of the gas-giants and could not be scattered onto its highly eccentric orbit from interactions with Neptune alone. Sedna's aphelion at ˜1000 AU is too far from the edge of the solar system to feel the perturbing effects of passing stars or galactic tides in the present-day solar neighborhood. Sedna must have been emplaced in its orbit at an earlier time when massive unknown bodies were present in or near the solar system. The orbits of distant Sedna-like bodies are dynamically frozen and serve as the relics of their formation process. We have performed two surveys to search for additional members of the Sedna population. In order to find the largest and brightest Sedna-like bodies we have searched ˜12,000 deg² within +/-30 degrees of the ecliptic to a limiting R magnitude of 21.3 using the QUEST camera on the 1.2m Samuel Oschin Telescope. To search for the fainter, more common members of this distant class of solar system bodies, we have performed an deep survey using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2m Subaru telescope covering 43 deg² to a limiting R magnitude of 25.3. Searching over a two-night baseline, we were sensitive to motions out to distances of approximately 1000 AU. We present the results of these surveys. We discuss the implications for a distant Sedna-like population beyond the Kuiper belt and discuss future prospects for detecting and studying these distant bodies, focusing in particular on the constraints we can place on the embedded stellar cluster environment the early Sun may have been born in, where the location and distribution of Sedna-like orbits sculpted by

  20. The fates of Solar system analogues with one additional distant planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    The potential existence of a distant planet ("Planet Nine") in the Solar system has prompted a re-think about the evolution of planetary systems. As the Sun transitions from a main sequence star into a white dwarf, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are currently assumed to survive in expanded but otherwise unchanged orbits. However, a sufficiently-distant and sufficiently-massive extra planet would alter this quiescent end scenario through the combined effects of Solar giant branch mass loss and Galactic tides. Here, I estimate bounds for the mass and orbit of a distant extra planet that would incite future instability in systems with a Sun-like star and giant planets with masses and orbits equivalent to those of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. I find that this boundary is diffuse and strongly dependent on each of the distant planet's orbital parameters. Nevertheless, I claim that instability occurs more often than not when the planet is as massive as Jupiter and harbours a semimajor axis exceeding about 300 au, or has a mass of a super-Earth and a semimajor axis exceeding about 3000 au. These results hold for orbital pericentres ranging from 100 to at least 400 au. This instability scenario might represent a common occurrence, as potentially evidenced by the ubiquity of metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres throughout the Galaxy.

  1. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  2. Discovery of Most Distant Object in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    On 14 November, 2003, Michael Brown, associate professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, was running a few minutes late for a class he teaches. He had planned to tell the students that there is nothing in the solar system beyond the Kuiper Belt, which he said has a strong outer edge at about 49 AU. Instead, he cryptically told the students, ``I am not sure this is true anymore.'' That morning, he and several other members of his research team had discovered an orb no more than 1,700 km in diameter that currently is about 13 billion km-or, about 90 AU-from the Sun. The planetoid, which the researchers have dubbed ``Sedna'' for the Inuit goddess of the ocean, is believed to be the most distant known object in our solar system from the Sun. Sedna's solar period is 10,500 years, and its most distant point from the Sun is 130 billion km.

  3. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  4. IMAGE OF A DISTANT GALAXY CANDIDATE IN THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Small portion of the Hubble Deep Field image -- the deepest view of the universe taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Arrow points to a very faint galaxy that appears to be more distant than any known previously. Other galaxies in the image are at smaller distances. Credit: Ken Lanzetta and Amos Yahil (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  5. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  6. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  7. Search for clustering of background objects near distant radio galaxies using the MST method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshelava, T. V.; Verkhodanov, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    The minimal spanning tree (MST) method was used to explore the statistical properties of field objects near distant radio galaxies (0.3 ≤ z ≤ 1.2) on SDSS images. The average diagrams of MST branch lengths were found to differ statistically for field objects near radio galaxies with z < 0.7 and z > 0.7, although zones of the subsample considered show no signs of clustering down to the SDSS limiting magnitude at a significance level greater than 5σ.

  8. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie; Reid, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption. PMID:27571098

  9. WARM DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS AND DISTANT COMPANION STARS: V488 PER AND 2M1337

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.

    2015-01-10

    A possible connection between the presence of large quantities of warm (T ≥ 200 K) circumstellar dust at youthful stars and the existence of wide-separation companion stars has been noted in the literature. Here we point out the existence of a distant companion star to V488 Per, a K-type member of the α Persei cluster with the largest known fractional excess infrared luminosity (∼16%) of any main sequence star. We also report the presence of a distant companion to the previously recognized warm dust star 2M1337. With these discoveries the existence of a cause and effect relationship between a distant companion and large quantities of warm dust in orbit around youthful stars now seems compelling.

  10. Cosmic Lens Reveals Distant Galactic Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    By cleverly unraveling the workings of a natural cosmic lens, astronomers have gained a rare glimpse of the violent assembly of a young galaxy in the early Universe. Their new picture suggests that the galaxy has collided with another, feeding a supermassive black hole and triggering a tremendous burst of star formation. Gravitational Lens Diagram Imaging a Distant Galaxy Using a Gravitational Lens CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for details and more graphics. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to look at a galaxy more than 12 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was when the Universe was only about 15 percent of its current age. Between this galaxy and Earth lies another distant galaxy, so perfectly aligned along the line of sight that its gravity bends the light and radio waves from the farther object into a circle, or "Einstein Ring." This gravitational lens made it possible for the scientists to learn details of the young, distant galaxy that would have been unobtainable otherwise. "Nature provided us with a magnifying glass to peer into the workings of a nascent galaxy, providing an exciting look at the violent, messy process of building galaxies in the early history of the Universe," said Dominik Riechers, who led this project at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany and now is a Hubble Fellow at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The new picture of the distant galaxy, dubbed PSS J2322+1944, shows a massive reservoir of gas, 16,000 light-years in diameter, that contains the raw material for building new stars. A supermassive black hole is voraciously eating material, and new stars are being born at the rate of nearly 700 Suns per year. By comparison, our Milky Way Galaxy produces the equivalent of about 3-4 Suns per year. The black hole appears to be near the edge, rather than at the center, of the giant gas reservoir, indicating, the astronomers say

  11. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  12. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  13. Branch classification: A new mechanism for improving branch predictor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.Y.; Hao, E.; Patt, Y.; Yeh, T.Y.

    1996-04-01

    There is wide agreement that one of the most significant impediments to the performance of current and future pipelined superscalar processors is the presence of conditional branches in the instruction stream. Speculative execution is one solution to the branch problem, but speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative execution requires a very accurate branch predictor; 95% accuracy is not good enough. This paper proposes branch classification, a methodology for building more accurate branch predictors. Branch classification allows an individual branch instruction to be associated with the branch predictor best suited to predict its direction. Using this approach, a hybrid branch predictor can be constructed such that each component branch predictor predicts those branches for which it is best suited. To demonstrate the usefulness of branch classification, an example classification scheme is given and a new hybrid predictor is built based on this scheme which achieves a higher prediction accuracy than any branch predictor previously reported in the literature.

  14. Improved branch-cut method algorithm applied in phase unwrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiayuan; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Jianle; Li, Jinlong; Wang, Haiqing

    2015-12-01

    Phase unwrapping is a common problem in many phase measuring techniques. Glodstein's branch-cut algorithm is one of classic ways of phase unwrapping, but it need rectifying. First the paper introduces the characteristics of residual points and describes Glodstein's branch-cut algorithm in detail. Then the paper discusses the improvements on the algorithm by changing branch setting and adding pretreatment. Last the paper summarizes the new algorithm and gets the better result by using computer emulation mode and validation test.

  15. Invisible RNA state dynamically couples distant motifs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janghyun; Dethoff, Elizabeth A.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2014-01-01

    Using on- and off-resonance carbon and nitrogen R1ρ NMR relaxation dispersion in concert with mutagenesis and NMR chemical shift fingerprinting, we show that the transactivation response element RNA from the HIV-1 exists in dynamic equilibrium with a transient state that has a lifetime of ∼2 ms and population of ∼0.4%, which simultaneously remodels the structure of a bulge, stem, and apical loop. This is accomplished by a global change in strand register, in which bulge residues pair up with residues in the upper stem, causing a reshuffling of base pairs that propagates to the tip of apical loop, resulting in the creation of three noncanonical base pairs. Our results show that transient states can remodel distant RNA motifs and possibly give rise to mechanisms for rapid long-range communication in RNA that can be harnessed in processes such as cooperative folding and ribonucleoprotein assembly. PMID:24979799

  16. Distant magnetotails of the outer magnetic planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macek, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Lepping, R. P.; Sibeck, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The distant planetary magnetotails of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are assumed to be partially open, hot, long plasma cavities generally in pressure equilibrium with the solar wind. Most of the magnetosheath magnetic field lines drape around the magnetotails. Conservation of momentum density, magnetic field, plasma density, and energy density fluxes are invoked at the tail boundaries to determine the shape of the magnetotails and the variations of plasma and magnetic field characteristics with distance down the magnetotail. Voyager observations are used to initialize calculations in the near-planet portions of each magnetotail. Estimates of magnetotail cross sections, magnetic field strengths, and plasma densities are described as a function of downstream distance. The model accurately predicts properties of the Jovian magnetotail at least as far as Saturn's orbit.

  17. Distant Operational Care Centre: Design Project Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to outline the design of the Distant Operational Care Centre (DOCC), a modular medical facility to maintain human health and performance in space, that is adaptable to a range of remote human habitats. The purpose of this project is to outline a design, not to go into a complete technical specification of a medical facility for space. This project involves a process to produce a concise set of requirements, addressing the fundamental problems and issues regarding all aspects of a space medical facility for the future. The ideas presented here are at a high level, based on existing, researched, and hypothetical technologies. Given the long development times for space exploration, the outlined concepts from this project embodies a collection of identified problems, and corresponding proposed solutions and ideas, ready to contribute to future space exploration efforts. In order to provide a solid extrapolation and speculation in the context of the future of space medicine, the extent of this project's vision is roughly within the next two decades. The Distant Operational Care Centre (DOCC) is a modular medical facility for space. That is, its function is to maintain human health and performance in space environments, through prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Furthermore, the DOCC must be adaptable to meet the environmental requirements of different remote human habitats, and support a high quality of human performance. To meet a diverse range of remote human habitats, the DOCC concentrates on a core medical capability that can then be adapted. Adaptation would make use of the DOCC's functional modularity, providing the ability to replace, add, and modify core functions of the DOCC by updating hardware, operations, and procedures. Some of the challenges to be addressed by this project include what constitutes the core medical capability in terms of hardware, operations, and procedures, and how DOCC can be adapted to different remote

  18. Variable Stars in a Distant Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) view of the magnificent spiral galaxy NGC 4603, the most distant galaxy in which a special class of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables have been found. It is associated with the Centaurus cluster, one of the most massive assemblages of galaxies in the nearby universe. The Local Group of galaxies, of which the Milky Way is a member, is moving in the direction of Centaurus at a speed of more than a million miles an hour under the influence of the gravitational pull of the matter in that direction. Clusters of young bright blue stars highlight the galaxy's spiral arms. In contrast, red giant stars in the process of dying are also found. Only the very brightest stars in NGC 4603 can be seen individually, even with the unmatched ability of the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain detailed images of distant objects. Much of the diffuse glow comes from fainter stars that cannot be individually distinguished by Hubble. The reddish filaments are regions where clouds of dust obscure blue light from the stars behind them. This galaxy was observed by a team affiliated with the HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. Because NGC 4603 is much farther away than the other galaxies studied with Hubble by the Key Project team, 108 million light-years, its stars appear very faint from the Earth, and so accurately measuring their brightness, as is required for distinguishing the characteristic variations of Cepheids, is extremely difficult. Determining the distance to the galaxy required an unprecedented statistical analysis based on extensive computer simulations.

  19. Adsorption of annealed branched polymers on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Jef; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Zandi, Roya

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of annealed branched polymers near adsorbing surfaces plays a fundamental role in many biological and industrial processes. Most importantly single stranded RNA in solution tends to fold up and self-bind to form a highly branched structure. Using a mean field theory, we both perturbatively and numerically examine the adsorption of branched polymers on surfaces of several different geometries in a good solvent. Independent of the geometry of the wall, we observe that as branching density increases, surface tension decreases. However, we find a coupling between the branching density and curvature in that a further lowering of surface tension occurs when the wall curves towards the polymer, but the amount of lowering of surface tension decreases when the wall curves away from the polymer. We find that for branched polymers confined into spherical cavities, most of branch-points are located in the vicinity of the interior wall and the surface tension is minimized for a critical cavity radius. For branch polymers next to sinusoidal surfaces, we find that branch-points accumulate at the valleys while end-points on the peaks.

  20. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  1. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  2. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    45-50 (o) to orthotropic stolon axes, and later it decreased negatively gravitropically. The bending of lateral branches of gravitropic protonemata is carried out in two stages: the light induction makes cells metabolically active, but not sensitive to gravitation, while the wall of daughter cell grows perpendicularly to the axes of mother cell and only after that the branches growth direction acquires dependent on gravitation fixed space orientation. Protonemata on light was branched under the angle 45-50 (o) to the axes of the main stolon, that caused similar phenotype of protonemata turf in many moss species. The growth of lateral branches and the set-point angle from the point of view of growth as physical process, is, perhaps, balanced by the action of gravitation and light, and is controlled endogenously by autotropic growth.

  3. The International Branch Campus as Transnational Strategy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus is a phenomenon on the rise, but we still have limited knowledge of the strategic choices underlying the start of these ventures. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the motivations and decisions of universities to engage (or not) with the establishment of international branch campuses. As a point of…

  4. Possible Very Distant or Optically Dark Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was an XMM followup observation of the extended X-ray source detected in our ROSAT PSPC cluster survey. Approximately 95% of extended X-ray sources found in the ROSAT data were optically identified as clusters of galaxies. However, we failed to find any optical counterparts for C10952-0148. Two possibilities remained prior to the XMM observation: (1) This is was a very distant or optically dark cluster of galaxies, too faint in the optical, in which case XMM would easily detect extended X-ray emission and (2) this was a group of point-like sources, blurred to a single extended source in the ROSAT data, but easily resolvable by XMM due to a better energy resolution. The XMM data have settled the case --- C10952-0148 is a group of 7 relatively bright point sources located within 1 square arcmin. All but one source have no optical counterparts down to I=22. Potentially, this can be an interesting group of quasars at a high redshift. We are planning further optical and infrared followup of this system.

  5. Atomic branching in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Juan A.; Randić, Milan

    A graph theoretic measure of extended atomic branching is defined that accounts for the effects of all atoms in the molecule, giving higher weight to the nearest neighbors. It is based on the counting of all substructures in which an atom takes part in a molecule. We prove a theorem that permits the exact calculation of this measure based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the graph representing a molecule. The definition of this measure within the context of the Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) and its calculation for benzenoid hydrocarbons are also studied. We show that the extended atomic branching can be defined using any real symmetric matrix, as well as any Hermitian (self-adjoint) matrix, which permits its calculation in topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical contexts.

  6. The Most Distant X-Ray Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    In this program we have used ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite Mission) to observe X-ray emission around several high redshift radio galaxies in a search for extended, hot plasma which may indicate the presence of a rich galaxy cluster. When this program was begun, massive, X-ray emitting galaxy clusters were known to exist out to to z=0.8, but no more distant examples had been identified. However, we had identified several apparently rich clusters around 3CR radio galaxies at z greater than 0.8, and hoped to use ROSAT to confirm the nature of these structures as massive, virialized clusters. We have written up our results and submitted them as a paper to the Astrophysical Journal. This paper has been refereed and requires some significant revisions to accommodate the referees comments. We are in the process of doing this, adding some additional analysis as well. We will resubmit the paper early in 2000, and hopefully will meet with the referee's approval. We are including three copies of the submitted paper here, although it has not yet been accepted for publication.

  7. NEARBY GALAXIES IN MORE DISTANT CONTEXTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eskew, Michael; Zaritsky, Dennis E-mail: dzaritsky@as.arizona.edu

    2011-02-15

    We use published reconstructions of the star formation history (SFH) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud, and NGC 300 from the analysis of resolved stellar populations to investigate where such galaxies might land on well-known extragalactic diagnostic plots over the galaxies' lifetime (assuming that nothing other than their stellar populations change). For example, we find that the evolution of these galaxies implies a complex evolution in the Tully-Fisher relation with look-back time and that the observed scatter is consistent with excursions these galaxies take as their stellar populations evolve. We find that the growth of stellar mass is weighted to early times, despite the strongly star-forming current nature of the three systems. Lastly, we find that these galaxies can take circuitous paths across the color-magnitude diagram. For example, it is possible, within the constraints provided by the current determination of its SFH, that the LMC reached the red sequence at intermediate age prior to ending back up on the blue cloud at the current time. Unfortunately, this behavior happens at sufficiently early times that our resolved SFH is crude and insufficiently constraining to convincingly demonstrate that this was the actual evolutionary path. The limited sample size precludes any general conclusions, but we present these as examples how we can bridge the study of resolved populations and the more distant universe.

  8. The distant type Ia supernova rate

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R.S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S.E.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Irwin, M.J.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Knop, R.A.; Lee, J.C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.

    2002-05-20

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample,which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  9. The Distant Type Ia Supernova Rate

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N. A.

    2002-05-28

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  10. Branch migration enzyme as a Brownian ratchet

    PubMed Central

    Rasnik, Ivan; Jeong, Yong-Joo; McKinney, Sean A; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Patel, Smita S; Ha, Taekjip

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that helicases are able to perform functions beyond their traditional role in unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids; yet the mechanistic aspects of these different activities are not clear. Our kinetic studies of Holliday junction branch migration catalysed by a ring-shaped helicase, T7 gp4, show that heterology of as little as a single base stalls catalysed branch migration. Using single-molecule analysis, one can locate the stall position to within a few base pairs of the heterology. Our data indicate that the presence of helicase alone promotes junction unfolding, which accelerates spontaneous branch migration, and individual time traces reveal complex trajectories consistent with random excursions of the branch point. Our results suggest that instead of actively unwinding base pairs as previously thought, the helicase exploits the spontaneous random walk of the junction and acts as a Brownian ratchet, which walks along duplex DNA while facilitating and biasing branch migration in a specific direction. PMID:18511910

  11. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  12. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport. PMID:25806686

  13. Interpreting the Clustering of Distant Red Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Zheng, Zheng; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-08-03

    We analyze the angular clustering of z {approx} 2.3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) measured by Quadri et al. (2008). We find that, with robust estimates of the measurement errors and realistic halo occupation distribution modeling, the measured clustering can be well fit within standard halo occupation models, in contrast to previous results. However, in order to fit the strong break in w({theta}) at {theta} = 10{double_prime}, nearly all satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range are required to be DRGs. Within this luminosity-threshold sample, the fraction of galaxies that are DRGs is {approx} 44%, implying that the formation of DRGs is more efficient for satellite galaxies than for central galaxies. Despite the evolved stellar populations contained within DRGs at z = 2.3, 90% of satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range have been accreted within 500 Myr. Thus, satellite DRGs must have known they would become satellites well before the time of their accretion. This implies that the formation of DRGs correlates with large-scale environment at fixed halo mass, although the large-scale bias of DRGs can be well fit without such assumptions. Further data are required to resolve this issue. Using the observational estimate that {approx} 30% of DRGs have no ongoing star formation, we infer a timescale for star formation quenching for satellite galaxies of 450 Myr, although the uncertainty on this number is large. However, unless all non-star forming satellite DRGs were quenched before accretion, the quenching timescale is significantly shorter than z {approx} 0 estimates. Down to the completeness limit of the Quadri et al sample, we find that the halo masses of central DRGs are {approx} 50% higher than non-DRGs in the same luminosity range, but at the highest halo masses the central galaxies are DRGs only {approx} 2/3 of the time.

  14. Optical Spectroscopy of Distant Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Stijn; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbé, Ivo; Rudnick, Gregory

    2009-11-01

    We present optical spectroscopic follow-up of a sample of distant red galaxies (DRGs) with K tot s,Vega < 22.5, selected by (J - K)Vega>2.3, in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS), the MS 1054-03 field, and the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). Spectroscopic redshifts were obtained for 15 DRGs. Only two out of 15 DRGs are located at z < 2, suggesting a high efficiency to select high-redshift sources. From other spectroscopic surveys in the CDFS targeting intermediate to high-redshift populations selected with different criteria, we find spectroscopic redshifts for a further 30 DRGs. We use the sample of spectroscopically confirmed DRGs to establish the high quality (scatter in Δz/(1 + z) of ~0.05) of their photometric redshifts in the considered deep fields, as derived with EAZY. Combining the spectroscopic and photometric redshifts, we find that 74% of DRGs with K tot s,Vega < 22.5 lie at z>2. The combined spectroscopic and photometric sample is used to analyze the distinct intrinsic and observed properties of DRGs at z < 2 and z>2. In our photometric sample to K tot s,Vega < 22.5, low-redshift DRGs are brighter in Ks than high-redshift DRGs by 0.7 mag, and more extincted by 1.2 mag in AV . Our analysis shows that the DRG criterion selects galaxies with different properties at different redshifts. Such biases can be largely avoided by selecting galaxies based on their rest-frame properties, which requires very good multi-band photometry and high quality photometric redshifts.

  15. Interpreting the Clustering of Distant Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Zheng, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the angular clustering of z ~ 2.3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) measured by Quardi et al. We find that, with robust estimates of the measurement errors and realistic halo occupation distribution modeling, the measured clustering can be well fit within standard halo occupation models, in contrast to previous results. However, in order to fit the strong break in w(θ) at θ = 10'', nearly all satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range are required to be DRGs. Within this luminosity-threshold sample, the fraction of galaxies that are DRGs is ~44%, implying that the formation of DRGs is more efficient for satellite galaxies than for central galaxies. Despite the evolved stellar populations contained within DRGs at z = 2.3, 90% of satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range have been accreted within 500 Myr. Thus, satellite DRGs must have known they would become satellites well before the time of their accretion. This implies that the formation of DRGs correlates with large-scale environment at fixed halo mass, although the large-scale bias of DRGs can be well fit without such assumptions. Further data are required to resolve this issue. Using the observational estimate that ~30% of DRGs have no ongoing star formation, we infer a timescale for star formation quenching for satellite galaxies of 450 Myr, although the uncertainty on this number is large. However, unless all non-star-forming satellite DRGs were quenched before accretion, the quenching timescale is significantly shorter than z ~ 0 estimates. Down to the completeness limit of the Quadri et al. sample, we find that the halo masses of central DRGs are ~50% higher than non-DRGs in the same luminosity range, but at the highest halo masses the central galaxies are DRGs only ~2/3 of the time.

  16. Judging near and distant virtue and vice ☆

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Tal; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    We propose that people judge immoral acts as more offensive and moral acts as more virtuous when the acts are psychologically distant than near. This is because people construe more distant situations in terms of moral principles, rather than attenuating situation-specific considerations. Results of four studies support these predictions. Study 1 shows that more temporally distant transgressions (e.g., eating one's dead dog) are construed in terms of moral principles rather than contextual information. Studies 2 and 3 further show that morally offensive actions are judged more severely when imagined from a more distant temporal (Study 2) or social (Study 3) perspective. Finally, Study 4 shows that moral acts (e.g., adopting a disabled child) are judged more positively from temporal distance. The findings suggest that people more readily apply their moral principles to distant rather than proximal behaviors. PMID:19554217

  17. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  18. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆. PMID:24469750

  19. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  20. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  1. Distant Influence of Kuroshio Eddies on North Pacific Weather Patterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R.; Montuoro, Raffaele; Hsieh, Jen-Shan; Wu, Dexing; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin; Jing, Zhao

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution satellite measurements of surface winds and sea-surface temperature (SST) reveal strong coupling between meso-scale ocean eddies and near-surface atmospheric flow over eddy-rich oceanic regions, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream, highlighting the importance of meso-scale oceanic features in forcing the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here, we present high-resolution regional climate modeling results, supported by observational analyses, demonstrating that meso-scale SST variability, largely confined in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region (KOCR), can further exert a significant distant influence on winter rainfall variability along the U.S. Northern Pacific coast. The presence of meso-scale SST anomalies enhances the diabatic conversion of latent heat energy to transient eddy energy, intensifying winter cyclogenesis via moist baroclinic instability, which in turn leads to an equivalent barotropic downstream anticyclone anomaly with reduced rainfall. The finding points to the potential of improving forecasts of extratropical winter cyclones and storm systems and projections of their response to future climate change, which are known to have major social and economic impacts, by improving the representation of ocean eddy-atmosphere interaction in forecast and climate models.

  2. Distant Influence of Kuroshio Eddies on North Pacific Weather Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R.; Montuoro, Raffaele; Hsieh, Jen-Shan; Wu, Dexing; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin; Jing, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution satellite measurements of surface winds and sea-surface temperature (SST) reveal strong coupling between meso-scale ocean eddies and near-surface atmospheric flow over eddy-rich oceanic regions, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream, highlighting the importance of meso-scale oceanic features in forcing the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here, we present high-resolution regional climate modeling results, supported by observational analyses, demonstrating that meso-scale SST variability, largely confined in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region (KOCR), can further exert a significant distant influence on winter rainfall variability along the U.S. Northern Pacific coast. The presence of meso-scale SST anomalies enhances the diabatic conversion of latent heat energy to transient eddy energy, intensifying winter cyclogenesis via moist baroclinic instability, which in turn leads to an equivalent barotropic downstream anticyclone anomaly with reduced rainfall. The finding points to the potential of improving forecasts of extratropical winter cyclones and storm systems and projections of their response to future climate change, which are known to have major social and economic impacts, by improving the representation of ocean eddy–atmosphere interaction in forecast and climate models. PMID:26635077

  3. Distant Influence of Kuroshio Eddies on North Pacific Weather Patterns?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Montuoro, Raffaele; Hsieh, Jen-Shan; Wu, Dexing; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin; Jing, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution satellite measurements of surface winds and sea-surface temperature (SST) reveal strong coupling between meso-scale ocean eddies and near-surface atmospheric flow over eddy-rich oceanic regions, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream, highlighting the importance of meso-scale oceanic features in forcing the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here, we present high-resolution regional climate modeling results, supported by observational analyses, demonstrating that meso-scale SST variability, largely confined in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region (KOCR), can further exert a significant distant influence on winter rainfall variability along the U.S. Northern Pacific coast. The presence of meso-scale SST anomalies enhances the diabatic conversion of latent heat energy to transient eddy energy, intensifying winter cyclogenesis via moist baroclinic instability, which in turn leads to an equivalent barotropic downstream anticyclone anomaly with reduced rainfall. The finding points to the potential of improving forecasts of extratropical winter cyclones and storm systems and projections of their response to future climate change, which are known to have major social and economic impacts, by improving the representation of ocean eddy-atmosphere interaction in forecast and climate models. PMID:26635077

  4. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  5. PROPERTIES OF THE DISTANT KUIPER BELT: RESULTS FROM THE PALOMAR DISTANT SOLAR SYSTEM SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Brown, Michael E.; Rabinowitz, David L.; Ragozzine, Darin

    2010-09-10

    We present the results of a wide-field survey using the 1.2 m Samuel Oschin Telescope at Palomar Observatory. This survey was designed to find the most distant members of the Kuiper Belt and beyond. We searched {approx}12,000 deg{sup 2} down to a mean limiting magnitude of 21.3 in R. A total number of 52 Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs have been detected, 25 of which were discovered in this survey. Except for the redetection of Sedna, no additional Sedna-like bodies with perihelia greater than 45 AU were detected despite sensitivity out to distances of 1000 AU. We discuss the implications for a distant Sedna-like population beyond the Kuiper Belt, focusing on the constraints we can place on the embedded stellar cluster environment the early Sun may be have been born in, where the location and distribution of Sedna-like orbits sculpted by multiple stellar encounters is indicative of the birth cluster size. We also report our observed latitude distribution and implications for the size of the plutino population.

  6. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  7. The Light and Dark Sides of a Distant Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    The top graph consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. It tells astronomers that a distant planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, always has a giant hot spot on the side that faces the star, while the other side is cold and dark. The artist's concepts above the graph illustrate how the planet might look throughout its orbit if viewed up close with infrared eyes.

    Spitzer was able to determine the difference in temperature between the two sides of this planet by measuring the planet's infrared light, or heat, at five points during its 4.6-day-long trip around its star. The temperature rose and fell depending on which face, the sunlit or dark, was pointed toward Spitzer's cameras. Those temperature oscillations are traced by the wavy orange curve. They indicate that Upsilon Andromedae b has an extreme range of temperatures across its surface, about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). This means that hot gas moving across the bright side of the planet cools off by the time it reaches the dark side.

    The bottom graph and artist's concepts represent what astronomers might have seen if the planet had bands of different temperatures girdling it, like Jupiter. Some astronomers had speculated that 'hot-Jupiter' planets like Upsilon Andromedae b, which circle very closely around their stars, might resemble Jupiter in this way. If Upsilon Andromedae b had been like this, there would have been no difference between the average temperatures of the sunlit and dark sides to detect, and Spitzer's data would have appeared as a flat line.

  8. Detecting Changes of a Distant Gas Source with an Array of MOX Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of detecting changes in the activity of a distant gas source from the response of an array of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors deployed in an open sampling system. The main challenge is the turbulent nature of gas dispersion and the response dynamics of the sensors. We propose a change point detection approach and evaluate it on individual gas sensors in an experimental setup where a gas source changes in intensity, compound, or mixture ratio. We also introduce an efficient sensor selection algorithm and evaluate the change point detection approach with the selected sensor array subsets. PMID:23443385

  9. LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service

  10. Nonlinear Mechanics of Athermal Branched Biopolymer Networks.

    PubMed

    Rens, R; Vahabi, M; Licup, A J; MacKintosh, F C; Sharma, A

    2016-07-01

    Naturally occurring biopolymers such as collagen and actin form branched fibrous networks. The average connectivity in branched networks is generally below the isostatic threshold at which central force interactions marginally stabilize the network. In the submarginal regime, for connectivity below this threshold, such networks are unstable toward small deformations unless stabilized by additional interactions such as bending. Here we perform a numerical study on the elastic behavior of such networks. We show that the nonlinear mechanics of branched networks is qualitatively similar to that of filamentous networks with freely hinged cross-links. In agreement with a recent theoretical study,1 we find that branched networks also exhibit nonlinear mechanics consistent with athermal critical phenomena controlled by strain. We obtain the critical exponents capturing the nonlinear elastic behavior near the critical point by performing scaling analysis of the stiffening curves. We find that the exponents evolve with the connectivity in the network. We show that the nonlinear mechanics of disordered networks, independent of the detailed microstructure, can be characterized by a strain-driven second-order phase transition, and that the primary quantitative differences among different architectures are in the critical exponents describing the transition. PMID:26901575

  11. 1. Distant view, showing bridge in context with agricultural (pastures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view, showing bridge in context with agricultural (pastures and cornfields) setting; looking southeast. - Eureka Bridge, Spanning Yellow River (Moved to City Park, Castalia), Frankville, Winneshiek County, IA

  12. 113. Doughton Park Recreation Area. Distant view of road cut, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Doughton Park Recreation Area. Distant view of road cut, roadway, and stone railing at ice cliffs. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ALONG MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. WAY FROM 14TH STREET - St. Francis de Sales Church, 2100 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for unloading sugar cane in foreground, looking W. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  15. 1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF COUNCIL CHAMBERS, SHOP WITH PORTION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND TRACK FILL AREA IN RIGHT HAND CORNER - Hardin City Water Works, 101 East Fourth Street, Hardin, Big Horn County, MT

  16. 1. Distant view of lock and dam to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view of lock and dam to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. 2. Distant view of lock and dam to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Distant view of lock and dam to northwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. Revision of the genus Alkindus Distant (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thyreocoridae: Corimelaeninae).

    PubMed

    Matesco, Viviana Cauduro; Grazia, Jocelia

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical genus Alkindus Distant is revised based on morphological characters (general morphology, including the external scent efferent system and leg structures, and external genital morphology). The male of Alkindus crassicosta Horvath is here described for the first time. Illustrations, an adapted key to species, and a compiled list of plants associated with both species are provided. Distribution records are expanded to include Guatemala and Brazil (Roraima) for Alkindus atratus Distant and Brazil (Santa Catarina) for A. crassicosta. PMID:25113677

  19. Functionally conserved enhancers with divergent sequences in distant vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Song; Oksenberg, Nir; Takayama, Sachiko; Heo, Seok -Jin; Poliakov, Alexander; Ahituv, Nadav; Dubchak, Inna; Boffelli, Dario

    2015-10-30

    To examine the contributions of sequence and function conservation in the evolution of enhancers, we systematically identified enhancers whose sequences are not conserved among distant groups of vertebrate species, but have homologous function and are likely to be derived from a common ancestral sequence. In conclusion, our approach combined comparative genomics and epigenomics to identify potential enhancer sequences in the genomes of three groups of distantly related vertebrate species.

  20. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  1. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  2. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  3. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    ,000 million light-years) is observed on five dates with the SUSI camera at the 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT). The host galaxy is clearly visible and the supernova reaches its maximum brightness around 13 March 1997, after which it fades. In PR Photo 50b/98 of another supernova that was found at the same time, the image of the host galaxy is barely visible, most probably because it is a low surface brightness galaxy . Here, the redshift of the supernova is z = 0.40 (distance 6,000 million light-years) and the brightness peaks around 16 March 1997. Technical information: All images were obtained through an R (red) optical filtre. The image quality varies somewhat from image to image. Exposure times and seeing values: Photo 50a/98 - 11 March (300 sec; 0.73 arcsec); 13 March (600 sec; 0.79 arcsec); 16 March (600 sec; 0.72 arcsec); 29 March (1200 sec; 1.17 arcsec); 5 April (300 sec; 0.55 arcsec) and Photo 50b/98 - 11 March (300 sec; 0.50 arcsec); 13 March (600 sec; 0.81 arcsec); 16 March (600 sec; 0.90 arcsec); 29 March (1200 sec; 0.83 arcsec); 7 April (300 sec; 1.43 arcsec); 7 May (1800 sec; 1.22 arcsec). These explosions, known as Type Ia Supernovae , are distinguished by their very uniform properties, including their intrinsic brightness; this makes them ideal for the measurement of large distances, cf. ESO PR Photos 50a/98 and 50b/98 , as well as ESO Press Release 09/95. It is by means of observations of remote objects of this type that the all-important distances could be determined with sufficient accuracy. In particular, coordinated observing campaigns of Type Ia Supernovae were carried out at several of the world's major observatories. In this way it became possible to secure the crucial data that provide the basis of the new analysis. Distances to Type Ia Supernovae are larger than expected The new observations show that, compared to their nearby twins, distant supernovae appear too dim, even for a Universe which has been freely coasting (i.e. with no change of the

  4. SNLS: Empirical modeling of distant supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Lusset, V.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; SNLS Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    The SuperNova Legacy Survey provides us with a rich data set of supernovae multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.1--1. Thanks to the "rolling search" operation mode, most of them contain photometric points well before the peak luminosity. In addition, the far-UV rest-frame light curves can be modeled from g and r-band observations of high-z SNe. In this poster, we present an update of the Spectral Adaptive Lightcurve Template model (SALT) adjusted on the SNLS data set.

  5. Distant entry pneumothorax in a competitive fencer.

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, P A; Moriarity, J; Walsh, M; Bean, M; Cramer, J

    1996-01-01

    An elite level fencer sustained a penetrating wound to the upper arm after his opponent's blade broke. Standard care for a deep puncture wound was given but it was some time before the athlete presented symptoms of a pneumothorax, which was confirmed by radiograph. Although resolution of this case was unremarkable, the possibility of penetrating thoracic injury, even when the point of entry is well outside the thorax and the athlete is not immediately symptomatic, should be born in mind by medical personnel working with fencers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8889127

  6. Evidence for a Distant Giant Planet in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-02-01

    Recent analyses have shown that distant orbits within the scattered disk population of the Kuiper Belt exhibit an unexpected clustering in their respective arguments of perihelion. While several hypotheses have been put forward to explain this alignment, to date, a theoretical model that can successfully account for the observations remains elusive. In this work we show that the orbits of distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) cluster not only in argument of perihelion, but also in physical space. We demonstrate that the perihelion positions and orbital planes of the objects are tightly confined and that such a clustering has only a probability of 0.007% to be due to chance, thus requiring a dynamical origin. We find that the observed orbital alignment can be maintained by a distant eccentric planet with mass ≳10 m⊕ whose orbit lies in approximately the same plane as those of the distant KBOs, but whose perihelion is 180° away from the perihelia of the minor bodies. In addition to accounting for the observed orbital alignment, the existence of such a planet naturally explains the presence of high-perihelion Sedna-like objects, as well as the known collection of high semimajor axis objects with inclinations between 60° and 150° whose origin was previously unclear. Continued analysis of both distant and highly inclined outer solar system objects provides the opportunity for testing our hypothesis as well as further constraining the orbital elements and mass of the distant planet.

  7. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  8. Probing active electron transfer branch in photosystem I reaction center.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikhin, Sergei; Dashdorj, Naranbaatar; Xu, Wu; Martinsson, Peter; Chitnis, Parag

    2003-03-01

    Complimentary point mutations were introduced at the primary electron acceptor sites in A and B branches of the photosystem I (PS I) reaction center (RC) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and their effect on the kinetics of the electron transfer process was studied by means of ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The results indicate that in these species the electron transfer occurs primarily along the A-branch. Previous optical experiments on PS I complexes from Chlorella sorokiniana demonstrated that both branches of RC are equally active. That suggests that the directionality of electron transfer in PS I is species dependent.

  9. Morphometric studies of the muscular branch of the median nerve.

    PubMed

    Olave, E; Prates, J C; Gabrielli, C; Pardi, P

    1996-10-01

    The branch from the median nerve to the thenar muscles has a proximal and lateral (recurrent) course and is vulnerable to lesions that affect these muscles. Because of its anatomical-clinical importance, this branch was studied in 60 palmar regions from 30 cadavers of adult individuals of both sexes, aged between 23 and 77 y. It arose from the lateral branch of the median nerve in 83.3% of the cases. Its origin was distal to the flexor retinaculum in 48.3%, at the distal margin of the retinaculum in 31.6%, in the carpal tunnel in 18.3% and proximal to the retinaculum in 1.7%; it pierced the retinaculum in 15%. The point of recurrence of the branch was localised topographically to 34.6 +/- 3.6 mm from the distal wrist crease; the angle between its recurrent course and the longitudinal axis of the hand averaged 66.8 degrees. In 50% of the cases the muscular branch innervated abductor pollicis brevis (APB), opponens pollicis (OP) and the superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), in 40% it supplied only APB and OP, and in 10% a short muscular branch gave rise to independent branches in the palm and which supplied APB, OP and the superficial head of FPB. The so called "accessory thenar branch' was found in 38.3%. PMID:8886966

  10. The Estimation of Branching Curves in the Presence of Subject-Specific Random Effects

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Angelo; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Guo, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Branching curves are a technique for modeling curves that change trajectory at a change (branching) point. Currently, the estimation framework is limited to independent data, and smoothing splines are used for estimation. This article aims to extend the branching curve framework to the longitudinal data setting where the branching point varies by subject. If the branching point is modeled as a random effect, then the longitudinal branching curve framework is a Semiparametric Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model. Given existing issues with using random effects within a smoothing spline, we express the model as a B-spline Based Semiparametric Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model. Simple, clever smoothness constraints are enforced on the B-splines at the change point. The method is applied to Women’s Health data where we model the shape of the labor curve (cervical dilation measured longitudinally) before and after treatment with oxytocin (a labor stimulant). PMID:25196299

  11. Dark census: Statistically detecting the satellite populations of distant galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Sigurdson, Kris; Gilman, Daniel A.

    2016-08-01

    In the standard structure formation scenario based on the cold dark matter paradigm, galactic halos are predicted to contain a large population of dark matter subhalos. While the most massive members of the subhalo population can appear as luminous satellites and be detected in optical surveys, establishing the existence of the low mass and mostly dark subhalos has proven to be a daunting task. Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses have been successfully used to study mass substructures lying close to lensed images of bright background sources. However, in typical galaxy-scale lenses, the strong lensing region only covers a small projected area of the lens's dark matter halo, implying that the vast majority of subhalos cannot be directly detected in lensing observations. In this paper, we point out that this large population of dark satellites can collectively affect gravitational lensing observables, hence possibly allowing their statistical detection. Focusing on the region of the galactic halo outside the strong lensing area, we compute from first principles the statistical properties of perturbations to the gravitational time delay and position of lensed images in the presence of a mass substructure population. We find that in the standard cosmological scenario, the statistics of these lensing observables are well approximated by Gaussian distributions. The formalism developed as part of this calculation is very general and can be applied to any halo geometry and choice of subhalo mass function. Our results significantly reduce the computational cost of including a large substructure population in lens models and enable the use of Bayesian inference techniques to detect and characterize the distributed satellite population of distant lens galaxies.

  12. Modeling branching in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Jochem B.; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose–response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance. PMID:24133499

  13. Trapping of branched DNA in microfabricated structures.

    PubMed Central

    Volkmuth, W D; Duke, T; Austin, R H; Cox, E C

    1995-01-01

    We have observed electrostatic trapping of tribranched DNA molecules undergoing electrophoresis in a microfabricated pseudo-two-dimensional array of posts. Trapping occurs in a unique transport regimen in which the electrophoretic mobility is extremely sensitive to polymer topology. The arrest of branched polymers is explained by considering their center-of-mass motion; in certain conformations, owing to the constraints imposed by the obstacles a molecule cannot advance without the center of mass first moving a short distance backwards. The depth of the resulting local potential well can be much greater than the thermal energy so that escape of an immobilized molecule can be extremely slow. We summarize the expected behavior of the mobility as a function of field strength and topology and point out that the microfabricated arrays are highly suitable for detecting an extremely small number of branched molecules in a very large population of linear molecules. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7624337

  14. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  15. SnapShot: Branching Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Bhat, Ramray; Widelitz, Randall B; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-08-28

    Ectodermal appendages such as feathers, hair, mammary glands, salivary glands, and sweat glands form branches, allowing much-increased surface for functional differentiation and secretion. Here, the principles of branching morphogenesis are exemplified by the mammary gland and feathers. PMID:25171418

  16. Dichotomous branching: the plant form and integrity upon the apical meristem bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Gola, Edyta M.

    2014-01-01

    The division of the apical meristem into two independently functioning axes is defined as dichotomous branching. This type of branching typically occurs in non-vascular and non-seed vascular plants, whereas in seed plants it presents a primary growth form only in several taxa. Dichotomy is a complex process, which requires a re-organization of the meristem structure and causes changes in the apex geometry and activity. However, the mechanisms governing the repetitive apex divisions are hardly known. Here, an overview of dichotomous branching is presented, occurring in structurally different apices of phylogenetically distant plants, and in various organs (e.g., shoots, roots, rhizophores). Additionally, morphogenetic effects of dichotomy are reviewed, including its impact on organogenesis and mechanical constraints. At the end, the hormonal and genetic regulation of the dichotomous branching is discussed. PMID:24936206

  17. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  18. Branching and annihilating random walks: exact results at low branching rate.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Federico; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2013-05-01

    We present some exact results on the behavior of branching and annihilating random walks, both in the directed percolation and parity conserving universality classes. Contrary to usual perturbation theory, we perform an expansion in the branching rate around the nontrivial pure annihilation (PA) model, whose correlation and response function we compute exactly. With this, the nonuniversal threshold value for having a phase transition in the simplest system belonging to the directed percolation universality class is found to coincide with previous nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) approximate results. We also show that the parity conserving universality class has an unexpected RG fixed point structure, with a PA fixed point which is unstable in all dimensions of physical interest. PMID:23767512

  19. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  20. Tension in Highly Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a systematic method of designing branched macromolecules capable of building up high tension in their covalent bonds, which can be controlled by changing solvent quality. This tension is achieved exclusively due to intramolecular interactions by focusing lower tensions from its numerous branches to a particular section of the designed molecule. The simplest molecular architecture, which allows this tension amplification, is a so-called pom-pom macromolecule consisting of a relatively short linear spacer and two z-arm stars at its ends. Tension developed in the stars due to crowding of their branches is amplified by a factor of z and focused to the spacer. There are other highly branched macromolecules, such as molecular brushes - comb polymers with high density of side branches, that have similar focusing and amplification properties. In addition molecular brushes transmit tension along their backbone. Adsorption or grafting of these branched molecules on a substrate results in further increase in tension as compared to molecules in solution. Molecular architectures similar to pom-pom and molecular brushes with a high tension amplification parts can be used in numerous sensor applications. Unique conformations of molecular brushes in a pre-wetting layer allow direct visualization by atomic force microscope. Detailed images of individual molecules spreading along the surface enable critical evaluation of theories of chain dynamics in polymer monolayer. Strong spreading of densely branched macromolecules on a planar substrate can lead to high tension in the molecular backbone sufficient to break covalent bonds.

  1. SpS5 - I. Obscured and distant clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M. M.; Froebrich, D.; Martins, F.; Chené, A.-N.; Rosslowe, C.; Herrero, A.; Kim, H.-J.

    2015-03-01

    This first part of Special Session 5 explored the current status of infrared-based observations of obscured and distant stellar clusters in the Milky Way galaxy. Recent infrared surveys, either serendipitously or using targeted searches, have uncovered a rich population of young and massive clusters. However, cluster characterization is more challenging as it must be obtained often entirely in the infrared due to high line-of-sight extinction. Despite this, much is to be gained through the identification and careful analysis of these clusters, as they allow for the early evolution of massive stars to be better constrained. Further, they act as beacons delineating the Milky Way's structure and as nearby, resolved analogues to the distant unresolved massive clusters studied in distant galaxies.

  2. Discovery of the Most Distant Object in the Universe at z~9.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, A.; Cucchiara, A.; Levan, A. J.; Fox, D. B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Berger, E.; Krühler, T.; Küpcü Yoldas, A.; Wu, X. F.; Toma, K.; Greiner, J.; Olivares, F.; Rowlinson, A.; Amati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Roth, K.; Stephens, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Jakobsson, P.; Wiersema, K.; O'Brien, P. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Fruchter, A. S.; Rhoads, J.; Rutledge, R. E.; Schmidt, B. P.; Dopita, M. A.; Podsiadlowski, P.; Willingale, R.; Wolf, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; D'Avanzo, P.

    2011-11-01

    We present the discovery of the most distant object detected in the Universe. The GRB 090429B was initially detected by Swift and follow-up observations with the Gemini-N and VLT telescopes revealed a photometric redshift of z~9.4 at high confidence level. We present the discovery from an observer's point of view and discuss the importance of these objects as a probe of the early Universe. Further, we confirm the extreme-redshift origin of GRB 090429B through our spectroscopy and the dust properties of this rare object.

  3. Empathy: from mind reading to the reading of a distant text.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-09-01

    In the psychoanalytic literature empathy is commonly discussed as a form of "mind reading", which is deeply associated with the capacity to mirror the other's mental state. In this paper, I propose an alternative perspective on empathy as the process of reading a distant text. This perspective is illustrated through a Talmudic story and by weaving a thread between Bakhtin, Bion and Lacan. The paper concludes by pointing to the danger of empathy as a hidden form of projective identification that provides the reader with a false sense of control rather than with negative capability for otherness. PMID:20221718

  4. 64. View of Woodstock Village (less distant view), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. View of Woodstock Village (less distant view), looking southeast from the overlook on the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). Billings Park is adjacent to the national park, its roads are contiguous with the park roads, and it was historically integral to the Billings Estate property on Mount Tom. The distant view includes the Congregational Church and Pleasant Street on the left; the commercial hub of the village at center left; the middle covered bridge by the tree trunk at center; and the large roof of the Town Hall at right. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  5. 32. View of Woodstock Village (less distant view), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View of Woodstock Village (less distant view), looking southeast from the overlook on the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). Billings Park is adjacent to the national park, its roads are contiguous with the park roads, and it was historically integral to the Billings Estate property on Mount Tom. The distant view includes the Congregational Church and Pleasant Street on the left; the commercial hub of the village at center left; the middle covered bridge by the tree trunk at center; and the large roof of the town hall at right. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  6. Vital signs of life on distant worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    for less than a century. Malcolm Fridlund, Project Scientist for ESA's Darwin mission says, "If other planets follow the Earth's pattern, it is much more likely that they will be inhabited by dinosaurs or even bacteria than by something that can count." In the 1970s, the British scientist James Lovelock pointed out that, just by breathing, life affects the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. He suggested looking for similar effects as a way to search with telescopes for life on other planets. You can study the composition of an atmosphere by splitting a planet's light into a rainbow of colours. This 'spectrum' will contain dark lines made by various chemicals in the planet's atmosphere. Darwin's strategy is to look for oxygen because oxygen is used by some life forms and produced as waste by others. Scientists believe that without life, all free oxygen in a planet's atmosphere would disappear within just four million years, because it reacts so easily with other chemicals. "The best estimates suggest that Darwin will be able to detect the build-up of oxygen caused within a few hundred million years of life's origin," says Fridlund. Although Darwin will not detect oxygen directly, it will 'see' ozone, a form of oxygen. It will also see carbon dioxide, water, and, in certain cases, methane. Fridlund says, "The general consensus is that if we find ozone, liquid water, and carbon dioxide simultaneously, it will be a very strong indicator of life's presence." The work will not stop once Darwin completes its survey of the nearest several thousand star-planet systems. Once it finds a living planet, the race will be on to understand the nature of its life forms. That means searching for more specific biomarkers. In future space missions, for example, scientists may use chlorophyll as a biomarker. This molecule allows plants and certain bacteria to use light as an energy source. "Finding the next generation of biomarkers is a very active field of research at the moment

  7. Vital signs of life on distant worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    for less than a century. Malcolm Fridlund, Project Scientist for ESA's Darwin mission says, "If other planets follow the Earth's pattern, it is much more likely that they will be inhabited by dinosaurs or even bacteria than by something that can count." In the 1970s, the British scientist James Lovelock pointed out that, just by breathing, life affects the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. He suggested looking for similar effects as a way to search with telescopes for life on other planets. You can study the composition of an atmosphere by splitting a planet's light into a rainbow of colours. This 'spectrum' will contain dark lines made by various chemicals in the planet's atmosphere. Darwin's strategy is to look for oxygen because oxygen is used by some life forms and produced as waste by others. Scientists believe that without life, all free oxygen in a planet's atmosphere would disappear within just four million years, because it reacts so easily with other chemicals. "The best estimates suggest that Darwin will be able to detect the build-up of oxygen caused within a few hundred million years of life's origin," says Fridlund. Although Darwin will not detect oxygen directly, it will 'see' ozone, a form of oxygen. It will also see carbon dioxide, water, and, in certain cases, methane. Fridlund says, "The general consensus is that if we find ozone, liquid water, and carbon dioxide simultaneously, it will be a very strong indicator of life's presence." The work will not stop once Darwin completes its survey of the nearest several thousand star-planet systems. Once it finds a living planet, the race will be on to understand the nature of its life forms. That means searching for more specific biomarkers. In future space missions, for example, scientists may use chlorophyll as a biomarker. This molecule allows plants and certain bacteria to use light as an energy source. "Finding the next generation of biomarkers is a very active field of research at the moment

  8. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    New VLT Discovery Pushes Back the Beginnings Summary Using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers from The Netherlands, Germany, France and the USA [1] have discovered the most distant group of galaxies ever seen , about 13.5 billion light-years away. It has taken the light now recorded by the VLT about nine-tenths of the age of the Universe to cover the huge distance. We therefore observe those galaxies as they were at a time when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age . The astronomers conclude that this group of early galaxies will develop into a rich cluster of galaxies, such as those seen in the nearby Universe. The newly discovered structure provides the best opportunity so far for studying when and how galaxies began to form clusters after the initial Big Bang , one of the greatest puzzles in modern cosmology. PR Photo 11a/02 : Sky field with the distant cluster of galaxies. PR Photo 11b/02 : Spectra of some of the galaxies in the cluster. Radio Galaxies as cosmic signposts A most intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first groupings or "clusters" of galaxies emerged from the gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theoretical models predict that densely populated galaxy clusters ("rich clusters" in current astronomical terminology) are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in the primeval gas, and stars condense out of these clumps to form small galaxies. Then these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. The peculiar class of "radio galaxies" is particularly important for investigating such scenarios. They are called so because their radio emission - a result of violent processes believed to be related to massive black holes located at the centres of these galaxies - is stronger by 5 - 10 orders of magnitude than that of our own Milky Way galaxy. In fact, this radio emission is often so intense that the galaxies can be spotted at extremely large distances, and thus at the remote epoch when

  9. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  10. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G (y ) =2 y ey /(ey-1 ) , with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  11. Enhancing Distant Learning through Email Communication: A Case of BOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, K. M. Rezanur; Anwar, Sadat; Numan, Sharker Md.

    2008-01-01

    Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socioeconomic condition of…

  12. Nuclear explosions and distant earthquakes: A search for correlations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Marshall, P.A.

    1970-01-01

    An apparent correlation between nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported for the events between September 1961 and September 1966. When data from the events between September 1966 and December 1968 are examined, this correlation disappears. No relationship between the size of the nuclear explosions and the number of distant earthquakes is apparent in the data.

  13. Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, SF 109, and timber guide wall on left, exterior view of closed lower lock gates and hydro-electric power house and dam in background, view towards west - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  14. 1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort rings in foreground were once located in Engine Room Building. See photo WA-131-A-2. Building on left is Machine Shop. Boiler Building is in front of stack. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. 5. Distant view of west oblique of missile site control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Distant view of west oblique of missile site control building. To right can be seen intake and exhaust of MSRPP, on far right is accessway - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. 6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1892. DISTANT VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1892. DISTANT VIEW OF SAN JUAN SMELTING AND MINING COMPANY WORKS WITH EXTANT SMELTER STACK AT LEFT. (Original print in possession of Strater Hotel, Durango, Colorado. Photographer unknown.) - San Juan & New York Mining & Smelting Company, Smelter Stack, State Route 160, Durango, La Plata County, CO

  17. Clouds, Graphs, and Maps: Distant Reading and Disciplinary Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Derek Norton

    2009-01-01

    "Clouds, Graphs, and Maps: Distant Reading and Disciplinary Imagination" examines recent efforts by scholars in rhetoric and composition to account for patterns and trends indicative of the discipline's maturation. Many of these "discipliniographic" appraisals resort, on the one hand, to anecdotal, experience-based accounts or, on the other hand,…

  18. More distant view than previous photograph of front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    More distant view than previous photograph of front and side (west) of building 253, along with fronts of buildings 254, 255, 256, and 257. Looking northeast from corner of W.J. Avenue and N. 10th Street. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 253, North side of East O'Neil Avenue between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. A strategy for finding gravitationally-lensed distant supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Nugent, Peter; Smail, Ian; Madau, Piero

    2000-07-17

    Distant Type Ia and II supernovae (SNe) can serve as valuable probes of the history of the cosmic expansion and star formation, and provide important information on their progenitor models. At present, however, there are few observational constraints on the abundance of SNe at high redshifts. A major science driver for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is the study of very distant supernovae. In this paper we discuss strategies for finding and counting distant SNe by using repeat imaging of super-critical intermediate redshift clusters whose mass distributions are well-constrained via modelling of strongly-lensed features. For a variety of different models for the star formation history and supernova progenitors, we estimate the likelihood of detecting lensed SNe as a function of their redshift. In the case of a survey conducted by HST, we find a high probability of seeing a supernova in a single return visit with either WFPC-2 or ACS, and a much higher probability of detecting examples with z &62; 1 in the lensed case. Most events would represent magnified SNe II at z{approximately}1, and a fraction will be more distant examples. We discuss various ways to classify such events using ground-based infrared photometry. We demonstrate an application of the method using the HST archival data and discuss the case of a possible event found in the rich cluster AC 114 (z=0.31).

  20. Teaching and Learning about Distant Places: Conceptualising Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picton, Oliver James

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale pilot study undertaken at a secondary school in England, exploring how children learn about and construct distant places. Using drawings, concept mapping and interviews, the research examines the process of learning about Brazil over a period of formal learning, and how teaching and resources influence…

  1. DISTANT VIEW, UTILITY BUILDING "B" (EAST SIDE) ON LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, UTILITY BUILDING "B" (EAST SIDE) ON LEFT AND AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP (EAST SIDE) ON RIGHT. GASOLINE AND OIL HOUSE VISIBLE IN CENTER DISTANCE, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 TO LEFT OF UTILITY BUILDING. VIEW TO WEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  2. DISTANT VIEW, UTILITY BUILDING "B" (EAST SIDE) ON LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, UTILITY BUILDING "B" (EAST SIDE) ON LEFT AND AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP (EAST AND SOUTH SIDES) ON RIGHT, GASOLINE AND OIL HOUSE VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. Near East University Learning Management System Based Distant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire; Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Ibrahim, Dogan

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish a distant education system, it is first required to create a virtual learning system environment. A detailed literature search has revealed the existence of some "Open-Source" systems such as "Claroline, Moodle etc." Each system has been investigated in detail and it was found that "Moodle" is the one closest to the NEU…

  4. Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Piskounova, Elena; Agathocleous, Michalis; Murphy, Malea M.; Hu, Zeping; Huddlestun, Sara E.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancer cells commonly enter the blood and disseminate systemically but are highly inefficient at forming distant metastases for poorly understood reasons. We studied human melanomas that differed in their metastasis histories in patients and in their capacity to metastasize in NSG mice. All melanomas had high frequencies of cells that formed subcutaneous tumours, but much lower percentages of cells that formed tumours after intravenous or intrasplenic transplantation, particularly among inefficient metastasizers. Melanoma cells in the blood and visceral organs experienced oxidative stress not observed in established subcutaneous tumours. Successfully metastasizing melanomas underwent reversible metabolic changes during metastasis that increased their capacity to withstand oxidative stress, including increased dependence upon NADPH-generating enzymes in the folate pathway. Anti-oxidants promoted distant metastasis in NSG mice. Folate pathway inhibition using low-dose methotrexate, ALDH1L2 knockdown, or MTHFD1 knockdown inhibited distant metastasis without significantly affecting the growth of subcutaneous tumors in the same mice. Oxidative stress thus limits distant metastasis by melanoma cells in vivo. PMID:26466563

  5. 3. DISTANT VIEW (TO THE NORTHEAST) OF THE POWER STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DISTANT VIEW (TO THE NORTHEAST) OF THE POWER STATION (FAR LEFT, WOOD SHED, AND CHANGE HOUSE (CENTER). THE SMALLER ATTACHED SECTION ON THE CHANGE HOUSE SERVED AS THE MINE OFFICE AND RECORDS STORAGE ROOM. - Foster Gulch Mine, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  6. 3. Distant view toward east, west face of perimeter acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Distant view toward east, west face of perimeter acquisition radar building with data link satellite dish on south side - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. Dynamics of the Most Distant Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of the most distant known Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) under the secular and resonant effects of the known planets in the Solar System as well as under the influence of a massive, unseen distant planet. The orbits of these distant KBOs evolve on a wide range of timescales (from millions to billions of years); most important are the changes in the objects’ perihelion distances which can dramatically change the relative domination of secular or resonant effects on their orbital evolution. Motivated by the period ratios of the distant KBOs, which are near simple integer ratios, we examine the properties of mean motion resonances with a hypothetical, unseen planet; we discuss how the uncertainties in the observed objects’ orbits compare to the widths of these hypothesized resonances. We also examine the timescales for secular orbital evolution and the timescales for scattering through close encounters in the models with and without the hypothetical planet to assess the case for such a planet.

  8. NEW JERSEY APPROACH TO OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE, NOTE DISTANT HORIZON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NEW JERSEY APPROACH TO OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE, NOTE DISTANT HORIZON NEW YORK SKYLINE AND ALMOST IN THE MIDDLE OF THE HORIZON THE TWIN TOWERS OF THE VERRAZANO-NARROWS BRIDGE - Outerbridge Crossing Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  10. DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST/ - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  11. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  12. Interactions between Distant ceRNAs in Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Mor; Steiman-Shimony, Avital; Altuvia, Yael; Biham, Ofer; Margalit, Hanah

    2014-01-01

    Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were recently introduced as RNA transcripts that affect each other’s expression level through competition for their microRNA (miRNA) coregulators. This stems from the bidirectional effects between miRNAs and their target RNAs, where a change in the expression level of one target affects the level of the miRNA regulator, which in turn affects the level of other targets. By the same logic, miRNAs that share targets compete over binding to their common targets and therefore also exhibit ceRNA-like behavior. Taken together, perturbation effects could propagate in the posttranscriptional regulatory network through a path of coregulated targets and miRNAs that share targets, suggesting the existence of distant ceRNAs. Here we study the prevalence of distant ceRNAs and their effect in cellular networks. Analyzing the network of miRNA-target interactions deciphered experimentally in HEK293 cells, we show that it is a dense, intertwined network, suggesting that many nodes can act as distant ceRNAs of one another. Indeed, using gene expression data from a perturbation experiment, we demonstrate small, yet statistically significant, changes in gene expression caused by distant ceRNAs in that network. We further characterize the magnitude of the propagated perturbation effect and the parameters affecting it by mathematical modeling and simulations. Our results show that the magnitude of the effect depends on the generation and degradation rates of involved miRNAs and targets, their interaction rates, the distance between the ceRNAs and the topology of the network. Although demonstrated for a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network, our results offer what to our knowledge is a new view on various posttranscriptional cellular networks, expanding the concept of ceRNAs and implying possible distant cross talk within the network, with consequences for the interpretation of indirect effects of gene perturbation. PMID:24853754

  13. Comparing Imaging and Non-Imaging Techniques for Reducing Background Clutter and Resolving Distant Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R; Ziock, K; Fabris, L; Graham, R

    2005-11-10

    To reach maximum sensitivity, any method used to search for orphan sources must be insensitive to local variations of the background. Using imaging and non-imaging techniques, we analyzed the same data acquired by a search instrument deployed as a large-area, coded-mask imager. Data from many passes past a 1 mCi source at 65 m from the instrument were used to construct a model of the instrument response. We then used the model to ''hide'' the source in data taken in a light urban environment. We compared the success of detecting the hidden sources using imaging coded-mask methods, pseudo-imaging based on a zero-area matched filter, and non-imaging using simple thresholding. The results clearly indicate the superiority of imaging with the coded-mask techniques returning the best results.

  14. Evolutionary sequences for horizontal branch stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1987-01-01

    A new grid of canonical evolutionary horizontal branch (HB) sequences is presented. Sequences are computed for each combination of the following helium and heavy-element abundances, respectively: Y(main sequence) = 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, and Z = 0.0001, 0.001, and 0.01. The results show that the bifurcation point at which the HB morphology changes from redward-evolving tracks to tracks with blueward loops shifts to higher effective temperatures with increasing helium abundance or metallicity. The sequences can be used to study in more detail how a number of HB properties such as the HB lifetime, the effective temperature at the bifurcation point in the track morphology, the luminosity dropoff of the blue HB, and the luminosity width of the red HB depend on the composition.

  15. CCD polarimetry of distant comets with the 6-m telescope at SAO RAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A.; Dlugach, J.; Afanasiev, V.; Reshetnyk, V.; Korsun, P.

    2014-07-01

    Usually, polarimetric measurements are used to study the physical properties of comets approaching the Sun. Since the dust in distant comets differs from the dust in short-period comets, the study of polarization of the distant comets is very important for the investigation of their physical properties. However, little is known about the dust properties in the cometary coma as well as about the cometary nuclei at large heliocentric distances. So far, there are no comets studied with polarimetric techniques at heliocentric distances more than 4 au. We have started a comprehensive program of polarimetric, photometric, and spectral investigations of active distant comets (or without noticeable activity) with the focal reducer SCORPIO attached in the prime focus of the 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russia). We performed broad-band polarimetry and long-slit spectroscopy of comets C/2011 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) in the visible wavelength range. The data were obtained on November 12, 2012, at the phase angle of 10.4°, when the comet C/2011 S1 (LINEAR) was at the heliocentric distance of 6 au, and, on February 6, 2013, at the phase angle of 9.1°, when the comet C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) was at the heliocentric distance of 5.9 au, respectively. The data on the degree of linear polarization of the distant comets C/2011 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) are the first ever obtained at such large heliocentric distances. We present the results and preliminary analysis of imaging polarimetric observations of comets C/2011 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR). These comets show considerable levels of activity not only within the zone of water sublimation (up to 3 au), but also at heliocentric distances far exceeding this limit. Molecular emissions are not detected in the observed cometary spectra. The cometary comae display a degree of linear polarization of about -2% and -2.2%, respectively. This value is significantly higher, in absolute terms, than

  16. Monitoring and forecast of hydro meteorological hazards basing on data of distant assay and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin; Dikinis, Alexandr; Voronov, Nikolai

    2014-05-01

    Russian Federation having giant area has low concentration of land meteorological check points. Net of monitoring is not enough for effective forecast and prediction of weather dynamics and extremely situations. Under increase of extremely situations and incidents - hurricanes et al (two times from begin of XXI century) reconstruction and "perestroika" of monitoring net is needful and necessary. The basis of such a progress is distant monitoring using planes and satellites adding land contact monitoring base on efforts of existed points and stations. Interaction of contact and distant views may make hydro meteorological data and prediction more fine and significant. Tradition physical methods must be added by new biological methods of modern study. According to gotten researches animal are able to predict extremely hazards of natural and anthropogenic nature basing of interaction between biological matter and probable physical field that is under primary study. For example it was animals which forecasted dropping of Chelyabinsk meteorite of 2013. Adding of biological indication with complex of meteorological data may increase significance of hazard prediction. The uniting of all data and approaches may become basis of proposed mathematical hydro meteorological weather models. Introduction to practice reported complex methods may decrease of loss from hydro meteorological risks and hazards and increase stability of country economics.

  17. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    New VLT Discovery Pushes Back the Beginnings Summary Using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers from The Netherlands, Germany, France and the USA [1] have discovered the most distant group of galaxies ever seen , about 13.5 billion light-years away. It has taken the light now recorded by the VLT about nine-tenths of the age of the Universe to cover the huge distance. We therefore observe those galaxies as they were at a time when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age . The astronomers conclude that this group of early galaxies will develop into a rich cluster of galaxies, such as those seen in the nearby Universe. The newly discovered structure provides the best opportunity so far for studying when and how galaxies began to form clusters after the initial Big Bang , one of the greatest puzzles in modern cosmology. PR Photo 11a/02 : Sky field with the distant cluster of galaxies. PR Photo 11b/02 : Spectra of some of the galaxies in the cluster. Radio Galaxies as cosmic signposts A most intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first groupings or "clusters" of galaxies emerged from the gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theoretical models predict that densely populated galaxy clusters ("rich clusters" in current astronomical terminology) are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in the primeval gas, and stars condense out of these clumps to form small galaxies. Then these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. The peculiar class of "radio galaxies" is particularly important for investigating such scenarios. They are called so because their radio emission - a result of violent processes believed to be related to massive black holes located at the centres of these galaxies - is stronger by 5 - 10 orders of magnitude than that of our own Milky Way galaxy. In fact, this radio emission is often so intense that the galaxies can be spotted at extremely large distances, and thus at the remote epoch when

  18. Relaxation dynamics of branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arnav

    The Rouse model for star polymers was successfully derived by solving the differential equations governing the net force acting on each bead in a star polymer chain. As opposed to a linear polymer, where we have N unique roots for N beads, in the case of star polymers, there are only 2 Na+1 unique roots and all odd unique roots (except the last root corresponding to the branch point) starting with the first root have a multiplicity of f-1. The relaxation time of the pth unique Rouse mode of a star polymer varies as (2Na + 1)2/p2. Since alternate Rouse modes in a star polymer have a multiplicity of f-1, they add to the terminal modulus of the star polymers and the terminal modulus, G(tau) ends up being proportional to f-1 (besides being inversely proportional to N, which is also the case with linear polymers). A self-consistent theory for the relaxation of entangled star polymers was developed based on the work done by Colby and Rubinstein on linear blends. This theory considers the duality of relaxation dynamics (direct stress relaxation and indirect relaxation by release of constraints) and models the relaxation due to constraint release R(t) based on Dean's approach in solving the vibration frequencies of glassy chains with random spring constants. In our case, the mobilities of beads were considered to be random and based on the relative weight of the prefactor of a Maxwell function, a group of which was fitted to the stress relaxation function mu(t) of a star polymer (proposed and derived by Doi). The tube dilation model for star and comb polymers was investigated in detail and predictions compared to rheological data from polypropylene, polybutadiene and polystyrene comb polymers along with PEP star polymers. The relaxation time from the Tube Dilation Model was compared with the classical Tube Model and was shown to have an extra power dependence on the fraction of the comb backbone.

  19. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section 166.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the firm of which it is a branch for all...

  20. 22. NORTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, CONTOURING AROUND SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. NORTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, CONTOURING AROUND SIDE OF KNOLL. DITCH LIES BETWEEN OAK TREE AND POINTED ROCKS, AND EXITS PHOTOGRAPH AT LOWER RIGHT CORNER. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 21. LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH TO POINT (AT WIRE ROLL) WHERE IT IS CUT BY A ROCK WALL. DITCH IS ALSO VISIBLE RUNNING ALONG BASE OF KNOLL IN DISTANCE, BELOW AND TO RIGHT OF DEAD TREE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Average dimension and magnetic structure of the distant Venus magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, M. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    The first major statistical investigation of the far wake of an unmagnetized object embedded in the solar wind is reported. The investigation is based on Pioneer Venus Orbiter magnetometer data from 70 crossings of the Venus wake at altitudes between 5 and 11 Venus radii during reasonably steady IMF conditions. It is found that Venus has a well-developed-tail, flaring with altitude and possibly broader in the direction parallel to the IMF cross-flow component. Tail lobe field polarities and the direction of the cross-tail field are consistent with tail accretion from the solar wind. Average values for the cross-tail field (2 nT) and the distant tail flux (3 MWb) indicate that most distant tail field lines close across the center of the tail and are not rooted in the Venus ionosphere. The findings are illustrated in a three-dimensional schematic.

  3. Earth's distant magnetotail current sheet near and beyond lunar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Artemyev, A. V.; Nakamura, R.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    We analyze the structure of the Earth magnetotail current sheet (CS) in middle, X∈[-50,-20] RE, and distant, X∈[-100,-80] RE, regions using data set of 573 CS crossings by Geotail in 1994-1995. For a subset of 213 CSs we determine the CS thickness L, average current density j0, and velocity vD=j0/en0 (n0 is the ion number density). We find similar dawn-dusk distributions of CS parameters for middle and distant tail: L is about 3000 km at the dusk flank and grows up to 12,000 km toward the dawn flank; j0 grows toward the dusk flank by a factor of 2-3; and the most intense CSs (with higher vD) are observed near midnight. We show that ion-scale CSs with the thickness of several ion thermal gyroradii (say less than seven) are observed in middle and distant tail in more than 50% of crossings. For observed CSs electrons likely provide the dominant contribution to the current density. We divide the subset into intense and weak CSs (using parameter vD). Weak CSs have thickness of about 20 ion thermal gyroradii and Bz of about 1.5 nT. Intense CSs have thickness of about 3-7 thermal gyroradii and much smaller Bz implying more stretched field line configuration. Intense CSs are accompanied by fast ion flows: vD is larger for larger amplitudes of ion bulk velocity vx that is likely due to larger contribution of Speiser ions. The properties of the CS in middle and distant tail are compared with those found for the near-Earth tail.

  4. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  5. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  6. Distant and wide range wireless power transfer from metamedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Luo, Xudong; Ma, Hongru

    2016-07-01

    Based on electromagnetic scattering theory, a model of superscatterer enhanced distant wireless power transfer (WPT) device has designed and analyzed with the concept of transformation optics. The numerical results obtained through a series expansion method reveal that a properly designed ss-WPT has high efficiency for long transfer distances as well as a wide transfer range. The transfer distance can be further enlarged by fine tuning of the design. These effects can be explained qualitatively through the study of magnetic flux.

  7. 11. A DISTANT VIEW OF THE EAST ELEVATION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. A DISTANT VIEW OF THE EAST ELEVATION OF THE BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOME OF THE FEATURES IN RILEY PARK. THE BOARDWALK ALONG THE SOUTH AND RIVERBANK LEADS TO A PEDESTRIAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE AND DOWNTOWN DELPHI ACROSS THE RIVER. ALSO VISIBLE IS THE RUPTURED DAM AND A PORTION OF A CLUB OR BATHING HOUSE - Delphi Bridge on U.S. Route 421, Spanning Deer Creek at U.S. Route 421, Delphi, Carroll County, IN

  8. Efficient generation of distant atom entanglement via cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chimczak, Grzegorz

    2005-05-15

    We show how the entanglement of two atoms, trapped in distant separate cavities, can be generated with arbitrarily high probability of success. The scheme proposed employs sudden excitation of the atoms proving that the weakly driven condition is not necessary to obtain the success rate close to unity. The modified scheme works properly even if each cavity contains many atoms interacting with the cavity modes. We also show that our method is robust against spontaneous atomic decay.

  9. Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Reaction enhancement of initially distant scalars by Lagrangian coherent structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Kenneth R. Crimaldi, John P.; Meiss, James D.

    2015-03-15

    Turbulent fluid flows have long been recognized as a superior means of diluting initial concentrations of scalars due to rapid stirring. Conversely, experiments have shown that the structures responsible for this rapid dilution can also aggregate initially distant reactive scalars and thereby greatly enhance reaction rates. Indeed, chaotic flows not only enhance dilution by shearing and stretching but also organize initially distant scalars along transiently attracting regions in the flow. To show the robustness of this phenomenon, a hierarchical set of three numerical flows is used: the periodic wake downstream of a stationary cylinder, a chaotic double gyre flow, and a chaotic, aperiodic flow consisting of interacting Taylor vortices. We demonstrate that Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), as identified by ridges in finite time Lyapunov exponents, are directly responsible for this coalescence of reactive scalar filaments. When highly concentrated filaments coalesce, reaction rates can be orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted in a well-mixed system. This is further supported by an idealized, analytical model that was developed to quantify the competing effects of scalar dilution and coalescence. Chaotic flows, known for their ability to efficiently dilute scalars, therefore have the competing effect of organizing initially distant scalars along the LCS at timescales shorter than that required for dilution, resulting in reaction enhancement.

  11. Distant supervision for cancer pathway extraction from text.

    PubMed

    Poon, Hoifung; Toutanova, Kristina; Quirk, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Biological pathways are central to understanding complex diseases such as cancer. The majority of this knowledge is scattered in the vast and rapidly growing research literature. To automate knowledge extraction, machine learning approaches typically require annotated examples, which are expensive and time-consuming to acquire. Recently, there has been increasing interest in leveraging databases for distant supervision in knowledge extraction, but existing applications focus almost exclusively on newswire domains. In this paper, we present the first attempt to formulate the distant supervision problem for pathway extraction and apply a state-of-the-art method to extracting pathway interactions from PubMed abstracts. Experiments show that distant supervision can effectively compensate for the lack of annotation, attaining an accuracy approaching supervised results. From 22 million PubMed abstracts, we extracted 1.5 million pathway interactions at a precision of 25%. More than 10% of interactions are mentioned in the context of one or more cancer types, analysis of which yields interesting insights. PMID:25592574

  12. The Unique Branching Patterns of Deinococcus Glycogen Branching Enzymes Are Determined by Their N-Terminal Domains▿

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-α-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce α-1,6 branching points in α-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus radiodurans GBE (GBEDg and GBEDr, respectively) were characterized. Compared to other GBEs described to date, these Deinococcus GBEs display unique branching patterns, both transferring relatively short side chains. In spite of their high amino acid sequence similarity (88%) the D. geothermalis enzyme had highest activity on amylose while the D. radiodurans enzyme preferred amylopectin. The side chain distributions of the products were clearly different: GBEDg transferred a larger number of smaller side chains; specifically, DP5 chains corresponded to 10% of the total amount of transferred chains, versus 6.5% for GBEDr. GH13-type GBEs are composed of a central (β/α) barrel catalytic domain and an N-terminal and a C-terminal domain. Characterization of hybrid Deinococcus GBEs revealed that the N2 modules of the N domains largely determined substrate specificity and the product branching pattern. The N2 module has recently been annotated as a carbohydrate binding module (CBM48). It appears likely that the distance between the sugar binding subsites in the active site and the CBM48 subdomain determines the average lengths of side chains transferred. PMID:19139240

  13. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  14. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  15. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  16. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  17. Theoretical horizontal-branch evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the theoretical evolution of canonical horizontal-branch (HB) stars are briefly reviewed with specific emphasis on the track morphology in the HR diagram and the determination of the globular cluster helium abundance. The observational evidence for the occurrence of semiconvection is discussed together with some remaining theoretical uncertainty.

  18. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will... approval number, to Information Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift...

  19. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  20. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  1. Deltoid Branch of Thoracoacromial Vein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Wei; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Hsieh, Hong-Chang; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An entry vessel is crucial for intravenous port implantation. A safe alternative entry vessel that can be easily explored is crucial for patients without feasible cephalic vein or for those who need port reimplantation because of disease relapse. In this study, we tried to analyze the safety and feasibility of catheter implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein. From March 2012 to November 2013, 802 consecutive oncology patients who had received intravenous port implantation via the superior vena cava were enrolled in this study. The functional results and complications of different entry vessels were compared. The majority of patients (93.6%) could be identified as thoracoacromial vessel. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located on the medial aspect of the deltopectoral groove beneath the pectoralis major muscle (85.8%) and in the deep part of the deltopectoral groove (14.2%). Due to the various calibers employed and tortuous routes followed, we utilized 3 different methods for catheter implantation, including vessel cutdown (47.4%), wire assisted (17.9%), and modified puncture method (34.6%). The functional results and complication rate were similar to other entry vessels. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located in the neighborhood of the cephalic vein. The functional results of intravenous port implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein are similar to other entry vessels. It is a safe alternative entry vessel for intravenous port implantation. PMID:25929903

  2. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  3. Deep HST imaging of distant weak radio and field galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, R. A.; Gordon, J. M.; Pascarelle, S. M.; Schmidtke, P. C.; Keel, W. C.; Burkey, J. M.; Dunlop, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera (WFC) V- and I-band images of three distant weak radio galaxies with z = 0.311-2.390 and seven field galaxies with z = 0.131-0.58. The images were deconvolved with both the Lucy and multiresolution CLEAN methods, which yield a restoring Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of less than or equal to 0.2 sec, (nearly) preserve photons and signal-to-noise ratio at low spatial frequencies, and produce consistent light profiles down to our 2 sigma surface brightness sensitivity limit of V approximately 27.2 and I approximately 25.9 mag/sq arcsec. Multi-component image modeling was used to provide deconvolution-independent estimates of structural parameters for symmetric galaxies. We present 12-band (m(sub 2750) UBVRIgriJHK) photometry for a subset of the galaxies and bootstrap the unknown FOC/48 zero point at 2750 A in three independent ways (yielding m(sub 2750) = 21.34 +/- 0.09 mag for 1.0 e(-)/s). Two radio galaxies with z = 0.311 and 0.528, as well as one field galaxy with z = 0.58, have the colors and spectra of early-type galaxies, and a(exp 1/4)-like light profiles in the HST images. The two at z greater than 0.5 have little or no color gradients in V - I and are likely giant ellipticals, while the z = 0.311 radio galaxy has a dim exponential disk and is likely an S0. Six of the seven field galaxies have light profiles that indicate (small) inner bulges following a(exp 1/4) laws and outer exponential disks, both with little or no color gradients. These are (early-type) spiral galaxies with z = 0.131-0.528. About half have faint companions or bars. One shows lumpy structure, possibly a merger. The compact narrow-line galaxy 53W002 at z = 2.390 has less than or = 30% +/- 10% of its HST V and I flux in the central kiloparsec (due to its weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN)). Most of its light (V approximately equal to 23.3) occurs in a symmetric envelope with a regular a(exp 1/4)-like profile of effective

  4. Development of Distant Learning Laboratory and Creation of Educational Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Education's fundamental goal is to disseminate information, mostly that which relates to science and technology. In this attempt, as I have observed, the office has many programs bringing both students and teachers to NASA Langley to expose them to the facilities and to teach them some about the scientific theory and about available modern technology. As a way of expanding the audience that can be reached, as the expense of bringing people in is limiting, Marchelle Canright has proposed establishing a center dedicated to researching and producing distant learning videos. Although distant learning through telecommunications is not a new concept, as many universities, colleges, and precollege level schools offer televised courses, the research in this field has been limited. Many of the standing distant learning broadcasts are simply recordings of teachers in classrooms giving lectures to their own students; they are not aimed at the television audience. In some cases the videos are produced without a Live-lecture atmosphere, but are still only classroom lectures. In either case, however, the full range of capabilities of video production are not being fully utilized. Methods for best relaying educational material have not been explored. Possibilities for including computerized images and video clips for the purpose of showing diagrams and processes, as well as examples in fitting cases, may add considerably to the educational value of these videos. Also, through Internet and satellite links, it is possible for remote students to interact with the teachers during televised sessions. These possibilities might, also, add to the effectiveness of distant learning programs. Ms. Canright's proposed center will be dedicated to researching these possibilities and eventually spreading the results to distant learning program managers. This is the project I was involved in over the summer. As implied, the center is still at the foundation stages. Ms. Canright has

  5. Chandra Finds Most Distant X-ray Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-02-01

    The most distant X-ray cluster of galaxies yet has been found by astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. Approximately 10 billion light years from Earth, the cluster 3C294 is 40 percent farther than the next most distant X-ray galaxy cluster. The existence of such a distant galaxy cluster is important for understanding how the universe evolved. "Distant objects like 3C294 provide snapshots to how these galaxy clusters looked billions of years ago," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, England and lead author of the paper accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of Britain’s Royal Astronomical Society. "These latest results help us better understand what the universe was like when it was only 20 percent of its current age." Chandra’s image reveals an hourglass-shaped region of X-ray emission centered on the previously known central radio source. This X-ray emission extends outward from the central galaxy for at least 300,000 light years and shows that the known radio source is in the central galaxy of a massive cluster. Scientists have long suspected that distant radio-emitting galaxies like 3C294 are part of larger groups of galaxies known as "clusters." However, radio data provides astronomers with only a partial picture of these distant objects. Confirmation of the existence of clusters at great distances - and, hence, at early stages of the universe - requires information from other wavelengths. Optical observations can be used to pinpoint individual galaxies, but X-ray data are needed to detect the hot gas that fills the space within the cluster. "Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe," said Fabian. "We do not expect to find many massive objects, such as the 3C294 cluster, in early times because structure is thought to grow from small scales to large scales." The vast clouds of hot gas that envelope galaxies in clusters are thought to be heated by collapse toward the

  6. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuǧrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ-α. Depending on the exponent α , the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α =1 ) tree depth grows as (logn) 2. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  7. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    PubMed

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  8. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping point" and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes. PMID:22181236

  9. Anisotropies and flows of suprathermal particles in the distant magnetotail - ISEE 3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Fan, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The ISEE-3 spacecraft has been transferred in 1982 into an earth orbit which brings the satellite close to the tailward Lagrangian point L2 at about 220 R(E) and thus allows exploration of the distant geomagnetic tail. An initial analysis of energetic proton measurements greater than 30 keV from the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system on ISEE-3 is reported. It has been found that suprathermal protons are a persistent feature of the distant tail. Differential intensitites at 30 keV are essentially constant between the lunar distance and 220 R(E) and about one order of magnitude smaller than in the near earth, or greater than about 20 R(E), plasma sheet. Assuming that these protons are convected with the local plasma flow, it is possible to derive plasma velocities. During time periods where a comparison is possible, these velocities compare favourably well with the velocities derived from the Los Alamos National Laboratory plasma analyzer on board the same spacecraft. The appearance of the plasma sheet, as evidenced by the suprathermal particles, is rather bursty. Anisotropies are large, and predominantly tailward.

  10. To branch or not to branch: Numerical modeling of dynamically branching faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedontney, N. L.; Templeton Barrett, E. L.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2009-12-01

    Branched fault geometries, and branched rupture paths, occur in strike-slip as well as dip-slip settings [e.g., Poliakov et al., JGR, 2002; Kame et al., JGR, 2003]. The Wenchuan earthquake illustrates such a branched geometry [Hubbard and Shaw, 2009] in a fold and thrust belt, and surface ruptures provide constraints on which faults were activated co-seismically. Additionally, a branched structure, the Central Basin Decollement [Shaw & Suppe, 1996], underlies the Los Angeles Basin. By simulating the dynamic rupture path selection, using explicit finite element methods here, we are able to estimate which faults should be activated under given conditions. Factors that influence coseismic branch activation have been extensively studied [Poliakov et al.; Kame et al.; Oglesby et al., 2003, 2004; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007]. The results show that the rupture velocity, pre-stress orientation and fault geometry influence rupture path selection. We show further that the ratio of σ1/σ3 (equivalently, the seismic S ratio) and the relative frictional fault strength also play a significant role in determining which faults are activated. Our methodology has recently included the use of a regularized friction routine [Ranjith & Rice, 2001; Cochard & Rice, 2000] which reduces the growth of numerical noise throughout the simulations. A difficulty arises in the treatment of surface interactions at the branch junction. When local opening does not occur there, slip on the branch fault must vanish at the junction, a constraint that we impose on the FE model. However, the FE contact routine used demands that slip always be constrained to zero on one or the other fault at such a junction, which is problematic when opening occurs. There is then no fundamental basis for constraining slip at the junction to zero on either fault, and the choice made affects the slip distributions and rupture path selection. Many analyses that we perform are elastic and the same material is used on both sides

  11. [Alteration of textilfibres by explosion gases expelled distant from the muzzle (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bonte, W; Kijewski, H

    1976-03-24

    This paper presents the reconstruction of an unusual case of suicide. After raiding a branch-bank a robber fled shooting with his Sauer-Western revolver caliber .44 magnum at the pursuing policemen and succeeded in wrestling a pistol Walther caliber 7,65 mm from them. Under the fire of sub-machine guns he destroyed himself by a shot to the neck. Our investigations concerned a textile damage at the front of the sweater of the deceased surrounded by primer residue, showing characteristics of a close-up shot. The damage was identified as effect of explosion gases exhausting far-off the muzzle. The distance between this injury and the bullet hole corresponded with the length of the barrel of the Sauer-Western revolver and could be used for identification; it confirmed the diagnosis of a close-up shot at the neck, too. Collateral experiments with shots from distant ranges developed spadiceous melt figures of textile fibers around the bullet hole, the appearance of which is considered proof for a close-up shot commonly. PMID:961069

  12. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  13. Evolutionary branching under multi-dimensional evolutionary constraints.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-10-21

    The fitness of an existing phenotype and of a potential mutant should generally depend on the frequencies of other existing phenotypes. Adaptive evolution driven by such frequency-dependent fitness functions can be analyzed effectively using adaptive dynamics theory, assuming rare mutation and asexual reproduction. When possible mutations are restricted to certain directions due to developmental, physiological, or physical constraints, the resulting adaptive evolution may be restricted to subspaces (constraint surfaces) with fewer dimensionalities than the original trait spaces. To analyze such dynamics along constraint surfaces efficiently, we develop a Lagrange multiplier method in the framework of adaptive dynamics theory. On constraint surfaces of arbitrary dimensionalities described with equality constraints, our method efficiently finds local evolutionarily stable strategies, convergence stable points, and evolutionary branching points. We also derive the conditions for the existence of evolutionary branching points on constraint surfaces when the shapes of the surfaces can be chosen freely. PMID:27444402

  14. Simulation study on effects of channel noise on differential conduction at an axon branch.

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Y

    1993-01-01

    Effects of membrane channel noise (random opening and closing of ion channels) are studied on spike conduction at a branching point on an axon. Computer simulation is done on the basis of a stochastic version of the Hodgkin-Huxley cable model, into which the channel noise is incorporated. It is shown that the channel noise makes conduction of spikes into daughter branches random; spikes randomly succeed or fail in conduction into daughter branches. The conduction is then randomly differential even though the forms and properties of daughter branches are the same. The randomness is considerable when the radius of an axon is small (approximately 1 microns). PMID:7693002

  15. Nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    SciTech Connect

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2014-05-09

    The nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB)is a challenging and fascinating subject in the theory of stellar evolution and important for observations as well. This is because about of half the heavy elements beyond iron are synthesized during thermal pulsation phases of these stars. Furthermore, the understanding of the production of the heavy elements and some light elements like carbon and fluorine represent a powerful tool to get more insight into the internal structure of these stars. The diversity of nuclear processing during the AGB phases may also motivate experimental activities in measuring important nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we emphasize several interesting feature of the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars which still needs further elaboration especially from theoretical point of view.

  16. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  17. Horizontal-branch stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of canonical theory for the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars are examined. Particular attention is given to how an HB star maintains the appropriate composition distribution within the semiconvective zone and how this composition is affected by the finite time-dependence with which convective boundaries actually move. Newly developed models based on time-dependent overshooting are presented for both the core-helium-exhaustion and main HB phases.

  18. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Interactions between axillary branches of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Veronica; Bainbridge, Katherine; Williamson, Lisa; Leyser, Ottoline

    2008-03-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean, in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches. In these two-branch shoots, a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other, prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals, which are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis, using consecutive branches on the bolting stem. As with the classical studies in pea and bean, these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth. Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch, but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch, illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals. Using mutants, we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch, the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak, and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem. PMID:19825548

  20. The opacity of spiral disks from counts of distant galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Gonzalez, R. A.; Allen, R. J.; van der Kruit, P. C.

    2004-12-01

    The numbers of distant galaxies seen in an HST image of a spiral galaxy is an indication of the average extinction by dust in the disk. This number of distant galaxies has to be calibrated for crowding effects and for this the ``Synthetic Field Method'' (SFM, Gonzalez et al. 1998) was developed. Synthetic fields are the science field with a dimmed Hubble Deep Field added. From the relation between the dimming and the number of synthetic galaxies, the average extinction in the science field can be derived. 32 HST/WFPC2 fields were analysed and from the numbers of distant galaxies an average radial extinction profile for spiral disks was constructed, for the whole sample, arm and disk regions and different Hubble types. When the average radial extinction profile is compared to the HI surface density profile, an estimate of the average gas-to-dust ratio as a function of radius can be obtained. The effects of the phase of the hydrogen and metallicity gradient in disks are discussed. The average radial extinction profile is compared to the light distribution of spiral disks. The relation between typical radii of light and dust and the relation between surface brightness and extinction is also explored. Combining the detailed images of dust emission from the Spitzer space telescope with the extinction measurements from counts in HST images could offer insight into the relative prominence of cold dust and possibly the dust geometry in the disk. Future work on dust extinction using the wealth of new imaging in the HST archive is briefly discussed. This research was supported by funding from STSCI, the Director's Discretionary Research Fund and the Kapteyn Institute.

  1. Three-component PSBL ions observed in the distant magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Mukai, T.; Terasawa, T.; Machida, S.

    2003-04-01

    The most conspicuous feature of the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL) in the Earth's magnetotail is the existence of high-energy ion beams. These ion beams have been observed by several satellites in the near-tail region of XGSE > -25Re. In spite of the previous observational and theoretical works, the source and acceleration mechanism of the PSBL ion beams is still unclear. The insufficiency of the ion observation in the source region of the PSBL ion beams is one of the major reasons. The purpose of this paper is to identify the source of the PSBL ion beams by analyzing the data obtained by the GEOTAIL satellite in the distant magnetotail XGSE< -40Re. Detailed structure of the PSBL in the upstream region of slow-mode shocks in the distant magnetotail was investigated using low energy particle data. GEOTAIL observations proved the existence of the slow-shock plasma sheet-lobe boundaries bounding the magnetic reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail. We observed three-component ions: cold ions and two-component PSBL beam ions in the PSBL. One of the two-component PSBL beam ions was observed in the outer region of the PSBL. The energy of this component was higher than the other component while the temperature was much lower. Its distribution function looked like "kidney bean" shape. The other PSBL ion component had characteristics that its low energy cut off gradually decreased as the satellite approached the plasma sheet. The source of the former component may be the current sheet accelerated lobe cold ions while the source of the latter component may be the ions leaked from the hot plasma sheet towards the lobe region along the magnetic field. Three-component PSBL ions were observed along with 34% of the slow-shock plasma sheet-lobe boundaries identified in the distant magnetotail.

  2. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  3. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-01

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions. PMID:23046176

  4. Distant Healing Intention Therapies: An Overview of the Scientific Evidence.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dean; Schlitz, Marilyn; Baur, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a broad overview of "distant healing intention" (DHI) therapies, ie, intentional healing modalities claimed to transcend the usual constraints of distance through space or time. We provide a summary of previous reviews and meta-analyses that have explored a diverse array of DHI modalities, outcome measures, and experimental protocols. While some significant experimental effects have been observed, the evidence to date does not yet provide confidence in its clinical efficacy. The purported "nonlocal" nature of DHI raises significant methodological and theoretical challenges. We recommend several avenues for improving future research. PMID:26665044

  5. Protocol for secure quantum machine learning at a distant place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-10-01

    The application of machine learning to quantum information processing has recently attracted keen interest, particularly for the optimization of control parameters in quantum tasks without any pre-programmed knowledge. By adapting the machine learning technique, we present a novel protocol in which an arbitrarily initialized device at a learner's location is taught by a provider located at a distant place. The protocol is designed such that any external learner who attempts to participate in or disrupt the learning process can be prohibited or noticed. We numerically demonstrate that our protocol works faithfully for single-qubit operation devices. A trade-off between the inaccuracy and the learning time is also analyzed.

  6. Approximations of distant retrograde orbits for mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirani, Anil N.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2006-01-01

    Distant retrograde orbits (DROs) are stable periodic orbit solutions of the equations of motion in the circular restricted three body problem. Since no closed form expressions for DROs are known, we present methods for approximating a family of planar DROs for an arbitrary, fixed mass ratio. Furthermore we give methods for computing the first and second derivatives of the position and velocity with respect to the variables that parameterize the family. The approximation and derivative methods described allow a mission designer to target specific DROs or a range of DROs with no regard to phasing in contrast to the more limited case of targeting a six-state only.

  7. Distant Healing Intention Therapies: An Overview of the Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Schlitz, Marilyn; Baur, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of “distant healing intention” (DHI) therapies, ie, intentional healing modalities claimed to transcend the usual constraints of distance through space or time. We provide a summary of previous reviews and meta-analyses that have explored a diverse array of DHI modalities, outcome measures, and experimental protocols. While some significant experimental effects have been observed, the evidence to date does not yet provide confidence in its clinical efficacy. The purported “nonlocal” nature of DHI raises significant methodological and theoretical challenges. We recommend several avenues for improving future research. PMID:26665044

  8. Are structural properties of dendrimers sensitive to the symmetry of branching? Computer simulation of lysine dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, S.; Markelov, D.; Neelov, I.; Darinskii, A.

    2013-08-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) dendrimers are promising systems for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility. These dendrimers have a specific topology: two spacers of different lengths come out of each branching point and thus the branching is asymmetric. Because of this asymmetry terminal groups are located at branches of different lengths, unlike dendrimers with a symmetric branching. This paper presents the results of the first systematic molecular dynamics simulation of such asymmetric PLL dendrimers. It is shown that PLL dendrimers are porous molecules with all terminal groups equally accessible to water. We have found that in spite of an asymmetry of branching the general structural characteristics of PLL dendrimers are rather similar to those of dendrimers with symmetric branching. We have also found that the structural characteristics of PLL dendrimers obey the general laws for dendrimers and that their electrostatic properties agree with the predictions of a general analytic theory.

  9. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss

    PubMed Central

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06808.001 PMID:25806686

  10. Effect of methyl-branched fatty acids on the structure of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Poger, David; Caron, Bertrand; Mark, Alan E

    2014-12-01

    Methyl-branched fatty acids are widespread in prokaryotic membranes. Although anteiso and iso branching (that is on the antepenultimate and penultimate carbons) and the presence of multiple methyl branches in the phytanoyl chain are known to modify the thermotropic behavior and enhance the fluidity of lipid bilayers, little is known about the effect of methyl branching on the structure of lipid bilayers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine systematically the impact of one or more methyl branches at different positions along the sn-1 palmitoyl chain on the structural properties of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer. It is found that methyl branching reduces lipid condensation, decreases the bilayer thickness, and lowers chain ordering. Branching also results in the formation of kinks at the branching point, thereby enhancing the fluidity of lipid bilayers. Furthermore, this effect varies in a methyl-position-dependent fashion. In the case of polymethylated chains, the simulations suggest that if the gap between the methyl groups is sufficient (two or three carbons), the effects of the methyl branches are additive and equivalent to the combined effect of the corresponding monomethyl-branched lipids. PMID:25380125